WorldWideScience

Sample records for show high dispersal

  1. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  2. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  3. DNA-dispersed graphene/NiO hybrid materials for highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Wei; Jin Fengmin; Guo Quangui; Yang Quanhong; Kang Feiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the potential of GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid used as a nonenzymatic sensor. ► DNA is a highly efficient disperse agent for GNS/NiO hybrid than ionic surfactants. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows fast electron transfer in the electrochemical reaction. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows good detection performance towards glucose. - Abstract: We demonstrate graphene nanosheet/NiO hybrids (GNS/NiO) as the active material for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Such sensors are fabricated by DNA-dispersed GNS/NiO suspension deposited on glassy carbon electrodes. ss-DNA shows strong dispersing ability for the GNS/NiO hybrid materials resulting in stable water-dispersible GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids with fully separated layers. The GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids show enhanced electron transfer in the electrocatalytic reaction process, and accordingly, such hybrids modified electrodes show good sensing performance towards glucose and are characterized by large detection ranges, short response periods, low detection limit and high sensitivity and stability.

  4. Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kwok, K.C.S.; Liu, X.-P.; Niu, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. The computed results of the pollutant diffusion around a typical Hong Kong high-rise building model (at a linear scale of 1:30), were found to show a similar trend to the outcomes of self-conducted experimental measurements that the pathways of pollutant migration for windward and leeward pollutant emission are different. For the case with windward pollutant emission at the 3rd floor within a re-entry, the pollutant migrated downwards due to the downwash created by the wind. In contrast, for the case with leeward pollution emission, dispersion is dominated by intense turbulent mixing in the near wake and characterized by the upward migration of the pollutant in the leeward re-entry. The simulated results of haze-fog (HF) studies confirm that the pathway of pollutant migration is dominated by wind–structure interaction and buoyancy effect only plays a minor role in the dispersion process. - Highlights: • A self-developed numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. • Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion with windward/leeward emission were discussed. • Wind–structure interaction controls the air pollutant dispersion around the building. - The different characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building, for both cases of a dispersion source in either the windward face or leeward face, are dominated by wind–structure interaction, with buoyancy effect playing only a minor role

  5. Diamond dispersed cemented carbide produced without using ultra high pressure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, H.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ikegaya, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a composite material of dispersed diamond particles in cemented carbide without using ultra high pressure equipment. The developed diamond dispersed cemented carbide combines the excellent properties of cemented carbide with diamond and also provides 1.5 times improved fracture toughness over that of cemented carbide. They also show 10 times higher wear resistance over that of cemented carbide in a wear resistance test against bearing steel, and 5 times greater grindability than diamond compacts. Because ultra high pressure equipment is not used to produce the developed material, large compacts over 100 mm in diameter can be manufactured. The developed material showed 10-25 times higher wear resistance in real use as wear-resistant tools such as centerless blades and work-rests. (author)

  6. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  7. Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed bimetallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Junrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of 40 kHz ultrasonic irradiation in order to enhance disparity and reactivity, and simultaneously avoid agglomeration. Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-Cl BP reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles were investigated. Experimental results showed that highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared in the in the presence of ultrasound could further improve the dechlorination efficiency of 2-Cl BP, meanwhile the biphenyl (BP formation rates increased obviously and increased from 47.4% (in the absence of ultrasound to 95.3% (in the presence of ultrasound within 300 min. The catalytic reductive dechlorination effciency of 2-Cl BP was dependent on Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared methods, Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles dosage, Pd loading percentage over Fe0 and initial pH values

  8. Clearly Transparent Nanopaper from Highly Concentrated Cellulose Nanofiber Dispersion Using Dilution and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kasuga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanopaper prepared from holocellulose pulp is one of the best substrates for flexible electronics because of its high thermal resistance and high clear transparency. However, the clearness of nanopaper decreases with increasing concentration of the starting cellulose nanofiber dispersion—with the use of a 2.2 wt % dispersion, for example—resulting in translucent nanopaper with a high haze of 44%. To overcome this problem, we show that the dilution of this high-concentration dispersion with water followed by sonication for 10 s reduces the haze to less than 10% while maintaining the high thermal resistance of the nanopaper. Furthermore, the combination of water dilution and a short sonication treatment improves the clearness of the nanopaper, which would translate into cost savings for the transportation and storage of this highly concentrated cellulose nanofiber dispersion. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the electrical conductivity of clear transparent nanopaper prepared from an initially high-concentration dispersion by dropping and heating silver nanowire ink on the nanopaper. These achievements will pave the way toward the realization of the mass production of nanofiber-based flexible devices.

  9. Highly dispersive transparency in coupled metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, V T T; Park, J W; Lee, Y P; Tung, N T; Lam, V D; Rhee, J Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the coupling between bright and quasi-dark eigenmodes in a planar metamaterial supporting highly dispersive transparency. The specific design of such a metamaterial consists of a cut wire (CW) and a single-gap split-ring resonator (SRR). Through the numerical simulation and the equivalent-circuit analysis, we demonstrate that the response of the SRR, which is weakly excited by external electric field, plays the role of a quasi-dark eigenmode in the presence of a strongly radiative CW. Furthermore, by extending and relating our study to the trapped mode resonances and the coupling between dark and bright modes, a more comprehensive perspective for the metamaterial realization of highly dispersive transmission and slow-light applications is provided

  10. Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying

    2012-07-30

    We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.

  11. FINDING EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE USING GROUND-BASED HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellen, I. A. G.; Le Poole, R.; Brogi, M.; Birkby, J.; De Kok, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin missions means that it is unlikely that a dedicated space telescope to search for biomarker gases in exoplanet atmospheres will be launched within the next 25 years. Here we show that ground-based telescopes provide a strong alternative for finding biomarkers in exoplanet atmospheres through transit observations. Recent results on hot Jupiters show the enormous potential of high-dispersion spectroscopy to separate the extraterrestrial and telluric signals, making use of the Doppler shift of the planet. The transmission signal of oxygen from an Earth-twin orbiting a small red dwarf star is only a factor of three smaller than that of carbon monoxide recently detected in the hot Jupiter τ Boötis b, albeit such a star will be orders of magnitude fainter. We show that if Earth-like planets are common, the planned extremely large telescopes can detect oxygen within a few dozen transits. Ultimately, large arrays of dedicated flux-collector telescopes equipped with high-dispersion spectrographs can provide the large collecting area needed to perform a statistical study of life-bearing planets in the solar neighborhood.

  12. Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    Optofluidic sensors based on highly dispersive two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides are studied theoretically. Results show that these structures are strongly sensitive to the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid (nl), which is used to tune dispersion of the photonic crystal waveguide....... The waveguide mode-gap edge shifts about 1.2 nm for δnl = 0.002. The shifts can be explained well by band structure theory combined with first-order perturbation theory. These devices are potentially interesting for chemical sensing applications....

  13. Support the Design of Improved IUE NEWSIPS High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms: Improved IUE High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the design of improved IUE NEWSIPS high dispersion extraction algorithms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate use of the Linearized Image (LIHI) file versus the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file, evaluate various extraction, and design algorithms for evaluation of IUE High Dispersion spectra. It was concluded the use of the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file was acceptable. Since the Gaussian profile worked well for the core and the Lorentzian profile worked well for the wings, the Voigt profile was chosen for use in the extraction algorithm. It was found that the gamma and sigma parameters varied significantly across the detector, so gamma and sigma masks for the SWP detector were developed. Extraction code was written.

  14. Extreme genetic structure in a social bird species despite high dispersal capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinha, Francisco; Dávila, José A; Bastos, Estela; Cabral, João A; Frías, Óscar; González, José L; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Milá, Borja; Blanco, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units. Monitoring of marked individuals over 30 years revealed that long-distance movements over hundreds of kilometres are common, yet recruitment into breeding populations is infrequent and highly philopatric. Genetic differentiation is weakly related to geographical distance, and habitat types used are overall qualitatively similar among regions and regularly shared by individuals of different populations, so that genetic structure is unlikely to be due solely to isolation by distance or isolation by adaptation. Moreover, most population nuclei showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a limited role for genetic drift in significantly differentiating populations. We propose that social mechanisms may underlie this unprecedented level of genetic structure in birds through a pattern of isolation by social barriers not yet described, which may have driven this remarkable population divergence in the absence of geographical and environmental barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J; Akbarzadeh, Johanna; Peterlik, Herwig; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2013-01-01

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  16. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J

    2013-02-04

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  17. Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchut, P.; Decruppe, D.; Delrive, L.

    2004-01-01

    A continuous CO 2 laser is focused to locally anneal small fused silica spots. A noncontact radiometry diagnostic enables us to follow surface temperature variation that occurs from site to site. A 'steady state' dispersion of surface temperature is observed across our sample. We show that nonhomogeneous silica thermal conductivity, above 1000 K is responsible for this temperature dispersion

  18. A highly accurate finite-difference method with minimum dispersion error for solving the Helmholtz equation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2018-04-05

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic wave equation in either isotropic or anisotropic media is crucial to seismic modeling, imaging and inversion. Actually, it represents the core computation cost of these highly advanced seismic processing methods. However, the conventional finite-difference method suffers from severe numerical dispersion errors and S-wave artifacts when solving the acoustic wave equation for anisotropic media. We propose a method to obtain the finite-difference coefficients by comparing its numerical dispersion with the exact form. We find the optimal finite difference coefficients that share the dispersion characteristics of the exact equation with minimal dispersion error. The method is extended to solve the acoustic wave equation in transversely isotropic (TI) media without S-wave artifacts. Numerical examples show that the method is is highly accurate and efficient.

  19. High temperature mechanical properties of unirradiated dispersion strengthened copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzbittel, J.M.; Rigollet, C.; Robert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) copper material, due to its excellent thermal conductivity associated with a high temperature strength is a candidate material for structural applications as divertor plasma facing components of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Tensile and creep results of oxide dispersion strengthened copper are presented. The most important features of ODS copper high temperature behaviour are the high strength corresponding to low creep rates, high stress creep rate dependence, a poor ductility and a brittleness which result in a premature creep fracture at high applied stress. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 6 figs

  20. Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.

  1. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijun; Li Xiutao; Cao Quan; Mu Xindong

    2011-01-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that –SO 3 H, –COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  2. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijun; Li, Xiutao; Cao, Quan; Mu, Xindong

    2011-02-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that -SO3H, -COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  3. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  4. Development of high dispersed TiO2 paste for transparent screen-printable self-cleaning coatings on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanhao; Lu, Lin; Yang Hongxing; Che Quande

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a cheap and facile method to fabricate transparent self-cleaning coatings on glass by screen-printing high dispersed TiO 2 paste. Three kinds of ZrO 2 beads with diameter of 2, 1, and 0.1–0.2 mm were utilized to investigate their influence on the grinding and dispersion of the commercial TiO 2 powder in the ball mill. From the SEM images, surface profiler and transmittance spectrum it could be demonstrated that the smallest ZrO 2 bead with the diameter of 0.1–0.2 mm was the best candidate to disperse the TiO 2 powder into nanoscale size to make the high dispersed TiO 2 paste which was the key factor to achieve a smooth, high transparent TiO 2 coating. The surface wettability measurement showed that all the screen-printed coatings had super hydrophilic surfaces, which was independent to the surface morphology. However, the coating with the highest transparency showed the lowest photocatalytic activity which is mainly due to the light loss.

  5. Tongue Images Classification Based on Constrained High Dispersal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided tongue diagnosis has a great potential to play important roles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, the majority of the existing tongue image analyses and classification methods are based on the low-level features, which may not provide a holistic view of the tongue. Inspired by deep convolutional neural network (CNN, we propose a novel feature extraction framework called constrained high dispersal neural networks (CHDNet to extract unbiased features and reduce human labor for tongue diagnosis in TCM. Previous CNN models have mostly focused on learning convolutional filters and adapting weights between them, but these models have two major issues: redundancy and insufficient capability in handling unbalanced sample distribution. We introduce high dispersal and local response normalization operation to address the issue of redundancy. We also add multiscale feature analysis to avoid the problem of sensitivity to deformation. Our proposed CHDNet learns high-level features and provides more classification information during training time, which may result in higher accuracy when predicting testing samples. We tested the proposed method on a set of 267 gastritis patients and a control group of 48 healthy volunteers. Test results show that CHDNet is a promising method in tongue image classification for the TCM study.

  6. Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Y. Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic dispersion control plays an underlying role in optoelectronics and spectroscopy owing to its enhancement to nonlinear interactions by reducing the phase mismatching. This is particularly important to optical frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers which require negligible dispersions for efficient mode locking of the dispersed modes into equally spaced comb modes. Here, we demonstrated a dispersion compensated mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output at room temperature. A low-loss dispersive mirror has been engineered to compensate the device’s dispersion residue for frequency comb generation. Narrow intermode beating linewidths of 40 Hz in the comb-working currents were identified with a high power output of 460 mW and a broad spectral coverage of 80 cm-1. This dispersion compensation technique will enable fast spectroscopy and high-resolution metrology based on QCL combs with controlled dispersion and suppressed noise.

  7. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sida, E-mail: s.luo@buaa.edu.cn [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Liu, Tao, E-mail: tliu@fsu.edu [Florida State University, High-Performance Materials Institute (United States); Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun [China University of Geosciences, Center of Safety Research, School of Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-08-15

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as ~600 and ~2 nm, respectively.Graphical abstract.

  8. THz Tube Waveguides With Low Loss, Low Dispersion, and High Bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We propose, model and experimentally characterize a novel class of terahertz hollow-core tube waveguides with high-loss cladding material, resulting in propagation with low loss, low dispersion, and high useful bandwidth.......We propose, model and experimentally characterize a novel class of terahertz hollow-core tube waveguides with high-loss cladding material, resulting in propagation with low loss, low dispersion, and high useful bandwidth....

  9. 1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes.

  10. 1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes

  11. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  12. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Universidade de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  13. Rheological behavior of high-concentration sodium caseinate dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Rao, M Anandha; Creamer, Lawrence K; Singh, Harjinder

    2010-03-01

    Apparent viscosity and frequency sweep (G', G'') data for sodium caseinate dispersions with concentrations of approximately 18% to 40% w/w were obtained at 20 degrees C; colloidal glass behavior was exhibited by dispersions with concentration >or=23% w/w. The high concentrations were obtained by mixing frozen powdered buffer with sodium caseinate in boiling liquid nitrogen, and allowing the mixtures to thaw and hydrate at 4 degrees C. The low-temperature G'-G'' crossover seen in temperature scans between 60 and 5 degrees C was thought to indicate gelation. Temperature scans from 5 to 90 degrees C revealed gradual decrease in G' followed by plateau values. In contrast, G'' decreased gradually and did not reach plateau values. Increase in hydrophobicity of the sodium caseinate or a decrease in the effective volume fraction of its aggregates may have contributed to these phenomena. The gelation and end of softening temperatures of the dispersions increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate. From an Eldridge-Ferry plot, the enthalpy of softening was estimated to be 29.6 kJ mol(-1). The results of this study should be useful for creating new products with high concentrations of sodium caseinate.

  14. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowire and reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenfei; Ma, Peipei; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Anqi; Qian, Tao; Wu, Shishan; Chen, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowires are decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composites exhibit high dispersibility, large effective surface area, and high electric conductivity. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors are assembled based on the prepared composites, which show excellent electrochemical performances with a specific capacitance of 434.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The as-fabricated supercapacitor also exhibits excellent cycling stability (88.1% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) and exceptional mechanical flexibility. In addition, outstanding power and energy densities were obtained, demonstrating the significant potential of prepared material for flexible and portable energy storage devices.

  15. High Resilience of Seed Dispersal Webs Highlighted by the Experimental Removal of the Dominant Disperser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Sérgio; Ramos, Jaime Albino; Vaughan, Ian Phillip; Memmott, Jane

    2016-04-04

    The pressing need to conserve and restore habitats in the face of ongoing species loss [1, 2] requires a better understanding of what happens to communities when species are lost or reinstated [3, 4]. Theoretical models show that communities are relatively insensitive to species loss [5, 6]; however, they disagree with field manipulations showing a cascade of extinctions [7, 8] and have seldom been tested under field conditions (e.g., [9]). We experimentally removed the most abundant seed-dispersing ant species from seed dispersal networks in a Mediterranean landscape, replicating the experiment in three types of habitat, and then compared these communities to un-manipulated control communities. Removal did not result in large-scale changes in network structure. It revealed extensive structural plasticity of the remaining community, which rearranged itself through rewiring, while maintaining its functionality. The remaining ant species widened their diet breadth in a way that maintained seed dispersal, despite the identity of many interactions changing. The species interaction strength decreased; thus, the importance of each ant species for seed dispersal became more homogeneous, thereby reducing the dependence of seed species on one dominant ant species. Compared to the experimental results, a simulation model that included rewiring considerably overestimated the effect of species loss on network robustness. If community-level species loss models are to be of practical use in ecology or conservation, they need to include behavioral and population responses, and they need to be routinely tested under field conditions; doing this would be to the advantage of both empiricists and theoreticians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of dispersion interferometer for magnetic confinement plasmas and high-pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.; Urabe, K.; Terashima, K.; Shirai, N.

    2015-09-01

    A CO2 laser dispersion interferometer (DI) has been developed for both magnetically fusion plasmas and high pressure industrial plasmas. The DI measures the phase shift caused by dispersion in a medium. Therefore, it is insensitive to the mechanical vibrations and changes in the neutral gas density, which degrade the resolution of the electron density measurement. We installed the DI on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and demonstrated a high density resolution of 2× 1017 m-3 without any vibration-free bench. The measured electron density with the DI shows good agreement with results of the existing far infrared laser (a wavelength of 119 μ m) interferometer. The DI system is also applied to the electron density measurement of high-pressure small-scale plasmas. The significant suppression of the phase shift caused by the neutral gas is proven. The achieved density resolution was 1.5× 1019 m-3 with a response time of 100 μ s. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  17. Gum tragacanth dispersions: Particle size and rheological properties affected by high-shear homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Mina; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeed; Safari, Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-08-01

    The effect of high-shear homogenization on the rheological and particle size characteristics of three species of gum tragacanth (GT) was detected. Dispersions were subjected to 0-20 min treatment. Static light scattering techniques and rheological tests were used to study the effect of treatment. The results showed that the process caused a decrease in particle size parameters for all three species, but interestingly, the apparent viscosities increased. The highest increase of apparent viscosity was found for solutions containing Astragalus gossypinus, which possessed the highest insoluble fraction. The viscoelastic behaviors of dispersions were also significantly influenced by the process. Homogenization caused an increase in both G' and G″, in all three species. The alterations seem to be highly dependent on GT species and structure. The results could be of high importance in the industry, since the process will lead to textural modifications of food products containing GT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel star-like surfactant as dispersant for multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous suspensions at high concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Min; Ran, Qianping; Wu, Shishan

    2018-03-01

    A kind of novel surfactant with star-like molecular structure and terminated sulfonate was synthesized, and it was used as the dispersant for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous suspensions compared with a traditional single-chained surfactant. The star-like surfactant showed good dispersing ability for multi-walled CNTs in aqueous suspensions. Surface tension analysis, total organic carbon analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were performed to research the effect of star-like surfactant on the dispersion of multi-walled CNTs in aqueous suspensions. With the assistance of star-like surfactant, the CNTs could disperse well in aqueous suspension at high concentration of 50 g/L for more than 30 days, while the CNTs precipitated completely in aqueous suspension after 1 day without any dispersant or after 10 days with sodium 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dispersant.

  19. Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Dong, Fengliang; Li, Qi-Tong; Yang, Dong; Sun, Chengwei; Chen, Jianjun; Song, Zhiwei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Yan

    2016-08-10

    Dielectric metasurfaces built up with nanostructures of high refractive index represent a powerful platform for highly efficient flat optical devices due to their easy-tuning electromagnetic scattering properties and relatively high transmission efficiencies. Here we show visible-frequency silicon metasurfaces formed by three kinds of nanoblocks multiplexed in a subwavelength unit to constitute a metamolecule, which are capable of wavefront manipulation for red, green, and blue light simultaneously. Full phase control is achieved for each wavelength by independently changing the in-plane orientations of the corresponding nanoblocks to induce the required geometric phases. Achromatic and highly dispersive meta-holograms are fabricated to demonstrate the wavefront manipulation with high resolution. This technique could be viable for various practical holographic applications and flat achromatic devices.

  20. Monolayer graphene dispersion and radiative cooling for high power LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Eyassu, Tsehaye; Henderson, Kimberly; Kim, Taesam; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular fan, a radiative cooling by thin film, has been developed and its application for compact electronic devices has been evaluated. The enhanced surface emissivity and heat dissipation efficiency of the molecular fan coating are shown to correlate with the quantization of lattice modes in active nanomaterials. The highly quantized G and 2D bands in graphene are achieved by our dispersion technique, and then incorporated in an organic-inorganic acrylate emulsion to form a coating assembly on heat sinks (for LED and CPU). This water-based dielectric layer coating has been formulated and applied on metal core printed circuit boards. The heat dissipation efficiency and breakdown voltage are evaluated by a temperature-monitoring system and a high-voltage breakdown tester. The molecular fan coating on heat dissipation units is able to decrease the equilibrium junction temperature by 29.1 ° C, while functioning as a dielectric layer with a high breakdown voltage (>5 kV). The heat dissipation performance of the molecular fan coating applied on LED devices shows that the coated 50 W LED gives an enhanced cooling of 20% at constant light brightness. The schematics of monolayer graphene dispersion, undispersed graphene platelet, and continuous graphene sheet are illustrated and discussed to explain the mechanisms of radiative cooling, radiative/non-radiative, and non-radiative heat re-accumulation.

  1. Monolayer graphene dispersion and radiative cooling for high power LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Eyassu, Tsehaye; Henderson, Kimberly; Kim, Taesam; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular fan, a radiative cooling by thin film, has been developed and its application for compact electronic devices has been evaluated. The enhanced surface emissivity and heat dissipation efficiency of the molecular fan coating are shown to correlate with the quantization of lattice modes in active nanomaterials. The highly quantized G and 2D bands in graphene are achieved by our dispersion technique, and then incorporated in an organic-inorganic acrylate emulsion to form a coating assembly on heat sinks (for LED and CPU). This water-based dielectric layer coating has been formulated and applied on metal core printed circuit boards. The heat dissipation efficiency and breakdown voltage are evaluated by a temperature-monitoring system and a high-voltage breakdown tester. The molecular fan coating on heat dissipation units is able to decrease the equilibrium junction temperature by 29.1 ° C, while functioning as a dielectric layer with a high breakdown voltage (>5 kV). The heat dissipation performance of the molecular fan coating applied on LED devices shows that the coated 50 W LED gives an enhanced cooling of 20% at constant light brightness. The schematics of monolayer graphene dispersion, undispersed graphene platelet, and continuous graphene sheet are illustrated and discussed to explain the mechanisms of radiative cooling, radiative/non-radiative, and non-radiative heat re-accumulation. (paper)

  2. Preparation of highly dispersed palladium–phosphorus nanoparticles and its electrocatalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hanjun; Xu Jiangfeng; Fu Gengtao; Mao Xinbiao; Zhang, Lu; Chen Yu; Zhou Yiming; Lu Tianhong; Tang Yawen

    2012-01-01

    Highly dispersed and ultrafine palladium–phosphorus (Pd–P) nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared with a novel phosphorus reduction method. The structural and electronic properties of Pd–P NPs are characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation of formic acid on Pd–P NPs are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping measurements. The physical characterizations indicate the doped P element can enhance the content of Pd 0 species in Pd NPs, decrease the particle size and improve the dispersion of Pd–P NPs. The electrochemical measurements show the Pd–P NPs have a better catalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation than Pd NPs.

  3. Removal of Disperse Blue 56 and Disperse Red 135 dyes from aqueous dispersions by modified montmorillonite nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadishoar Javad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study modified montmorillonite was used as an adsorbent for the removal of two selected disperse dyes i.e., Disperse Blue 56 (DB and Disperse Red 135 (DR from dye dispersions. The adsorption equilibrium data of dyes adsorption were investigated by using Nernst, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed by using different models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Intraparticle diffusion model. The Freundlich isotherm was found to be the most appropriate model for describing the sorption of the dyes on modified nanoclay. The best fit to the experimental results was obtained by using the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation, which satisfactorily described the process of dye adsorption. Although different kinetic models may control the rate of the adsorption process, the results indicated that the main rate limiting step was the intraparticle diffusion. The results showed that the proposed modified montmorillonite could be used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of disperse dyes even from highly concentrated dispersions.

  4. Dispersal and metapopulation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metapopulation dynamics are jointly regulated by local and spatial factors. These factors may affect the dynamics of local populations and of the entire metapopulation differently. Previous studies have shown that dispersal can stabilize local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation stability has been controversial. Here we present a simple metapopulation model to study how dispersal, in interaction with other spatial and local processes, affects the temporal variability of metapopulations in a stochastic environment. Our results show that in homogeneous metapopulations, the local stabilizing and spatial synchronizing effects of dispersal cancel each other out, such that dispersal has no effect on metapopulation variability. This result is robust to moderate heterogeneities in local and spatial parameters. When local and spatial dynamics exhibit high heterogeneities, however, dispersal can either stabilize or destabilize metapopulation dynamics through various mechanisms. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. We show that dispersal functions as a form of spatial intraspecific mutualism in metapopulation dynamics and that its effect on metapopulation stability is opposite to that of interspecific competition on local community stability. Our results also suggest that conservation corridors should be designed with appreciation of spatial heterogeneities in population dynamics in order to maximize metapopulation stability.

  5. On-sky Closed-loop Correction of Atmospheric Dispersion for High-contrast Coronagraphy and Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P.; Guyon, O.; Jovanovic, N.; Lozi, J.; Martinache, F.; Minowa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kotani, T.; Takami, H.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive optic (AO) systems delivering high levels of wavefront correction are now common at observatories. One of the main limitations to image quality after wavefront correction comes from atmospheric refraction. An atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC) is employed to correct for atmospheric refraction. The correction is applied based on a look-up table consisting of dispersion values as a function of telescope elevation angle. The look-up table-based correction of atmospheric dispersion results in imperfect compensation leading to the presence of residual dispersion in the point spread function (PSF) and is insufficient when sub-milliarcsecond precision is required. The presence of residual dispersion can limit the achievable contrast while employing high-performance coronagraphs or can compromise high-precision astrometric measurements. In this paper, we present the first on-sky closed-loop correction of atmospheric dispersion by directly using science path images. The concept behind the measurement of dispersion utilizes the chromatic scaling of focal plane speckles. An adaptive speckle grid generated with a deformable mirror (DM) that has a sufficiently large number of actuators is used to accurately measure the residual dispersion and subsequently correct it by driving the ADC. We have demonstrated with the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system on-sky closed-loop correction of residual dispersion to instruments which require sub-milliarcsecond correction.

  6. Observations of High Dispersion Clusters of Galaxies: Constraints on Cold Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.; Hill, John M.; Fitchett, Michael J.

    1995-07-01

    We have studied the dynamics of several Abell clusters of galaxies, which were previously reported to have large velocity dispersions, and hence very large masses. In particular, we have investigated the assertion of Frenk et al. (1990) that clusters with intrinsic velocity dispersions ~> 1200 km s^-1^ are extremely rare in the universe, and that large observed dispersions are due to projection effects. We report redshifts for 303 galaxies in the fields of A1775, A2029, A2142, and A2319, obtained with the Nessie multifiber spectrograph at the Mayall 4 m telescope. A1775 appears to be two poor, interacting clusters, separated in velocity space by ~3075 km s^-1^ (in the cluster rest frame). A2029 has a velocity dispersion of 1436 km s^-1^, based on 85 cluster member redshifts. There is evidence that a group or poor cluster of galaxies of slightly different redshift is projected onto (or is merging with) the core of A2029. However, the combined kinematic and x-ray data for A2029 argue for an intrinsically large dispersion for this cluster. Based on redshifts for 103 members of A2142, we find a dispersion of 1280 km s^-1^, and evidence for subclustering. With 130 redshifts in the A2319 field, we have isolated a subcluster ~10' NW of the cD galaxy. After its removal, A2319 has a velocity dispersion of 1324 km s^-1^. The data obtained here have been combined with recent optical and X-ray data for other supposedly high-mass clusters to study the cluster velocity dispersion distribution in a sample of Abell clusters. We find that clusters with true velocity dispersions ~> 1200 km s^-1^ are not extremely rare, but account for ~5% of all Abell clusters with R >= 0. If these clusters are in virial equilibrium, then our results are inconsistent with a high-bias (b~>22), high-density CDM model.

  7. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  8. Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins or polars and aromatic fractions show a negative correlation with the dispersant effectiveness. Viscosity is also a predictor of dispersant effectiveness and may have an effect because it is in turn determined by oil composition. Dispersant composition is significant and interacts with oil composition. Dispersants show high effectiveness at HLB values near 10. Sea turbulence strongly affects dispersant effectiveness.Effectiveness rises with increasing turbulence to a maximum value. Effectiveness for current commercial dispersants is gaussian around a peak salinity value. Peak effectiveness is achieved at very high dispersant quantities--at a ratio of 1:5, dispersant-to-oil volume. Dispersant effectiveness for those oils tested and under the conditions measured, is approximately logarithmic with dispersant quantity and will reach about 50% of its peak value at a dispersant to oil ratio of about 1:20 and near zero at a ratio of about 1:50

  9. High-order FDTD methods for transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan

    2011-08-15

    This Letter introduces a novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation for solving transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive media. Based on the auxiliary differential equation approach, the Debye dispersion model is coupled with Maxwell's equations to derive a supplementary ordinary differential equation for describing the regularity changes in electromagnetic fields at the dispersive interface. The resulting time-dependent jump conditions are rigorously enforced in the FDTD discretization by means of the matched interface and boundary scheme. High-order convergences are numerically achieved for the first time in the literature in the FDTD simulations of dispersive inhomogeneous media. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Preparation and characterization of CeO2 highly dispersed on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano-Ruiz, J.C.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Silvestre-Albero, J.; Sepulveda-Escribano, A.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F.

    2008-01-01

    A new material constituted by cerium dioxide highly dispersed on activated carbon (CeO 2 /AC) was prepared by an impregnation method using cerium(III) nitrate as CeO 2 precursor. In order to evaluate the degree of ceria dispersion on the carbon support, CeO 2 /AC was characterized by a number of techniques: thermogravimetry coupled with a mass spectrometer (TG-MS), N 2 adsorption at 77 K, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis of the decomposition process under inert atmosphere indicated that cerium nitrate decomposes at 440-460 K, with the evolution of NO. Furthermore, this process produces an additional oxidation of the carbon surface (with evolution of N 2 O) and the subsequent onset of new oxygen surface groups, detected by means of temperature-programmed desorption. The ceria deposition process takes place with a decrease in the N 2 adsorption capacity of the starting carbon support, and the analysis of the pore size distribution showed that the majority of ceria particles are situated at the most internal part of the carbon porosity. The temperature-programmed reduction profile of CeO 2 /AC was very different to that shown by unsupported CeO 2 , with only one continuous reduction process at low temperatures (800-900 K). Finally, TEM pictures gave direct evidence that ceria is highly dispersed on the carbon surface, with a narrow CeO 2 particle distribution centred around 3 nm

  11. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Enthoven, Daniel; Verburg, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pit-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. The phase spectrum is used to invert for a wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. An EMAT sensor design has been made to measure at the 12 o'clock position of a pipe. The concept is evaluated on measured data, showing good sizing capabilities on a variety simple defect profiles

  12. On the possibility of high-dispersed composite material obtaining in impulsive high-enthalpy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Brodyagin, A.G.; Ivanov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic possibility for the formation of TiC-Mo composite dispersed material in 1200-2800 K temperature interval and effect of H/Cl, C/Ti relation on the composite material composition are demonstrated. Investigation into the plasmo-chemical process of producing high-dispersed composite material in the pulsed regime has pointed out to a possibility of the product chemical composition regulation by changing the energy, flow-rate parameters and by conditions of component introduction into the plasmochemical reactor. Molybdenum-carbide composition powders produced are characterized by the particle size of ∼ 10 nm and high Mo and TiC distribution steadyness which allows one to exclude the stage of a long-term component mixing under the composition production

  13. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, P.; Savoini, B.; Ferrari, B.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Sanchez-Herencia, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y 2 O 3 ) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y 2 O 3 has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y 2 O 3 addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y 2 O 3 addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y 2 O 3 as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca 2+ with Y 3+ ions appears to promote the formation of OH − vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: ► We reveal the influence of Y 2 O 3 on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. ► Incorporation of Y 2 O 3 delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. ► Addition of Y 2 O 3 enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  14. Polarization dependent dispersion and its impact on optical parametric process in high nonlinear microstructure fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Zhang Wei; Huang Yidong; Peng Jiangde

    2008-01-01

    High nonlinear microstructure fibre (HNMF) is preferred in nonlinear fibre optics, especially in the applications of optical parametric effects, due to its high optical nonlinear coefficient. However, polarization dependent dispersion will impact the nonlinear optical parametric process in HNMFs. In this paper, modulation instability (MI) method is used to measure the polarization dependent dispersion of a piece of commercial HNMF, including the group velocity dispersion, the dispersion slope, the fourth-order dispersion and group birefringence. It also experimentally demonstrates the impact of the polarization dependent dispersion on the continuous wave supercontinuum (SC) generation. On one axis MI sidebands with symmetric frequency detunings are generated, while on the other axis with larger MI frequency detuning, SC is generated by soliton self-frequency shift

  15. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.; Totev, T.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates.

  16. Dispersion-engineered and highly-nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Nielsen, Kristian; Hlubina, Petr

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate dispersion-engineering of microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs) made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). A significant shift of the total dispersion from the material dispersion is confirmed through measurement of the mPOF dispersion using white-light spectral interferome......We demonstrate dispersion-engineering of microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs) made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). A significant shift of the total dispersion from the material dispersion is confirmed through measurement of the mPOF dispersion using white-light spectral...

  17. High-order dispersion control of 10-petawatt Ti:sapphire laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Yanqi; Xu, Yi; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Xingyan; Gan, Zebiao; Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin

    2017-07-24

    A grism pair is utilized to control the high-order dispersion of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Lasers Facility, which is a large-scale project aimed at delivering 10-PW laser pulses. We briefly present the characteristics of the laser system and calculate the cumulative B-integral, which determines the nonlinear phase shift influence on material dispersion. Three parameters are selected, grism separation, angle of incidence and slant distance of grating compressor, to determine their optimal values through an iterative searching procedure. Both the numerical and experimental results confirm that the spectral phase distortion is controlled, and the recompressed pulse with a duration of 24 fs is obtained in the single-shot mode. The distributions and stabilities of the pulse duration at different positions of the recompressed beam are also investigated. This approach offers a new feasible solution for the high-order dispersion compensation of femtosecond petawatt laser systems.

  18. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Chao; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Mingyu; Yang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ionic liquid was used as template for dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods. • The bowknot-like ZnO consists of individual microrods whose size is about 1 μm. • The formation mechanism of the ZnO materials is tentatively elucidated. • The bowknot-like ZnO exhibited the high catalytic activity in the photodegradation. • Photocatalytic activity is a result of the combination of various factors. - Abstract: Here we present a facile method for the preparation of highly dispersive ZnO materials by using ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-[3′-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] imidazolium chloride as the template. The influence of ionic liquid concentration and calcined atmosphere on the photoactivity is studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N_2 gas sorption and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results showed that the as-fabricated ZnO materials consisted of individual microrods with self-assembled bowknot-like architecture whose size was about 1 μm. The formation mechanism of the bowknot-like ZnO materials which is based on the self-assembly of ionic liquid is tentatively elucidated. Moreover, the ZnO-2.6N sample exhibited the higher activity for the photodegradation of MB than the photodegradation of MO and RhB. Furthermore, it was found that the ZnO materials calcined under air atmosphere showed the better photocatalytic activities than that of samples calcined under nitrogen atmosphere in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. And the special structure, surface area, adsorption capability of dye, the separation rate of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and band gap had effects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO photocatalysts. O_2·"− was the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of MB. It is valuable to develop this facile route preparing

  19. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shuo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhang, Yiwei, E-mail: zhangchem@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhou, Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhang, Chao; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Mingyu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Yang, Yong [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei St, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Ionic liquid was used as template for dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods. • The bowknot-like ZnO consists of individual microrods whose size is about 1 μm. • The formation mechanism of the ZnO materials is tentatively elucidated. • The bowknot-like ZnO exhibited the high catalytic activity in the photodegradation. • Photocatalytic activity is a result of the combination of various factors. - Abstract: Here we present a facile method for the preparation of highly dispersive ZnO materials by using ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-[3′-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] imidazolium chloride as the template. The influence of ionic liquid concentration and calcined atmosphere on the photoactivity is studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N{sub 2} gas sorption and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results showed that the as-fabricated ZnO materials consisted of individual microrods with self-assembled bowknot-like architecture whose size was about 1 μm. The formation mechanism of the bowknot-like ZnO materials which is based on the self-assembly of ionic liquid is tentatively elucidated. Moreover, the ZnO-2.6N sample exhibited the higher activity for the photodegradation of MB than the photodegradation of MO and RhB. Furthermore, it was found that the ZnO materials calcined under air atmosphere showed the better photocatalytic activities than that of samples calcined under nitrogen atmosphere in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. And the special structure, surface area, adsorption capability of dye, the separation rate of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and band gap had effects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO photocatalysts. O{sub 2}·{sup −} was the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of MB. It is valuable to develop this facile

  20. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  1. Dispersion Distance and the Matter Distribution of the Universe in Dispersion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley; Sigurdson, Kris

    2015-09-18

    We propose that "standard pings," brief broadband radio impulses, can be used to study the three-dimensional clustering of matter in the Universe even in the absence of redshift information. The dispersion of radio waves as they travel through the intervening plasma can, like redshift, be used as a cosmological distance measure. Because of inhomogeneities in the electron density along the line of sight, dispersion is an imperfect proxy for radial distance and we show that this leads to calculable dispersion-space distortions in the apparent clustering of sources. Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a new class of radio transients that are the prototypical standard ping and, due to their high observed dispersion, have been interpreted as originating at cosmological distances. The rate of fast radio bursts has been estimated to be several thousand over the whole sky per day and, if cosmological, the sources of these events should trace the large-scale structure of the Universe. We calculate the dispersion-space power spectra for a simple model where electrons and FRBs are biased tracers of the large-scale structure of the Universe, and we show that the clustering signal could be measured using as few as 10 000 events. Such a survey is in line with what may be achieved with upcoming wide-field radio telescopes.

  2. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Frequency Dispersion of High-k Materials in Capacitance-Voltage Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In capacitance-voltage (C-V measurements, frequency dispersion in high-k dielectrics is often observed. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant (k-value, that is the intrinsic frequency dispersion, could not be assessed before suppressing the effects of extrinsic frequency dispersion, such as the effects of the lossy interfacial layer (between the high-k thin film and silicon substrate and the parasitic effects. The effect of the lossy interfacial layer on frequency dispersion was investigated and modeled based on a dual frequency technique. The significance of parasitic effects (including series resistance and the back metal contact of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitor on frequency dispersion was also studied. The effect of surface roughness on frequency dispersion is also discussed. After taking extrinsic frequency dispersion into account, the relaxation behavior can be modeled using the Curie-von Schweidler (CS law, the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW relationship and the Havriliak-Negami (HN relationship. Dielectric relaxation mechanisms are also discussed.

  3. Milling and dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in texanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsono, Nono; Yoon, Dang-Hyok; Kim, Jaemyung

    2008-03-01

    Rheological results were used to determine the optimum type of dispersant and its concentration for six commercial dispersants for the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) agglomerates in texanol. An unsaturated polycarboxylic acid copolymer (BYK P-104) exhibited the optimum performance with the lowest MWCNT slurry viscosity in texanol. The cutting and dispersion efficiencies of MWCNTs with 20 wt.% of BYK P-104 dispersant were compared using conventional ball milling and high energy milling, whereby the latter was found to be more effective. High energy milling for 2 h produced a large portion of MWCNT agglomerates smaller than 150 nm, showing a drastic increase in slurry viscosity due to the dispersion into individual CNTs. On the other hand, 120 h ball milling was required to achieve the agglomerate size of 300 nm with less viscosity increase upon milling. Decrease in the degree of MWCNT crystallinity was observed by both milling, even though 2 h high energy milling showed slightly less damage than 120 h ball milling based on XRD and Raman spectroscopy results.

  4. High-value utilization of eucalyptus kraft lignin: Preparation and characterization as efficient dye dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Boming; Zhou, Wanpeng; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Fangeng

    2018-04-01

    The dark color of industrial lignin is the main obstacle for their high value-added use in areas such as dyestuff dispersants. A kind of light-colored lignosulfonate with favorable dispersibility and remarkable stain resistance is prepared using fractionated eucalyptus kraft lignin. The fractionated lignins named as D (insoluble part) and X (soluble part) and sulfonated lignin fractions named as SD and SX are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, GPC and brightness test. The results reveal that fraction X presents a lower molecular weight but a higher hydroxyl content than that of fraction D, which lead to the differences on the SO 3 H content, dispersibility and color performance of SD and SX. The sulfonated fractions perform a similar molecular weight to that of unsulfonated lignins and show light color due to the phenolic hydroxyl blocking of 1,4-BS (1,4-butane sultone) and the postprocessing of sodium borohydride. The SX that performs the best of all exhibits obvious decrease on phenolic hydroxyl groups and increase on brightness value which is improved by 85.8% compared with control sample. The SX reaches the highest level (grade 5) in the dispersibility test and presents remarkable stain resistance on different textiles, especially on the dacron and cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Chao; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Mingyu; Yang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Here we present a facile method for the preparation of highly dispersive ZnO materials by using ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-[3‧-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] imidazolium chloride as the template. The influence of ionic liquid concentration and calcined atmosphere on the photoactivity is studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 gas sorption and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results showed that the as-fabricated ZnO materials consisted of individual microrods with self-assembled bowknot-like architecture whose size was about 1 μm. The formation mechanism of the bowknot-like ZnO materials which is based on the self-assembly of ionic liquid is tentatively elucidated. Moreover, the ZnO-2.6N sample exhibited the higher activity for the photodegradation of MB than the photodegradation of MO and RhB. Furthermore, it was found that the ZnO materials calcined under air atmosphere showed the better photocatalytic activities than that of samples calcined under nitrogen atmosphere in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. And the special structure, surface area, adsorption capability of dye, the separation rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and band gap had effects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO photocatalysts. O2rad - was the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of MB. It is valuable to develop this facile route preparing the highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO materials and the ZnO materials can be beneficial for environmental protection.

  6. Independent control of arbitrary orders of dispersion at the high power end of CPA lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerbe, M.; Jojart, P.; Szeged University, Szeged; Kovacs, M.; Osvay, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the most crucial issues in chirped pulse amplification (CPA) systems is the precise temporal recompression of the pulses hitting the target. In case of few cycle high intensity lasers, the stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the pulses is also required. An acousto-optical programmable dispersion filter can satisfy both aims, providing dispersion (pre)compensation up to the fourth order of dispersion and make the CEP shift stable. Its use is, however, limited to a pulse intensity of 100 MW/cm 2 , hence its application is restricted to the front end of the (OP)CPA laser systems. A simple optical arrangement consisting of wedges with different materials and different apex angles was proposed recently for isochronic control of CEP of a pulse train. In this paper we show that assembly of wedges can be specifically designed to tune only one of the dispersion coefficients, while all the others, including CEP, remain practically unchanged. Wedge pairs changing solely the zeroth (CEP) and second order (group delay) dispersion (GDD) are experimentally presented along with a triplet of wedges tuning the third order dispersion (TOD) only. The experiment was carried out with the use of spectrally resolved interferometry (SRI). A Michelson-interferometer was illuminated by 100 nm bandwidth laser pulses of a Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The sample arm of the interferometer contained the wedge assembly, set to near Brewster-angle incidence at each surfaces, designed for tuning the required order of dispersion. At the output of the interferometer the spectral interference between the pulses from the sample and reference arms was resolved with a spectrograph. The dispersion was tuned by perpendicular shift of the entire wedge assembly to the laser beam. In the measurements spectral interferograms were recorded and evaluated at each spatial position of the assembly. Three different wedge combinations, two doublets and a triplet

  7. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P., E-mail: pparente@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Ferrari, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Sanchez-Herencia, A.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} with Y{sup 3+} ions appears to promote the formation of OH{sup -} vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal the influence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  8. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 by using the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 for the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  9. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  10. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  11. The response of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys to high fluence neutron irradiation at 415 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.J.; Newkirk, J.W.; Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Nadkarni, A.; Samal, P.

    1993-01-01

    Various oxide-dispersion-strengthened copper alloys have been irradiated to 150 dpa at 415 degrees C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The Al 2 O 3 -strengthened GlidCop TM alloys, followed closely by a HfO 2 -strengthened alloy, displayed the best swelling resistance, electrical conductivity, and tensile properties. The conductivity of the HfO 2 -strengthened alloy reached a plateau at the higher levels of irradiation, instead of exhibiting the steady decrease in conductivity observed in the other alloys. A high initial oxygen content results in significantly higher swelling for a series of castable oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloys, while a Cr 2 O 3 -strengthened alloy showed poor resistance to radiation

  12. Fabrication of highly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles embedded in graphene nanosheets for high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Linxia; Zhang, Baoliang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jizhong; Huang, Kejing; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-01-01

    We report a facile strategy to synthesize ZnO-graphene nanocomposites as an advanced electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors. The ZnO-graphene nanocomposites have been fabricated via a facile, low-temperature in situ wet chemistry process. During this process, high dispersed ZnO nanoparticles are embedded in graphene nanosheets, leading to sandwich-structured ZnO-graphene nanocomposites. Thus, intimate interfacial contact between ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets are achieved, which facilitates electrochemical activity and enhance electrochemical properties due to fast electron transfer. The as-prepared ZnO-graphene nanocomposites exhibit a maximum specific capacitance of 786 F g −1 and excellent cycle life with capacity retention of about 92% after 500 cycles. This facile design and rational synthesis offers an effective strategy to enhance the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors and shows promising potential for large-scale application in energy storage

  13. Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)

  14. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  15. High heat load properties of TiC dispersed Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Naoaki; Miura, Yasushi; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Kayano, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam high heat load experiment of new developed three kinds of TiC dispersed Mo alloys (Mo-0.1wt%TiC, Mo-0.5wt%TiC and Mo-1.0wt%TiC) was studied so as to evaluate it's high heat load at using as the surface materials of divertor. The obtained results indicated that cracks were not observed by embrittlement by recrystallization until about 2200degC of surface temperature and the gas emission properties were not different from sintered molibdenum. However, at near melting point, deep cracks on grain boundary and smaller gas emission than that of sintered Mo were observed. So that, we concluded that TiC dispersed Mo alloy was good surface materials used under the conditions of the stationary heat flux and less than the melting point, although not good one to be melted under nonstationary large heat flux. (S.Y.)

  16. An analysis of superluminal propagation becoming subluminal in highly dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this article the time-moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse are used to characterize the traversal time and the pulse width as the pulse propagates through highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with propagation distance is analyzed in two physical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, and Raman gain doublet amplifying medium. It is found that the superluminal pulse propagation in these two cases with anomalous dispersion is always accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation.

  17. Polymer-mediated synthesis of a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Kim, Gil-Pyo; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Lee, Minzae; Lee, Yoon Jae; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Bae, Seongjun; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Song, Hyeon Dong; Song, In Kyu; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Yi, Jongheop

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on N-doped carbon aerogel were synthesized for ORR. • Poly(ethyleneimine) was used as nitrogen source and as nucleation sites for Pt. • Precise discussion were conducted to clarify the effect of poly(ethyleneimine). • High Pt dispersion and N-doping results in superior electrocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A simple chemical process for the direct synthesis of a nitrogen (N)-doped carbon aerogel (NCA) with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles via a poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)-assisted strategy is described. A resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel was treated with water soluble cationic PEI, which mainly functions as an anchoring site for metal ions. The functionalized PEI chains on the surface of the RF gel resulted in the unique formation of chemical complexes, with PtCl 6 2− anchored to the RF gel, and subsequent homogeneous metal nanoparticle growth. The abundant amino groups containing PEI grafted to the RF gel also allowed the nitrogen atoms to be incorporated into the carbon framework, which can directly be converted into a NCA. The spherical Pt nanoparticles in the resulting material (Pt/NCA) were highly dispersed on the surface of the NCA without any evidenced of agglomeration, even after a thermal annealing at 900 °C. Compared with a Pt/CA synthesized by a conventional reduction method, the Pt/NCA showed enhanced electrochemical performance with a high electrochemically active surface area (191.1 cm 2 g −1 ) and electrocatalytic activity (V onset = 0.95 V vs. RHE) with respect to oxygen reduction. The superior electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/NCA can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles and the N-doped carbon supports that were prepared using the PEI-assisted strategy. The findings reported herein suggest that the use of PEI can be effectively extended to broad applications that require the homogeneous deposition of metal nanoparticles.

  18. Characterization of exoplanet atmospheres using high-dispersion spectroscopy with the E-ELT and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snellen Ignas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based high-dispersion (R ∼ 100,000 spectroscopy provides unique information on exoplanet atmospheres, inaccessible from space - even using the JWST or other future space telescopes. Recent successes in transmission- and dayside spectroscopy using CRIRES on the Very Large Telescope prelude the enormous discovery potential of high-dispersion spectrographs on the E-ELT, such as METIS in the thermal infrared, and HIRES in the optical/near-infrared. This includes the orbital inclination and masses of hundred(s of non-transiting planets, line-by-line molecular band spectra, planet rotation and global wind patterns, longitudinal spectral variations, and possibly isotopologue ratios. Thinking beyond the E-ELT, we advocate that ultimately a systematic search for oxygen in atmospheres of nearby Earth-like planets can be conducted using large arrays of relatively low-cost flux collector telescopes equipped with high-dispersion spectrographs.

  19. Local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. LOHDIM-LES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2016-03-01

    We developed LOcal-scale High-resolution atmospheric DIspersion Model using Large-Eddy Simulation (LOHDIM-LES). This dispersion model is designed based on LES which is effective to reproduce unsteady behaviors of turbulent flows and plume dispersion. The basic equations are the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the scalar conservation equation. Buildings and local terrain variability are resolved by high-resolution grids with a few meters and these turbulent effects are represented by immersed boundary method. In simulating atmospheric turbulence, boundary layer flows are generated by a recycling turbulent inflow technique in a driver region set up at the upstream of the main analysis region. This turbulent inflow data are imposed at the inlet of the main analysis region. By this approach, the LOHDIM-LES can provide detailed information on wind velocities and plume concentration in the investigated area. (author)

  20. The Braer incident: Dispersion in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1993, the tanker Braer foundered in the Shetland Islands and pollution from the cargo of 85,000 tonnes of Gullfaks crude oil was reported almost immediately. The tanker was battered by storm winds and finally broke up, spilling the remainder of its cargo into the bay at Garth's Ness. Dispersants were applied to the oil plumes, assisting the significant natural dispersion. Shoreline protection and cleanup activities included construction of spade dams and sorbent barriers. Oil concentrations in water, air, sediment, and fish were monitored. The sampling program undertaken during the spill period is described. Measured hydrocarbon concentrations in salmon farm areas were not observed to rise above 4 ppM. The high rates of dispersion make the Braer incident worthy of detailed study both in terms of understanding the mechanism of the dispersion process and also in assessing the environmental effects following high dispersed oil concentrations. Estimates of the spill's mass balance are provided for the bay at Garth's Ness, where the highest oil concentrations were observed, and along the 26 km of coastline which received the most significant concentrations of dispersed oil. Contrary to laboratory experiments which showed that the Gullfaks crude would emulsify at the high sea states prevailing at the time, the Braer spill did not emulsify and most of the oil released was dispersed naturally into the water column. It appears that it is most appropriate to model the Braer spill as a spillage of floating or dissolved chemical. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Dispersal Timing: Emigration of Insects Living in Patchy Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Lakovic

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a life-history trait affecting dynamics and persistence of populations; it evolves under various known selective pressures. Theoretical studies on dispersal typically assume 'natal dispersal', where individuals emigrate right after birth. But emigration may also occur during a later moment within a reproductive season ('breeding dispersal'. For example, some female butterflies first deposit eggs in their natal patch before migrating to other site(s to continue egg-laying there. How breeding compared to natal dispersal influences the evolution of dispersal has not been explored. To close this gap we used an individual-based simulation approach to analyze (i the evolution of timing of breeding dispersal in annual organisms, (ii its influence on dispersal (compared to natal dispersal. Furthermore, we tested (iii its performance in direct evolutionary contest with individuals following a natal dispersal strategy. Our results show that evolution should typically result in lower dispersal under breeding dispersal, especially when costs of dispersal are low and population size is small. By distributing offspring evenly across two patches, breeding dispersal allows reducing direct sibling competition in the next generation whereas natal dispersal can only reduce trans-generational kin competition by producing highly dispersive offspring in each generation. The added benefit of breeding dispersal is most prominent in patches with small population sizes. Finally, the evolutionary contests show that a breeding dispersal strategy would universally out-compete natal dispersal.

  2. Dispersion relations and sum rules for natural optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, M.T.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1981-06-01

    Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained. It is shown that the Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion formula is inconsistent with the expected asymptotic behavior at high frequencies. A new dispersion formula based on quantum eletro-dynamics removes this inconsistency; however, it still requires modification in the low-frequency limit. (Author) [pt

  3. Comment on "Design of a broadband highly dispersive pure silica photonic crystal fiber"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, Subbaraman et al. [Appl. Opt. 46, 3263–3268 (2007)] reported a theoretical and numerical study of highly dispersive pure silica photonic crystal fiber supporting group-velocity dispersion exceeding −2 × 104 ps=nm=km. This Comment argues that the authors consider only one of two...... sides of the same coin by not taking the corresponding beating length into account....

  4. Optimised dispersion management and modulation formats for high speed optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokle, Torger

    2004-01-01

    both narrow spectral width and good transmission properties. The cost of an optical communication system can be lowered by using longer span lengths to reduce the number of amplifier stations. We experimentally study optimum dispersion compensation schemes for systems with 160 km fibre spans made...... modulated signals. In summary, we show that dispersion management using recently developed fibres in combination with advanced modulation formats significantly improves the transmission performance compared to traditional systems. Multi-level phase modulation is demonstrated at bit rates up to 80 Gbit......This thesis studies dispersion management and modulation formats for optical communication systems using per channel bit rates at and above 10 Gbit/s. Novel modulation formats—including recently proposed multilevel phase modulation—are investigated and demonstrated at bit rates up to 80 Gbit/s. New...

  5. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  6. Hyperbolic Method for Dispersive PDEs: Same High-Order of Accuracy for Solution, Gradient, and Hessian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Ricchiuto, Mario; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new hyperbolic first-order system for general dispersive partial differential equations (PDEs). We then extend the proposed system to general advection-diffusion-dispersion PDEs. We apply the fourth-order RD scheme of Ref. 1 to the proposed hyperbolic system, and solve time-dependent dispersive equations, including the classical two-soliton KdV and a dispersive shock case. We demonstrate that the predicted results, including the gradient and Hessian (second derivative), are in a very good agreement with the exact solutions. We then show that the RD scheme applied to the proposed system accurately captures dispersive shocks without numerical oscillations. We also verify that the solution, gradient and Hessian are predicted with equal order of accuracy.

  7. Simultaneous pore enlargement and introduction of highly dispersed Fe active sites in MSNs for enhanced catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jinlou; Dong Xu; Elangovan, S.P.; Li Yongsheng; Zhao Wenru; Iijima, Toshio; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Shi Jianlin

    2012-01-01

    An effective post-hydrothermal treatment strategy has been developed to dope highly dispersed iron catalytical centers into the framework of mesoporous silica, to keep the particle size in nanometric scale, and in the meanwhile, to expand the pore size of the synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). Characterization techniques such as XRD, BET, SEM and TEM support that the synthesized samples are long period ordered with particles size about 100 nm and a relatively large pore size of ca. 3.5 nm. UV–vis, XPS and EPR measurements demonstrate that the introduced iron active centers are highly dispersed in a coordinatively unsaturated status. NH 3 -TPD verifies that the acid amount of iron-doped MSNs is quite high. The synthesized nanocatalysts show an excellent catalytic performance for benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride, and they present relatively higher yield and selectivity to diphenylmethane with a lower iron content and much shorter reaction time. - Graphical abstract: Uniform MSNs with iron active centers and large pore size have been prepared by a newly developed strategy, which demonstrates enhanced catalytic performance for benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride. Highlights: ► Iron species were introduced into the framework of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with uniform dispersion. ► The pore sizes of the synthesized nanocatalysts were expanded. ► The acidic site quantities were quite high and the acidic centers were accessible. ► The nanocatalysts presented higher yield and selectivity to diphenylmethane with significantly lower Fe content.

  8. Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...

  9. Dispersion-optimized optical fiber for high-speed long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jindong; Chen, Liuhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Wenwen; Sun, Keyuan; Wu, Xingkun

    2011-07-01

    Four non-zero-dispersion-shifted fibers with almost the same large effective area (Aeff) and optimized dispersion properties are realized by novel index profile designing and modified vapor axial deposition and modified chemical vapor deposition processes. An Aeff of greater than 71 μm2 is obtained for the designed fibers. Three of the developed fibers with positive dispersion are improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.072ps/nm2/km to 0.063ps/nm2/km or 0.05ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from 4.972ps/nm/km to 5.679ps/nm/km or 7.776ps/nm/km, and shifting the zero-dispersion wavelength from 1500nm to 1450nm. One of these fibers is in good agreement with G655D and G.656 fibers simultaneously, and another one with G655E and G.656 fibers; both fibers are beneficial to high-bit long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing systems over S-, C-, and L-bands. The fourth developed fiber with negative dispersion is also improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.12ps/nm2/km to 0.085ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from -4ps/nm/km to -6.016ps/nm/km, providing facilities for a submarine transmission system. Experimental measurements indicate that the developed fibers all have excellent optical transmission and good macrobending and splice performances.

  10. Model Equation for Acoustic Nonlinear Measurement of Dispersive Specimens at High Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Kushibiki, Junichi; Zou, Wei

    2006-10-01

    We present a theoretical model for acoustic nonlinearity measurement of dispersive specimens at high frequency. The nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation governs the nonlinear propagation in the SiO2/specimen/SiO2 multi-layer medium. The dispersion effect is considered in a special manner by introducing the frequency-dependant sound velocity in the KZK equation. Simple analytic solutions are derived by applying the superposition technique of Gaussian beams. The solutions are used to correct the diffraction and dispersion effects in the measurement of acoustic nonlinearity of cottonseed oil in the frequency range of 33-96 MHz. Regarding two different ultrasonic devices, the accuracies of the measurements are improved to ±2.0% and ±1.3% in comparison with ±9.8% and ±2.9% obtained from the previous plane wave model.

  11. Fuel dispersal in high-speed aircraft/soil impact scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Attaway, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine how the jet fuel contained in aircraft wing tanks disperses on impact with a soft terrain, i.e., soils, at high impact velocities. The approach used in this study is to combine experimental and numerical methods. Tests were conducted with an approximately 1/42 linear-scale mass-model of a 1/4 span section of a C-141 wing impacting a sand/clay mixture. The test results showed that within the uncertainty of the data, the percentage of incident liquid mass remaining in the crater is the same as that qualitatively described in earlier napalm bomb development studies. Namely, the percentage of fuel in the crater ranges from near zero for grazing impacts to 25%--50% for high angles of impact. To support a weapons system safety assessment (WSSA), the data from the current study have been reduced to correlations. The numerical model used in the current study is a unique coupling of a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO. Qualitatively, the splash, erosion, and soil compression phenomena are all numerically predicted. Quantitatively, the numerical method predicted a smaller crater cross section than was observed in the tests

  12. Dispersed flow film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, M.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1989-12-01

    Dispersed flow film boiling is the heat transfer regime that occurs at high void fractions in a heated channel. The way this transfer mode is modelled in the NRC computer codes (RELAP5 and TRAC) and the validity of the assumption and empirical correlations used is discussed. An extensive review of the theoretical and experimental work related with heat transfer to highly dispersed mixtures reveals the basic deficiencies of these models: the investigation refers mostly to the typical conditions of low rate bottom reflooding, since the simulation of this physical situation by the computer codes has often showed poor results. The alternative models that are available in the literature are reviewed, and their merits and limits are highlighted. The modification that could improve the physics of the models implemented in the codes are identified. (author) 13 figs., 123 refs

  13. Time moments of the energy flow of optical pulses in highly dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Lipsa; Wanare, Harshawardhan; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2010-01-01

    We use the time moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse to characterize the traversal times and temporal pulse widths as the pulse propagates in highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with the propagation distance is analysed in three canonical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, a Raman gain doublet amplifying medium and a medium exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency. We find that superluminal pulse propagation in the first two cases with anomalous dispersion is usually accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation. In a medium with electromagnetically induced transparency with large normal dispersion, we identify a range of frequencies for which the pulse undergoes minimal temporal expansion while propagating with ultra-slow speed.

  14. Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemensberger, Johann; Hartinger, Klaus; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-12-03

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition. Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. The results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  15. Bio-Inspired Supramolecular Chemistry Provides Highly Concentrated Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polythiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first observation, through X-ray diffraction, of noncovalent uracil–uracil (U–U dimeric π-stacking interactions in carbon nanotube (CNT–based supramolecular assemblies. The directionally oriented morphology determined using atomic force microscopy revealed highly organized behavior through π-stacking of U moieties in a U-functionalized CNT derivative (CNT–U. We developed a dispersion system to investigate the bio-inspired interactions between an adenine (A-terminated poly(3-adeninehexyl thiophene (PAT and CNT–U. These hybrid CNT–U/PAT materials interacted through π-stacking and multiple hydrogen bonding between the U moieties of CNT–U and the A moieties of PAT. Most importantly, the U···A multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between CNT–U and PAT enhanced the dispersion of CNT–U in a high-polarity solvent (DMSO. The morphology of these hybrids, determined using transmission electron microscopy, featured grape-like PAT bundles wrapped around the CNT–U surface; this tight connection was responsible for the enhanced dispersion of CNT–U in DMSO.

  16. Extragalactic dispersion measures of fast radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Han, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Fast radio bursts show large dispersion measures, much larger than the Galactic dispersion measure foreground. Therefore, they evidently have an extragalactic origin. We investigate possible contributions to the dispersion measure from host galaxies. We simulate the spatial distribution of fast radio bursts and calculate the dispersion measures along the sightlines from fast radio bursts to the edge of host galaxies by using the scaled NE2001 model for thermal electron density distributions. We find that contributions to the dispersion measure of fast radio bursts from the host galaxy follow a skew Gaussian distribution. The peak and the width at half maximum of the dispersion measure distribution increase with the inclination angle of a spiral galaxy, to large values when the inclination angle is over 70°. The largest dispersion measure produced by an edge-on spiral galaxy can reach a few thousand pc cm −3 , while the dispersion measures from dwarf galaxies and elliptical galaxies have a maximum of only a few tens of pc cm −3 . Notice, however, that additional dispersion measures of tens to hundreds of pc cm −3 can be produced by high density clumps in host galaxies. Simulations that include dispersion measure contributions from the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Andromeda Galaxy are shown as examples to demonstrate how to extract the dispersion measure from the intergalactic medium. (paper)

  17. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  18. Highly-dispersed Ta-oxide catalysts prepared by electrodeposition in a non-aqueous plating bath for polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    The Ta-oxide cathode catalysts were prepared by electrodeposition in a non-aqueous solution. These catalysts showed excellent catalytic activity and have an onset potential of 0.92 V RHE for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The highly-dispersed Ta species at the nanometer scale on the carbon black was an important contributor to the high activity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Synthesis of highly dispersed platinum particles on carbon nanotubes by an in situ vapor-phase method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Zúñiga, C.; Vargas-García, J.R.; Hernández-Pérez, M.A.; Figueroa-Torres, M.Z.; Cervantes-Sodi, F.; Torres-Martínez, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized carbon nanotubes. • A simple and competitive vapor-phase method was employed. • Carbonyl groups were assumed to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac. • Pt particles were highly dispersed because carbonyl groups served as reaction sites. • Particles of 2.3 nm in size were highly dispersed even the high loading (27 wt%Pt). - Abstract: Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) using a simple in situ vapor-phase method. The method consisted in two-step procedure in which an initial mixture of Pt precursor (Pt-acac) and f-MWCNTs was heated in a quartz tube reactor, first at 180 °C and then at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR–ATR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to follow the chemical and structural transformations of mixture components during heating steps. The functionalization of MWCNTs with HNO 3 /H 2 SO 4 solution resulted in formation of surface carbonyl groups. The FTIR–ATR and XRD results indicated that individual Pt-acac withstood heating at 180 °C, whereas it was dissociated when heated in contact with f-MWCNTs at the same temperature. Thus, the functional carbonyl groups were found to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac at 180 °C. Since carbonyl groups served as reaction sites for decomposition of Pt-acac, the resulting particles were highly and homogeneously dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs even the relatively high metallic loading of 27 wt%. TEM observations revealed that crystalline Pt particles exhibit narrow size distribution with a mean size of 2.3 nm

  20. Synthesis of highly dispersed platinum particles on carbon nanotubes by an in situ vapor-phase method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Zúñiga, C. [Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Vargas-García, J.R., E-mail: rvargasga@ipn.mx [Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Hernández-Pérez, M.A. [Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Figueroa-Torres, M.Z. [Depto. Eco-Materiales y Energia, Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Cervantes-Sodi, F. [Depto. Fisica y Matematicas, Univ. Iberoamericana, Mexico 01209 D.F. (Mexico); Torres-Martínez, L.M. [Depto. Eco-Materiales y Energia, Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized carbon nanotubes. • A simple and competitive vapor-phase method was employed. • Carbonyl groups were assumed to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac. • Pt particles were highly dispersed because carbonyl groups served as reaction sites. • Particles of 2.3 nm in size were highly dispersed even the high loading (27 wt%Pt). - Abstract: Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) using a simple in situ vapor-phase method. The method consisted in two-step procedure in which an initial mixture of Pt precursor (Pt-acac) and f-MWCNTs was heated in a quartz tube reactor, first at 180 °C and then at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR–ATR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to follow the chemical and structural transformations of mixture components during heating steps. The functionalization of MWCNTs with HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution resulted in formation of surface carbonyl groups. The FTIR–ATR and XRD results indicated that individual Pt-acac withstood heating at 180 °C, whereas it was dissociated when heated in contact with f-MWCNTs at the same temperature. Thus, the functional carbonyl groups were found to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac at 180 °C. Since carbonyl groups served as reaction sites for decomposition of Pt-acac, the resulting particles were highly and homogeneously dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs even the relatively high metallic loading of 27 wt%. TEM observations revealed that crystalline Pt particles exhibit narrow size distribution with a mean size of 2.3 nm.

  1. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles dispersed in silica prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. M.; Montero, M. I.; Cebollada, F.; de Julián, C.; Vicent, J. L.; González, J. M.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze the magnetic properties of mechanically ground nanosized Ni particles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix. Our magnetic characterization of the as-milled samples show the occurrence of two blocking processes and that of non-monotonic milling time evolutions of the magnetic-order temperature, the high-field magnetization and the saturation coercivity. The measured coercivities exhibit giant values and a uniaxial-type temperature dependence. Thermal treatment carried out in the as-prepared samples result in a remarkable coercivity reduction and in an increase of the high-field magnetization. We conclude, on the basis of the consideration of a core (pure Ni) and shell (Ni-Si inhomogeneous alloy) particle structure, that the magnetoelastic anisotropy plays the dominant role in determining the magnetic properties of our particles.

  2. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amol A; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode-based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents.

  3. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  4. High Emigration Propensity and Low Mortality on Transfer Drives Female-Biased Dispersal of Pyriglena leucoptera in Fragmented Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Awade

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a biological process performed in three stages: emigration, transfer and immigration. Intra-specific variation on dispersal behavior, such as sex-bias, is very common in nature, particularly in birds and mammals. However, dispersal is difficult to measure in the field and many hypotheses concerning the causes of sex-biased dispersal remain without empirical confirmation. An important limitation of most empirical studies is that inferences about sex-biased dispersal are based only on emigration proneness or immigration success data. Thus, we still do not know whether sex-biased immigration in fragmented landscapes occurs during emigration, transfer or in both stages. We conducted translocation and radiotracking experiments to assess i whether inter-patch dispersal movements of a rainforest bird (Pyriglena leucoptera is sex-biased and ii how dispersal stages and the perceptual range of the individuals are integrated to generate dispersal patterns. Our results showed that inter-patch dispersal is sex-biased at all stages for P. leucoptera, as females not only exhibit a higher emigration propensity but are subjected to a lower risk of predation when moving through the matrix. Moreover, our data support a perceptual range of 80 m and our results showed that dispersal success decreases considerably when inter-patch distances exceeds this perceptual range. In this case, birds have a higher probability of travelling over longer routes and, as a consequence, the risk of predation increases, specially for males. Overall, results supported that assuming dispersal as a single-stage process to describe dispersal behavior may be misleading. In this way, our study advanced our understanding of processes and patterns related to inter-patch dispersal of neotropical forest birds, shedding light on potential implications for population dynamics and for the management of fragmented landscapes.

  5. Transport and Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Periodic Nanopost Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    He, Kai; Retterer, Scott T.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Conrad, Jacinta C.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles transported through highly confined porous media exhibit faster breakthrough than small molecule tracers. Despite important technological applications in advanced materials, human health, energy, and environment, the microscale mechanisms leading to early breakthrough have not been identified. Here, we measure dispersion of nanoparticles at the single-particle scale in regular arrays of nanoposts and show that for highly confined flows of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles the longitudinal and transverse velocities exhibit distinct scaling behaviors. The distributions of transverse particle velocities become narrower and more non-Gaussian when the particles are strongly confined. As a result, the transverse dispersion of highly confined nanoparticles at low Péclet numbers is significantly less important than longitudinal dispersion, leading to early breakthrough. This finding suggests a fundamental mechanism by which to control dispersion and thereby improve efficacy of nanoparticles applied for advanced polymer nanocomposites, drug delivery, hydrocarbon production, and environmental remediation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Transport and Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Periodic Nanopost Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    He, Kai

    2014-05-27

    Nanoparticles transported through highly confined porous media exhibit faster breakthrough than small molecule tracers. Despite important technological applications in advanced materials, human health, energy, and environment, the microscale mechanisms leading to early breakthrough have not been identified. Here, we measure dispersion of nanoparticles at the single-particle scale in regular arrays of nanoposts and show that for highly confined flows of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles the longitudinal and transverse velocities exhibit distinct scaling behaviors. The distributions of transverse particle velocities become narrower and more non-Gaussian when the particles are strongly confined. As a result, the transverse dispersion of highly confined nanoparticles at low Péclet numbers is significantly less important than longitudinal dispersion, leading to early breakthrough. This finding suggests a fundamental mechanism by which to control dispersion and thereby improve efficacy of nanoparticles applied for advanced polymer nanocomposites, drug delivery, hydrocarbon production, and environmental remediation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8 m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  8. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  9. Effects of exchangeable Ca:Mg ratio on the dispersion of soils some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils studied were acidic, low in nutrient level, showed high dispersion rate, high water- dispersible clay content and the textural class were loamy sand and sandy loam. The exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents of the soils dominated the exchange complex. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranges between 4 ...

  10. High Methanol Oxidation Activity of Well-Dispersed Pt Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes Using Nitrogen Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wei-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pt nanoparticles (NPs with the average size of 3.14 nm well dispersed on N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs without any pretreatment have been demonstrated. Structural properties show the characteristic N bonding within CNTs, which provide the good support for uniform distribution of Pt NPs. In electrochemical characteristics, N-doped CNTs covered with Pt NPs show superior current density due to the fact that the so-called N incorporation could give rise to the formation of preferential sites within CNTs accompanied by the low interfacial energy for immobilizing Pt NPs. Therefore, the substantially enhanced methanol oxidation activity performed by N-incorporation technique is highly promising in energy-generation applications.

  11. High Temperature Strength of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauer, A.H.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    constant (except for the material with the lowest oxide content). The high temperature values of the modulus-corrected yield stresses are approximately two-thirds of the low temperature value. During high temperature creep, there is a definite indication of a threshold stress. This threshold stress......The tensile flow stress of coarse-grained dispersion strengthened Al-Al2O3 materials were measured as a function of temperature (77–873 K) and volume fraction (0.19-0.92 vol.%) of aluminium oxide. For the same material, the creep strength was determined as a function of temperature in the range 573......–873 K. The modulus-corrected yield stress (0.01 offset) is found to be temperature independent at low temperature (195–472 K). Between 473 and 573 K, the yield stress starts to decrease with increasing temperature. At high temperatures (573–873 K), the modulus-corrected yield stress is approximately...

  12. Unique coexistence of dispersion stability and nanoparticle chemisorption in alkylamine/alkylacid encapsulated silver nanocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Keisuke; Hirakawa, Yuya; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Arai, Shunto; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-04-17

    Surface encapsulation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is fundamental to achieve sufficient dispersion stability of metal nanocolloids, or metal nanoink. However, the feature is incompatible with surface reactive nature of the metal NPs, although these features are both essential to realizing the functional applications into printed electronics technologies. Here we show that two different kinds of encapsulation for silver NPs (AgNPs) by alkylamine and alkylacid together are the key to achieve unique compatibility between the high dispersion stability as dense nanoclolloids and the AgNP chemisorption printing on activated patterned polymer surfaces. Advanced confocal dynamic light scattering study reveals that an additive trace amount of oleic acid is the critical parameter for controlling the dispersion and coagulative (or surface-reactive) characteristics of the silver nanocolloids. The composition of the disperse media is also important for obtaining highly concentrated but low-viscosity silver nanocolloids that show very stable dispersion. The results demonstrate that the high-resolution AgNP chemisorption printing is possible only by using unique silver nanocolloids composed of an exceptional balance of ligand formulation and dispersant composition.

  13. Anomalous dispersion properties of TM waves in subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghui, E-mail: wanggh@scnu.edu.cn; Lei, Yuandong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-02-20

    Dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) waves in a subwavelength metallic waveguide loaded by uniaxial metamaterials are investigated, based on two kinds of uniaxial metamaterials with different orientations of optical axis. The numerical results show that the existence of fundamental TM{sub 0} mode and high-order TM modes in the waveguide system is dependent on the orientation of optical axis. In addition, their anomalous dispersion properties are clarified. When the orientation of optical axis is selected properly, there are two branches of dispersion curves for each high-order mode—one is normal dispersion and another belongs to anomalous dispersion, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one with the increase of working frequency. Moreover, the group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM{sub 1} mode are also demonstrated. These properties may have potential applications in optical information storage, integrated optics and nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Two kinds of subwavelength uniaxial metamaterial waveguides are constructed. • We demonstrate anomalous dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) guided modes. • There are two branches of dispersion curves for high-order TM modes, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one. • Group velocity can approach to zero, having potential application in optical information storage. • Negative group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM modes are shown.

  14. Highly dispersed Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/polypyrrole nanocomposites for cost-effective, high-performance defluoridation using a magnetically controllable microdevice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Shi, Guoying; Mu, Qinghui; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly dispersed CZFO/PPy nanocomposites are synthesized in microfluidic reactor. ► The as-synthesized nanocomposites behave as a high performance adsorbent. ► The magnetic microdevice has advantages over traditional methods for defluoridation. - Abstract: Highly dispersed Co 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 /polypyrrole (CZFO/PPy) nanocomposites with enhanced electromagnetic properties and large surface area were rapidly and controllably prepared using microfluidic reactors. A novel magnetically controllable microdevice using the new adsorbent in a highly dispersed form was assembled and used for fluoride adsorption. Compared with traditional adsorption methods, the device displayed high adsorption efficiency and capacity. The adsorbents were regenerated with no significant loss in defluoridation ability, which indicates that the device is a realistic and highly efficient alternative way of removing fluoride pollution at low cost.

  15. Highly water-dispersible silver sulfadiazine decorated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone and its antibacterial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ping; Wu, Longlong [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Binjie, E-mail: lbj821@163.com [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Medical School of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhao, Yanbao [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Qu, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Highly water-dispersible silver sulfadiazine (SSD) was prepared by liquid phase method with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a surface modification agent. The structure and morphology of the PVP-modified silver sulfadiazine (P-SSD) were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. The produced particles are ginkgo leaf-like architecture with the sizes of micron-nanometer. Due to hydrophilic PVP decorated on the surface, the P-SSD has excellent dispersion in water over a period of 24 h, which is obviously stable by comparison to that of the commercial silver sulfadiazine (C-SSD). In addition, the P-SSD exhibits good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). - Highlights: • Polyvinyl pyrrolidone decorated silver sulfadiazine was synthesized via a one-pot protocol. • The produced particles present ginkgo leaf-like architectures with sizes of micro-nanometer. • The resulted silver sulfadiazine has highly dispersible in water over a period of 24 h. • The obtained sliver sulfadiazine exhibits excellent antibacterial activities against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

  16. Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachraoui, H; Helmstedt, A; Bartz, P; Michelswirth, M; Mueller, N; Pfeiffer, W; Heinzmann, U; Auguste, T; Salieres, P

    2009-01-01

    We report a detailed experimental and theoretical study on high-order harmonic generation of a femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser focused at an intensity of around 10 15 W cm -2 onto a high-pressure (50-210 mbar) neon gas cell of variable length (1-3 mm). Using thorough three-dimensional simulations, we discuss the interplay between the different factors influencing the harmonic-generation efficiency, i.e. phase matching determined by the electronic and atomic dispersions, re-absorption of the harmonics by the medium and refraction of the generating laser beam. Generically, we find that, in our generation conditions, the emission yield of harmonics from the plateau region of the spectrum is absorption limited, whereas the emission from harmonics in the cut-off is strongly reduced due to both electron dispersion and ionization-induced refraction of the laser beam. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data is obtained for the harmonic yield dependence on the various generation parameters (gas pressure, medium length and laser intensity).

  17. Seed-dispersal distributions by trumpeter hornbills in fragmented landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Johanna; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Caprano, Tanja; Friedrichs, Wolfgang; Gaese, Bernhard H.; Wikelski, Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Frugivorous birds provide important ecosystem services by transporting seeds of fleshy fruited plants. It has been assumed that seed-dispersal kernels generated by these animals are generally leptokurtic, resulting in little dispersal among habitat fragments. However, little is known about the seed-dispersal distribution generated by large frugivorous birds in fragmented landscapes. We investigated movement and seed-dispersal patterns of trumpeter hornbills (Bycanistes bucinator) in a fragmented landscape in South Africa. Novel GPS loggers provide high-quality location data without bias against recording long-distance movements. We found a very weakly bimodal seed-dispersal distribution with potential dispersal distances up to 14.5 km. Within forest, the seed-dispersal distribution was unimodal with an expected dispersal distance of 86 m. In the fragmented agricultural landscape, the distribution was strongly bimodal with peaks at 18 and 512 m. Our results demonstrate that seed-dispersal distributions differed when birds moved in different habitat types. Seed-dispersal distances in fragmented landscapes show that transport among habitat patches is more frequent than previously assumed, allowing plants to disperse among habitat patches and to track the changing climatic conditions. PMID:21177686

  18. Surface Solid Dispersion and Solid Dispersion of Meloxicam: Comparison and Product Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Mayank; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla; Bhatt, Shailendra; Saini, Vipin

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: A comparative study was carried out between surface solid dispersion (SSD) and solid dispersion (SD) of meloxicam (MLX) to assess the solubility and dissolution enhancement approach and thereafter develop as patient friendly orodispersible tablet. Methods: Crospovidone (CPV), a hydrophilic carrier was selected for SSD preparation on the basis of 89% in- vitro MLX adsorption, 19% hydration capacity and high swelling index. SD on the other hand was made with PEG4000. Both were prepared by co-grinding and solvent evaporation method using drug: carrier ratios of 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8. Formulation SSDS3 (MLX: CPV in 1:8 ratio) made by solvent evaporation method showed t 50% of 28 min and 80.9% DE 50min which was higher in comparison to the corresponding solid dispersion, SDS3 (t 50% of 35min and 76.4% DE 50min ). Both SSDS3 and SDS3 were developed as orodispersible tablets and evaluated. Results: Tablet formulation F3 made with SSD3 with a disintegration time of 11 secs, by wetting time= 6 sec, high water absorption of 78%by wt and cumulative drug release of 97% proved to be superior than the tablet made with SD3. Conclusion: Conclusively, the SSD of meloxicam has the potential to be developed as fast acing formulation that can ensure almost complete release of drug.

  19. Surface Solid Dispersion and Solid Dispersion of Meloxicam: Comparison and Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chaturvedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A comparative study was carried out between surface solid dispersion (SSD and solid dispersion (SD of meloxicam (MLX to assess the solubility and dissolution enhancement approach and thereafter develop as patient friendly orodispersible tablet. Methods: Crospovidone (CPV, a hydrophilic carrier was selected for SSD preparation on the basis of 89% in- vitro MLX adsorption, 19% hydration capacity and high swelling index. SD on the other hand was made with PEG4000. Both were prepared by co-grinding and solvent evaporation method using drug: carrier ratios of 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8. Formulation SSDS3 (MLX: CPV in 1:8 ratio made by solvent evaporation method showed t50% of 28 min and 80.9% DE50min which was higher in comparison to the corresponding solid dispersion, SDS3 (t50% of 35min and 76.4% DE50min. Both SSDS3 and SDS3 were developed as orodispersible tablets and evaluated. Results: Tablet formulation F3 made with SSD3 with a disintegration time of 11 secs, by wetting time= 6 sec, high water absorption of 78%by wt and cumulative drug release of 97% proved to be superior than the tablet made with SD3. Conclusion: Conclusively, the SSD of meloxicam has the potential to be developed as fast acing formulation that can ensure almost complete release of drug.

  20. H2 uptake in the Li-dispersed silica nano-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Bae Lee; Soon Chang Lee; Sang Moon Lee; Hae Jin Kim

    2006-01-01

    Highly ordered Li-dispersed silica nano-tubes were prepared by sol-gel template method for hydrogen storage. Isolated Li-dispersed silica nano-tubes can be easily obtained by removing the AAO template with 2M NaOH. From the XRD study, the Li-dispersed silica nano-tubes showed the amorphous phase with silica frameworks. The uniform length and diameter of Li-dispersed silica nano-tubes could be examined with the electron microscopy studies. The wall thickness and diameter of nano-tubes are about 50-60 nm and 200-400 nm, respectively. The obtained Li-dispersed silica nano-tubes have the hydrogen adsorption capacity 2.25 wt% at 77 K under 47 atm. (authors)

  1. Partitioning of fresh crude oil between floating, dispersed and sediment phases: Effect of exposure order to dispersant and granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2016-06-15

    When three or more high and low energy substrates are mixed, wetting order can significantly affect the behavior of the mixture. We analyzed the phase distribution of fresh floating Louisiana crude oil into dispersed, settled and floating phases depending on the exposure sequence to Corexit 9500A (dispersant) and granular materials. In the experiments artificial sea water at salinity 34‰ was used. Limestone (2.00-0.300 mm) and quartz sand (0.300-0.075 mm) were used as the natural granular materials. Dispersant Corexit 9500A increased the amount of dispersed oil up to 33.76 ± 7.04%. Addition of granular materials after the dispersant increased dispersion of oil to 47.96 ± 1.96%. When solid particles were applied on the floating oil before the dispersant, oil was captured as oil-particle aggregates and removed from the floating layer. However, dispersant addition led to partial release of the captured oil, removing it from the aggregated form to the dispersed and floating phases. There was no visible oil aggregation with the granular materials when quartz or limestone was at the bottom of the flask before the addition of oil and dispersant. The results show that granular materials can be effective when applied from the surface for aggregating or dispersing oil. However, the granular materials in the sediments are not effective neither for aggregating nor dispersing floating oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their excellent catalytic performance for oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinde, V.M.; Skupien, E.; Makkee, M.

    2015-01-01

    Narrow sized and highly homogeneous dispersed Pd nanoparticles have been synthesized on nitric acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without a capping agent. The TEM images show that the extremely small Pd nanoparticles with an average size of about 1.5 nm were homogeneously

  3. Studies on the dispersal behavior of melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae coquilett (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the influence of gamma-irradiation on dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Ryoichi

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of released male adults of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, was not the same in three directions from the release point. This bias seemed to depend on the habitat selection of melon flies because these was a linear relationship between the number of released flies caught and that of wild flies caught. The mean dispersal distance ranged from 50 m to 90 m and there were no remarkable differences in the values among groups which were allowed to disperse for different periods. Flies released at one point reached a stable distribution pattern in two or three days after their release. Another group of flies released at a different point, where the environment was less favourable to melon flies, showed a wider range of dispersal. It was concluded that in planning the arrangement of release points for the sterile male technique, a preliminary survey is needed to determine whether habitats favorable to the insect, that is, areas of high population density, exist continuously or not. A preliminary test to assess the influence of γ-irradiation on dispersal showed that the dosage of 10000 R reduced the dispersing ability of male adults of the melon fly. (author)

  4. Spatio-temporal Genetic Structure of a Tropical Bee Species Suggests High Dispersal Over a Fragmented Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, Sevan S; Bronstein, Judith L; Brosi, Berry J

    2014-03-01

    Habitat destruction threatens biodiversity by reducing the amount of available resources and connectivity among geographic areas. For organisms living in fragmented habitats, population persistence may depend on dispersal, which maintains gene flow among fragments and can prevent inbreeding within them. It is centrally important to understand patterns of dispersal for bees living in fragmented areas given the importance of pollination systems and recently documented declines in bee populations. We used population and landscape genetic techniques to characterize patterns of dispersal over a large fragmented area in southern Costa Rica for the orchid bee species Euglossa championi . First, we estimated levels of genetic differentiation among forest fragments as φ pt , an analog to the traditional summary statistic F st , as well as two statistics that may more adequately represent levels of differentiation, G ' st and D est . Second, we used a Bayesian approach to determine the number and composition of genetic groups in our sample. Third we investigated how genetic differentiation changes with distance. Fourth, we determined the extent to which deforested areas restrict dispersal. Finally, we estimated the extent to which there were temporal differences in allele frequencies within the same forest fragments. Within years we found low levels of differentiation even over 80 km, and no effect of land use type on level of genetic differentiation. However, we found significant genetic differentiation between years. Taken together our results suggest that there are high levels of gene flow over this geographic area, and that individuals show low site fidelity over time.

  5. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  6. Well-Dispersed Co/CoO/C Nanospheres with Tunable Morphology as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqing Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Well-dispersed Co/CoO/C nanospheres have been designed and constructed through a facile electrospinning method with a strategy controlling the morphology of nanocomposites via adjusting the pre-oxidized and heat treatments. Scanning electron microscopy results reveal that the as-synthesized sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C shows better spherical morphology with a diameter of around 300 nm without conspicuous agglomeration. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the coexistence of cobalt and cobalt monoxide in the sample. Furthermore, the electrochemical tests reveal that the sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C displays excellent cycling stability with only 0.016% loss per cycle even after 400 cycles at 1000 mA·g−1 and enhanced high-rate capability with a specific discharge capacity of 354 mA·g−1 at 2000 mA·g−1. Besides, the sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C shows a specific capacity of 755 mA·g−1 at 100 mA·g−1 after 95 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance has been ascribed to the well dispersion of nanospheres, the improved electronic conductivity, and the structural integrity contribution from the carbon and cobalt coexisting nanocomposite. The strategy for preparing well-dispersed nanospheres by adjusting pre-oxidized and annealing processes could have insight for other oxide nanosphere synthesis.

  7. Dispersion relations in loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to the use of dispersion relations in loop calculations. We first derive dispersion relations which allow us to recover the real part of a physical amplitude from the knowledge of its absorptive part along the branch cut. In perturbative calculations, the latter may be constructed by means of Cutkosky's rule, which is briefly discussed. For illustration, we apply this procedure at one loop to the photon vacuum-polarization function induced by leptons as well as to the γf anti-f vertex form factor generated by the exchange of a massive vector boson between the two fermion legs. We also show how the hadronic contribution to the photon vacuum polarization may be extracted from the total cross section of hadron production in e + e - annihilation measured as a function of energy. Finally, we outline the application of dispersive techniques at the two-loop level, considering as an example the bosonic decay width of a high-mass Higgs boson. (author)

  8. Design of compact dispersion interferometer with a high efficiency nonlinear crystal and a low power CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Yoshimura, S.; Tomita, K.; Shirai, N.; Murakami, T.; Urabe, K.

    2017-12-01

    When the electron density of a plasma generated in high pressure environment is measured by a conventional interferometer, the phase shifts due to changes of the neutral gas density cause significant measurement errors. A dispersion interferometer, which measures the phase shift that arises from dispersion of medium between the fundamental and the second harmonic wavelengths of laser light, can suppress the measured phase shift due to the variations of neutral gas density. In recent years, the CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been applied to the atmospheric pressure plasmas and its feasibility has been demonstrated. By combining a low power laser and a high efficiency nonlinear crystal for the second harmonic component generation, a compact dispersion interferometer can be designed. The optical design and preliminary experiments are conducted.

  9. Magnetic fluid with high dispersion and heating performance using nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Mikio, E-mail: kishimoto.mikio.gb@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya [Department of Surgery, Division of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yanagihara, Hideto [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro [Department of Surgery, Division of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Kita, Eiji [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic fluid with high dispersion and heating performance was developed using 30 to 50 nm platelet Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. This fluid was prepared by mechanical dispersion in ethyl alcohol with a silane coupling agent, bonding with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and removal of aggregates formed by precipitation. The peak diameter of the resulting Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles, measured by dynamic light scattering, was approximately 150 nm. The fluid exhibited a 300 W/g specific loss power (measured at 114 kHz by a 50.9 kA/m magnetic field). Distribution of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles in tissues was observed by intravenously administrating the fluid in mice. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles passed through the lungs, and were uniformly distributed throughout the liver and spleen. High dispersion and high heating performance were simultaneously achieved in the magnetic fluid using platelet Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles surface modified with PEG. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid with high dispersion and heating performance using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. • Fluid prepared by mechanical dispersion, bonding with polyethylene glycol. • TEM observation and measurements of particle size distribution and specific loss power of fluid. • Observation of distribution of particles in mice tissues intravenously administrated fluid.

  10. Solid lipid dispersions: potential delivery system for functional ingredients in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Mensah, Aboagyewa; Smith, Kevin W; Ribeiro, Henelyta S

    2013-07-01

    Structured solid lipid (SL) systems have the advantages of long-term physical stability, low surfactant concentrations, and may exhibit controlled release of active ingredients. In this research work, the potential use of high-melting SLs for the production of the above structured SL carrier systems was investigated. Dispersions containing either SL or blend of solid lipid and oil (SL+O) were produced by a hot melt high-pressure homogenization method. Experiments involved the use of 3 different SLs for the disperse phase: stearic acid, candelilla wax and carnauba wax. Sunflower oil was incorporated in the disperse phase for the production of the dispersions containing lipid and oil. In order to evaluate the practical aspects of structured particles, analytical techniques were used including: static light scattering to measure particle sizes, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for investigating particle morphology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the crystallization behavior of lipids in bulk and in dispersions. Results showed different mean particle sizes depending on the type of lipid used in the disperse phase. Particle sizes for the 3 lipids were: stearic acid (SL: 195 ± 2.5 nm; SL+O: 138 ± 6.0 nm); candelilla wax (SL: 178 ± 1.7 nm; SL+O: 144 ± 0.6 nm); carnauba wax (SL: 303 ± 1.5 nm; SL+O: 295 ± 5.0 nm). TEM results gave an insight into the practical morphology, showing plate-like and needle-like structures. DSC investigations also revealed that SL dispersions melted and crystallized at lower temperatures than the bulk. This decrease can be explained by the small particle sizes of the dispersion, the high-specific surface area, and the presence of a surfactant. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction at high pressure in CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoff, A.L.; Baublitz, M.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray techniques were used with a diamond anvil cell in the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). It was shown that quantitative relative intensity measurement could be made when the pressure was hydrostatic and the crystals were relatively defect free. The crystal structures of the high pressure polymorphs of Ge, GaAs, GaP, and AlSb were studied. Ge exhibits the β-tetragonal structure as found by Jamieson; however, the transition pressure is 80 +- 5 kbars. GaAs exhibits an orthorhombic structure above 172 +- 7 kbars, GaP the β-Sn structure above 215 +- 8 kbars, and AlSb an orthorhombic structure above 77 +- 5 kbars. (Auth.)

  12. Synthesis of a highly dispersed CuO catalyst on CoAl-HT for the epoxidation of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Yang, Pengfei; Pan, Yongning; Li, Yunpeng; He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Li, Dianqing

    2017-10-10

    A highly dispersed CuO catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and evaluated for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under solvent acetonitrile conditions. Compared with MgAl hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT)-, MgO-, TiO 2 -, C-, and MCM-22-supported catalysts, CuO/CoAl-HT exhibited preferable activity and selectivity towards styrene oxide (72% selectivity at 99.5% styrene conversion) due to its high dispersion of CuO and surface area of Cu. The improved dispersion of CuO/CoAl-HT could be ascribed to the nature of HT support, especially the synergistic effect of acidic and basic sites on the surface, which facilitated the formation of highly dispersed CuO species. A structure-performance relationship study indicated that copper(ii) in CuO was the active site for the epoxidation and oxidation of styrene, and that Cu II of rich electronic density favored the improvement of selectivity of styrene oxide. Based on these results, a reaction mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the preferred catalytic performance of CuO/CoAl-HT could be maintained in five reused cycles.

  13. Room and high temperature deformation behaviour of a forged Fe–15Al–5Nb alloy with a reinforcing dispersion of equiaxed Laves phase particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.; Muñoz-Morris, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Forged Fe–15%Al–5%Nb has a composite structure of soft matrix with equiaxed Laves phase particles. ► The material shows good strength with excellent ductility at room temperature. ► Good creep strength is maintained to 700 °C. ► The coarse composite microstructure ensures good long term stability at high temperatures. ► High temperature strength depends on load sharing between phases and microstructural refinement. - Abstract: The cast-in network of continuous Laves phase in a Fe–15%Al–5%Nb alloy has been converted to a dispersion of coarse Laves phase particles by high temperature forging, and the room temperature and high temperature deformation behaviour examined. The material shows good room temperature tensile ductility and good creep strength at temperatures up to 700 °C. The good high temperature strength is explained by the refinement of substructure by the dispersion of Laves phase particles and load and strain partitioning between the stiff and hard phase and the softer matrix. The relatively coarse microstructure is expected to be highly stable against coarsening at high temperatures, which should allow retention of creep properties even for long exposure times.

  14. High-concentration graphene dispersion stabilized by block copolymers in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Hyang Moo; Cheong, In Woo

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a comprehensive study for the preparation of graphene dispersions by liquid-phase exfoliation using amphiphilic diblock copolymers; poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(styrene) (PEO-b-PS), poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PEO-b-PVP), and poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(pyrenemethyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PPy) with similar block lengths. Block copolymers were prepared from PEO using the Steglich coupling reaction followed by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Graphite platelets (G) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used as graphene sources. The dispersion stability of graphene in ethanol was comparatively investigated by on-line turbidity, and the graphene concentration in the dispersions was determined gravimetrically. Our results revealed that the graphene dispersions with PEO-b-PVP were much more stable and included graphene with fewer defects than that with PEO-b-PS or PEO-b-PPy, as confirmed by turbidity and Raman analyses. Gravimetry confirmed that graphene concentrations up to 1.7 and 1.8mg/mL could be obtained from G and rGO dispersions, respectively, using PEO-b-PVP after one week. Distinctions in adhesion forces of PS, VP, PPy block units with graphene surface and the variation in solubility of the block copolymers in ethanol medium significantly affected the stability of the graphene dispersion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Atomic layer deposited highly dispersed platinum nanoparticles supported on non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinhua; Jiang, Chengjun

    2013-09-01

    Highly dispersed platinum nanoparticles were deposited on gram quantities of non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at 300 °C. (Methylcyclopentadienyl) trimethylplatinum and oxygen were used as precursors. The results of TEM analysis showed that 1.3 nm Pt nanoparticles were highly dispersed on non-functionalized MWCNTs. The porous structures of MWCNTs did not change with the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. For comparison, the commercial 3 wt% Pt/C catalyst was also characterized. The ALD-prepared Pt/MWCNT was used for the hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol. The ALD-prepared Pt/MWCNT showed the best catalytic performance with 100 % conversion of xylose and 99.3 % selectivity to xylitol, compared to commercially available Pt/C, Ru/C, and Raney Ni catalysts. The stability of ALD produced Pt/MWCNT catalyst was higher than that of the commercial Pt/C, due to the presence of surface defects on the MWCNTs and the strong metal-support interaction for the ALD-prepared Pt/MWCNT catalyst.

  16. Atomic layer deposited highly dispersed platinum nanoparticles supported on non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xinhua, E-mail: liangxin@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (United States); Jiang, Chengjun [Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highly dispersed platinum nanoparticles were deposited on gram quantities of non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at 300 Degree-Sign C. (Methylcyclopentadienyl) trimethylplatinum and oxygen were used as precursors. The results of TEM analysis showed that {approx}1.3 nm Pt nanoparticles were highly dispersed on non-functionalized MWCNTs. The porous structures of MWCNTs did not change with the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. For comparison, the commercial 3 wt% Pt/C catalyst was also characterized. The ALD-prepared Pt/MWCNT was used for the hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol. The ALD-prepared Pt/MWCNT showed the best catalytic performance with 100 % conversion of xylose and 99.3 % selectivity to xylitol, compared to commercially available Pt/C, Ru/C, and Raney Ni catalysts. The stability of ALD produced Pt/MWCNT catalyst was higher than that of the commercial Pt/C, due to the presence of surface defects on the MWCNTs and the strong metal-support interaction for the ALD-prepared Pt/MWCNT catalyst.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Molten Corium Dispersion during Hypothetical High-Pressure Accidents in APR1400 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Jeong, Jae Sik

    2010-01-01

    During a hypothetical high-pressure accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP), molten corium can be ejected through a breach of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and dispersed by the following jet of a high pressure steam in the RPV. The dispersed corium is fragmented into smaller droplets in a reactor cavity of the NPP by the steam jet with very high velocity and is released into the upper compartment of the NPP by an overpressure in the cavity. The heat-carrying fragments of the corium transfer the thermal energy to the ambient air in the containment and react chemically with steam and generate hydrogen which may be burnt in the containment. The thermal loads from the ejected molten corium on the containment which is called direct containment heating (DCH) can threaten the integrity of the containment. New generation NPPs such as APR1400 and EPR have been designed in consideration of reducing the possibility of the containment failure from the DCH. In order for that, APR1400 has a convolute-type corium chamber connected to the reactor cavity. In the case of EPR, severe-accident dedicated depressurization valves are installed to preclude a high pressure melt ejection (HPME). DCH in a NPP containment is related to many physical phenomena such as multi-phase hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and chemical reaction. In the evaluation of the DCH load, the melt dispersion rates depending on the RPV pressure are the most important parameter. Mostly, DCH was evaluated by using lumped-analysis codes with some correlations obtained from experiments for the dispersion rates. The corium dispersion rates for many types of the NPP containments had been obtained by experiments in 90s. And some correlations from the experimental data were developed. As mentioned above, APR1400 has a corium chamber to reduce the corium dispersion rate. But there is no experimental data for the dispersion rate specific to the APR1400 cavity geometry. So its performance for capturing of the dispersed corium

  18. Considering the Geographic Dispersion of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M.; Bourgeois, Alexis K.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses school and community-level issues associated with the expanding crisis of student homelessness in the United States. We note that while an increased geographic dispersion of homeless and highly mobile (HHM) families is largely attributed to the widespread effects of the economic recession, it is also furthered by shifting…

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Highly Water-dispersible Anatase Nanoparticles with Large Specific Surface Area and Their Adsorptive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xueting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly water-dispersible and very small TiO2 nanoparticles (~3 nm anatase with large specific surface area have been synthesized by hydrolysis and hydrothermal reactions of titanium butoxide and used for the removal of three azo dyes (Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange with different molecular structure from simulated wastewaters. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in water with large specific surface area up to 417 m2 g−1. Adsorption experiments demonstrated that the water-dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles possess excellent adsorption capacities for Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange, which could be attributed to their good water-dispersibility and large specific surface area.

  20. Human-mediated dispersal of aquatic invertebrates with waterproof footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Human-mediated dispersal has rarely been considered in wetland conservation strategies at regional scales, yet high concern exists about this aspect for (inter-)national management considering invasive species in other aquatic systems. In this context, we aim at understanding the role of human-mediated dispersal by footwear in protected wetlands with high conservation value. Zooplankton and zoobenthos were sampled in 13 shallow lakes in central Spain and, at the same time, mud attached to waders was collected and later cultured in deionized water under laboratory conditions for 4 weeks. Two-hundred and four individuals belonging to 19 invertebrate taxa were recovered after hatching; Ostracoda (84 %), Cladocera (53 %), Copepoda (30 %), Anostraca (30 %), and Notostraca (7 %) were the most frequent groups among the hatched crustaceans. NMDS and PERMANOVA analyses showed significant differences between the dispersed (via footwear) and the source active metacommunity, suggesting different dispersal abilities among the species found. Human vectors facilitate dispersal among protected lakes, which could eventuality lead to biotic homogenization and faster spread of non-indigenous species. Preservation strategies and education campaigns associated to target humans in close contact with water bodies should be imperative in conservation management of protected lakes.

  1. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous halfspace, two, three and multilayered sections were analyzed in frequency and time domains. The calculations for different values of chargeability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers. In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong changes in transient curves. In some cases quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of "high-resolution" electroprospecting in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is nonunique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably necessary to complement them by soundings of other type.

  2. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type

  3. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V. [Geoelectromagnetic Research Institute, Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasi wave and quasistatic phenomena made Em sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of Em sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type.

  4. Effects of chemical dispersants on oil physical properties and dispersion. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.P.; Brown, C.E.; Pjontek, D.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and field testing have shown that the dispersion of oil spilled in water is influenced by chemical dispersants via the modification of the interfacial properties of the oil, such as oil-brine interfacial tension (IFT). This study focused on new laboratory experiments that measured the effects on the physical properties and dispersion of oil, with particular reference to the effects of chemical dispersants on IFT and oil viscosity and the subsequent effects on oil droplet formation. Experiments were conducted at 15 degrees C using Arabian Medium, Alaska North Slope and South Louisiana crude and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 chemical dispersants. The dispersants were denser than the 3 oils. The effect of IFT reduction on oil dispersion was measured and showed substantial reduction in the size and enhancement of the concentration of oil droplets in the water column. It was shown that the brine-oil IFT associated with the 3 crudes reduced to less than 3.6 mN/m with the application of the chemical dispersants, even at a low dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR) value of 1:200. The use of chemical dispersants increased the viscosity of the dispersant-oil mixture up to 40 per cent over the neat crude oil. It was shown that for each mixing condition, an optimum value of DOR exists that provides for maximal dispersant effectiveness. The IFT reaches maximum reduction at optimum DOR. It was suggested that oil spill modelling can be improved with further study of IFT reduction with DOR and variations of critical micelle concentration with the type and solubility of chemical dispersant, oil type and oil to water ratio. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Two simple ansaetze for obtaining exact solutions of high dispersive nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Sergio L.

    2004-01-01

    We propose two simple ansaetze that allow us to obtain different analytical solutions of the high dispersive cubic and cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equations. Among these solutions we can find solitary wave and periodic wave solutions representing the propagation of different waveforms in nonlinear media

  6. In situ generation of highly dispersed metal nanoparticles on two-dimensional layered SiO2 by topotactic structure conversion and their superior catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Jia, Da-Shuang; Zhou, Yue; Hao, Jiang; Liang, Yu; Cui, Zhi-Min; Song, Wei-Guo

    2018-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles such as Ag, Cu and Fe are effective catalysts for many reactions, whereas a facile method to prepare metal nanoparticles with high uniformed dispersion is still desirable. Herein, the topotactic structure conversion of layered silicate, RUB-15, was utilized to support metal nanoparticles. Through simple ion-exchange and following calcination step, metal nanoparticles were generated in situ inside the interlayer space of layered silica, and the topotactic structure conversion process assured nano-sized and highly uniformed dispersion of metal nanoparticles. The obtained Ag/SiO2 composite showed superior catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB), with a rate constant as high as 0.0607 s-1 and 0.0778 s-1. The simple and universal synthesis method as well as high activity of the product composite endow the strategy good application prospect.

  7. Supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole-reduced graphene oxide composite with a folded surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Zhou, Xi; Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole particles were decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composite, which obtained a folded surface, shows remarkable performance as the electrode material of supercapacitors. The specific capacitance reaches 564.1 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and maintains 86.4 % after 1000 charging-discharging cycles at a current density of 20 A g-1, which indicates a good cycling stability. Furthermore, the prepared supercapacitor demonstrates an ultrahigh energy density of 50.13 Wh kg-1 at power density of 0.40 kW kg-1, and remains of 45.33 Wh kg-1 even at high power density of 8.00 kW kg-1, which demonstrate that the hybrid supercapacitor can be a promising energy storage system for fast and efficient energy storage in the future.

  8. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  9. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass ( M/ C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/ C ratio, with larger M/ C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  10. Cross-phase modulation instability in optical fibres with exponential saturable nonlinearity and high-order dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian-Qiong, Zhong; An-Ping, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the linear-stability analysis, this paper analytically investigates and calculates the condition and gain spectra of cross-phase modulation instability in optical fibres in the case of exponential saturable nonlinearity and high-order dispersion. The results show that, the modulation instability characteristics here are similar to those of conventional saturable nonlinearity and Kerr nonlinearity. That is to say, when the fourth-order dispersion has the same sign as that of the second-order one, a new gain spectral region called the second one which is far away from the zero point may appear. The existence of the exponential saturable nonlinearity will make the spectral width as well as the peak gain of every spectral region increase with the input powers before decrease. Namely, for every spectral regime, this may lead to a unique value of peak gain and spectral width for two different input powers. In comparison with the case of conventional saturable nonlinearity, however, when the other parameters are the same, the variations of the spectral width and the peak gain with the input powers will be faster in case of exponential saturable nonlinearity. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  11. Elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of carbon nanotubes: a novel way of fabricating high performance elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Siwu; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art processes cannot achieve rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with satisfactory performance by using pristine MWCNTs and conventional processing equipment. In this work, high performance rubber/MWCNT composites featuring a combination of good mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivities and damping capacity over a wide temperature range are fabricated based on a well-developed master batch process. It is demonstrated that the MWCNTs are dispersed homogeneously due to the disentanglement induced by well-wetting and shearing, and the elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of the MWCNTs by rubber chains via the novel processing method. To further enhance the efficacy of elastic-resilience-induced dispersion for MWCNTs, a slightly pre-crosslinked network is constructed in the master batch. Consequently, we obtain rubber/MWCNT composites with unprecedented performance by amplifying the reinforcing effect of relatively low MWCNT loading. This work provides a novel insight into the fabrication of high performance functional elastomeric composites with pristine CNTs by taking advantage of the unique elastic resilience of rubber chains as the driving force for the disentanglement of CNTs. (paper)

  12. Comparison of some dispersion-corrected and traditional functionals with CCSD(T) and MP2 ab initio methods: Dispersion, induction, and basis set superposition error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dipankar; Marianski, Mateusz; Maitra, Neepa T.; Dannenberg, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    We compare dispersion and induction interactions for noble gas dimers and for Ne, methane, and 2-butyne with HF and LiF using a variety of functionals (including some specifically parameterized to evaluate dispersion interactions) with ab initio methods including CCSD(T) and MP2. We see that inductive interactions tend to enhance dispersion and may be accompanied by charge-transfer. We show that the functionals do not generally follow the expected trends in interaction energies, basis set superposition errors (BSSE), and interaction distances as a function of basis set size. The functionals parameterized to treat dispersion interactions often overestimate these interactions, sometimes by quite a lot, when compared to higher level calculations. Which functionals work best depends upon the examples chosen. The B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, which do not describe pure dispersion interactions, appear to describe dispersion mixed with induction about as accurately as those parametrized to treat dispersion. We observed significant differences in high-level wavefunction calculations in a basis set larger than those used to generate the structures in many of the databases. We discuss the implications for highly parameterized functionals based on these databases, as well as the use of simple potential energy for fitting the parameters rather than experimentally determinable thermodynamic state functions that involve consideration of vibrational states.

  13. Passive restoration following ungulate removal in a highly disturbed tropical wet forest devoid of native seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafus, Melia; Savidge, Julie A.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Christy, Michelle T.; Reed, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Overabundant ungulate populations can alter forests. Concurrently, global declines of seed dispersers may threaten native forest structure and function. On an island largely devoid of native vertebrate seed dispersers, we monitored forest succession for 7 years following ungulate exclusion from a 5-ha area and adjacent plots with ungulates still present. We observed succession from open scrub to forest and understory cover by non-native plants declined. Two trees, native Hibiscus tiliaceus and non-native Leucaena leucocephala, accounted for most forest regeneration, with the latter dominant. Neither species is dependent on animal dispersers nor was there strong evidence that plants dependent on dispersers migrated into the 5-ha study area. Passive restoration following ungulate removal may facilitate restoration, but did not show promise for fully restoring native forest on Guam. Restoration of native forest plants in bird depopulated areas will likely require active outplanting of native seedlings, control of factors resulting in bird loss, and reintroduction of seed dispersers.

  14. Imaging the Formation of High-Energy Dispersion Anomalies in the Actinide UCoGa_{5}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Das

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to image the emergence of substantial dispersion and spectral-weight anomalies in the electronic renormalization of the actinide compound UCoGa_{5} that was presumed to belong to a conventional Fermi-liquid family. Kinks or abrupt breaks in the slope of the quasiparticle dispersion are detected both at low (approximately 130 meV and high (approximately 1 eV binding energies below the Fermi energy, ruling out any significant contribution of phonons. We perform numerical calculations to demonstrate that the anomalies are adequately described by coupling between itinerant fermions and spin fluctuations arising from the particle-hole continuum of the spin-orbit-split 5f states of uranium. These anomalies resemble the “waterfall” phenomenon of the high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, suggesting that spin fluctuations are a generic route toward multiform electronic phases in correlated materials as different as high-temperature superconductors and actinides.

  15. Novel highly dispersible, thermally stable core/shell proppants for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, Ian M.; Endres, Mackenzie; Burns, Carolyne; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Liu, Jian; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Bonneville, Alain; Moore, Joseph; Leavy, Ian I.; Zhong, Lirong; Schaef, Herbert T.; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-Fei; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-11-01

    The use of proppants during reservoir stimulation in tight oil and gas plays requires the introduction of highly viscous fluids to transport the proppants (µm–mm) with the fracturing fluid. The highly viscous fluids required result in increased pump loads and energy costs. Furthermore, although proppant deployment with fracturing fluids is a standard practice for unconventional oil and gas stimulation operations, there are only a few examples in the US of the applying proppant technology to geothermal energy production. This is due to proppant dissolution, proppant flowback and loss of permeability associated with the extreme temperatures found in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This work demonstrates proof-of-concept of a novel, CO2-responsive, lightweight sintered-bauxite/polymer core/shell proppant. The polymer shell has two main roles; 1) increase the stability of the proppant dispersion in water without the addition of rheology modifiers, and 2) once at the fracture network react with CO2 to promote particle aggregation and prop fractures open. In this work, both of these roles are demonstrated together with the thermal and chemical stability of the materials showing the potential of these CO2-responsive proppants as an alternative proppant technology for geothermal and unconventional oil/gas applications.

  16. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  17. Nacre-Templated Synthesis of Highly Dispersible Carbon Nanomeshes for Layered Membranes with High-Flux Filtration and Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Meng; Li, Mingjie; Shang, Ruoxu; Wu, Jingyu; Yan, Peisong; Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chaoxu

    2018-01-24

    Marine shells not only represent a rapidly accumulating type of fishery wastes but also offer a unique sort of hybrid nanomaterials produced greenly and massively in nature. The elaborate "brick and mortar" structures of nacre enabled the synthesis of carbon nanomeshes with <1 nm thickness, hierarchical porosity, and high specific surface area through pyrolysis, in which two-dimensional (2D) organic layers served as the carbonaceous precursor and aragonite platelets as the hard template. Mineral bridges within 2D organic layers templated the formation of mesh pores of 20-70 nm. In contrast to other hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials, these carbon nanomeshes showed super dispersibility in diverse solvents and thus processability for membranes through filtration, patterning, spray-coating, and ink-writing. The carbon membranes with layered structures were capable of serving not only for high-flux filtration and continuous flow absorption but also for electrochemical and strain sensing with high sensitivity. Thus, utilization of marine shells, on one hand, relieves the environmental concern of shellfish waste, on the other hand, offers a facile, green, low-cost, and massive approach to synthesize unique carbon nanomeshes alternative to graphene nanomeshes and applicable in environmental adsorption, filtration, wearable sensors, and flexible microelectronics.

  18. Highly dispersed TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk

    2013-06-06

    Based on the chemical stability of group IV and V elements in acidic solutions, TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition in an ethanol-based Ta plating bath at room temperature were investigated as novel nonplatinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Electrodeposition conditions of Ta complexes and subsequent various heat treatments for the deposited TaOx were examined for the best performance of the ORR. TaOx particles on carbon black (CB), electrodeposited at a constant potential of -0.5 V Ag/AgCl for 10 s and then heat-treated by pure H2 flow at 523 K for 1 h, showed excellent catalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.93 VRHE (for 2 μA cm-2) for the ORR. Surface characterizations of the catalysts were performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The loading amounts of the electrodeposited material on the CB were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All the physical results suggested that high dispersion of TaOx particles on the CB surface with 2-3 nm size was critical and key for high activity. The chemical identity and modified surface structure for the deposited TaOx catalysts before and after H 2 heat treatment were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of more exposed active sites on the electrode surface and enhanced electroconductivity of the tantalum oxide promoted from the H 2 treatment greatly improved the ORR performance of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles on CB. Finally, the highly retained ORR activity after an accelerated durability test in an acidic solution confirmed and proved the chemical stability of the oxide nanoparticles. The high utilization of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on CB for the ORR was comparable to that of commercial Pt/CB catalysts

  19. Dispersion of coupled mode-gap cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lian, Jin; Sokolov, Sergei; Yuce, E.; Combrie, S.; de Rossi, A.; Mosk, Allard

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion of a coupled resonator optical waveguide made of photonic crystal mode-gap cavities is pronouncedly asymmetric. This asymmetry cannot be explained by the standard tight binding model. We show that the fundamental cause of the asymmetric dispersion is the inherent dispersive cavity

  20. High-accuracy alignment based on atmospherical dispersion - technological approaches and solutions for the dual-wavelength transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, Boeckem

    1999-01-01

    In the course of the progressive developments of sophisticated geodetic systems utilizing electromagnetic waves in the visible or near IR-range a more detailed knowledge of the propagation medium and coevally solutions of atmospherically induced limitations will become important. An alignment system based on atmospherical dispersion, called a dispersometer, is a metrological solution to the atmospherically induced limitations, in optical alignment and direction observations of high accuracy. In the dispersometer we are using the dual-wavelength method for dispersive air to obtain refraction compensated angle measurements, the detrimental impact of atmospheric turbulence notwithstanding. The principle of the dual-wavelength method utilizes atmospherical dispersion, i.e. the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. The difference angle between two light beams of different wavelengths, which is called the dispersion angle Δβ, is to first approximation proportional to the refraction angle: β IR ν(β blue - β IR ) = ν Δβ, this equation implies that the dispersion angle has to be measured at least 42 times more accurate than the desired accuracy of the refraction angle for the wavelengths used in the present dispersometer. This required accuracy constitutes one major difficulty for the instrumental performance in applying the dispersion effect. However, the dual-wavelength method can only be successfully used in an optimized transmitter-receiver combination. Beyond the above mentioned resolution requirement for the detector, major difficulties in instrumental realization arise in the availability of a suitable dual-wavelength laser light source, laser light modulation with a very high extinction ratio and coaxial emittance of mono-mode radiation at both wavelengths. Therefore, this paper focuses on the solutions of the dual-wavelength transmitter introducing a new hardware approach and a complete re-design of the in [1] proposed conception of the dual

  1. High-temperature behavior of oxide dispersion strengthening CoNiCrAlY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Kinga A. [ORNL; Bergholz, Jan [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH; Huang, T [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, IEK-2, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH; Naumenko, Dymtro [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH (Julich Research Centre), Germany; Pint, Bruce A. [ORNL; Vaßen, Robert [Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; Quadakkers, Willem Joseph [Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany

    2017-11-01

    To fabricate oxide dispersion strengthened bond coatings, commercial Co–30wt-%Ni–20Cr–8Al–0•4Y powder was milled with 2% additions of Al2O3, Y2O3 or Y2O3 + HfO2. Low-pressure plasma sprayed, free-standing specimens were oxidised in air + 10%H2O at 1100 °C both isothermally (100 h) and in 500, 1-h cycles. Dry air cyclic testing conducted at both ORNL and FZJ showed remarkably similar results. In general, the water vapour addition caused more scale spallation. Two LPPS specimens without oxide additions were tested for comparison. The specimens with 2%Al2O3 addition exhibited the best behaviour as the powder already contained 0•4%Y. Additions of 2%Y2O3 and especially 1%Y2O3 + 1%HfO2 resulted in over-doping as evidenced by high mass gains and the formation of Y- and Hf-rich pegs. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of the isothermal specimens showed no Hf and/or Y segregation to the alumina scale grain boundaries in the over-doped specimens.

  2. Kinetics of Low Temperature Polyester Dyeing with High Molecular Weight Disperse Dyes by Solvent Microemulsion and AgroSourced Auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Radei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the evaluation of the kinetics of dyeing polyester fabrics with high molecular weight disperse dyes, at low temperature by solvent microemulsion. This study also compared the effect of two non-toxic agro-sourced auxiliaries (o-vanillin and coumarin using a non-toxic organic solvent. A dyeing bath consisting of a micro-emulsion system involving a small proportion of n-butyl acetate was used, and the kinetics of dyeing were analysed at four temperatures (83, 90, 95 and 100 °C. Moreover, the dyeing rate constants, correlation coefficient and activation energies were proposed for this system. It was found that o-vanillin yielded higher dye absorption levels than coumarin, leading to exhaustions of 88% and 87% for Disperse Red 167 and Disperse Blue 79, respectively. K/S values of dyed polyester were also found to be higher for dye baths containing o-vanillin with respect to the ones with coumarin. In terms of hot pressing fastness and wash fastness, generally no adverse influence on fastness properties was reported, while o-vanillin showed slightly better results compared to coumarin.

  3. Development of local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. Part 3: turbulent flow and plume dispersion in building arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakayama, H.; Jurčáková, Klára; Nagai, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 503-519 ISSN 0022-3131 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : local-scale high-resolution dispersion model * nuclear emergency response system * large-eddy simulation * spatially developing turbulent boundary layer flow Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2013

  4. High-energy pulse compressor using self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (3) with a net positive dispersion. Furthermore, the net positive dispersion in the dispersive unit at least partially compensates for the negative nonlinear phase variation and the negative group-velocity dispersion produced by the bulk quadratic nonlinear medium when the optical pulse passes......A method and a pulse compressor (1) for compressing an optical pulse, wherein the pulse compressor comprising a bulk quadratic nonlinear medium (2) adapted for generating a negative nonlinear phase variation on the optical pulse and having a negative group-velocity dispersion, and a dispersive unit...

  5. Oak Dispersal Syndromes: Do Red and White Oaks Exhibit Different Dispersal Srategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Steele; Peter Smallwood; William B. Terzaghi; John E. Carlson; Thomas conteras; Amy McEuen

    2004-01-01

    We provide an overview of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between oaks and several of their dispersal agents, and review a series of studies that demonstrate how various acorn characteristics affect feeding and caching decisions of these animals, which in turn may influence oak dispersal and establishment. We demonstrate that acorns of red oak species show...

  6. Investigation of Factors Influencing Dispersion of Liquid Hydrocarbons in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ali Baker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work has been done to study the major factors that affect the axial dispersion of some hydrocarbons during liquid-liquid miscible displacement. Kerosene and gas oil are used as displacing phase while seven liquid hydrocarbons of high purity represent the displaced phase, three of the liquids are aromatics and the rest are of paraffinic base. In conducting the experiments, two packed beds of different porosity and permeability are used as porous media. The results showed that the displacement process is not a piston flow, breakthrough of displacing fluids are shown before one pore volume has been injected. The processes are stable with no evidence of viscous fingering. Dispersion model as adapted by Brigham et.al (1961 is used to determine the axial dispersion coefficient of displacing fluid. The results show an increasing in dispersion coefficient as the interstitial velocity and viscosity ratio increases.

  7. Single-particle dispersion in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Xiao, Zuoli

    2018-04-01

    Single-particle dispersion statistics in compressible box turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation. Focus is placed on the detailed discussion of effects of the particle Stokes number and turbulent Mach number, as well as the forcing type. When solenoidal forcing is adopted, it is found that the single-particle dispersion undergoes a transition from the ballistic regime at short times to the diffusive regime at long times, in agreement with Taylor's particle dispersion argument. The strongest dispersion of heavy particles is announced when the Stokes number is of order 1, which is similar to the scenario in incompressible turbulence. The dispersion tends to be suppressed as the Mach number increases. When hybrid solenoidal and compressive forcing at a ratio of 1/2 is employed, the flow field shows apparent anisotropic property, characterized by the appearance of large shock wave structures. Accordingly, the single-particle dispersion shows extremely different behavior from the solenoidal forcing case.

  8. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Draheim, Hope M; Etter, Dwayne; Winterstein, Scott; Scribner, Kim T

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540) from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus) harvested in a large (47,739 km2), geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337). We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed) but a small proportion (21%) of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km) were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km). Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1) intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2) high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  9. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Moore

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540 from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus harvested in a large (47,739 km2, geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337. We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed but a small proportion (21% of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km. Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1 intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2 high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  10. High-quality poly-dispersed mixtures applied in additive 3D technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, M. D.; Brazhnik, Yu V.; Gorshkov, P. S.; Latyshev, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the new mixer design to obtain high-quality poly-dispersed powders applied in additive 3D technologies. It also considers a new mixing principle of dry powder particles ensuring the distribution of such particles in the total volume, which is close to ideal. The paper presents the mathematical model of mixer operation providing for the quality assessment of the ready mixtures. Besides, it demonstrates experimental results and obtained rational values of mixer process parameters.

  11. Unusually high dispersion of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes in DNA solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kataoka, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Tojo, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Vega-Díaz, Sofía M; Tristán-López, F; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-08

    The dispersibility in a DNA solution of bundled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), having different chemical functional groups on the CNT sidewall, was investigated by optical spectroscopy. We observed that the dispersibility of nitrogen (N)-doped MWCNTs was significantly higher than that of pure MWCNTs and MWCNTs synthesized in the presence of ethanol. This result is supported by the larger amount of adsorbed DNA on N-doped MWCNTs, as well as by the higher binding energy established between nucleobases and the N-doped CNTs. Pure MWCNTs are dispersed in DNA solution via van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions; in contrast, the nitrogenated sites within N-doped MWCNTs provided additional sites for interactions that are important to disperse nanotubes in DNA solutions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Wavelength conversion, time demultiplexing and multicasting based on cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (HNL-PCFs) to implement the functionalities of wavelength conversion, simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting in optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. The experiments on wavelength conversion at 80 Gbit s −1 and OTDM demultiplexing from 80 to 10 Gbit s −1 with wavelength multicasting of two channels are successfully demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme, which are carried out by using two segments of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with lengths of 100 and 50 m, respectively. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance is also measured. The results show that our designed system can achieve a power penalty of less than 4.6 dB for two multicasting channels with a 24 nm wavelength span at the BER of 10 −9 when compared with the 10 Gbit/s back-to-back measurement. The proposed system is transparent to bit rate since only an ultrafast third-order nonlinear effect is used. The resulting configuration is compact, robust and reliable, benefiting from the use of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with short lengths. This also makes the proposed system more flexible in the operational wavelengths than those based on dispersion-shifted fibers and traditional highly nonlinear fibers. (paper)

  13. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process. (paper)

  14. High resolution neutron diffraction crystallographic investigation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steels of interest for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, G.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out to characterize the crystallographic phases present in different Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels of interest for fusion technology. The different lattice structures, Im3m for the ferritic ODS and Fm3m for the austenitic ODS, are resolved showing line anisotropy effects possibly correlated with differences in dislocation densities and texture. Many contributions from minority phases are detected well above the background noise; none of the expected crystallographic phases, such as M 23 C 6 and including Y 2 O 3 , fits them, but the TiN phase is identified in accordance with results of other microstructural techniques

  15. Modeling of high-density U-MO dispersion fuel plate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Rest, J.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from postirradiation examinations (PIE) of highly loaded U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates over the past several years have shown that the interaction between the metallic fuel particles and the matrix aluminum can be extensive, reducing the volume of the high-conductivity matrix phase and producing a significant volume of low-conductivity reaction-product phase. This phenomenon results in a significant decrease in fuel meat thermal conductivity during irradiation. PIE has further shown that the fuel-matrix interaction rate is a sensitive function of irradiation temperature. The interplay between fuel temperature and fuel-matrix interaction makes the development of a simple empirical correlation between the two difficult. For this reason a comprehensive thermal model has been developed to calculate temperatures throughout the fuel plate over its lifetime, taking into account the changing volume fractions of fuel, matrix and reaction-product phases within the fuel meat owing to fuel-matrix interaction; this thermal model has been incorporated into the dispersion fuel performance code designated PLATE. Other phenomena important to fuel thermal performance that are also treated in PLATE include: gas generation and swelling in the fuel and reaction-product phases, incorporation of matrix aluminum into solid solution with the unreacted metallic fuel particles, matrix extrusion resulting from fuel swelling, and cladding corrosion. The phenomena modeled also make possible a prediction of fuel plate swelling. This paper presents a description of the models and empirical correlations employed within PLATE as well as validation of code predictions against fuel performance data for U-Mo experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-3 irradiation test. (author)

  16. NOISY DISPERSION CURVE PICKING (NDCP): a Matlab friendly suite package for fully control dispersion curve picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, I.; Calo, M.; Ramos, V.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a Matlab suite package (NDCP, Noisy Dispersion Curve Picking) that allows a full control over parameters to identify correctly group velocity dispersion curves in two types of datasets: correlograms between two stations or surface wave records from earthquakes. Using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN), the procedure to obtain the dispersion curves from records with a high noise level becomes difficult, and sometimes, the picked curve result in a misinterpreted character. For correlogram functions, obtained with cross-correlation of noise records or earthquake's coda, a non-homogeneous noise sources distribution yield to a non-symmetric Green's function (GF); to retrieve the complete information contained in there, NDCP allows to pick the dispersion curve in the time domain both in the causal and non-causal part of the GF. Then the picked dispersion curve is displayed on the FTAN diagram to in order to check if it matches with the maximum of the signal energy avoiding confusion with overtones or spike of noise. To illustrate how NDCP performs, we show exemple using: i) local correlograms functions obtained from sensors deployed into a volcanic caldera (Los Humeros, in Puebla, Mexico), ii) regional correlograms functions between two stations of the National Seismological Service (SSN, Servicio Sismológico Nacional in Spanish), and iii) surface wave seismic record for an earthquake located in the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico and recorded by the SSN. This work is supported by the GEMEX project (Geothermal Europe-Mexico consortium).

  17. Dispersal in the sub-Antarctic: king penguins show remarkably little population genetic differentiation across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Gemma V; Younger, Jane L; Kao, Damian; Rogers, Alex D; Handley, Jonathan; Miller, Gary D; Jouventin, Pierre; Nolan, Paul; Gharbi, Karim; Miller, Karen J; Hart, Tom

    2016-10-13

    Seabirds are important components of marine ecosystems, both as predators and as indicators of ecological change, being conspicuous and sensitive to changes in prey abundance. To determine whether fluctuations in population sizes are localised or indicative of large-scale ecosystem change, we must first understand population structure and dispersal. King penguins are long-lived seabirds that occupy a niche across the sub-Antarctic zone close to the Polar Front. Colonies have very different histories of exploitation, population recovery, and expansion. We investigated the genetic population structure and patterns of colonisation of king penguins across their current range using a dataset of 5154 unlinked, high-coverage single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Despite breeding at a small number of discrete, geographically separate sites, we find only very slight genetic differentiation among colonies separated by thousands of kilometers of open-ocean, suggesting migration among islands and archipelagos may be common. Our results show that the South Georgia population is slightly differentiated from all other colonies and suggest that the recently founded Falkland Island colony is likely to have been established by migrants from the distant Crozet Islands rather than nearby colonies on South Georgia, possibly as a result of density-dependent processes. The observed subtle differentiation among king penguin colonies must be considered in future conservation planning and monitoring of the species, and demographic models that attempt to forecast extinction risk in response to large-scale climate change must take into account migration. It is possible that migration could buffer king penguins against some of the impacts of climate change where colonies appear panmictic, although it is unlikely to protect them completely given the widespread physical changes projected for their Southern Ocean foraging grounds

  18. Synthesis of an excellent electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction with supercritical fluid: Graphene cellular monolith with ultrafine and highly dispersive multimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yazhou; Cheng, Xiaonong; Yen, Clive H.; Wai, Chien M.; Wang, Chongmin; Yang, Juan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-04-01

    Graphene cellular monolith (GCM) can be used as an excellent support for nanoparticles in widespread applications. However, it's still a great challenge to deposit the desirable nanoparticles in GCM that have small size, controllable structure, composition, and high dispersion using the current methods. Here we demonstrate a green, efficient and large-scale method to address this challenge using supercritical fluid (SCF). By this superior method, graphene hydrogel can be transferred into GCM while being deposited with ultrafine and highly dispersive nanoparticles. Specifically, the bimetallic PtFe/GCM and the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM catalysts are successfully synthesized, and their electrocatalytic performances toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are also studied. The resultant PtFe/GCM shows the significant enhancement in ORR activity, including a factor of 8.47 enhancement in mass activity (0.72 A mgPt-1), and a factor of 7.67 enhancement in specific activity (0.92 mA cm-2), comparing with those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.085 A mgPt-1, 0.12 mA cm-2). Importantly, by introducing the Co, the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM exhibits the further improved ORR activities (1.28 A mgPt-1, 1.80 mA cm-2). The high ORR activity is probably attributed to the alloying structure, ultrafine size, highly dispersive, well-defined, and a better interface with 3D porous graphene support.

  19. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x

  20. Oxide dispersion strengthened CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Antonín; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Roupcová, Pavla; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 689, MAR (2017), s. 252-256 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25246S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Creep * High-entropy alloy (HEA) * Mechanical alloying * Oxide dispersion strength ened (ODS) alloy * Powder metallurgy * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFP-V) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering; Materials engineering (UFM-A); Materials engineering (UFP-V) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  1. Source strength and dispersion of CO2 releases from high-pressure pipelines: CFD model using real gas equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Godbole, Ajit; Lu, Cheng; Michal, Guillaume; Venton, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Validated CFD models for decompression and dispersion of CO 2 releases from pipelines. • Incorporation of real gas EOS into CFD code for source strength estimation. • Demonstration of better performance of SST k–ω turbulence model for jet flow. • Demonstration of better performance of real gas EOS compared to ideal gas EOS. • Demonstration of superiority of CFD models over a commercial risk assessment package. - Abstract: Transportation of CO 2 in high-pressure pipelines forms a crucial link in the ever-increasing application of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies. An unplanned release of CO 2 from a pipeline presents a risk to human and animal populations and the environment. Therefore it is very important to develop a deeper understanding of the atmospheric dispersion of CO 2 before the deployment of CO 2 pipelines, to allow the appropriate safety precautions to be taken. This paper presents a two-stage Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study developed (1) to estimate the source strength, and (2) to simulate the subsequent dispersion of CO 2 in the atmosphere, using the source strength estimated in stage (1). The Peng–Robinson (PR) EOS was incorporated into the CFD code. This enabled accurate modelling of the CO 2 jet to achieve more precise source strength estimates. The two-stage simulation approach also resulted in a reduction in the overall computing time. The CFD models were validated against experimental results from the British Petroleum (BP) CO 2 dispersion trials, and also against results produced by the risk management package Phast. Compared with the measurements, the CFD simulation results showed good agreement in both source strength and dispersion profile predictions. Furthermore, the effect of release direction on the dispersion was studied. The presented research provides a viable method for the assessment of risks associated with CCS

  2. The influence of selected containment structures on debris dispersal and transport following high pressure melt ejection from the reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    High pressure expulsion of molten core debris from the reactor pressure vessel may result in dispersal of the debris from the reactor cavity. In most plants, the cavity exits into the containment such that the debris impinges on structures. Retention of the debris on the structures may affect the further transport of the debris throughout the containment. Two tests were done with scaled structural shapes placed at the exit of 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion cavity. The results show that the debris does not adhere significantly to structures. The lack of retention is attributed to splashing from the surface and reentrainment in the gas flowing over the surface. These processes are shown to be applicable to reactor scale. A third experiment was done to simulate the annular gap between the reactor vessel and cavity wall. Debris collection showed that the fraction of debris exiting through the gap was greater than the gap-to-total flow area ratio. Film records indicate that dispersal was primarily by entrainment of the molten debris in the cavity. 29 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs

  3. Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.

  4. Synthesis and magnetic properties of highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles decorated on carbon spheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhattacharjee, K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decoration of carbon spheres (CS) by highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles (TaC NPs) was achieved, for the first time by a unique carbothermal reduction method at 1350 °C for 30 min under reduced oxygen partial pressure. TaC NPs...

  5. Dispersion relations for the self-energy in noncommutative field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.T.; Das, Ashok; Frenkel, J.

    2002-01-01

    We study the IR-UV connection in noncommutative φ 3 theory as well as in noncommutative QED from the point of view of the dispersion relation for self-energy. We show that, although the imaginary part of the self-energy is well behaved as the parameter of noncommutativity vanishes, the real part becomes divergent as a consequence of the high energy behavior of the dispersion integral. Some other interesting features that arise from this analysis are also briefly discussed

  6. Influence of High Shear Dispersion on the Production of Cellulose Nanofibers by Ultrasound-Assisted TEMPO-Oxidation of Kraft Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the high shear dispersion parameters (e.g., consistency, stator-rotor gap, recirculation rate and pH and determine their influences on nanocellulose production using ultrasound-assisted TEMPO-oxidation of Kraft pulp. All nanofiber gels produced in this study exhibited rheological behaviors known as shear thinning. From all the dispersion parameters, the following conditions were identified as optimal: 0.042 mm stator-rotor gap, 200 mL/min recycle rate, dispersion pH of 7 and a feed consistency of 2%. High quality cellulose gel could be produced under these conditions. This finding is surely of great interest for the pulp and paper industry.

  7. Water dispersal and functionalization of hydrophobic Iron oxide nanoparticles with lipid-modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boni, A; Albertazzi, L.; Innocenti, C; Gemmi, M; Bifone, A

    2013-01-01

    A novel and facile method for water dispersal of hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles based on the amphiphilic PAMAM-C-12 dendrimer is described. Stable and highly concentrated water dispersions of multifunctional, magnetic nanoparticles were obtained with this single-step approach, and showed

  8. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction for the determination of quinolones in swine muscle by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Chen, Ho-Hsien; Huang, Joh-Jong; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Cheng, Shou-Hsun; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (DMSPE) are two simple and low-cost sample preparation methods for liquid samples. In this work, these two methods were applied to solid tissue sample for the determination of seven quinolones by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). After the homogenization of the swine muscle with acetonitrile and salt-promoted partitioning, small amounts of the extract were used for the DLLME and DMSPE methods. In the DLLME approach, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly extracted into a small volume of dichloromethane for drying and the residue was reconstituted for HPLC-DAD analysis. In the DMSPE approach, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were trapped by dispersive silica-based PSA (primary and secondary amine) sorbents and desorbed into a small amount of desorption solution for HPLC-DAD analysis. Under the optimal conditions, relative recoveries were determined for swine muscle spiked 50-200 μg kg -1 and quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. The calibration curves of seven quinolones showed linearity with a correlation coefficient value above 0.998 for both approaches. Relative recoveries ranged from 93.0 to 104.7% and from 95.5 to 111.0% for DLLME and DMSPE, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 5.6 to 23.8 μg kg -1 and from 7.5 to 26.3 μg kg -1 for DLLME and DMSPE, respectively.

  9. Characterisation of high-temperature damage mechanisms of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon-Legagneur, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The development of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants relies on the improvement of cladding materials, in order to achieve resistance to high temperature, stress and irradiation dose levels. Strengthening of ferritic steels through nano-oxide dispersion allows obtaining good mechanical strength at high temperature and good resistance to irradiation induced swelling. Nonetheless, studies available from open literature evidenced an unusual creep behavior of these materials: high anisotropy in time to rupture and flow behavior, low ductility and quasi-inexistent tertiary creep stage. These phenomena, and their still unclear origin are addressed in this study. Three 14Cr ODS steels rods have been studied. Their mechanical behavior is similar to those of other ODS steels from open literature. During creep tests, the specimens fractured by through crack nucleation and propagation from the lateral surfaces, followed by ductile tearing once the critical stress intensity factor was reached at the crack tip. Tensile and creep properties did not depend on the chemical environment of specimens. Crack propagation tests performed at 650 C showed a low value of the stress intensity factor necessary to start crack propagation. The cracks followed an intergranular path through the smaller-grained regions, which partly explains the anisotropy of high temperature strength. Notched specimens have been used to study the impact of the main loading parameters (deformation rate, temperature, stress triaxiality) on macroscopic crack initiation and stable propagation, from the central part of the specimens. These tests allowed revealing cavities created during high temperature loading, but unexposed to the external environment. These cavities showed a high chemical reactivity of the free surfaces in this material. The performed tests also evidenced different types of grain boundaries, which presented different damage development behaviors, probably due to differences in local

  10. Metapopulation extinction risk: dispersal's duplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Metapopulation extinction risk is the probability that all local populations are simultaneously extinct during a fixed time frame. Dispersal may reduce a metapopulation's extinction risk by raising its average per-capita growth rate. By contrast, dispersal may raise a metapopulation's extinction risk by reducing its average population density. Which effect prevails is controlled by habitat fragmentation. Dispersal in mildly fragmented habitat reduces a metapopulation's extinction risk by raising its average per-capita growth rate without causing any appreciable drop in its average population density. By contrast, dispersal in severely fragmented habitat raises a metapopulation's extinction risk because the rise in its average per-capita growth rate is more than offset by the decline in its average population density. The metapopulation model used here shows several other interesting phenomena. Dispersal in sufficiently fragmented habitat reduces a metapopulation's extinction risk to that of a constant environment. Dispersal between habitat fragments reduces a metapopulation's extinction risk insofar as local environments are asynchronous. Grouped dispersal raises the effective habitat fragmentation level. Dispersal search barriers raise metapopulation extinction risk. Nonuniform dispersal may reduce the effective fraction of suitable habitat fragments below the extinction threshold. Nonuniform dispersal may make demographic stochasticity a more potent metapopulation extinction force than environmental stochasticity.

  11. Dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in biocompatible dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piret, J.-P.; Detriche, S.; Vigneron, R.; Vankoningsloo, S.; Rolin, S.; Mejia Mendoza, J. H.; Masereel, B.; Lucas, S.; Delhalle, J.; Luizi, F.; Saout, C.; Toussaint, O.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their phenomenal electrical and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been an area of intense research since their discovery in 1991. Different applications for these nanoparticles have been proposed, among others, in electronics and optics but also in the medical field. In parallel, emerging studies have suggested potential toxic effects of CNT while others did not, generating some conflicting outcomes. These discrepancies could be, in part, due to different suspension approaches used and to the agglomeration state of CNT in solution. In this study, we described a standardized protocol to obtain stable CNT suspensions, using two biocompatible dispersants (Pluronic F108 and hydroxypropylcellulose) and to estimate the concentration of CNT in solution. CNT appear to be greatly individualized in these two dispersants with no detection of remaining bundles or agglomerates after sonication and centrifugation. Moreover, CNT remained perfectly dispersed when added to culture medium used for in vitro cell experiments. We also showed that Pluronic F108 is a better dispersant than hydroxypropylcellulose. In conclusion, we have developed a standardized protocol using biocompatible surfactants to obtain reproducible and stable multi-walled carbon nanotubes suspensions which can be used for in vitro or in vivo toxicological studies.

  12. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-26

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp 2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL -1 , which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  13. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  14. Phonon dispersion evolution in uniaxially strained aluminum crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Aryal, Sitaram; Ouyang, Lizhi

    2018-04-01

    The influence of loading upon the phonon dispersion of crystalline materials could be highly nonlinear with certain particular trends that depend upon the loading path. In this paper, we have calculated the influence of [100] uniaxial strain on the phonon dispersion and group velocities in fcc aluminum using second moments of position obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at 300 K. In contrast to nonlinear monotonic variation of both longitudinal and transverse phonon frequencies along the Δ , Λ and Σ lines of the first Brillouin zone under tension, transverse phonon branches along the Λ line show inflection at specific wavevectors when the compressive strain exceeds 5%. Further, the longitudinal group velocities along the high-symmetry Δ line vary non-monotonically with strain, reaching a minimum at 5% compressive strain. Throughout the strain range studied, the equilibrium positions of atoms displace in an affine manner preserving certain static structural symmetry. We attribute the anomalies in the phonon dispersion to the non-affine evolution of second moments of atomic position, and the associated plateauing of force constants under the applied strain path.

  15. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, are analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite are determined simultaneously by one linear regression technique. Dispersity of crushed granite is also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression technique. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. The experimental results show that the dispersity found by spike source method is close to that found by invariant source method. It indicates that dispersity is only the characteristic of dispersion medium

  16. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium. (author)

  17. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF SIZE AND VELOCITY DISPERSION FOR EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, L.; Lapi, A.; Bressan, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Bernardi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Massive (stellar mass M * ∼> 3 x 10 10 M sun ), passively evolving galaxies at redshifts z ∼> 1 exhibit on average physical sizes smaller, by factors ∼3, than local early-type galaxies (ETGs) endowed with the same stellar mass. Small sizes are in fact expected on theoretical grounds, if dissipative collapse occurs. Recent results show that the size evolution at z ∼ 1, where both compact and already extended galaxies are observed and the scatter in size is remarkably larger than it is locally. The presence at high redshift of a significant number of ETGs with the same size as their local counterparts, as well as ETGs with quite small size (∼ H (z). We demonstrate that the projected mass of compact, high-redshift galaxies and that of local ETGs within the same physical radius, the nominal half-luminosity radius of high-redshift ETGs, differ substantially in that the high-redshift ETGs are on average significantly denser. This result suggests that the physical mechanism responsible for the size increase should also remove mass from central galaxy regions (r ∼ 1, we predict the local velocity dispersion distribution function. On comparing it to the observed one, we show that velocity dispersion evolution of massive ETGs is fully compatible with the observed average evolution in size at constant stellar mass. Less massive ETGs (with stellar masses M * ∼ 10 M sun ) are expected to evolve less both in size and in velocity dispersion, because their evolution is essentially determined by supernova feedback, which cannot yield winds as powerful as those triggered by quasars. The differential evolution is expected to leave imprints in the size versus luminosity/mass, velocity dispersion versus luminosity/mass, and central black hole mass versus velocity dispersion relationships, as observed in local ETGs.

  18. Relative neutronic performance of proposed high-density dispersion fuels in water-moderated and D2O-reflected research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the neutronic performance of an idealized research reactor using several high density LEU fuels that are being developed by the RERTR program. High-density LEU dispersion fuels are needed for new and existing high-performance research reactors and to extend the lifetime of fuel elements in other research reactors. This paper discusses the anticipated neutronic behavior of proposed advanced fuels containing dispersions of U 3 Si 2 , UN, U 2 Mo and several uranium alloys with Mo, or Zr and Nb. These advanced fuels are ranked based on the results of equilibrium depletion calculations for a simplified reactor model having a small H 2 O-cooled core and a D 2 O reflector. Plans have been developed to fabricate and irradiate several uranium alloy dispersion fuels in order to test their stability and compatibility with the matrix material and to establish practical loading limits

  19. Relative neutronic performance of proposed high-density dispersion fuels in water-moderated and D2O-reflected research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the neutronic performance of an idealized research reactor using several high density Leu fuels that are being developed by the Rarita program. High-density Leu dispersion fuels are needed for new and existing high-performance research reactors and to extend the lifetime of fuel elements in other research reactors. This paper discusses the anticipated neutronic behavior of proposed advanced fuels containing dispersions of U 3 Si 2 , UN, U 2 Mo and several uranium alloys with Mo, or Zr and Nb. These advanced fuels are ranked based on the results of equilibrium depletion calculations for a simplified reactor model having a small H 2 O-cooled core and a D 2 O reflector. Plans have been developed to fabricate and irradiate several uranium alloy dispersion fuels in order to test their stability and compatibility with the matrix material and to establish practical loading limits. (author)

  20. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clozapine-carboxylic acid plasticized co-amorphous dispersions: Preparation, characterization and solution stability evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the possibility of forming of co-amorphous systems between clozapine (CZ and various carboxylic acid plasticizers (CAPs. The aim was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine. Co-amorphous dispersions were prepared using modified solvent evaporation methodology at drug/plasticizer stoichiometric ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. Solid state characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infra red spectroscopy. Highly soluble homogeneous co-amorphous dispersions were formed between clozapine and CAPs via hydrogen bonding. The co-amorphous dispersions formed with tartaric acid (1:2 showed the highest dissolution percentage (> 95 % in 20 minutes compared to pure crystalline CZ (56 %. Highly stable solutions were obtained from co-amorphous CZ-citric and CZ-tartaric acid at 1:1.5 molar ratio. The prepared dispersions suggest the possibility of peroral or sublingual administration of highly soluble clozapine at a reduced dose with the great chance to bypass the first pass metabolism.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and NIR Reflectance of Highly Dispersed NiTiO3 and NiTiO3/TiO2 Composite Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly dispersed nanostructured NiTiO3 pigments and NiTiO3/TiO2 composite pigments can be synthesized at relative low temperature. The activation energy of crystal growth of NiTiO3 during calcinations via salt-assistant combustion method is 9.35 kJ/mol. The UV-vis spectra results revealed that the absorbance decreased with the increasing of calcinations temperature due to small size effect of nanometer particles. The optical data of NiTiO3 nanocrystals were analyzed at the near-absorption edge. SEM showed that the obtained NiTiO3 nanocrystals and NiTiO3/TiO2 nanocomposite were composed of highly dispersed spherical-like and spherical particles with uniform size distribution, respectively. The chromatic properties and diffuse reflectance of samples were investigated. The obtained NiTiO3/TiO2 composite samples have higher NIR reflectance than NiTiO3 pigments.

  3. Modeling of dispersion engineered chalcogenide rib waveguide for ultraflat mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Karim, M. R.; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A rigorous numerical investigation has been carried out through dispersion engineering of chalcogenide rib waveguide for near-infrared to mid-infrared ultraflat broadband supercontinuum generation in all-normal group-velocity dispersion regime. We propose a novel design of a 1-cm-long air-clad rib waveguide which is made from {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {Se}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as the core with either silica or {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {S}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as a lower cladding separately. A broadband ultraflat supercontinuum spanning from 1300 to 1900 nm could be generated when pumped at 1.55 μ {m} with a low input peak power of 100 W. Shifting the pump to 2 μ {m}, the supercontinuum spectra extended in the mid-infrared region up to 3400 nm with a moderate-input peak power of 500 W. To achieve further extension in mid-infrared, we excite our optimized rib waveguide in both the anomalous and all-normal dispersion pumping regions at 3.1 μ {m} with a largest input peak power of 3 kW. In the case of anomalous dispersion region pumping, numerical analysis shows that supercontinuum spectrum can be extended in the mid-infrared up to 10 μ {m}, although this contains high spectral amplitude fluctuations over the entire bandwidth which limits the supercontinuum sources in the field of high precision measurement applications. On the other hand, by optimizing a rib waveguide geometry for pumping in all-normal dispersion region, we are able to generate a smooth and flat-top coherent supercontinuum spectrum with a moderate bandwidth spanning the wavelength range 2-5.5 μ {m} with less than 5 dB spectral fluctuation over the entire output bandwidth. Our proposed design is highly suitable for making on-chip SC light sources for a variety of applications such as biomedical imaging, and environmental and industrial sensing in the mid-infrared region.

  4. High Explosive Radiological Dispersion Device: Time and Distance Multiscale Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Sattinger, I.; Halevy, D.; Banaim, P.; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of explosion tests imitates different explosive RDD scenarios were conducted and aimed at increasing the preparedness for possible terrorism events, where radioactive (RA) materials disperse via an explosive charge. About 20 atmospheric dispersion tests were conducted using6-8 Ci of 99mTc which were coupled to TNT charges within the range of 0.2525 kg. Tests performed above different typical urban ground surfaces (in order to study the surface effect on the activity ground deposition pattern due to different in particles size distribution). We have used an efficient aerosolizing devices, means that most of the RA particles were initially created within the size of fine aerosols, mostly respirable. Ground activity measurements were performed both, around the dispersion point and up to few hundred meters downwind. Micrometeorology parameters (wind intensity and direction, potential temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and atmospheric stability) were collected allowing comparisons topredictions of existing atmospheric dispersion models’1. Based on the experimental results, new model parameterizations were performed. Improvements in the models’ predictions were achieved and a set of thumb rules for first responders was formulated. This paper describes the project objectives, some of the experimental setups and results obtained. Post detonation nuclear forensic considerations can be made based upon results achieved

  5. Latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of energetic auroral protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lorentzen

    Full Text Available Using a collision by collision model from Lorentzen et al., the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of single auroral protons are calculated. The proton energies varies from 1 to 50 keV, and are released into the atmosphere at 700 km altitude. The dipole magnetic field has a dip-angle of 8 degrees. Results show that the main dispersion region is at high altitudes (300-350 km and occurs during the first few charge exchange collisions. As the proton travels further down the atmosphere the mean free path becomes smaller, and as a result the spreading effect will not be as pronounced. This means that the first few charge exchange collisions fully determines the width of both the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion. The volume emission rate was calculated for energies between 1 and 50 keV, and it was found that dayside auroral hydrogen emissions rates were approximately 10 times weaker than nightside emission rates. Simulations were also performed to obtain the dependence of the particle dispersion as a function of initial pitch-angle. It was found that the dispersion varies greatly with initial pitch-angle, and the results are summarized in two tables; a main and an extreme dispersion region.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; · particle precipitation · Space plasma physics · (transport processes

  6. Latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of energetic auroral protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lorentzen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a collision by collision model from Lorentzen et al., the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion of single auroral protons are calculated. The proton energies varies from 1 to 50 keV, and are released into the atmosphere at 700 km altitude. The dipole magnetic field has a dip-angle of 8 degrees. Results show that the main dispersion region is at high altitudes (300-350 km and occurs during the first few charge exchange collisions. As the proton travels further down the atmosphere the mean free path becomes smaller, and as a result the spreading effect will not be as pronounced. This means that the first few charge exchange collisions fully determines the width of both the latitudinal and longitudinal dispersion. The volume emission rate was calculated for energies between 1 and 50 keV, and it was found that dayside auroral hydrogen emissions rates were approximately 10 times weaker than nightside emission rates. Simulations were also performed to obtain the dependence of the particle dispersion as a function of initial pitch-angle. It was found that the dispersion varies greatly with initial pitch-angle, and the results are summarized in two tables; a main and an extreme dispersion region.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; · particle precipitation · Space plasma physics · (transport processes

  7. Highly water-dispersible, mixed ionic-electronic conducting, polymer acid-doped polyanilines as ionomers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-06-28

    Highly water-dispersible polymer acid-doped polyanilines have been synthesized and evaluated as an alternative for expensive Nafion ionomers in the anode of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These polymers as ionomers lead to higher performance in single cell DMFC compared to Nafion ionomers due to mixed ionic-electronic conduction, water dispersibility, and co-catalytic activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Increases of QT dispersion, corrected QT dispersion and QT interval in young healthy individuals during Ramadan fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradmand S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan fasting is one of the most important religious duties of Muslims, that its effect on the heart has not been determined yet. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on ventricular repolarization as assessed by QT interval, corrected QT interval, QT dispersion or corrected QT dispersion. Sixthy healthy subjects aged 20 to 35 years were dispersion included in this study. QT interval, corrected QT interval (QTc QT dispersion QTc dispersion, RR interval and QRS axis were measured in 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, once during fasting (10 to 11.5 hours of absolute fasting from food and liquid and another time, 15 tp 60 minutes after eating food at sunset, All of the subjects had been fasting 11 to 12 hours each day at least for 25 days during Ramadan. The study was performed at Amir Alam hospital in the year 2000. Maximal QT interval, mean QT interval and RR-interval, were longer during fasting (P<0.05, and both QT dispersion and QTc dispersion were increased (P<0.05. (QT dispersion: mean ±SD= 57.2±20.1 ms during fasting Vs 41.6±15.1 ms after meal, QTc dispersion=75.4±24.6 ms during fasting Vs 64.1±22.8 ms after meal. But mean QTc interval maximal QTc interval and QRS axis showed no significant difference. Prolongation of QT interval and RR interval during fasting, instead of no significant changes in corrected QT interval may primarily suggest that prolongation of RR-interval causes QTc interval not to have significant difference. But increases of QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion (QTc dispersion during fasting -that are more reliable indicators of ventricular repolarization-support the idea that ventricular repolarization may be changed during Ramadan fasting. QT dispersion in cardiac patients is showed to increase from normal values of 30-40 to 64-138 ms, but in our study their increases did not reach critical value.

  9. Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.

    2004-01-01

    The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively

  10. High resolution modelling of aerosol dispersion regimes during the CAPITOUL field experiment: from regional to local scale interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactions between the urban dynamics and the aerosol plumes. During a two-day Intensive Observational Period, a numerical model experiment was set up to reproduce the spatial distribution of specific particle pollutants, from the regional scales and the interactions between different cities, to the local scales with specific turbulent structures. Observations show that local dynamics depends on the day-regime, and may lead to different mesoscale dynamical structures. This study focuses on reproducing these fine scale dynamical structures, and investigate the impact on the aerosol plume dispersion. The 500-m resolution simulation manages to reproduce convective rolls at local scale, which concentrate most of the aerosol particles and can locally affect the pollutant dispersion and air quality.

  11. STATISTICALLY DETERMINED DISPERSION RELATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELD FLUCTUATIONS IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnat, B.; O’Connell, D.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Sundberg, T.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain dispersion relations of magnetic field fluctuations for two crossings of the terrestrial foreshock by Cluster spacecraft. These crossings cover plasma conditions that differ significantly in their plasma β and in the density of the reflected ion beam, but not in the properties of the encountered ion population, both showing shell-like distribution function. Dispersion relations are reconstructed using two-point instantaneous wave number estimations from pairs of Cluster spacecraft. The accessible range of wave vectors, limited by the available spacecraft separations, extends to ≈2 × 10 4 km. Results show multiple branches of dispersion relations, associated with different powers of magnetic field fluctuations. We find that sunward propagating fast magnetosonic waves and beam resonant modes are dominant for the high plasma β interval with a dense beam, while the dispersions of the interval with low beam density include Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes propagating sunward and anti-sunward.

  12. STATISTICALLY DETERMINED DISPERSION RELATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELD FLUCTUATIONS IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, B.; O’Connell, D.; Nakariakov, V. M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick (United Kingdom); Sundberg, T., E-mail: B.Hnat@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-20

    We obtain dispersion relations of magnetic field fluctuations for two crossings of the terrestrial foreshock by Cluster spacecraft. These crossings cover plasma conditions that differ significantly in their plasma β and in the density of the reflected ion beam, but not in the properties of the encountered ion population, both showing shell-like distribution function. Dispersion relations are reconstructed using two-point instantaneous wave number estimations from pairs of Cluster spacecraft. The accessible range of wave vectors, limited by the available spacecraft separations, extends to ≈2 × 10{sup 4} km. Results show multiple branches of dispersion relations, associated with different powers of magnetic field fluctuations. We find that sunward propagating fast magnetosonic waves and beam resonant modes are dominant for the high plasma β interval with a dense beam, while the dispersions of the interval with low beam density include Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes propagating sunward and anti-sunward.

  13. Femtosecond Mode-locked Fiber Laser at 1 μm Via Optical Microfiber Dispersion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Xu, Peizhen; Li, Yuhang; Han, Jize; Guo, Xin; Cui, Yudong; Liu, Xueming; Tong, Limin

    2018-03-16

    Mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers around 1 μm are attractive for high power applications and low noise pulse train generation. Mode-locked fiber lasers working in soliton and stretched-pulse regime outperform others in terms of the laser noise characteristics, mechanical stability and easy maintenance. However, conventional optical fibers always show a normal group velocity dispersion around 1 μm, leading to the inconvenience for necessary dispersion management. Here we show that optical microfibers having a large anomalous dispersion around 1 μm can be integrated into mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers with ultralow insertion loss down to -0.06 dB, enabling convenient dispersion management of the laser cavity. Besides, optical microfibers could also be adopted to spectrally broaden and to dechirp the ultrashort pulses outside the laser cavity, giving rise to a pulse duration of about 110 fs. We believe that this demonstration may facilitate all-fiber format high-performance ultrashort pulse generation at 1 μm and may find applications in precision measurements, large-scale facility synchronization and evanescent-field-based optical sensing.

  14. Strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows; Ecoulements diphasiques disperses fortement couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zun, I.; Lance, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.; Petrosyan, A.; Lecoq, N.; Anthore, R.; Bostel, F.; Feuillebois, F.; Nott, P.; Zenit, R.; Hunt, M.L.; Brennen, C.E.; Campbell, C.S.; Tong, P.; Lei, X.; Ackerson, B.J.; Asmolov, E.S.; Abade, G.; da Cunha, F.R.; Lhuillier, D.; Cartellier, A.; Ruzicka, M.C.; Drahos, J.; Thomas, N.H.; Talini, L.; Leblond, J.; Leshansky, A.M.; Lavrenteva, O.M.; Nir, A.; Teshukov, V.; Risso, F.; Ellinsen, K.; Crispel, S.; Dahlkild, A.; Vynnycky, M.; Davila, J.; Matas, J.P.; Guazelli, L.; Morris, J.; Ooms, G.; Poelma, C.; van Wijngaarden, L.; de Vries, A.; Elghobashi, S.; Huilier, D.; Peirano, E.; Minier, J.P.; Gavrilyuk, S.; Saurel, R.; Kashinsky, O.; Randin, V.; Colin, C.; Larue de Tournemine, A.; Roig, V.; Suzanne, C.; Bounhoure, C.; Brunet, Y.; Tanaka, A.T.; Noma, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Pascal-Ribot, S.; Le Gall, F.; Aliseda, A.; Hainaux, F.; Lasheras, J.; Didwania, A.; Costa, A.; Vallerin, W.; Mudde, R.F.; Van Den Akker, H.E.A.; Jaumouillie, P.; Larrarte, F.; Burgisser, A.; Bergantz, G.; Necker, F.; Hartel, C.; Kleiser, L.; Meiburg, E.; Michallet, H.; Mory, M.; Hutter, M.; Markov, A.A.; Dumoulin, F.X.; Suard, S.; Borghi, R.; Hong, M.; Hopfinger, E.; Laforgia, A.; Lawrence, C.J.; Hewitt, G.F.; Osiptsov, A.N.; Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Volkov, A.N.

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of the Euromech 421 colloquium about strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows. Behaviors specifically due to the two-phase character of the flow have been categorized as: suspensions, particle-induced agitation, microstructure and screening mechanisms; hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution; turbulence modulation by particles, droplets or bubbles in dense systems; collective effects in dispersed two-phase flows, clustering and phase distribution; large-scale instabilities and gravity driven dispersed flows; strongly coupled two-phase flows involving reacting flows or phase change. Topic l: suspensions particle-induced agitation microstructure and screening mechanisms hydrodynamic interactions between two very close spheres; normal stresses in sheared suspensions; a critical look at the rheological experiments of R.A. Bagnold; non-equilibrium particle configuration in sedimentation; unsteady screening of the long-range hydrodynamic interactions of settling particles; computer simulations of hydrodynamic interactions among a large collection of sedimenting poly-disperse particles; velocity fluctuations in a dilute suspension of rigid spheres sedimenting between vertical plates: the role of boundaries; screening and induced-agitation in dilute uniform bubbly flows at small and moderate particle Reynolds numbers: some experimental results. Topic 2: hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution: hydrodynamic interactions in a bubble array; A 'NMR scattering technique' for the determination of the structure in a dispersion of non-brownian settling particles; segregation and clustering during thermo-capillary migration of bubbles; kinetic modelling of bubbly flows; velocity fluctuations in a homogeneous dilute dispersion of high-Reynolds-number rising bubbles; an attempt to simulate screening effects at moderate particle Reynolds numbers using an hybrid formulation; modelling the two

  15. Spectral phase shift and residual angular dispersion of an accousto-optic programme dispersive filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerzsoenyi, A.; Meroe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There is an increasing demand for active and precise dispersion control of ultrashort laser pulses. In chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems, the dispersion of the optical elements of the laser has to be compensated at least to the fourth order to obtain high temporal contrast compressed pulses. Nowadays the most convenient device for active and programmable control of spectral phase and amplitude of broadband laser pulses is the acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF), claimed to be able to adjust the spectral phase up to the fourth order. Although it has been widely used, surprisingly enough there has been only a single, low resolution measurement reported on the accuracy of the induced spectral phase shift of the device. In our paper we report on the first systematic experiment aiming at the precise characterization of an AOPDF device. In the experiment the spectral phase shift of the AOPDF device was measured by spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry, which is especially powerful tool to determine small dispersion values with high accuracy. Besides the spectral phase dispersion, we measured both the propagation direction angular dispersion (PDAD) and the phase front angular dispersion (PhFAD). Although the two quantities are equal for plane waves, there may be noticeable difference for Gaussian pulses. PDAD was determined simply by focusing the beam on the slit of an imaging spectrograph, while PhFAD was measured by the use of an inverted Mach-Zehnder interferometer and an imaging spectrograph. In the measurements, the spectral phase shift and both types of angular dispersion have been recorded upon the systematic change of all the accessible functions of the acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter. The measured values of group delay dispersion (GDD) and third order dispersion (TOD) have been found to agree with the preset values within the error of the measurement (1 fs 2 and 10 fs 3

  16. Preparation of amorphous solid dispersions by rotary evaporation and KinetiSol Dispersing: approaches to enhance solubility of a poorly water-soluble gum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ryan C; Brough, Chris; Miller, Dave A; O'Donnell, Kevin P; Keen, Justin M; Hughey, Justin R; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2015-03-01

    Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), a gum resin extract, possesses poor water-solubility that limits bioavailability and a high melting point making it difficult to successfully process into solid dispersions by fusion methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate solvent and thermal processing techniques for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) exhibiting enhanced solubility, dissolution rates and bioavailability. Solid dispersions were successfully produced by rotary evaporation (RE) and KinetiSol® Dispersing (KSD). Solid state and chemical characterization revealed that ASD with good potency and purity were produced by both RE and KSD. Results of the RE studies demonstrated that AQOAT®-LF, AQOAT®-MF, Eudragit® L100-55 and Soluplus with the incorporation of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium provided substantial solubility enhancement. Non-sink dissolution analysis showed enhanced dissolution properties for KSD-processed solid dispersions in comparison to RE-processed solid dispersions. Variances in release performance were identified when different particle size fractions of KSD samples were analyzed. Selected RE samples varying in particle surface morphologies were placed under storage and exhibited crystalline growth following solid-state stability analysis at 12 months in comparison to stored KSD samples confirming amorphous instability for RE products. In vivo analysis of KSD-processed solid dispersions revealed significantly enhanced AKBA absorption in comparison to the neat, active substance.

  17. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  18. Chemical countermeasures: Dispersants overview of dispersant use (including application) and research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    I will attempt in twenty minutes to summarize the state of research on oil spill dispersants as I perceive it. The expertise I bring to this task includes 20 years of experience with the fate and effects of petroleum in the marine environment, including participation in the 1973 and 1981 NRC studies and three years as chairman of the NRC committee on oil spill dispersants. I More recently I served on a committee of the International Maritime Organization which reviewed the open-quotes Impact of oil and related chemicals and wastes on the marine environment.close quotes That report will be published this year. However, my statements in this paper are not made as a representative of either NRC or IMO. They are my own interpretation of scientific literature cited in the above reviews. Dispersants are chemical formulations, which include surface active agents, designed to decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water. Because the first attempts to disperse oil on a large scale, at the Torrey Canyon spill of 1967, used highly toxic degreasing agents, dispersants have an undeserved reputation for toxicity. In fact, for twenty years dispersant formulations have been developed with an emphasis on reducing their toxicity to marine life. The dispersal of oil in water has been documented in the laboratory by dozens of papers (see references in NRC 1989, pp 70-79), and in the field by dozens of studies (NRC 1989, pp 165- 193). The toxicity of commercial dispersant formulations (NRC 1989, pp 81-123) and dispersed oil (NRC 1989, pp 123-147) has been tested on a wide variety of marine organisms ranging from algae to salmonid fishes. The NRC review has been updated by the IMO/GESAMP (1992) study, but the conclusions remain unchanged

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Highly Water-dispersible Anatase Nanoparticles with Large Specific Surface Area and Their Adsorptive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Xueting; Zhang Dongyun; Zhao Siqin; Asuha Sin

    2016-01-01

    Highly water-dispersible and very small TiO2 nanoparticles (~3 nm anatase) with large specific surface area have been synthesized by hydrolysis and hydrothermal reactions of titanium butoxide and used for the removal of three azo dyes (Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange) with different molecular structure from simulated wastewaters. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in water with large specific surface area up to 417 m2 g−1. Adsorption experiments demonstrated that th...

  20. Spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Ávila, Gema; Pías, Beatriz; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Seed dispersal is typically performed by a diverse array of species assemblages with different behavioral and morphological traits which determine dispersal quality (DQ, defined as the probability of recruitment of a dispersed seed). Fate of ecosystems to ongoing environmental changes is critically dependent on dispersal and mainly on DQ in novel scenarios. We assess here the DQ, thus the multiplicative effect of germination and survival probability to the first 3 years of life, for seeds dispersed by several bird species (Turdus spp.) and carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Martes foina) in mature woodland remnants of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) and old fields which are being colonized by this species. Results showed that DQ was similar in mature woodlands and old fields. Germination rate for seeds dispersed by carnivores (11.5%) and thrushes (9.12%) was similar, however, interacted with microhabitat suitability. Seeds dispersed by carnivores reach the maximum germination rate on shrubs (16%), whereas seeds dispersed by thrushes did on female juniper canopies (15.5) indicating that each group of dispersers performed a directed dispersal. This directional effect was diluted when survival probability was considered: thrushes selected smaller seeds which had higher mortality in the seedling stage (70%) in relation to seedlings dispersed by carnivores (40%). Overall, thrushes resulted low-quality dispersers which provided a probability or recruitment of 2.5%, while a seed dispersed by carnivores had a probability of recruitment of 6.5%. Our findings show that generalist dispersers (i.e., carnivores) can provide a higher probability of recruitment than specialized dispersers (i.e., Turdus spp.). However, generalist species are usually opportunistic dispersers as their role as seed dispersers is dependent on the availability of trophic resources and species feeding preferences. As a result, J. thurifera dispersal community is composed by two functional groups of

  1. General characteristics of relative dispersion in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    The multi-scale and nonlinear nature of the ocean dynamics dramatically affects the spreading of matter, like pollutants, marine litter, etc., of physical and chemical seawater properties, and the biological connectivity inside and among different basins. Based on the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent analysis of the largest available near-surface Lagrangian data set from the Global Drifter Program, our results show that, despite the large variety of flow features, relative dispersion can ultimately be described by a few parameters common to all ocean sub-basins, at least in terms of order of magnitude. This provides valuable information to undertake Lagrangian dispersion studies by means of models and/or of observational data. Moreover, our results show that the relative dispersion rates measured at submesoscale are significantly higher than for large-scale dynamics. Auxiliary analysis of high resolution GPS-tracked drifter hourly data as well as of the drogued/undrogued status of the buoys is provided in support of our conclusions. A possible application of our study, concerning reverse drifter motion and error growth analysis, is proposed relatively to the case of the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 aircraft.

  2. Use of polysulfides of alkali and alkaline-earth metals to obtain highly dispersed sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massalimov, I.A.; Vikhareva, I.N.; Kireeva, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Possibilities of obtaining polysulfides of alkali and alkaline earth metals (M is Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) in aqueous solutions were considered. The composition of the polysulfides and their concentration in solutions were found. The efficiencies of application of highly dispersed sulfur, produced from calcium polysulfide, and colloid sulfur as a fungicide were compared [ru

  3. Opto-mechanical design of a new cross dispersion unit for the CRIRES+ high resolution spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, Jean Louis; Klein, Barbara; Oliva, Ernesto; Löwinger, Tom; Anglada Escude, Guillem; Baade, Dietrich; Bristow, Paul; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Grunhut, Jason; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Ives, Derek; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Lockhart, Matt; Marquart, Thomas; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jerome; Piskunov, N.; Pozna, Eszter; Reiners, Ansgar; Smette, Alain; Smoker, Jonathan; Seemann, Ulf; Stempels, Eric; Valenti, Elena

    2014-07-01

    CRIRES is one of the few IR (0.92-5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrographs in operation at the VLT since 2006. Despite good performance it suffers a limitation that significantly hampers its ability: a small spectral coverage per exposure. The CRIRES upgrade (CRIRES+) proposes to transform CRIRES into a cross-dispersed spectrograph while maintaining the high resolution (100000) and increasing the wavelength coverage by a factor 10 compared to the current capabilities. A major part of the upgrade is the exchange of the actual cryogenic pre-disperser module by a new cross disperser unit. In addition to a completely new optical design, a number of important changes are required on key components and functions like the slit unit and detectors units. We will outline the design of these new units fitting inside a predefined and restricted space. The mechanical design of the new functions including a description and analysis will be presented. Finally we will present the strategy for the implementation of the changes.

  4. Dispersive effects in radiation transport and radiation hydrodynamics in matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, B.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    In a recent research program (reported in AWRE 0 20/82) I have investigated the generalisation of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics when electromagnetic radiation is assumed to obey a linear-response dispersion relation of the form nω=kc where the refractive index n depends on the frequency ω and/or wave number k. From the application of the Boltzmann-Liouville transport theory to photons in the short-wavelength (geometrical optics) limit, I derive the energy and momentum equations which, when combined with a classical (Euler-Lagrange-Navier-Stokes) treatment of a fluid material medium in LTE, yield a complete dynamical theory of linear interactions (+ stimulated processes) between incoherent (thermal) radiation and dense, locally isotropic matter. The theory includes an account of pondero-motive forces and electro (magneto) striction. Moreover, it is apparently capable of being generalised to non-linear interactions in which the refractive index depends on the local specific intensity of the radiation field, and, to some extent, to the treatment of high-frequency coherent radiation. The generalisation of various approximated forms of radiation-transport theory (esp. diffusion) has been considered in detail. Some problems remain however. One such is the treatment of anomalous dispersion. Current research work is concentrating on the interesting atomic physics aspects of electromagnetic (esp. radiative) properties of a dispersive material medium

  5. Oxidative Stability of Dispersions Prepared from Purified Marine Phospholipid and the Role of α-Tocopherol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2012-01-01

    , respectively, during 32 days of storage at 2 °C. Nonenzymatic browning was investigated through measurement of Strecker aldehydes, color changes, and pyrrole content. Dispersions containing α-tocopherol or higher levels of purified marine PL showed a lower increment of volatiles after 32 days storage......The objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability of dispersions prepared from different levels of purified marine phospholipid (PL) obtained by acetone precipitation, with particular focus on the interaction between α-tocopherol and PL in dispersions. This also included...... the investigation of nonenzymatic browning in purified marine PL dispersions. Dispersions were prepared by high-pressure homogenizer. The oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of dispersions were investigated by determination of hydroperoxides, secondary volatile oxidation products, and free fatty acids...

  6. Release behavior of fission products from irradiated dispersion fuels at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Takashi; Shimizu, Michio; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    1990-02-01

    As a framework of reduced enrichment fuel program of JMTR Project, the measurements of fission products release rates at high temperatures (600degC - 1100degC) were performed in order to take the data to use for safety evaluation of LEU fuel. Three type miniplates of dispersion silicide and aluminide fuel, 20% enrichment LEU fuel with 4.8 gU/cc (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % and U 3 Si 2 50 %, U 3 Si 50 % dispersed in aluminium) and 45 % enrichment MEU fuel with 1.6 gU/cc, were irradiated in JMTR. The burnups attained by one cycle (22 days) irradiation were within 21.6 % - 22.5 % of initial 235 U. The specimens cut down from miniplates were measured on fission products release rates by means of new apparatus specially designed for this experiment. The specimens were heated up within 600degC - 1100degC in dry air. Then fission products such as 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 129m Te were collected at each temperature and measured on release rates. In the results of measurement, the release rates of 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 129m Te from all specimens were slightly less than that of G.W. Parker's data on U-Al alloy fuel. For 137 Cs and 103 Ru from a silicide specimen (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % dispersed in aluminium) and 137 Cs from an aluminide specimen, the release rates were slightly higher than that of G.W. Parker's. (author)

  7. Mild hydrothermal treatment to prepare highly dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Taishi, Toshinori; Ni Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with improved dispersion property have been prepared by a mild and fast hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal process avoids using harsh oxidants and organic solvents, which is environmental friendly and greatly decreases the damage to intrinsic structure of MWCNTs. The modified MWCNTs were highly soluble in polar solvents such as water, ethanol and dimethylformamide. Morphological observation by TEM indicated that the diameter and inherent structure were well reserved in modified MWCNTs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify functional groups created on the MWCNT surface, and to determine rational parameters of hydrothermal process.

  8. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  9. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  10. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of 239Pu due to non- nuclear detonation of high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Freis, R.P.; Pitovranov, S.E.; Chernokozhin, E.V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of 239 Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal ''coupling coefficient'' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of 239 Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported

  11. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny, E-mail: eh@udsu.ru [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Kostenkov, Sergey [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.

  12. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Kostenkov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law

  13. End Functionalized Nonionic Water-Dispersible Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ruoyu; Liu, Bin

    2017-09-01

    2,7-Dibromofluorene monomers carrying two or four oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) side chains are synthesized. Heck coupling between the monomers and 1,4-divinylbenzene followed by end capping with [4-(4-bromophenoxy)butyl]carbamic acid tert-butyl ester leads to two nonionic water-dispersible poly(fluorene-alt-1,4-divinylenephenylene)s end-functionalized with amine groups after hydrolysis. In water, the polymer with a lower OEG density (P1) has poor water dispersibility with a quantum yield of 0.24, while the polymer with a higher OEG density (P2) possesses excellent water-dispersibility with a high quantum yield of 0.45. Both polymers show fluorescence enhancement and blue-shifted absorption and emission maxima in the presence of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The polymers are also resistant to ionic strength with minimal nonspecific interactions to bovine serum albumin. When biotin is incorporated into the end of the polymer backbones through N-hydroxysuccinimide/amine coupling reaction, the biotinylated polymers interact specifically with streptavidin on solid surface. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Rheological Behavior of Bentonite-Polyester Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Omari, Salah Addin

    2013-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a bentonite clay dispersed in unsaturated polyester was investigated. The effects of the solid content and particle size on the steady and transient rheological properties of the dispersions were studied. In addition, two types of bentonite with different Na+/Ca+2 ratio were used in this study. The Herschel-Bulkley and the Weltman models were used to describe the apparent viscosity of the bentonite-polyester composite in relation to the shear rate and shearing time. The bentonite-polyester dispersions were found to exhibit both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. The transition from a Newtonian to a Bingham plastic and then to a shear-thinning material with a yield stress was found to depend on the solid concentration, the particle size, and the type of bentonite. At a low solid content, the apparent viscosity of the bentonite dispersion increased linearly with solid concentration. But a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity beyond a solid content of 20 wt.% was observed. On the other hand, a thixotropic behavior was detected in bentonite-polyester dispersions with a high solid content and a low particle size. However, this behavior was more pronounced in dispersions with a high Na+/Ca+2 ratio.

  15. The QT dispersion and QTc dispersion in patients presenting with acute neurological events and its impact on early prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kumar Rahar

    2016-01-01

    TIA (P < 0.001. The mean QT dispersion and QTc dispersion was found significantly high in nonsurvivors (n = 16 as compared to survivors group (n = 36 (P < 0.05. The mean QT dispersion was directly correlated with the NIHSS and functional outcome score MRS. Patients with greater QT and QTc dispersion having high NIHSS had poor prognosis. Conclusion: We concluded that patients presenting with acute neurological events having increased QT dispersion and QTc dispersion is related to high mortality and poor functional outcomes on hospital discharge and if the values of dispersion score are very high we can predict for hemorrhagic stroke.

  16. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meats, A.

    2007-01-01

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author) [es

  17. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  18. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Karsten

    Full Text Available The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km, are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  19. Finite-difference modeling and dispersion analysis of high-frequency love waves for near-surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.

  20. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  1. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Svetov, B. S.; Ageev, V. V.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous halfspace, two, three and multilayered sections were analyzed in frequency and time domains. The calculations for different values of chargeabil...

  2. Air pollutant dispersion from a large semi-enclosed stadium in an urban area: high-resolution CFD modeling versus full-scale measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: High-resolution CFD simulations and full-scale measurements have been performed to assess the dispersion of air pollutants (CO2) from the large semi-enclosed Amsterdam ArenA football stadium. The dispersion process is driven by natural ventilation by the urban wind flow and by buoyancy,

  3. Nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent photonic processing for microwave pulse generation with full reconfigurability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2012-03-12

    A novel all-optical technique based on the incoherent processing of optical signals using high-order dispersive elements is analyzed for microwave arbitrary pulse generation. We show an approach which allows a full reconfigurability of a pulse in terms of chirp, envelope and central frequency by the proper control of the second-order dispersion and the incoherent optical source power distribution, achieving large values of time-bandwidth product.

  4. Complementing endozoochorous seed dispersal patterns by donkeys and goats in a semi-natural island ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitler, Julia Tabea; Drissen, Tim; Stadtmann, Robin; Zerbe, Stefan; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin

    2017-12-19

    Endozoochory is, in grazing systems, a substantial vector for seed dispersal. It can play an important role in vegetation dynamics, especially in colonization processes through seed input on the vegetation and on the soil seed bank. We investigated the endozoochorous seed input of donkeys and goats on a semi-natural island ecosystem in the Mediterranean. Through germination experiments, we assessed the viable seed content of the dung of these grazing animals to estimate their suitability and efficiency for seed dispersal of the vegetation types of the island. We show different dispersal patterns of donkeys and goats. Goats disperse a high number of diaspores from shrubs while donkeys disperse more diaspores of grasses. In addition, goats disperse plants of greater growth height and donkeys plants of shorter height. These dispersal patterns are in accordance with the vegetation types of which donkeys and goats disperse indicator species. Both, donkeys and goats, feed on and disperse species of the vegetation types, open grassland and temporarily wet grassland. In addition, goats feed on and disperse diagnostic species of the semi-open maquis and preforest formations. Overall, our results show that donkeys and goats are complementing each other in their endozoochorous seed dispersal potential. This emphasizes the importance of both grazing animals for the vegetation dynamics of the semi-natural island ecosystem. Therefore, the adaption of the goat management to a traditional land management based on directed transhumance might maintain and enrich vegetation types.

  5. Dispersing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at high solids loading - applied to protein forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckfeldt, O.; Palmqvist, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Poeydemenge, F. [ENSCI, Limoges (France)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersing of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder (UBE SN-E10) at high solids loading in aqueous media was investigated. The powder was used in the as-received (raw) state, after thermal (calcinations) and/or mechanical pre-treatments (ball milling{yields}freeze granulation{yields}freeze-drying). Slips were prepared using pH adjustment with NH{sub 4}OH or an addition of Tiron (low-M{sub w} sulphonic acid). Zeta potential measurements of diluted systems and rheological evaluations of concentrated suspensions were conducted. The effect of adding whey protein concentrate (WPC) was also studied. Zeta potential measurements showed a clear decrease in pH{sub iep} by calcination, whereas Tiron slightly increased the pH{sub iep} of calcined powder and decreased the pH{sub iep} of the as-received powder. Rheological data showed that pH adjustment to 10 was more efficient in stabilising the as-received powder than the calcined powder. pH adjustment was also considered to be the most important effect of adding small amounts of Tiron (0.08 wt%). However, for calcined powder, Tiron was shown to be equally efficient as pH adjustment. Pre-milling followed by freeze granulation/freeze-drying resulted in de-agglomerated powders with improved ability to rapidly disperse and, hence, extend the possibility of achieving extreme solids loadings. When approaching the practical limits in solids loading of these pre-milled powders, slips with 49.5 vol% of as-received and 46.6 vol% of calcined powders displayed clear shear thickening behaviour. However, addition of WPC (12 wt% based on water) significantly decreased the degree of shear thickening although the viscosity at lower shear rates increased. The gelling of WPC was distinct and rapid in suspensions with the two pre-milled powders, as-received stabilised at pH 10 and calcined stabilised with Tiron. (orig.)

  6. Fuel Performance Modeling of U-Mo Dispersion Fuel: The thermal conductivity of the interaction layers of the irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistarhi, Qusai M.; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel performed well at a low burn-up. However, higher burn-up and higher fission rate irradiation testing showed enhanced fuel meat swelling which was caused by high interaction layer growth and pore formation. The performance of the dispersion type fuel in the irradiation and un-irradiation environment is very important. During the fabrication of the dispersion type fuel an Interaction Layer (IL) is formed due to the inter-diffusion between the U-Mo fuel particles and the Al matrix which is an intermetallic compound (U,Mo)Alx. During irradiation, the IL becomes amorphous causing a further decrease in the thermal conductivity and an increase in the centerline temperature of the fuel meat. Several analytical models and numerical methods were developed to study the performance of the unirradiated U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel. Two analytical models were developed to study the performance of the irradiated U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel. In these models, the thermal conductivity of the IL was assumed to be constant. The properties of the irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel have been investigated recently by Huber et al. The objective of this study is to develop a correlation for IL thermal conductivity during irradiation as a function of the temperature and fission density from the experimentally measured thermal conductivity of the irradiated U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel. The thermal conductivity of IL during irradiation was calculated from the experimentally measured data and a correlation was developed from the thermal conductivity of IL as a function of T and fission density.

  7. Non-dispersive method for measuring longitudinal neutron coherence length using high frequency cold neutron pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Hino, M.; Yamazaki, D.; Achiwa, N.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A non-dispersive method is proposed for measuring the longitudinal coherence length of a neutron using a high frequency cold neutron pulser (hf-CNP) placed between two multilayer spin splitters (MSS) which composes the cold neutron spin interferometer. Two spin eigenstates of a neutron polarized x-y plane are split non-dispersively and longitudinally in time by the hf-CNP which could reflect two components alternatively in time. The reduction of the visibility of interference fringes after being superposed by the second MSS is measured as a function of the frequency of the pulser by TOF method. From the zero visibility point obtained by extrapolation one could obtain the longitudinal coherence length of the neutron. (author)

  8. Industrial-Graded Epoxy Nanocomposites with Mechanically Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Static and Damping Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovannelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young’s modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices.

  9. Industrial-Graded Epoxy Nanocomposites with Mechanically Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Static and Damping Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Andrea; Di Maio, Dario; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2017-10-24

    The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young's modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices.

  10. Change of lattice parameters in highly disperse nickel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamarnik, M.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    A monotonous increase of the lattice parameters with the decrease of particle size is established by an X-ray study for highly disperse nickel powders in the interval of sizes from 4.9 to 35 nm. The relative changes of lattice parameters are from 4.9x10 -3 ±5x10 -4 up to 3x10 -4 ±1x10 -4 . The effect is explained by the decrease of the intracrystalline pressure in small particles stipulated by electrostatic interaction of the elements of crystal charge lattice. A calculated dependence of the lattice parameters which agrees with experimental curve is obtained in the framework of the model suggested by the charge lattice represented by an ion-electron lattice of positive ions and collectivized electrons with regard of the lattice of atomic neutral cores (the contribution of the latter is proved very small as found from the calculations). (orig.)

  11. Effect of solvent composition on dispersing ability of reaction sialon suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Oliveira, Marta; Ferreira, José M F

    2003-03-15

    This work focuses on the optimization of the rheological behavior of suspensions considering different solvent compositions. The effects of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)/ethanol (E) solvent mixtures on reaction sialon suspensions were investigated by measuring sedimentation behavior, adsorption of dispersant, and flow behavior. It was shown that both the flow behavior and the sedimentation behavior strongly depended on selection of solvent composition. Using 3 wt% KD1 as dispersant, well-dispersed colloidal suspensions could be obtained in MEK-rich solvents. The suspensions with 60 vol% MEK/40 vol% E as solvent could be fitted to the Bingham model with very low yield stress, while suspensions with pure MEK or ethanol-rich mixtures as solvent showed pseudo plastic behavior with relatively high yield stress values. A model was proposed to explain the different flow behaviors of suspensions considering the different configurations of dispersant at particles' surfaces.

  12. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals .103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparativ...

  13. Getting super-excited with modified dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Casadio, Roberto [INFN—Sezione di Bologna, viale B. Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kim, Hyung J., E-mail: amjad.ashoorioon@bo.infn.it, E-mail: roberto.casadio@bo.infn.it, E-mail: ggeshniz@uwaterloo.ca, E-mail: h268kim@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate that in some regions of parameter space, modified dispersion relations can lead to highly populated excited states, which we dub as 'super-excited' states. In order to prepare such super-excited states, we invoke dispersion relations that have negative slope in an interim sub-horizon phase at high momenta. This behaviour of quantum fluctuations can lead to large corrections relative to the Bunch-Davies power spectrum, which mimics highly excited initial conditions. We identify the Bogolyubov coefficients that can yield these power spectra. In the course of this computation, we also point out the shortcomings of the gluing method for evaluating the power spectrum and the Bogolyubov coefficients. As we discuss, there are other regions of parameter space, where the power spectrum does not get modified. Therefore, modified dispersion relations can also lead to so-called 'calm excited states'. We conclude by commenting on the possibility of obtaining these modified dispersion relations within the Effective Field Theory of Inflation.

  14. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Flake Aluminum - High-Speed Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A

    2006-06-19

    Charges of 0.5 g PETN were used to disperse 1 g of flake aluminum in a rectangular test chamber of 4 liter inner volume and inner dimensions of approximately 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm. The subsequent combustion of the flake aluminum with the ambient air in the chamber gave rise to a highly luminous flame. The evolution of the luminous region was studied by means of high-speed cinematography. The high-speed camera is responsive to a broad spectral range in the visible and near infra-red. For a number of tests this response range was narrowed down by means of a band-pass filter with a center wavelength of 488 nm and a half-width of 23 nm. The corresponding images were expected to have a stronger temperature dependence than images obtained without the filter, thus providing better capability to highlight hot-spots. Emission in the range of the pass-band of the filter can be due to continuous thermal radiation from hot Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or to molecular band emission from gaseous AlO. A time-resolving spectrometer was improvised to inspect this topic. The results suggest that AlO emission occurs, but that the continuous spectrum is the dominating effect in our experiments.

  15. Patterns and mechanisms of dispersal in a keystone seagrass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, M.; Christensen, Asbjørn; Micu, D.

    2016-01-01

    •Z. noltei shows low genetic connectivity (from 10 s to 100 s of km) in the Black Sea.•Physical modelling of dispersal well agree with estimates of genetic connectivity.•Physical and genetic connectivity show possible but rare long distance dispersal.•Seeds get dispersed locally while shoots have...

  16. TS-1 supported highly dispersed sub-5 nm gold nanoparticles toward direct propylene epoxidation using H2 and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Naixu; Chen, Yong; Shen, Quanhao; Yang, Bin; Liu, Ming; Wei, Lingfei; Tian, Wei; Zhou, Jiancheng

    2018-05-01

    We report a simple and efficient method for the preparation of highly dispersed Au nanoparticles (< 5 nm) on TS-1 substrate. The synthesis relies on the use of NaBH4 as a reductant for rapid Au atom generation, as well as PVA as a capping agent confining the particle size and dispersion. The samples were characterized by N2 physisorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, CO pulse chemisorption and thermogravimetric analysis. The size of Au particles can be controlled in the range of 3-5 nm. The supported catalyst shows both good activity and selectivity for propylene oxide (PO) generation from direct propylene epoxidation. An optimal performance with PO formation rate of 102.94 gPO h-1 kg-1cat and selectivity of 84.83% is achieved over 2.0 wt% Au/TS-1 catalyst, which is prepared by controlling PVA/Au3+ mass ratio of 1.5/1 and NaBH4/Au3+ mole ratio of 5/1. After 50 h test at 200 °C, no significant decrement of both catalytic activity and PO selectivity can be observed, indicating the excellent thermally stability of the catalyst. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism is described on basis of the previous researches and our experimental results.

  17. Measuring the aerial application of oil dispersant from very large aircraft at moderate altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, R.R.; Giammona, C.P.; Binkley, K.; Engelhardt, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a study of various aspects of oil dispersant application technology, a comparison study was conducted employing the Airborne Dispersant Delivery System (ADDS) pack and the Modular Aerial Spray System (MASS) in C-130 Hercules aircraft at altitudes of 50-150 ft above ground and at speeds up to 200 knots. Dyed Corexit 9527 was applied at a target dose rate of 5 gal/acre over a collection grid composed of metal trays, Kromekote cards, oil-sensitive cards, a continuous trough, and a WRK string collector. Analysis of the collected dispersant was done by colorimetry, fluorometry, and image analysis. Correlations through the different methodologies demonstrated that high speed, moderate altitude application of oil dispersant could be successful in delivering dispersant to the surface at effective concentration and drop size. Environmental studies of the test area showed no residual dispersant in the soil following cessation of spraying. 1 ref

  18. High performance graphene- and MWCTNs-based PS/PPO composites obtained via organic solvent dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghislandi, M.G.; Tkalya, E.; Schillinger, S.; Koning, C.E.; With, de G.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of liquid-phase dispersion was applied for the preparation of well-dispersed suspensions of MWCNTs and graphene in chloroform, using long-time ultra-sonication without the use of surfactants. The dispersions with pre-defined filler concentration (0.5 mg/ml) were monitored via UV–Vis

  19. Traffic dispersion through a series of signals with irregular split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the traffic behavior of a group of vehicles moving through a sequence of signals with irregular splits on a roadway. We present the stochastic model of vehicular traffic controlled by signals. The dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic is clarified by analyzing traffic pattern and travel time numerically. The group of vehicles breaks up more and more by the irregularity of signal's split. The traffic dispersion is induced by the irregular split. We show that the traffic dispersion depends highly on the cycle time and the strength of split's irregularity. Also, we study the traffic behavior through the series of signals at the green-wave strategy. The dependence of the travel time on offset time is derived for various values of cycle time. The region map of the traffic dispersion is shown in (cycle time, offset time)-space.

  20. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycik, Janelle M.; Chassé, Joël; Ruddick, Barry R.; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Early life-stage dispersal influences recruitment and is of significance in explaining the distribution and connectivity of marine species. Motivations for quantifying dispersal range from biodiversity conservation to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydrodynamic modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic-collector array that provides measures of Lagrangian dispersion based on the time-integration of MAPs dispersing through the array. MAPs released as a point source in a coastal marine location dispersed through the collector array over a 5-7 d period. A virtual release and observed (real-time) environmental conditions were used in a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate the dispersal of virtual particles (VPs). The number of MAPs captured throughout the collector array and the number of VPs that passed through each corresponding model location were enumerated and compared. Although VP dispersal reflected several aspects of the observed MAP dispersal, the comparisons demonstrated model sensitivity to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel for the MAPs had an e-folding scale estimate in the range of 5.19-11.44 km, while those from the model simulations were comparable at 1.89-6.52 km, and also demonstrated sensitivity to Kp. Variations among comparisons are related to the value of Kp used in modelling and are postulated to be related to MAP losses from the water column and (or) shear dispersion acting on the MAPs; a process that is constrained in the model. Our demonstration indicates a promising new way of 1) quantitatively and empirically estimating the dispersal kernel in aquatic systems, and 2) quantitatively assessing and (or) improving regional hydrodynamic

  1. Dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of Glioblastoma neurosphere dispersal in an ex vivo organotypic neural assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleis, Ahmed M.; Mahtabfar, Aria; Danish, Shabbar

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is highly aggressive. Early dispersal of the primary tumor renders localized therapy ineffective. Recurrence always occurs and leads to patient death. Prior studies have shown that dispersal of Glioblastoma can be significantly reduced by Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug currently used to control brain tumor related edema. However, due to high doses and significant side effects, treatment is tapered and discontinued as soon as edema has resolved. Prior analyses of the dispersal inhibitory effects of Dex were performed on tissue culture plastic, or polystyrene filters seeded with normal human astrocytes, conditions which inherently differ from the parenchymal architecture of neuronal tissue. The aim of this study was to utilize an ex-vivo model to examine Dex-mediated inhibition of tumor cell migration from low-passage, human Glioblastoma neurospheres on multiple substrates including mouse retina, and slices of mouse, pig, and human brain. We also determined the lowest possible Dex dose that can inhibit dispersal. Analysis by Two-Factor ANOVA shows that for GBM-2 and GBM-3, Dex treatment significantly reduces dispersal on all tissue types. However, the magnitude of the effect appears to be tissue-type specific. Moreover, there does not appear to be a difference in Dex-mediated inhibition of dispersal between mouse retina, mouse brain and human brain. To estimate the lowest possible dose at which Dex can inhibit dispersal, LogEC50 values were compared by Extra Sum-of-Squares F-test. We show that it is possible to achieve 50% reduction in dispersal with Dex doses ranging from 3.8 x10-8M to 8.0x10-9M for GBM-2, and 4.3x10-8M to 1.8x10-9M for GBM-3, on mouse retina and brain slices, respectively. These doses are 3-30-fold lower than those used to control edema. This study extends our previous in vitro data and identifies the mouse retina as a potential substrate for in vivo studies of GBM dispersal. PMID:29040322

  2. Dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of Glioblastoma neurosphere dispersal in an ex vivo organotypic neural assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Meleis

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is highly aggressive. Early dispersal of the primary tumor renders localized therapy ineffective. Recurrence always occurs and leads to patient death. Prior studies have shown that dispersal of Glioblastoma can be significantly reduced by Dexamethasone (Dex, a drug currently used to control brain tumor related edema. However, due to high doses and significant side effects, treatment is tapered and discontinued as soon as edema has resolved. Prior analyses of the dispersal inhibitory effects of Dex were performed on tissue culture plastic, or polystyrene filters seeded with normal human astrocytes, conditions which inherently differ from the parenchymal architecture of neuronal tissue. The aim of this study was to utilize an ex-vivo model to examine Dex-mediated inhibition of tumor cell migration from low-passage, human Glioblastoma neurospheres on multiple substrates including mouse retina, and slices of mouse, pig, and human brain. We also determined the lowest possible Dex dose that can inhibit dispersal. Analysis by Two-Factor ANOVA shows that for GBM-2 and GBM-3, Dex treatment significantly reduces dispersal on all tissue types. However, the magnitude of the effect appears to be tissue-type specific. Moreover, there does not appear to be a difference in Dex-mediated inhibition of dispersal between mouse retina, mouse brain and human brain. To estimate the lowest possible dose at which Dex can inhibit dispersal, LogEC50 values were compared by Extra Sum-of-Squares F-test. We show that it is possible to achieve 50% reduction in dispersal with Dex doses ranging from 3.8 x10-8M to 8.0x10-9M for GBM-2, and 4.3x10-8M to 1.8x10-9M for GBM-3, on mouse retina and brain slices, respectively. These doses are 3-30-fold lower than those used to control edema. This study extends our previous in vitro data and identifies the mouse retina as a potential substrate for in vivo studies of GBM dispersal.

  3. An assessment of first-order stochastic dispersion theories in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, David A.

    1997-12-01

    Random realizations of three-dimensional exponentially correlated hydraulic conductivity fields are used in a finite-difference numerical flow model to calculate the mean and covariance of the corresponding Lagrangian-velocity fields. The dispersivity of the porous medium is then determined from the Lagrangian-velocity statistics using the Taylor definition. This estimation procedure is exact, except for numerical errors, and the results are used to assess the accuracy of various first-order dispersion theories in both isotropic and anisotropic porous media. The results show that the Dagan theory is by far the most robust in both isotropic and anisotropic media, producing accurate values of the principal dispersivity components for σy as high as 1.0, In the case of anisotropic media where the flow is at an angle to the principal axis of hydraulic conductivity, it is shown that the dispersivity tensor is rotated away from the flow direction in the non-Fickian phase, but eventually coincides with the flow direction in the Fickian phase.

  4. Factors influencing formation of highly dispersed BaTiO3 nanospheres with uniform sizes in static hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jiabing; Shi, Haiyue; Dong, Huina; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres with uniform sizes have important applications in micro/nanoscale functional devices. To achieve well-dispersed spherical BaTiO 3 nanocrystals, we carried out as reported in this paper the systematic investigation on the factors that influence the formation of BaTiO 3 nanospheres by the static hydrothermal process, including the NaOH concentrations [NaOH], molar Ba/Ti ratios (R Ba/Ti ), hydrothermal temperatures, and durations, with an emphasis on understanding the related mechanisms. Barium nitrate and TiO 2 sols derived from tetrabutyl titanate were used as the starting materials. The as-synthesized BaTiO 3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectra. The highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres (76 ± 13 nm) were achieved under the optimum hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C for 10 h: [NaOH] = 2.0 mol L −1 and R Ba/Ti  = 1.5. Higher NaOH concentrations, higher Ba/Ti ratios, higher hydrothermal temperatures, and longer hydrothermal durations are favorable in forming BaTiO 3 nanospheres with larger fractions of tetragonal phase and higher yields; but too long hydrothermal durations resulted in abnormal growth and reduced the uniformity in particle sizes. The possible formation mechanisms for BaTiO 3 nanocrystals under the static hydrothermal conditions were investigated

  5. Electron-microscopic investigations of dispersion-strengthened superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Arzt, E.

    1988-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloys possess a high creep strength up to temperatures above 1000 0 C. This is due to a fine dispersion of incoherent Y 2 O 3 particles in connection with a highly elongated grain structure. To investigate the production and properties of ODS alloys, the grain structure was studied and the shape and distribution of dispersoids were characterized after each of the various production steps. Because the interactions between lattice dislocations and dispersoids control the deformation behaviour at high temperatures, the dislocation-dispersoid configurations in crept specimens have been studied by a TEM stereo technique and under weak-beam conditions. It was possible to detect strain fields around the dispersoids using TEM. The results lead to an improved understanding of dispersion strengthening at high temperatures and provide guidelines for the optimum use of this strengthening mechanism. (orig.) [de

  6. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements; Procedimentos de fabricacao de elementos combustiveis a base de dispersoes com alta concentracao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-07-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3} for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm{sup 3} for U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3} in U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} production at 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3}, with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  7. Genetic diversity of dispersed seeds is highly variable among leks of the long-wattled umbrellabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewell, Kym; Browne, Luke; Cabrera, Domingo; Olivo, Jorge; Karubian, Jordan

    2018-01-01

    Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees, but genetic consequences of this phenomenon remain poorly resolved. Seed dispersal of the palm Oenocarpus bataua by long-wattled umbrellabirds Cephalopterus penduliger generates high seed densities in leks (i.e., multi-male display sites), providing a suitable venue to investigate how dispersal by this frugivore may influence seed source diversity and genetic structure at local and landscape levels. We found moderate levels of maternal seed source diversity in primary seed rain across five leks in northwest Ecuador (unweighted mean alpha diversity α = 9.52, weighted mean αr = 3.52), with considerable variation among leks (αr range: 1.81-24.55). Qualitatively similar findings were obtained for allelic diversity and heterozygosity. Higher densities of O. bataua adults around leks were associated with higher values of αr and heterozygosity (non-significant trends) and allelic diversity (significant correlation). Seed source overlap between different leks was not common but did occur at low frequency, providing evidence for long-distance seed dispersal by umbrellabirds into leks. Our findings are consistent with the idea that seed pool diversity within leks may be shaped by the interaction between density of local trees, which can vary considerably between leks, and umbrellabird foraging ecology, particularly a lack of territorial defense of fruiting trees. Taken as a whole, this work adds to our growing appreciation of the ways resource distribution and associated frugivore foraging behaviors mechanistically shape seed dispersal outcomes and the distribution of plant genotypes across the landscape.

  8. Increased P-wave dispersion a risk for atrial fibrillation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, İlker; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Karagöz, Tevfik; Kanbur, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a prolonged P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-wave dispersion in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis. We evaluated electrocardiographic findings, particularly the P-wave dispersion, at initial assessment in 47 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Comparison of P-wave dispersion between adolescents with anorexia nervosa and controls showed a statistically significant higher P-wave dispersion in patients with anorexia nervosa (72 ± 16.3 msec) when compared to the control group (43.8 ± 9.5 msec). Percent of body weight lost, lower body mass index, and higher weight loss rate in the patients with anorexia nervosa had no effect on P-wave dispersion. Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate we believe that cardiac pathologies such as atrial fibrillation must also be considered in the medical evaluation.

  9. A high resolution complex terrain dispersion study in the Rocky Flats, Colorado vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO under the auspices of the Department of Energy Atmospheric Studies over Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km 2 scale. Simultaneously, an SF 6 tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF 6 plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM), a component of the RAMS system, to model the dispersion of the SF 6 . We have chosen the 4--5 February, 1991 overnight period as our case study. This night was characterized by strong drainage flows from the Rocky Mountains to the west of Rocky Flats, southerly winds in a layer about lkm thick above the drainage flows, and northwesterly winds above that layer extending to the tropopause

  10. EVOLUTION OF QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 1.5 AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR VELOCITY DISPERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn

    2012-01-01

    We measure stellar masses and structural parameters for 5500 quiescent and 20,000 star-forming galaxies at 0.3 < z ≤ 1.5 in the Newfirm Medium Band Survey COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS fields. We combine these measurements to infer velocity dispersions and determine how the number density of galaxies at fixed inferred dispersion, or the velocity dispersion function (VDF), evolves with time for each population. We show that the number of galaxies with high velocity dispersions appears to be surprisingly stable with time, regardless of their star formation history. Furthermore, the overall VDF for star-forming galaxies is constant with redshift, extending down to the lowest velocity dispersions probed by this study. The only galaxy population showing strong evolution are quiescent galaxies with low inferred dispersions, whose number density increases by a factor of ∼4 since z = 1.5. This buildup leads to an evolution in the quiescent fraction of galaxies such that the threshold dispersion above which quiescent galaxies dominate the counts moves to lower velocity dispersion with time. We show that our results are qualitatively consistent with a simple model in which star-forming galaxies quench and are added to the quiescent population. In order to compensate for the migration into the quiescent population, the velocity dispersions of star-forming galaxies must increase, with a rate that increases with dispersion.

  11. Dispersion relation and self-collimation frequency of spoof surface plasmon using tight binding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sayak; Shah, Kushal

    2015-01-01

    The analytical dispersion relation of spoof surface plasmon (SSP) is known only in the low-frequency limit and thus cannot be used to describe various practically important characteristics of SSP in the high-frequency limit (such as multimodal nature, anisotropic propagation, self-collimation). In this article, we consider a square lattice of holes made on a perfect electric conductor and derive a closed form expression of the SSP dispersion relation in the high-frequency limit using a tight binding model. Instead of using prior knowledge of the band diagram along the entire first Brillouin zone (BZ) edge, we analytically determine the hopping parameters by using the eigenfrequencies only at the three high-symmetry points of the square lattice. Using this dispersion relation, we derive an expression for the self-collimation frequency of SSP. We show that this analytical formulation is also applicable to dielectric photonic crystals and can be used to predict the frequencies corresponding to centimetre-scale supercollimation and second band self-collimation in these structures. Finally, we show that our analytical results are in agreement with the simulation results for both SSP and photonic crystals. (paper)

  12. Parasite dispersal risk tolerance is mediated by its reproductive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P; Delaplane, Keith S

    2017-10-01

    Parasite dispersal theory draws heavily upon epidemiological SIR models in which host status (susceptible (S), infected (I), or recovered (R)) is used to study parasite dispersal evolution. In contrast to these extrinsically host-centric drivers, in this study we focus on an intrinsic driver, the parasite's reproductive value (predicted future offspring) as a regulator of the extent to which the individual will engage in risky dispersal behaviour. As a model system we use the honeybee Apis mellifera and its ectoparasite, the mite Varroa destructor . Mite reproduction happens exclusively inside cells of bee brood, and newly emerged fecund mites may parasitize either a homocolonial brood cell (low risk dispersal) or emigrate to a new bee colony via phoretic attachment to mature forager bees (high risk dispersal). In an empirical bioassay, prepartum mites (high reproductive value) and postpartum mites (low reproductive value) were offered a choice of newly emerged homocolonial worker bees (low risk), homocolonial pollen forager bees (high risk), or heterocolonial pollen foragers (high risk). A preference for newly emerged bees was earlier and more strongly sustained among prepartum mites. This suggests comparatively greater dispersal risk tolerance among postpartum mites with lower reproductive value. A dangerous bid for dispersal may be adaptive if the individual has already successfully reproduced and the rewards for successful dispersal are sufficiently large.

  13. Dispersion factors - tables and diagrams for the Karlsruhe site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, D.; Baer, M.; Honcu, S.

    1984-02-01

    Dispersion experiments were performed at the Nuclear Research Center for the Karlsruhe site. The evaluation of these experiments allowed to determine the parameters of lateral or vertical atmospheric dispersions. This report is a compilation of tables and diagrams showing the dispersion factors calculated with the help of the dispersion parameters. These dispersion factors are valid for the Karlsruhe site. They have been normalized to 1 m/s wind speed and to 1 g/s (or 1 Bq/s) source strength. (orig.) [de

  14. Spatially Extended and High-Velocity Dispersion Molecular Component in Spiral Galaxies: Single-Dish Versus Interferometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%-74% for NGC 4736 and 81%-92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ˜(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(˜1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (˜3″ or ˜100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  15. Determination of continuous complex refractive index dispersion of biotissue based on internal reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhichao; Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Sun, Tengqian; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The complex refractive index dispersion (CRID), which contains the information on the refractive index dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, is an important optical parameter of biotissue. However, it is hard to perform the CRID measurement on biotissues due to their high scattering property. Continuous CRID measurement based on internal reflection (CCRIDM-IR) is introduced. By using a lab-made apparatus, internal reflectance spectra of biotissue samples at multiple incident angles were detected, from which the continuous CRIDs were calculated based on the Fresnel formula. Results showed that in 400- to 750-nm range, hemoglobin solution has complicated dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, while other biotissues have normal dispersion properties, and their extinction coefficients do not vary much with different wavelengths. The normal dispersion can be accurately described by several coefficients of dispersion equations (Cauchy equation, Cornu equation, and Conrady equation). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the continuous CRID of scattering biotissue over a continuous spectral region is measured, and we hereby have proven that CCRIDM-IR is a good method for continuous CRID research of biotissue.

  16. Spatial dispersion in atom-surface quantum friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, D.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Busch, K.; Intravaia, F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the influence of spatial dispersion on atom-surface quantum friction. We show that for atom-surface separations shorter than the carrier's mean free path within the material, the frictional force can be several orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by local optics. In addition, when taking into account spatial dispersion effects, we show that the commonly used local thermal equilibrium approximation underestimates by approximately 95% the drag force, obtained by employing the recently reported nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for quantum friction. Unlike the treatment based on local optics, spatial dispersion in conjunction with corrections to local thermal equilibrium change not only the magnitude but also the distance scaling of quantum friction.

  17. Equatorward dispersion of a high-latitude volcanic plume and its relation to the Asian summer monsoon: a case study of the Sarychev eruption in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars

    2017-11-01

    Tropical volcanic eruptions have been widely studied for their significant contribution to stratospheric aerosol loading and global climate impacts, but the impact of high-latitude volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer is not clear and the pathway of transporting aerosol from high latitudes to the tropical stratosphere is not well understood. In this work, we focus on the high-latitude volcano Sarychev (48.1° N, 153.2° E), which erupted in June 2009, and the influence of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) on the equatorward dispersion of the volcanic plume. First, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission time series and plume height of the Sarychev eruption are estimated with SO2 observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and a backward trajectory approach using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC). Then, the transport and dispersion of the plume are simulated using the derived SO2 emission time series. The transport simulations are compared with SO2 observations from AIRS and validated with aerosol observations from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). The MPTRAC simulations show that about 4 % of the sulfur emissions were transported to the tropical stratosphere within 50 days after the beginning of the eruption, and the plume dispersed towards the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through isentropic transport above the subtropical jet. The MPTRAC simulations and MIPAS aerosol data both show that between the potential temperature levels of 360 and 400 K, the equatorward transport was primarily driven by anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking enhanced by the ASM in boreal summer. The volcanic plume was entrained along the anticyclone flows and reached the TTL as it was transported southwestwards into the deep tropics downstream of the anticyclone. Further, the ASM anticyclone influenced the pathway of aerosols by isolating an aerosol hole inside of the ASM, which

  18. The role of wind in hydrochorous mangrove propagule dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Van der Stocken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wind has been recognized to be an important factor in the dispersal of hydrochorous mangrove propagules, and hence in the quantification of (metapopulation dynamics, the species-specific sensitivity to wind effects has not been studied. We combined observations from a controlled experiment (flume tank and in situ experiments to understand wind and water current contributions to dispersal potential as well as to estimate real dispersal ranges due to immediate response to tidal currents (two outgoing tides. This was done for 4 species with propagules differing in morphological and buoyancy properties (i.e. Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops tagal, Heritiera littoralis and Xylocarpus granatum. The flume experiments revealed that the influence of wind depends on the density of a propagule (and hence its buoyancy characteristics and that typical morphological characteristics of the dispersal unit are additionally important. H. littoralis propagules were influenced most, because on the one hand their low density (613.58 g L−1; n =10 enables them to float on top of the water surface, and on the other hand their "sailboat-like" structure provides a relatively large surface area. The X. granatum fruits appeared to be the least influenced by ambient wind conditions, explained by the smooth surface and spherical shape of which, because of the fruit's high density (890.05 g L−1; n = 1, only a small part sticks above the water surface. Although the seeds of X. granatum are of a similar size class than H. littoralis propagules, they are (like the X. granatum fruits largely submerged due to their high density (870.66 g L−1; n = 8, hence catching less wind than H. littoralis propagules. The influence of wind on the dispersal of the horizontally floating C. tagal and R. mucronata dispersal units was strong, comparable to that of H. littoralis propagules. A differential effect of wind was found within elongated propagules, which directly follows from

  19. Optimizing optical pre-dispersion using transmit DSP for mitigation of Kerr nonlinearities in dispersion managed cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, James; Gaudette, Jamie; Mehta, Priyanth

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of digital signal processing (DSP) in optical transmitters and receivers, the ability to finely tune the ratio of pre and post dispersion compensation can be exploited to best mitigate the nonlinear penalties caused by the Kerr effect. A portion of the nonlinear penalty in optical communication channels has been explained by an increase in peak to average power ratio (PAPR) inherent in highly dispersed signals. The standard approach for minimizing these impairments applies 50% pre dispersion compensation and 50% post dispersion compensation, thereby decreasing average PAPR along the length of the cable, as compared with either 100% pre or post dispersion compensation. In this paper we demonstrate that simply considering the net accumulated dispersion, and applying 50/50 pre/post dispersion is not necessarily the best way to minimize PAPR and subsequent Kerr nonlinearities. Instead, we consider the cumulative dispersion along the entire length of the cable, and, taking into account this additional information, derive an analytic formula for the minimization of PAPR. Alignment with simulation and experimental measurements is presented using a commercially available 100Gb/s dual-polarization binary phase-shift-keying (DP-BPSK) coherent modem, with transmitter and receiver DSP. Measurements are provided from two different 5000km dispersion managed Submarine test-beds, as well as a 3800km terrestrial test-bed with a mixture of SMF-28 and TWRS optical fiber. This method is shown to deviate significantly from the conventional 50/50 method described above, in dispersion managed communications systems, and more closely aligns with results obtained from simulation and data collected from laboratory test-beds.

  20. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  1. Paclitaxel-Nanodiamond Nanocomplexes Enhance Aqueous Dispersibility and Drug Retention in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Jung, Joo Hyun; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Kang, Eunah; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-09-14

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) with 5 nm crystalline structures have been recognized as emerging carbon delivery vehicles due to their biocompatible inertness, high surface-to-volume ratio, and energy absorbance properties. In this study, carboxylated nanodiamond (ND-COOH) was reduced to hydroxylated nanodiamond (ND-OH) for stable and pH-independent colloidal dispersity. The poorly water-soluble paclitaxel (PTX) was physically loaded into ND-OH clusters, forming amorphous PTX nanostructure on the interparticle nanocage of the ND substrate. Stable physical PTX loading onto the ND substrate with stable colloidal stability showed enhanced PTX release. ND-OH/PTX complexes retained the sustained release of PTX by up to 97.32% at 70 h, compared with the 47.33% release of bare crystalline PTX. Enhanced PTX release from ND substrate showed low cell viability in Hela, MCF-9, and A549 cancer cells due to sustained release and stable dispersity in a biological aqueous environment. Especially, the IC50 values of ND-OH/PTX complexes and PTX in Hela cells were 0.037 μg/mL and 0.137 μg/mL, respectively. Well-dispersed cellular uptake of suprastructure ND-OH/PTX nanocomplexes was directly observed from the TEM images. ND-OH/PTX nanocomplexes assimilated into cells might provide convective diffusion with high PTX concentration, inducing initial necrosis. This study suggests that poorly water-soluble drugs can be formulated into a suprastructure with ND and acts as a highly concentrated drug reservoir directly within a cell.

  2. Synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets for high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles based on the reduction of graphene oxide via 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Yinjie; Zheng, Xingliang; Zhou, Qionghua; Lu, Cuihong; Chen, Jinhua; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    A one-step reduction/functionalization strategy for the synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets is reported in this paper. 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde (PCA) is introduced as a new reductant for the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), serving three roles: reducing GO to graphene nanosheets (GNs), stabilizing the as-prepared GNs due to the electrostatic repulsion of the oxidation products of PCA (1-pyrenecarboxylate, PC − ) on the surface of the GNs and anchoring Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with high dispersion and small particle size. Transmission electron microscopy shows that Pt NPs with an average diameter of 1.3 ± 0.2 nm are uniformly dispersed on the surface of the PC − -functionalized GNs (PC − -GNs). The obtained Pt NPs/PC − -GNs nanohybrids have higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards methanol oxidation in comparison with Pt NPs supported on GNs obtained by the chemical reduction of GO with the typical reductant, hydrazine. (paper)

  3. Genetic insights into dispersal distance and disperser fitness of African lions (Panthera leo) from the latitudinal extremes of the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Pim; Keet, Dewald F; Brebner, Diana K; Bastos, Armanda D S

    2018-04-03

    Female lions generally do not disperse far beyond their natal range, while males can disperse distances of over 200 km. However, in bush-like ecosystems dispersal distances less than 25 km are reported. Here, we investigate dispersal in lions sampled from the northern and southern extremes of Kruger National Park, a bush-like ecosystem in South Africa where bovine tuberculosis prevalence ranges from low to high across a north-south gradient. A total of 109 individuals sampled from 1998 to 2004 were typed using 11 microsatellite markers, and mitochondrial RS-3 gene sequences were generated for 28 of these individuals. Considerable north-south genetic differentiation was observed in both datasets. Dispersal was male-biased and generally further than 25 km, with long-distance male gene flow (75-200 km, detected for two individuals) confirming that male lions can travel large distances, even in bush-like ecosystems. In contrast, females generally did not disperse further than 20 km, with two distinctive RS-3 gene clusters for northern and southern females indicating no or rare long-distance female dispersal. However, dispersal rate for the predominantly non-territorial females from southern Kruger (fraction dispersers ≥0.68) was higher than previously reported. Of relevance was the below-average body condition of dispersers and their low presence in prides, suggesting low fitness. Large genetic differences between the two sampling localities, and low relatedness among males and high dispersal rates among females in the south, suggestive of unstable territory structure and high pride turnover, have potential implications for spread of diseases and the management of the Kruger lion population.

  4. High-dispersion spectroscopy of extrasolar planets: from CO in hot Jupiters to O2 in exo-Earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellen, Ignas

    2014-04-28

    Ground-based high-dispersion spectroscopy could reveal molecular oxygen as a biomarker gas in the atmospheres of twin-Earths transiting red dwarf stars within the next 25 years. The required contrasts are only a factor of 3 lower than that already achieved for carbon monoxide in hot Jupiter atmospheres today but will need much larger telescopes because the target stars will be orders of magnitude fainter. If extraterrestrial life is very common and can therefore be found on planets around the most nearby red dwarf stars, it may be detectable via transmission spectroscopy with the next-generation extremely large telescopes. However, it is likely that significantly more collecting area is required for this. This can be achieved through the development of low-cost flux collector technology, which combines a large collecting area with a low but sufficient image quality for high-dispersion spectroscopy of bright stars.

  5. Dispersion engineering for integrated nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbésien, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how dispersion engineering in two dimensional dielectric photonic crystals can provide new effects for the precise control of light propagation for integrated nanophotonics.Dispersion engineering in regular and graded photonic crystals to promote anomalous refraction effects is studied from the concepts to experimental demonstration via nanofabrication considerations. Self collimation, ultra and negative refraction, second harmonic generation, mirage and invisibility effects which lead to an unprecedented control of light propagation at the (sub-)wavelength scale for the

  6. Preparation of carbon black masterbatch for PET using polymeric dispersing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, D.H. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lim, J.C. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, K.H. [Yeungnam College of Science and Technology, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Three kinds of copolyesters, dispersing agents, were synthesized from the polycondensation reaction of dimethylterephthalate (DMT), dimethylisophthalate (DMI), sebacic acid (SA), and 1,4-butanediol (BD). Carbon black masterbatches were prepared by mixing carbon black into the dispersing agents (1 : 1.3 weight ratio) in a Brabender Plasticorder Using single screw extruder, masterbatches were compounded with poly(ethylene terephthalate) in 3 wt% concentration and mechanical properties of the compounds were investigated Gel permeation chromatography data implied that thermal degradation of polymeric dispersing agents was not significant through dispersion. Capillary rheometer test showed that PBTI has the highest viscosity and shear sensitivity among the there dispersing agents. Volume resistivities of masterbatch and transmission electron micrographs showed that dispersity of carbon black was improved with increasing melt viscosity of dispersing agent. The ultimate performance and mechanical characteristics of carbon black filled PET compounds depended directly on dispersion quality of the carbon black in masterbatch. Mechanical properties of compounds were improved with increasing dispersity of carbon black and with increasing content of rigid aromatic group in the copolyester dispersing agent. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A; Prior, Kirsten M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-05-01

    Plant-animal mutualisms, such as seed dispersal, are often vulnerable to disruption by invasive species. Here, we show for the first time how a non-ant invasive species negatively affects seed dispersal by ants. We examined the effects of several animal species that co-occur in a temperate deciduous forest-including native and invasive seed-dispersing ants (Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal. We also video-recorded depots to determine which other taxa interact with seeds. We found that A. rudis was the main disperser of seeds and that A. subfuscus consumed elaiosomes without dispersing seeds. Rodent visitation was rare, and rodent exclusion had no significant effect on seed or elaiosome removal. We then used data obtained from laboratory and field mesocosm experiments to determine how elaiosome robbing by A. subfuscus affects seed dispersal by A. rudis and M. rubra. We found that elaiosome robbing by slugs reduced seed dispersal by ants, especially in mesocosms with A. rudis, which picks up seeds more slowly than M. rubra. Taken together, our results show that elaiosome robbing by an invasive slug reduces seed dispersal by ants, suggesting that invasive slugs can have profound negative effects on seed dispersal mutualisms.

  8. Dispersant affects the cellular influences of single-wall carbon nanotube: the role of CNT as carrier of dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Stowe, Mayumi; Tabei, Miki; Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Endoh, Shigehisa; Morimoto, Yasuo; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2013-06-01

    The application of carbon nanotube (CNT) as a functional material to engineering and life sciences is advanced. In order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CNT in vitro, some chemical and biological reagents are used for dispersants. In the present study, the cellular influences of six kinds of chemical or biological reagents used as dispersants were examined. Pluronic F-127, Pluronic F-68, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), pulmonary surfactant preparation Surfacten®, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Tween 80 were used in the preparation of CNT-medium dispersants. The influences of each reagent on cell viability in human lung carcinoma A549 cells were small. However, Pluronic F-127, DPPC, Surfacten® and Tween 80 induced an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Next, CNT-medium dispersions were prepared, using each reagent as a dispersant and applied to A549 cells. The cellular influences depended on the kind of dispersant. Cells exposed to CNT dispersion including Pluronic® F-127, Surfacten®, DPPC and Tween 80 showed LDH release to the culture supernatant. Induction of intracellular ROS level was observed in cells exposed to CNT dispersion including each reagent except BSA. These results suggest that the adsorbed dispersant reagents on the surface of the CNT affect its cellular influences, particularly the induction of oxidative stress.

  9. Long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Lark, Kurt K; Sieving, Paul A; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Katz, Gregory J; Ritch, Robert

    2003-12-01

    To describe pigment dispersion associated with long anterior zonules. Multicenter observational case series. Fifteen patients, seven of whom were treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension, were identified with long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on one anterior capsule specimen. All patients had anterior zonules that inserted centrally on the lens capsule. Signs of pigment dispersion included corneal endothelial pigmentation, loss of the pupillary ruff, and variable trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the lack of posterior iris insertion and concavity. There was no exfoliation material. Transmission electron microscopy showed zonular lamellae with adherent pigment granules, and no exfoliation material. Long anterior zonules inserted onto the central lens capsule may cause mechanical disruption of the pigment epithelium at the pupillary ruff and central iris leading to pigment dispersion.

  10. A laboratory dispersant effectiveness test which reflects dispersant efficiency in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Wood, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil dispersion efficiencies of surfactants, from laboratory dispersion tests and field data were compared and calibrated. Data from an oil spill, where dispersants were used as a major part of the response, was analysed. The data was accumulated through the monitoring of the dispersant operation of the Sea Empress spill incident, in which Forties Blend oil was spilled at sea. This detailed data set was used to calibrate existing laboratory dispersant tests, and to devise a new International Dispersant Effectiveness Test. The objective was to create a comprehensive guide to decision making on whether and when to start a dispersant spraying operation. The dispersion efficiencies obtained from the laboratory dispersant tests were compared with field data. Flume tests produced the highest percentage of dispersed oil for all the dispersal tests. However, it was emphasised that the total percentage of oil dispersed should not be the only measure of dispersant effectiveness, since it does not distinguish between the contribution of natural and chemically enhanced dispersion. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. The Dispersion of Employees' Wage Increase and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Christian; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    than the dispersion of wage levels. It is reasonable to expect greater dispersion of wage increases to be associated with higher monetary incentives, but also with increased perceptions of unfairness. The authors' analysis of linked employer-employee data from Denmark for the years 1992-97 shows......Previous studies examining intra-firm wage dispersion and firm performance have focused on wage levels. The authors of this study argue that for purposes of comparing wage dispersion's positive incentive effects with its adverse morale effects, the dispersion of wage increases is more revealing...

  12. In-reactor behaviour of centrifugally atomized U3Si dispersion fuel irradiated at high temperature in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Yoo, Byeong Ok; Park, Dae Kyu; Lee, Choong Sung; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation test on full-size U 3 Si dispersion fuel elements, prepared by centrifugal atomization and conventional comminution method, has been performed up to about 77 at.% U-235 in maximum burn-up at CT hole position having the highest power condition in the HANARO reactor, in order to examine the irradiation performance of the atomized U 3 Si for the driver fuels of HANARO. The in-reactor interaction of the atomized U 3 Si dispersion fuel meats is generally assumed to be acceptable with the range of 5-15 μm in average thickness. The atomized spherical particles have more uniform and thinner reaction layer than the comminuted irregular particles. The U 3 Si particles have relatively fine and uniform size distribution of fission gas bubbles, irrespective of the powdering method. The bubble population in the atomized particles appears to be finer and more homogeneous with the characteristics of narrower bubble size distribution than that of the comminuted fuel. The atomized U 3 Si dispersion fuel elements exhibit sound swelling behaviours of 5 % in ΔV/V m even at ∼77 at.% U-235 burn-up, which meets with the safety criterion of the fuel rod, 20vol.% for HANARO. The atomized U3Si dispersion fuel elements show smaller swelling than the comminuted fuel elements

  13. Pharmaceutical grade phyllosilicate dispersions: the influence of shear history on floc structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseras, C; Meeten, G H; Lopez-Galindo, A

    1999-05-10

    The effect of mixing conditions on the flow curves of some clay-water dispersions was studied. Two Spanish fibrous phyllosilicates (sepiolite from Vicálvaro and palygorskite from Turón) and a commercial bentonite (Bentopharm Copyright, UK) were selected as model clays. The disperse systems were made up using a rotor-stator mixer working at two different mixing rates (1000 and 8000 rpm), for periods of 1 and 10 min. Rheological measurements were taken and the corresponding flow curves obtained immediately after interposition and then after a period of 24 h under low shear caused by a roller apparatus. Aqueous sepiolite dispersions showed the highest viscosity and were easily interposed, whereas palygorskite dispersions were more difficult to obtain, resulting in low to medium viscosity gels. Bentonite dispersions provided medium viscosity systems, which greatly increased their viscosity after the low shear treatment (as a result of swelling), whereas the viscosity of the fibrous clays stayed at approximately the same values or even decreased. A linear relation was found between mixing energy and apparent viscosity in the bentonite systems, while apparent viscosity in the sepiolite samples was related to mixing power, with minor influence of mixing times. All the systems studied had thixotropic behaviour, changing from clearly positive to even negative thixotropy in some palygorskite systems. Finally, we studied the effect of drastic pH changes on the system structure. Results showed that rheological properties were highly sensitive to pH in the fibrous dispersions, but less sensitive behaviour was found in the laminar clay systems. Copyright.

  14. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides, mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi's Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi's Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation

  15. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  16. Measuring short distance dispersal of Alliaria petiolata and determining potential long distance dispersal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Loebach

    2018-03-01

    were dropped on furs and rotated as before, then the furs were agitated for one hour. The seeds retained in the fur were counted. Results For the seed dispersal experiment, the 2Dt function provided the best fit and was the most biologically meaningful. It predicted that seed density rapidly declined with distance from the point source. Mean dispersal distance was 0.52 m and 95% of seeds dispersed within 1.14 m. The epizoochory field experiment showed increased mammal activity and A. petiolata seedlings in germination trays of the MIT compared to control. Laboratory studies showed 3–26% of seeds were attached and retained by raccoon and deer fur. Retention significantly increased if either seed or fur were wet (57–98%. Discussion Without animal seed vectors, most seeds fall within a short distance of the seed source; however, long distance dispersal may be accomplished by epizoochory. Our data are consistent with A. petiolata’s widespread distribution and development of dense clusters of the species in invaded areas.

  17. Electric field driven plasmon dispersion in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Ren-Bing; Qin Hua; Zhang Xiao-Yu; Xu Wen

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on the electric field driven plasmon dispersion of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). By introducing a drifted Fermi—Dirac distribution, we calculate the transport properties of the 2DEG in the AlGaN/GaN interface by employing the balance-equation approach based on the Boltzmann equation. Then, the nonequilibrium Fermi—Dirac function is obtained by applying the calculated electron drift velocity and electron temperature. Under random phase approximation (RPA), the electric field driven plasmon dispersion is investigated. The calculated results indicate that the plasmon frequency is dominated by both the electric field E and the angle between wavevector q and electric field E. Importantly, the plasmon frequency could be tuned by the applied source—drain bias voltage besides the gate voltage (change of the electron density)

  18. Development of photopolymerizable clay nanocomposites utilizing reactive dispersants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Adom, Kwame

    Nanocomposites hold tremendous promise for expanding the utility of polymeric materials. However, accessing particulate sizes in the nanoscale domain continues to be a scientific challenge, especially in highly cross-linked photopolymerizable systems. In this study, photopolymerizable nanocomposites utilizing clay nanoparticles and reactive dispersants have been developed. The influence of particle size, dispersant-clay interactions, and surfactant concentration on photopolymerization behavior and nanoparticle dispersion has been elucidated. Clay particles serve as templates upon which surfactants aggregate during photopolymerization. This results in higher photopolymerization rates with addition of increasing concentrations of polymerizable surfactants. Furthermore, polymerizable surfactants induce faster photopolymerization rates compared to non-polymerizable analogues in systems that have ionically-bound dispersants on the particle surface. Utilizing reactive organoclays induces significant changes to the photopolymerization behavior depending on the choice of reactive functionality employed. Faster acrylate photopolymerization rates occur in photopolymer systems containing thiol-modified clays, while much slower rates occur for nonpolymerizable organoclay systems. In addition, chemical compatibility between monomer and clay dispersant (based on chemical similarity or polarity) allows enhancement of exfoliation in photopolymerizable formulations. With polymerizable dispersants, exfoliation is readily achieved in various multifunctional acrylate systems. The degree of exfoliation depends on the position of the reactive group relative to the surfactant's cationic site and the type of functionality. Thiolated organoclays exfoliate during polymerization, while methacrylated clays show substantially less dependence on polymerization behavior. Interestingly, changes in the physical properties of the resulting nanocomposite are independent of the degree of exfoliation

  19. Familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, A M; Damji, K F; Dohadwala, A A; Hodge, W G; Allingham, R R

    2001-02-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome affects up to 4% of the white population. It is characterized by the presence of transillumination defects, Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Open-angle glaucoma will develop in as many as 50% of affected patients. In this study we describe the familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome in six North American pedigrees and the phenotypic characteristics with respect to pigment dispersion syndrome and glaucoma. Probands with pigment dispersion syndrome were identified in glaucoma clinics at university eye centres in Ottawa and Durham, NC. Families with two or more affected members were evaluated. All willing members in each family underwent a thorough clinical examination and were classified as affected with pigment dispersion syndrome, suspect or unaffected. The previous medical records were reviewed to obtain the past medical and ocular history, including risk factors for glaucoma. All six families are white. Three families show at least two generations of affected members. Of the 43 subjects examined 58% were women. All 14 affected members showed moderate to heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation and either Krukenberg's spindle or transillumination defects. The affected members were also considerably more myopic (mean spherical equivalent for the right eye -4.72 dioptres) than the suspect group or the unaffected group (mean spherical equivalent -0.79 D and +1.19 D respectively) (p pigment dispersion syndrome. Our ultimate goal is to identify the gene(s) that causes this disorder in order to clarify its molecular etiology and pathophysiology. This may give rise to a molecular classification of the disease as well as provide the foundation for genetic testing and new treatment approaches.

  20. Irradiation testing of high density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-10-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 microplates. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U-10Mo-0.05Sn, U 2 Mo, or U 3 Si 2 . These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of 40% and 80%. Of particular interest is the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions

  1. Tailoring nonlinearity and dispersion of photonic crystal fibers using hybrid cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-lun, Liu; Lan-tian, Hou; Wei, Wang

    2009-01-01

    We present a hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber for shaping high nonlinear and flattened dispersion in a wide range of wavelengths. The new structure adopts hybrid cladding with different pitches, air-holes diameters and air-holes arrayed fashions. The full-vector finite element method with perfectly matched layer is used to investigate the characteristics of the hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber such as nonlinearity and dispersion properties. The influence of the cladding structure parameters on the nonlinear coefficient and geometric dispersion is analyzed. High nonlinear coefficient and the dispersion properties of fibers are tailored by adjusting the cladding structure parameters. A novel hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion flattened which is suited for super continuum generation is designed. (author)

  2. Analytic properties of the whistler dispersion function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The analytic properties of the dispersion function of a whistler are investigated in the complex frequency plane. It possesses a pole and a branch point at a frequency equal to the minimum value of the electron gyrofrequency along the path of propagation. An integral equation relates the dispersion function to the distribution of magnetospheric electrons along the path and the solution of this equation is obtained. It is found that the electron density in the equatorial plane is very simply related to the dispersion function. A discussion of approximate formulae to represent the dispersion shows how particular terms can be related to attributes of the electron density distribution, and a new approximate formula is proposed. (author)

  3. CNTs/Al5083 Composites of High-performance Uniform and Dispersion Fabricated by High-energy Ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs, mass fraction of 0%-2% reinforced Al5083 composites were fabricated by horizontal high-energy ball milling. The effects of ball milling time and CNTs contents on the properties of composite materials were studied. The micro morphology of CNTs/Al5083 composites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM and transmission electron microscopy(TEM, the tensile strength and microhardness of the composites were tested. The results indicate that after high-energy ball milling for 1.5h, the carbon nanotubes are dispersed homogeneously in the Al5083 matrix, and good interfacial bonding strength between CNTs and Al5083 is obtained at the addition of 1.5%CNTs. Under these conditions, the tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are 188.8MPa and 136HV, respectively. Compared to Al5083 matrix without CNTs reinforcement, tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are increased by 32.2% and 36%, respectively.

  4. Dispersion-tailored, low-loss photonic crystal fibers for the THz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Adam, Aurèle J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated a new type of photonic crystal fibers based on a cyclic olefin copolymer, transparent in the THz range. We characterize the propagation loss, dispersion, and spatial beam profile in fibers designed for low and high dispersion.......We have fabricated a new type of photonic crystal fibers based on a cyclic olefin copolymer, transparent in the THz range. We characterize the propagation loss, dispersion, and spatial beam profile in fibers designed for low and high dispersion....

  5. Amphiphilic Fluorinated Block Copolymer Synthesized by RAFT Polymerization for Graphene Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang Moo Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the superior properties of graphene, the strong π–π interactions among pristine graphenes yielding massive aggregation impede industrial applications. For non-covalent functionalization of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG, poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-block-poly(4-vinyl pyridine (PTFEMA-b-PVP block copolymers were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization and used as polymeric dispersants in liquid phase exfoliation assisted by ultrasonication. The HOPG graphene concentrations were found to be 0.260–0.385 mg/mL in methanolic graphene dispersions stabilized with 10 wt % (relative to HOPG PTFEMA-b-PVP block copolymers after one week. Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM analyses revealed that HOPG could not be completely exfoliated during the sonication. However, on-line turbidity results confirmed that the dispersion stability of HOPG in the presence of the block copolymer lasted for one week and that longer PTFEMA and PVP blocks led to better graphene dispersibility. Force–distance (F–d analyses of AFM showed that PVP block is a good graphene-philic block while PTFEMA is methanol-philic.

  6. Analysis of chlorpheniramine in human urine samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and environmentally friendly microextraction technique was used for determination of chlorpheniramine (CPM, an antihistamine drug, in human urine samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. In this extraction technique, an appropriate mixture of acetonitrile (disperser solvent and carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent was rapidly injected into the urine sample containing the target analyte. Tiny droplets of extractant were formed and dispersed into the sample solution and then sedimented at the bottom of the conical test tube by centrifugation. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.055-5.5 µg mL-1, with a detection limit of 16.5 ng mL-1. This proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of real urine samples. Low consumption of toxic organic solvents, simplicity of operation, low cost and acceptable figures of merit are the main advantages of the proposed technique.

  7. Mechanosynthesis of A Ferritic ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Steel Containing 14% Chromium and Its Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivai, A. K.; Dimyati, A.; Adi, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    One of the advanced materials for application at high temperatures which is aggressively developed in the world is ODS (Oxide Dispersion strengthened) steel. ODS ferritic steels are one of the candidate materials for future nuclear reactors in the world (Generation IV reactors) because it is able to be used in the reactor above 600 °C. ODS ferritic steels have also been developed for the interconnect material of SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) which will be exposed to about 800 °C of temperature. The steel is strengthened by dispersing homogeneously of oxide particles (ceramic) in nano-meter sized in the matrix of the steel. Synthesis of a ferritic ODS steel by dispersion of nano-particles of yttrium oxide (yttria: Y2O3) as the dispersion particles, and containing high-chromium i.e. 14% has been conducted. Synthesis of the ODS steels was done mechanically (mechanosynthesis) using HEM (High Energy ball Milling) technique for 40 and 100 hours. The resulted samples were characterized using SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscope), and XRD (X-ray diffraction) to analyze the microstructure characteristics. The results showed that the crystal grains of the sample with 100 hours milling time was much smaller than the sample with 40 hours milling time, and some amount of alloy was formed during the milling process even for 40 hours milling time. Furthermore, the structure analysis revealed that some amount of iron atom substituted by a slight amount of chromium atom as a solid solution. The quantitative analysis showed that the phase mostly consisted of FeCr solid-solution with the structure was BCC (body-centered cubic).

  8. Spectroscopic and magnetic studies of highly dispersible superparamagnetic silica coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadyszak, Krzysztof [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Mariana Smo.luchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Kertmen, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmet.kertmen@pg.gda.pl [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Coy, Emerson [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Andruszkiewicz, Ryszard; Milewski, Sławomir [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Kardava, Irakli; Scheibe, Błażej; Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Chybczyńska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.chybczynska@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Mariana Smo.luchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@Silica were obtained. • Magnetic response was studied by DC, AC magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy. • Nanoparticles show magnetite structure with a well-defined Verwey transition. • Samples show no inter particle magnetic interactions or agglomeration. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic behavior in aqueously well dispersible magnetite core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is presented. The magnetic properties of core-shell nanoparticles were measured with use of the DC, AC magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy. Particles where characterized by HR-TEM and Raman spectroscopy, showing a crystalline magnetic core of 11.5 ± 0.12 nm and an amorphous silica shell of 22 ± 1.5 nm in thickness. The DC, AC magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic nature of nanoparticles, additionally the EPR studies performed at much higher frequency than DC, AC magnetometry (9 GHz) have confirmed the paramagnetic nature of the nanoparticles. Our results show the excellent magnetic behavior of the particles with a clear magnetite structure, which are desirable properties for environmental remediation and biomedical applications.

  9. Dispersed-fringe-accumulation-based left-subtract-right method for fine co-phasing of a dispersed fringe sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Shengqian; Rao, Changhui

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a dispersed-fringe-accumulation (DFA)-based left-subtract-right (LSR) piston estimation method (DFA-LSR), in which the dispersed fringe image is accumulated in the dispersed direction, and then the LSR method is used to estimate the piston error, is proposed for dispersed fringe sensors (DFS) in the fine co-phasing stage. The DFS is usually used to detect the piston errors (optical path difference) between different segmented mirrors or synthetic aperture telescopes. The DFA-LSR makes up for the shortcomings of the main peak position (MPP) method, which suffers from the constant offset in the pixel counts. The analysis and experiment results show that the proposed method can keep relatively better performance even at the condition of poor signal-to-noise ratio, compared with the MPP method in fine co-phasing stage.

  10. The Electrochemical Behavior of Dispersions of Spherical Ultramicroelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-30

    means of bipolar electrolyses with dispersions. Polarization equations are predicted for highly simplified models based on the concept of the mixture...three-dimensional electrodes. Bipolar electrolyses on dispersions of spherical particles have been proposed and the behavior of such electrodes in the...photodecomposition of water (e.g. see (32-41)). It should be noted that the size range of the particles which will be most frequently used in dispersion

  11. Hydrodynamic dispersion of microswimmers in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthieu; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In our laboratory, we study hydrodynamics of suspensions of micro-swimmers. These micro-organisms are unicellular algae Chlamydomonas Rheinhardii which are able to swim by using their flagella. The swimming dynamics of these micro-swimmers can be seen as a random walk, in absence of any kind of interaction. In addition, these algae have the property of being phototactic, i.e. they swim towards the light. Combining this property with a hydrodynamic flow, we were able to reversibly separate algae from the rest of the fluid. But for sufficiently high volume fraction, these active particles interact with each other. We are now interested in how the coupling of hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers and phototaxis can modify the swimming dynamics at the scale of the suspension. To this aim, we conduct experiments in microfluidic devices to study the dispersion of the micro-organisms in a the liquid phase as a function of the volume fraction. We show that the dispersion of an assembly of puller type microswimmers is quantitatively affected by hydrodynamics interactions. Phd student.

  12. Dispersal of sticky particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramana; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we show through simulations that when sticky particles are broken continually, particles are dispersed into fine dust only if they are present in a narrow range of volume fractions. The upper limit of this range is 0.20 in the 2D and 0.10 in the 3D space. An increase in the dimensionality of space reduces the upper limit nearly by a factor of two. This scaling holds for dispersal of particles in hyperdimensional space of dimensions up to ten, the maximum dimension studied in this work. The maximum values of volume fractions obtained are significantly lower than those required for close packing and random packing of discs in 2D and spheres in 3D space. These values are also smaller than those required for critical phenomena of cluster percolation. The results obtained are attributed to merger cascades of sticky particles, triggered by breakup events. A simple theory that incorporates this cascade is developed to quantitatively explain the observed scaling of the upper limit with the dimensionality of space. The theory also captures the dynamics of the dispersal process in the corresponding range of particle volume fractions. The theory suggests that cascades of order one and two predominantly decide the upper limit for complete dispersal of particles.

  13. Anomalous acoustic dispersion in architected microlattice metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    KröDel, Sebastian; Palermo, Antonio; Daraio, Chiara

    The ability to control dispersion in acoustic metamaterials is crucial to realize acoustic filtering and rectification devices as well as perfect imaging using negative refractive index materials. Architected microlattice metamaterials immersed in fluid constitute a versatile platform for achieving such control. We investigate architected microlattice materials able to exploit locally resonant modes of their fundamental building blocks that couple with propagating acoustic waves. Using analytical, numerical and experimental methods we find that such lattice materials show a hybrid dispersion behavior governed by Biot's theory for long wavelengths and multiple scattering theory when wave frequency is close to the resonances of the building block. We identify the relevant geometric parameters to alter and control the group and phase velocities in this class of acoustic metamaterials. Furthermore, we fabricate small-scale acoustic metamaterial samples using high precision SLA additive manufacturing and test the resulting materials experimentally using a customized ultrasonic setup. This work paves the way for new acoustic devices based on microlattice metamaterials.

  14. Velocity Dispersion of Ionized Gas and Multiple Supernova Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliev E. O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We use 3D numerical simulations to study the evolution of the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supernova (SN explosions. We find that the IHα– σ diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are responsible for high velocity dispersion that reaches up to ≳ 100 km s−1. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly obtained for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion in the IHα– σ diagram may correspond to several isolated or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. Degrading the spatial resolution in the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated IHα– σ diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.

  15. Dispersive XAS on a High Brilliance Source: Highlights and Future Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascarelli, S.; Aquilanti, G.; Guilera, G.; Mathon, O.; Newton, M. A.; Trapananti, A.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Munoz, M.; Pasquale, M.

    2007-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is a now a well-established method which has been applied to a broad range of applications. Ten years from the construction of beamline ID24 at the ESRF, the first dispersive XAS spectrometer using undulator radiation on a third generation source, we report an overview of recent results in very diverse fields of research, ranging from automotive catalysts to magnetism at extreme conditions. We also illustrate how pushing the instrument to its limits has opened new opportunities, such as an enhanced sensitivity to detection of tiny atomic displacements and the potential for micro-probe redox and speciation imaging

  16. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  17. Quantum-Gravity Based Photon Dispersion in Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Detection Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances offer a time-varying signal that can be used to search for energy-dependent photon dispersion effects. We show that short bursts with narrow pulse structures at high energies will offer the least ambiguous tests for energy-dependent dispersion effects. We discuss quantitative methods to search for such effects in time-tagged photon data. Utilizing observed gamma-ray burst profiles extrapolated to GeV energies, as may expected to be observed by GLAST, we also demonstrate the extent to which these methods can be used as an empirical exploration of quantum gravity formalisms

  18. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2 of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJs of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9. A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9 and C. elegans (ascr#2 dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers.Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes.

  19. Efficient Hydrogenolysis of Guaiacol over Highly Dispersed Ni/MCM-41 Catalyst Combined with HZSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbai Qiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of MCM-41 supported Ni catalysts with high metal dispersion was successfully synthesized by simple co-impregnation using proper ethylene glycol (EG. The acquired Ni-based catalysts performed the outstanding hydrogenolysis activity of guaiacol. The effects of the synthesis parameters including drying temperature, calcination temperature, and metal loading on the physical properties of NiO nanoparticles were investigated through the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD. The drying temperature was found to significantly influence the particle sizes of NiO supported on MCM-41, but the calcination temperature and metal loading had less influence. Interestingly, the small particle size (≤3.3 nm and the high dispersion of NiO particles were also obtained for co-impregnation on the mixed support (MCM-41:HZSM-5 = 1:1, similar to that on the single MCM-41 support, leading to excellent hydrogenation activity at low temperature. The guaiacol conversion could reach 97.9% at 150 °C, and the catalytic activity was comparative with that of noble metal catalysts. The hydrodeoxygenation (HDO performance was also promoted by the introduction of acidic HZSM-5 zeolite and an 84.1% yield of cyclohexane at 240 °C was achieved. These findings demonstrate potential applications for the future in promoting and improving industrial catalyst performance.

  20. Synthesis of highly dispersed Pt nanoclusters anchored graphene composites and their application for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Huang, Qiwei; Oyama, Munetaka; Ji, Kai; Liu, Xiong; He, Yunbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PtNCs/graphene (PVP) composites were obtained by a clean and facile method. • The addition of graphene effectively promotes the catalytic performance of composites. • The highly dispersed PtNCs show superior electrocatalytic activity to glucose oxidation. • PtNCs/graphene (PVP) composites exhibit excellent stability and selectivity for nonenzymatic glucose detection. - Abstract: A facile and clean method by using ascorbic acid as mild reductant was developed to synthesize nanocomposites of graphene and platinum nanoclusters (PtNCs/graphene), in which Polyvinyl-Pyrrolidone (PVP) was added during the one-step reductive process so as to improve the dispersity of PtNCs on the graphene and decrease the size of PtNCs. By several characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrated that Pt nanoclusters have successfully anchored on the surface of graphene sheets with average diameter of 22 nm. It was found that with the assistant of PVP, Pt nanoclusters appeared with smaller particle size and narrower particle size distribution. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometric methods were used to evaluate the electro-catalytic activity of the synthesized nanocomposites toward the oxidation of glucose in neutral media (0.1 M PBS, pH 7.4). The PtNCs/graphene exhibited a rapid response time (about 3 s), a broad linear range (1 mM to 25 mM), good stability, and sensitivity estimated to be 1.21 μA cm −2 mM −1 (R = 0.995, 71.9 μA cm −2 mM −1 vs. geometric area). Additionally, the impact from the oxidation of interferences can be effectively limited by choosing the appropriate detection potential. These results indicated a great potential of PtNCs/graphene in fabricating novel non-enzymatic glucose sensors with high performance

  1. Design of modified xanthan mini-matrices for monitoring oral discharge of highly soluble Soluplus{sup ®}–glibenclamide dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshi, Paromita; Sadhukhan, Sayantan; Maiti, Sabyasachi, E-mail: sabya245@rediffmail.com

    2015-09-01

    In this work, Soluplus{sup ®} was used as a hydrophilic carrier for the preparation of solid dispersion (SD) of a model BCS class II drug, glibenclamide by applying hot melting process and microwave irradiation in combination. Increasing the concentration of carrier relative to drug significantly increased the drug solubility, which corresponded to a maximum 75 fold increase at a drug:carrier ratio of 1:7. Scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction analyses confirmed complete amorphization of the drug in SD. In animal study, about two fold reductions in hyperglycemic level were achieved by SD compared to pure drug. SD-loaded O-carboxymethyl xanthan mini-matrices controlled the release of drug into gastro-luminal fluid over longer duration. The drug release corroborated with pH-dependent swelling behavior of the matrices and approximated anomalous diffusion mechanism. This study proved the potential of Soluplus{sup ®}-based dispersion in improving the clinical performance of the drug, especially when embedded in modified xanthan mini-matrices. - Highlights: • Microwave-induced solid dispersion of glibenclamide was prepared using Soluplus®. • Solubility of drug corresponded to 75 fold increase at a drug:Soluplus® ratio of 1:7. • Thermal and x-ray analyses suggested amorphization of drug in solid dispersion. • About two fold reductions in hyperglycemic level were achieved by solid dispersion. • Modified xanthan gum showed potential in controlling anomalous transport of drug.

  2. Influence of particle size on the low and high strain rate behavior of dense colloidal dispersions of nanosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asija, Neelanchali; Chouhan, Hemant; Gebremeskel, Shishay Amare; Bhatnagar, Naresh, E-mail: nareshb@mech.iitd.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Mechanical Engineering Department (India)

    2017-01-15

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian flow behavior characterized by the increase in apparent viscosity with the increase in applied shear rate, particularly when the shear rate exceeds a critical value termed as the critical shear rate (CSR). Due to this remarkable property of shear-thickening fluids (STFs), they are extensively used in hip protection pads, protective gear for athletes, and more recently in body armor. The use of STFs in body armor has led to the development of the concept of liquid body armor. In this study, the effect of particle size is explored on the low and high strain rate behavior of nanosilica dispersions, so as to predict the efficacy of STF-aided personal protection systems (PPS), specifically for ballistic applications. The low strain rate study was conducted on cone and plate rheometer, whereas the high strain rate characterization of STF was conducted on in-house fabricated split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Spherical nanosilica particles of three different sizes (100, 300, and 500 nm) as well as fumed silica particles of four different specific surface areas (Aerosil A-90, A-130, A-150, and A-200), respectively, were used in this study. The test samples were prepared by dispersing nanosilica particles in polypropylene glycol (PPG) using ultrasonic homogenization method. The low strain rate studies aided in determining the CSR of the synthesized STF dispersions, whereas the high strain rate studies explored the impact-resisting ability of STFs in terms of the impact toughness and the peak stress attained during the impact loading of STF in SHPB testing.

  3. Facile synthesis of highly stable and well-dispersed mesoporous ZrO(2)/carbon composites with high performance in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zhangxiong; Feng, Dan; Yang, Jianping; Wei, Jing; Wu, Qingling; Tu, Bo; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2010-09-28

    Highly ordered mesoporous ZrO(2)/carbon (FDU-15) composites have been synthesized via a facile evaporation induced triconstituent co-assembly (EISA) approach by using Pluronic F127 as a template and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and resol as Zr and carbon sources. The synthesized mesoporous composites exhibit a highly ordered two-dimensional (2-D) hexagonal mesostructure with relatively high specific surface areas (up to 947 m(2) g(-1)), pore sizes around 3.8 nm and high pore volumes (up to 0.71 cm(3) g(-1)). The results clearly show that the crystalline zirconia nanoparticles (ca. 1.9-3.9 nm) are well-dispersed in amorphous matrices of the ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 materials, which construct the nanocomposites. The ordered mesostructures of the obtained ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites can be well-retained even at the high pyrolysis temperature (up to 900 degrees C), suggesting a high thermal stability. The zirconia content of the ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites can be tunable in a wide range (up to 47%). Moreover, the resultant mesoporous ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites exhibit high catalytic activity in oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethylbenzene (EB) to styrene (ST), with high ethylbenzene conversion (59.6%) and styrene selectivity (90.4%), which is mainly attributed to the synergistic catalytic effect between the oxygen-containing groups located on the carbon pore walls and weakly basic sites of the nanocrystalline ZrO(2). Furthermore, the high specific surface areas and opening pore channels are also responsible for their high catalytic activity. Therefore, it is a very promising catalyst material in styrene production on an industrial scale.

  4. Dispersal behavior of yellowjacket (Vespula germanica) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciocchi, Maité; Martinez, Andrés S; Pereira, Ana J; Villacide, José M; Corley, Juan C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the factors that affect animal dispersal behavior is important from both fundamental and applied perspectives. Dispersal can have clear evolutionary and ecological consequences, but for nonnative insect pests, dispersal capacity can also help to explain invasion success. Vespula germanica is a social wasp that, in the last century, has successfully invaded several regions of the world, showing one of the highest spread rates reported for a nonnative insect. In contrast with nonsocial wasps, in social species, queens are responsible for population redistribution and spread, as workers are sterile. For V. germanica, it has been observed that queen flight is limited to 2 distinct periods: early autumn, when new queens leave the nest to mate and find sheltered places in which to hibernate, and spring when new colonies are founded. Our aim was to study the flight behavior of V. germanica queens by focusing on the different periods in which dispersal occurs, characterizing as well the potential contribution of queen flight (i.e., distance) to the observed geographical spread. Our results suggest that the distances flown by nonoverwintered queens is greater than that flown by overwintered individuals, suggesting that the main queen dispersal events would occur before queens enter hibernation. This could relate to a behavioral trait of the queens to avoid the inbreeding with related drones. Additionally, given the short distances flown and remarkable geographical spread observed, we provide evidence showing that queen dispersal by flight is likely to contribute proportionately less to population spread than human-aided factors. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Dispersion bias, dispersion effect, and the aerosol-cloud conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yangang; Daum, Peter H; Guo Huan; Peng Yiran

    2008-01-01

    This work examines the influences of relative dispersion (the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) on cloud albedo and cloud radiative forcing, derives an analytical formulation that accounts explicitly for the contribution from droplet concentration and relative dispersion, and presents a new approach to parameterize relative dispersion in climate models. It is shown that inadequate representation of relative dispersion in climate models leads to an overestimation of cloud albedo, resulting in a negative bias of global mean shortwave cloud radiative forcing that can be comparable to the warming caused by doubling CO 2 in magnitude, and that this dispersion bias is likely near its maximum for ambient clouds. Relative dispersion is empirically expressed as a function of the quotient between cloud liquid water content and droplet concentration (i.e., water per droplet), yielding an analytical formulation for the first aerosol indirect effect. Further analysis of the new expression reveals that the dispersion effect not only offsets the cooling from the Twomey effect, but is also proportional to the Twomey effect in magnitude. These results suggest that unrealistic representation of relative dispersion in cloud parameterization in general, and evaluation of aerosol indirect effects in particular, is at least in part responsible for several outstanding puzzles of the aerosol-cloud conundrum: for example, overestimation of cloud radiative cooling by climate models compared to satellite observations; large uncertainty and discrepancy in estimates of the aerosol indirect effect; and the lack of interhemispheric difference in cloud albedo.

  6. In situ polymerization of highly dispersed polypyrrole on reduced graphite oxide for dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2013-12-15

    A composite consisting of reduced graphite oxide and highly dispersed polypyrrole nanospheres was synthesized by a straightforward technique, by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The novel polypyrrole nanospheres can prevent the aggregation of reduced graphite oxide sheets by electrostatic repulsive interaction, and enhance their electrochemical properties in the nano-molar measurement of dopamine in biological systems with a linear range of 1-8000 nM and a detection limit as low as 0.3 nM. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. FOUR HIGHLY DISPERSED MILLISECOND PULSARS DISCOVERED IN THE ARECIBO PALFA GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Stovall, K. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Lazarus, P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Freire, P. C. C.; Champion, D. J.; Desvignes, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Allen, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Bhat, N. D. R.; Camilo, F. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement et de l' Espace, LPC2E, CNRS et Universite d' Orleans, and Station de radioastronomie de Nancay, Observatoire de Paris, F-18330 Nancay (France); Deneva, J. S., E-mail: fcrawfor@fandm.edu [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); and others

    2012-09-20

    We present the discovery and phase-coherent timing of four highly dispersed millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the Arecibo PALFA Galactic plane survey: PSRs J1844+0115, J1850+0124, J1900+0308, and J1944+2236. Three of the four pulsars are in binary systems with low-mass companions, which are most likely white dwarfs, and which have orbital periods on the order of days. The fourth pulsar is isolated. All four pulsars have large dispersion measures (DM >100 pc cm{sup -3}), are distant ({approx}> 3.4 kpc), faint at 1.4 GHz ({approx}< 0.2 mJy), and are fully recycled (with spin periods P between 3.5 and 4.9 ms). The three binaries also have very small orbital eccentricities, as expected for tidally circularized, fully recycled systems with low-mass companions. These four pulsars have DM/P ratios that are among the highest values for field MSPs in the Galaxy. These discoveries bring the total number of confirmed MSPs from the PALFA survey to 15. The discovery of these MSPs illustrates the power of PALFA for finding weak, distant MSPs at low-Galactic latitudes. This is important for accurate estimates of the Galactic MSP population and for the number of MSPs that the Square Kilometer Array can be expected to detect.

  8. Dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in dispersant-seawater-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work examined effects of model oil dispersants on dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in simulated marine systems. Three dispersants (Corexit 9500A, Corexit 9527A and SPC 1000) were used to prepare dispersed water accommodated oil (DWAO). While higher doses of dispersants dispersed more n-alkanes and PAHs, Corexit 9500A preferentially dispersed C11-C20 n-alkanes, whereas Corexit 9527A was more favorable for smaller alkanes (C10-C16), and SPC 1000 for C12-C28 n-alkanes. Sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on sediment was proportional to TPH types/fractions in the DWAOs. Addition of 18mg/L of Corexit 9500A increased sediment uptake of 2-3 ring PAHs, while higher dispersant doses reduced the uptake, due to micelle-enhanced solubilization effects. Both dispersed n-alkanes and PAHs were susceptible to photodegradation under simulated sunlight. For PAHs, both photodegradation and photo-facilitated alkylation were concurrently taking place. The information can facilitate sounder assessment of fate and distribution of dispersed oil hydrocarbons in marine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HYDRODYNAMICS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY COLLISIONS: FROM GAS-RICH DISKS TO DISPERSION-DOMINATED MERGERS AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bournaud, Frederic; Chapon, Damien; Teyssier, Romain; Powell, Leila C.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoit; Shapiro, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Disk galaxies at high redshift (z ∼ 2) are characterized by high fractions of cold gas, strong turbulence, and giant star-forming clumps. Major mergers of disk galaxies at high redshift should then generally involve such turbulent clumpy disks. Merger simulations, however, model the interstellar medium as a stable, homogeneous, and thermally pressurized medium. We present the first merger simulations with high fractions of cold, turbulent, and clumpy gas. We discuss the major new features of these models compared to models where the gas is artificially stabilized and warmed. Gas turbulence, which is already strong in high-redshift disks, is further enhanced in mergers. Some phases are dispersion dominated, with most of the gas kinetic energy in the form of velocity dispersion and very chaotic velocity fields, unlike merger models using a thermally stabilized gas. These mergers can reach very high star formation rates, and have multi-component gas spectra consistent with SubMillimeter Galaxies. Major mergers with high fractions of cold turbulent gas are also characterized by highly dissipative gas collapse to the center of mass, with the stellar component following in a global contraction. The final galaxies are early type with relatively small radii and high Sersic indices, like high-redshift compact spheroids. The mass fraction in a disk component that survives or re-forms after a merger is severely reduced compared to models with stabilized gas, and the formation of a massive disk component would require significant accretion of external baryons afterwards. Mergers thus appear to destroy extended disks even when the gas fraction is high, and this lends further support to smooth infall as the main formation mechanism for massive disk galaxies.

  10. mc1r Pathway regulation of zebrafish melanosome dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Jennifer; Lundegaard, Pia Rengtved; Reynolds, Natalie L

    2008-01-01

    Zebrafish rapidly alter their pigmentation in response to environmental changes. For black melanocytes, this change is due to aggregation or dispersion of melanin in the cell. Dispersion and aggregation are controlled by intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, which increase...... in mammals, and melanosome dispersal in cold-blood vertebrates, the pathway components are highly conserved. However, it has only been assumed that mc1r mediates melanosome dispersal in fish. Here, using morpholino oligonucleotides designed to knockdown mc1r expression, we find that mc1r morphants are unable...... to disperse melanosomes when grown in dark conditions. We also use chemical modifiers of the cAMP pathway, and find an unexpected response to the specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram, in melanosome dispersal. When treated with the drug, melanosomes fail to fully disperse in dark conditions...

  11. Multilayer networks reveal the spatial structure of seed-dispersal interactions across the Great Rift landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Sérgio; Correia, Marta; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Freitas, Helena; Heleno, Ruben

    2018-01-10

    Species interaction networks are traditionally explored as discrete entities with well-defined spatial borders, an oversimplification likely impairing their applicability. Using a multilayer network approach, explicitly accounting for inter-habitat connectivity, we investigate the spatial structure of seed-dispersal networks across the Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique. We show that the overall seed-dispersal network is composed by spatially explicit communities of dispersers spanning across habitats, functionally linking the landscape mosaic. Inter-habitat connectivity determines spatial structure, which cannot be accurately described with standard monolayer approaches either splitting or merging habitats. Multilayer modularity cannot be predicted by null models randomizing either interactions within each habitat or those linking habitats; however, as habitat connectivity increases, random processes become more important for overall structure. The importance of dispersers for the overall network structure is captured by multilayer versatility but not by standard metrics. Highly versatile species disperse many plant species across multiple habitats, being critical to landscape functional cohesion.

  12. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Frugivory and seed dispersal by birds in Cereus jamacaru DC. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae) in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, V G N; Quirino, Z G M; Araujo, H F P

    2014-02-01

    Studies of the dispersal modes of plants aid our understanding of the dynamics of resource and its availability for dispersal agents. The present work sought to characterize the fruiting patterns of the native Caatinga (dryland) cactus Cereus jamacaru, identify its principal dispersers, and evaluate the effects of seed passage through digestive tract of dispersers on its germination. Cereus jamacaru present an annual fruiting pattern and fruiting peaks occurred during June/2009 and February/2010. A total of 135 visits by nine species of resident Caatinga bird species were recorded. The most frequent visiting bird species were Paroaria dominicana and Euphonia chlorotica. Length of bird visits varied from 15 seconds to 4 minutes and seeds removed by birds travelled 10.6 ± 11.2 m until dispersers make the first landing perch, in some cases more than 40 meters away. Germination tests show birds had a high quantity of viable seeds of C. jamacaru in its feces. Seeds that passed through the digestive tract of birds showed a similar germinability of the seeds of the control group. However, the seeds dispersed by birds showed lowest mean germination time related to the control group seeds. This study highlights the potential role of birds as seed dispersers of C. jamacaru, swallowing the whole seeds and defecating intact seeds, accelerating the germination process and transporting seeds away from the mother plant.

  14. Irradiation testing of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 'microplates'. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U10Mo-0.05Sn, U2Mo, or U 3 Si 2 . These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of approximately 40 and 80 at.% U 235 . Of particular interest are the extent of reaction of the fuel and matrix phases and the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions. (author)

  15. Nanoparticle dispersion effect of laser-surface melting in ZrB{sub 2p}/6061Al composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yida; Chao, Yuhjin; Luo, Zhen, E-mail: lz-tju@163.com [Tianjin University, School of Material Science and Engineering (China); Huang, Yongxian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)

    2017-04-15

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB{sub 2p}, 15 vol%)/6061 aluminum (Al) composites were fabricated via in situ reaction. The existence, morphologies, and dispersion degree of the in situ ZrB{sub 2} particles with size from tens to hundreds of nanometers were studied by X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. As the particle-settlement effect becomes dominant during the composite fabrication process, ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles agglomerate to a certain extent in some areas of the as-cast composites. A laser-surface melting (LSM) strategy was applied to disperse agglomerated ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles in as-cast composites, and the ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticle dispersion is affected visibly by LSM. After LSM, nanoparticles tend to distribute along the grain boundary. Particle clusters were dispersed in an explosive orientation and the particle diffusion distance varied in terms of its radius and melt-viscosity vicinity. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the existence of a subgrain structure near the ZrB{sub 2}–Al interface after LSM. This may increase the yield strength when a dislocation tangle forms.

  16. Self-dispersible nanocrystals of albendazole produced by high pressure homogenization and spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Alejandro Javier; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Allemandi, Daniel; Palma, Santiago Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug used in the treatment of human or animal infections. Although ABZ has shown a high efficacy for repeated doses in monogastric mammals, its low aqueous solubility leads to erratic bioavailability. The aim of this work was to optimize a procedure in order to obtain ABZ self-dispersible nanocrystals (SDNC) by combining high pressure homogenization (HPH) and spray-drying (SD). The material thus obtained was characterized and the variables affecting both the HPH and SD processes were studied. As expected, the homogenizing pressure and number of cycles influenced the final particle size, while the stabilizer concentration had a strong impact on SD output and redispersion of powders upon contact with water. ABZ SDNC were successfully obtained with high process yield and redispersibility. The characteristic peaks of ABZ were clearly identified in the X-ray patterns of the processed samples. A noticeable increase in the dissolution rate was observed in the aqueous environment.

  17. Use of ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopies to explore the light-induced dynamics of peridinin in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papagiannakis, E.; Vengris, M.; Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hiller, R.G.; van Grondelle, R.

    2006-01-01

    Optical pump-induced dynamics of the highly asymmetric carotenoid peridinin in methanol was studied by dispersed pump-probe, pump-dump-probe, and pump-repump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible region. Dispersed pump-probe measurements show that the decay of the initially excited

  18. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Copper Particles in Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Shuji; Matsumoto, Hiroshige

    1986-01-01

    Temperature programmed reduction and desorption techniques have been used to investigate the reduction process of CuY. The reduction of Cu^2+ ions in zeolite with H_2 occurs via a two-step mechanism in which Cu^+ is first formed and then reduced to metal. In the first step of reduction NH_3 was used as the reducing agent instead of H_2. Cu particles in the reduced CuY with NH_3 pretreatment were uniformly dispersed compared with those of CuY without one. The average particle size of Cu metal ...

  19. Natural convection and dispersion in a tilted fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.W.; Linz, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    In many geophysical situations, fluid is contained in long narrow fractures embedded within an impermeable medium of different thermal conductivity; and there may be a uniform vertical temperature gradient imposed upon the system. We show that whenever the slot is tilted to the vertical, convection develops in the fluid, even if the background temperature increases with height. Using typical values for the physical properties of a water-filled fracture, we show that the Earth's geothermal gradient produces a convective flow in a fracture; this has an associated dispersion coefficient D T ∼10 2 -10 3 D in fractures about a centimetre wide. We show that this shear dispersion could transport radioactive material, of half-life 10 4 years, tens of metres along the fracture within one half-life; without this dispersion, the material would only diffuse a few metres along the fracture within one half-life. (author)

  20. Climate Envelope Modeling and Dispersal Simulations Show Little Risk of Range Extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L.), in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelqvist, Christin; Al-Hamdani, Zyad K.; Jonsson, Per R.; Havenhand, Jon N.

    2015-01-01

    The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future. PMID:25768305

  1. Climate envelope modeling and dispersal simulations show little risk of range extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L., in the Baltic sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Appelqvist

    Full Text Available The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future.

  2. Frugivory and seed dispersal by tapirs: an insight on their ecological role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrill, Georgina; Galetti, Mauro; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2013-03-01

    Tapirs are one of the last extant megafauna species that survived the Pleistocene extinctions. Given their size and digestive system characteristics, tapirs might be the last potential seed disperser of plant species that were previously dispersed by other large mammal species that are now extinct. We compiled evidence from 39 published scientific studies showing that tapirs have a key role as seed dispersers and seed predators. Tapirs play an important role either through seed predation or by facilitating the recruitment of seeds over long distances, therefore influencing the diversity of plant species in the ecosystem. Neotropical tapirs might have a unique role as long-distance seed dispersers of large seeds (tapir diet, more information is needed on the identification of seed traits that allow the survival of seeds in the tapir's gut. Moreover, further studies are necessary on the role of tapirs as seed dispersers and predators; in particular considering spatial patterns of dispersed seeds, seed viability, effect of dung, and seed density in tapir latrines, and the effect of deposition sites on germination and seedling survival. Because all tapir species are highly threatened, it is paramount to identify gaps in our knowledge on the ecological role of tapirs and, in particular, on critical and endangered plant-tapir interactions to avoid possible trophic cascading effects on ecosystem function. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  3. Preparation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Poly (4-Styrenesulfonic Acid Aqueous Dispersion for Dopamine Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua LIU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and facile method for the non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs using poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid (PSS is proposed. The resulting PSS-MWNTs dispersion is readily soluble in water and can be left to stand for 2 weeks at room temperature, no phase separation with aggregation of nanotubes at the bottom of the vials was observed. The as-prepared PSS-MWNTs dispersions could facilitate the processing of the nanotubes into composites with high nanotube loading. The PSS-MWNTs complex shows high electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of neutrontransmitter of dopamine, suggesting that the coating of PSS onto carbon nanotubes surface without destroying the electronic structures of the pristine carbon nanotubes; therefore, the unique properties including the catalytic property of the nanotubes retained. It is envisioned that the PSS-MWNTs aqueous dispersions may find possible applications in the development of biosensors, bioelectronics, separation and environment protection as well as other biological events where water-based environment is required.

  4. Overview of the phase diagram of ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, F.; Dubois, E.; Cabuil, V.; Boue, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    We study ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions, which are constituted of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersed in water, and stabilized with electrostatic interparticle repulsion. The phase diagram PV versus Φ (P: osmotic pressure, V: particle volume, Φ: particle volume fraction) is explored, especially in the range of high Π and high Φ. The osmotic pressure P of the colloidal dispersion is known either by a measurement either because it is imposed during the sample preparation by osmotic compression. The structure of the colloidal dispersion is determined from Small Angle Neutron Scattering. Two regimes can be distinguished. At high pressure, fluid and solid phases can exist. Their structure is governed by strong electrostatic repulsion, the range of which is here evaluated. At low pressure, gas, liquid and glassy solids can exist. Their structure results from a sticky hard sphere potential. (author)

  5. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-01-23

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher\\'s equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels\\' network; (2) the solute\\'s diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  6. Roles of survival and dispersal in reintroduction success of Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouar, Pascaline; Robert, Alexandre; Choisy, Jean-Pierre; Henriquet, Sylvain; Lecuyer, Philippe; Tessier, Christian; Sarrazin, François

    2008-06-01

    The success of reintroduction programs greatly depends on the amount of mortality and dispersal of the released individuals. Although local environmental pressures are likely to play an important role in these processes, they have rarely been investigated because of the lack of spatial replicates of reintroduction. In the present study, we analyzed a 25-year data set encompassing 272 individuals released in five reintroduction programs of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) in France to examine the respective roles of survival and dispersal in program successes and failures. We use recent developments in multi-strata capture-recapture models to take into account tag loss in survival estimates and to consider and estimate dispersal among release areas. We also examined the effects of sex, age, time, area, and release status on survival, and we tested whether dispersal patterns among release areas were consistent with habitat selection theories. Results indicated that the survival of released adults was reduced during the first year after release, with no difference between sexes. Taking into account local observations only, we found that early survival rates varied across sites. However when we distinguished dispersal from mortality, early survival rates became equal across release sites. It thus appears that among reintroduction programs difference in failure and success was due to differential dispersal among release sites. We revealed asymmetrical patterns of dispersal due to conspecific attraction: dispersers selected the closest and the largest population. We showed that mortality can be homogeneous from one program to another while, on the contrary, dispersal is highly dependent on the matrix of established populations. Dispersal behavior is thus of major interest for metapopulation restoration and should be taken into account in planning reintroduction designs.

  7. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Drug-Excipient Interactions and Phase Behavior in Indomethacin-Eudragit E Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubach, Joseph W; Hau, Jonathan

    2018-02-20

    To investigate the nature of drug-excipient interactions between indomethacin (IMC) and methacrylate copolymer Eudragit® E (EE) in the amorphous state, and evaluate the effects on formulation and stability of these amorphous systems. Amorphous solid dispersions containing IMC and EE were spray dried with drug loadings from 20% to 90%. PXRD was used to confirm the amorphous nature of the dispersions, and DSC was used to measure glass transition temperatures (T g ). 13 C and 15 N solid-state NMR was utilized to investigate changes in local structure and protonation state, while 1 H T 1 and T 1ρ relaxation measurements were used to probe miscibility and phase behavior of the dispersions. T g values for IMC-EE solid dispersions showed significant positive deviations from predicted values in the drug loading range of 40-90%, indicating a relatively strong drug-excipient interaction. 15 N solid-state NMR exhibited a change in protonation state of the EE basic amine, with two distinct populations for the EE amine at -360.7 ppm (unprotonated) and -344.4 ppm (protonated). Additionally, 1 H relaxation measurements showed phase separation at high drug load, indicating an amorphous ionic complex and free IMC-rich phase. PXRD data showed all ASDs up to 90% drug load remained physically stable after 2 years. 15 N solid-state NMR experiments show a change in protonation state of EE, indicating that an ionic complex indeed forms between IMC and EE in amorphous solid dispersions. Phase behavior was determined to exhibit nanoscale phase separation at high drug load between the amorphous ionic complex and excess free IMC.

  8. Modeling electrical dispersion phenomena in Earth materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It is illustrated that IP phenomena in rocks can be described using conductivity dispersion models deduced as solutions to a 2nd-order linear differential equation describing the motion of a charged particle immersed in an external electrical field. Five dispersion laws are discussed, namely: the non-resonant positive IP model, which leads to the classical Debye-type dispersion law and by extension to the Cole-Cole model, largely used in current practice; the non-resonant negative IP model, which allows negative chargeability values, known in metals at high frequencies, to be explained as an intrinsic physical property of earth materials in specific field cases; the resonant flat, positive or negative IP models, which can explain the presence of peak effects at specific frequencies superimposed on flat, positive or negative dispersion spectra.

  9. Association Between ACE Gene Polymorphism and QT Dispersion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Zulkuf; Ugurlu, Murat; Ucaman, Berzal; Veysel Ulug, Ali; Kaya, Ilyas; Cevik, Kemal; Sahin Adiyaman, Mehmet; Oztürk, Onder; Iyem, Hikmet; Ozdemir, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is associated with high renin-angiotensin system causing myocardial fibrosis and ventricular repolarization abnormality. Based on these findings, this study was designed to determine the association between ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and QT dispersion after acute myocardial infarction (MI). The study included 108 patients with acute MI. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients for genomic DNA analysis. ECGs were recorded at baseline and at the end of a 6-month follow up. The OT dispersion was manually calculated. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 ±9.9 years (ranging from 36 to 70). The patients with DD genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with II or DI genotype at the baseline, while at the end of the six-month follow up the patients with DI genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with DD or II genotypes. However, the magnitude of the QT dispersion prolongation was higher in patients carrying the ACE D allele than patients who were not carrying it, at baseline and at the end of six-month follow up (52.5 ±2.6 msn vs. 47.5±2.1 msn at baseline, 57±3.2 msn vs. 53±2.6 msn in months, P: 0.428 and P: 0.613, respectively). Carriers of the D allele of ACE gene I/D polymorphism may be associated with QT dispersion prolongation in patients with MI.An interaction of QT dispersion and ACE gene polymorphism may be associated with an elevation of serum type I-C terminal pro-collagen concentration, possibly leading to myocardial fibrosis, and increased action potential duration.

  10. The evolution of conditional dispersal and reproductive isolation along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Mazzucco, Rupert; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2011-03-21

    Dispersal modulates gene flow throughout a population's spatial range. Gene flow affects adaptation at local spatial scales, and consequently impacts the evolution of reproductive isolation. A recent theoretical investigation has demonstrated that local adaptation along an environmental gradient, facilitated by the evolution of limited dispersal, can lead to parapatric speciation even in the absence of assortative mating. This and other studies assumed unconditional dispersal, so individuals start dispersing without regard to local environmental conditions. However, many species disperse conditionally; their propensity to disperse is contingent upon environmental cues, such as the degree of local crowding or the availability of suitable mates. Here, we use an individual-based model in continuous space to investigate by numerical simulation the relationship between the evolution of threshold-based conditional dispersal and parapatric speciation driven by frequency-dependent competition along environmental gradients. We find that, as with unconditional dispersal, parapatric speciation occurs under a broad range of conditions when reproduction is asexual, and under a more restricted range of conditions when reproduction is sexual. In both the asexual and sexual cases, the evolution of conditional dispersal is strongly influenced by the slope of the environmental gradient: shallow environmental gradients result in low dispersal thresholds and high dispersal distances, while steep environmental gradients result in high dispersal thresholds and low dispersal distances. The latter, however, remain higher than under unconditional dispersal, thus undermining isolation by distance, and hindering speciation in sexual populations. Consequently, the speciation of sexual populations under conditional dispersal is triggered by a steeper gradient than under unconditional dispersal. Enhancing the disruptiveness of frequency-dependent selection, more box-shaped competition kernels

  11. Thermal behavior analysis of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Mang; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kim, Chang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    According to the non-proliferation policy under the reduced enrichment for research and test reactors (RERTR) program, low enriched uranium(LEU) fuel such as uranium silicide dispersion fuels are being used in research reactors. Because of a lower enrichment higher uranium density fuels are required for some high performance research reactors. Some uranium alloys with a high uranium density such as U-Mo alloys have been considered as one of the most promising candidates for a dispersion fuel due to the good irradiation performance. An international qualification program to replace the uranium silicide dispersion fuel with U-Mo dispersion fuel is being carried out under the RERTR program. Although U-Mo powders are conventionally supplied by the mechanical comminuting of as-cast U-Mo alloys, KAERI developed a centrifugal atomization method in order to simplify the preparation process and improve the properties. The centrifugally atomized powders have a rapidly solidified gamma uranium structure and a spherical shape. During the in-reactor operation of a dispersion fuel, interdiffusion or chemical reactions between the fuel particles and the matrix occurr. Intermetallic compounds in the form of UAlx are formed as a result of the diffusional reaction. Because the intermetallic compounds are less dense than the combined reactants, the volume of the fuel element increases after the reaction. In addition to the effect on the swelling performance, the reaction layers between the U-Mo and the Al matrix induces a degradation of the thermal properties of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels. It is important to investigate the thermal behavior of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel according to reaction between the fuel particles and the matrix with the burnup and linear power. In this study, a finite element analysis was used for the calculation of the temperature distribution of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel with a burnup and linear power. Kinetics data of the reaction layers such as the growth

  12. Thermal behavior analysis of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Mang; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2004-01-01

    According to the non-proliferation policy under the reduced enrichment for research and test reactors (RERTR) program, low enriched uranium(LEU) fuel such as uranium silicide dispersion fuels are being used in research reactors. Because of a lower enrichment higher uranium density fuels are required for some high performance research reactors. Some uranium alloys with a high uranium density such as U-Mo alloys have been considered as one of the most promising candidates for a dispersion fuel due to the good irradiation performance. An international qualification program to replace the uranium silicide dispersion fuel with U-Mo dispersion fuel is being carried out under the RERTR program. Although U-Mo powders are conventionally supplied by the mechanical comminuting of as-cast U-Mo alloys, KAERI developed a centrifugal atomization method in order to simplify the preparation process and improve the properties. The centrifugally atomized powders have a rapidly solidified gamma uranium structure and a spherical shape. During the in-reactor operation of a dispersion fuel, interdiffusion or chemical reactions between the fuel particles and the matrix occurr. Intermetallic compounds in the form of UAlx are formed as a result of the diffusional reaction. Because the intermetallic compounds are less dense than the combined reactants, the volume of the fuel element increases after the reaction. In addition to the effect on the swelling performance, the reaction layers between the U-Mo and the Al matrix induces a degradation of the thermal properties of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels. It is important to investigate the thermal behavior of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel according to reaction between the fuel particles and the matrix with the burnup and linear power. In this study, a finite element analysis was used for the calculation of the temperature distribution of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel with a burnup and linear power. Kinetics data of the reaction layers such as the growth

  13. Measuring high-frequency responses of an electro-optic phase modulator based on dispersion induced phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangjian; Wang, Heng; Wang, Yani; Zou, Xinhai; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion in dispersive fibers for measuring frequency responses of electro-optic phase modulators, and demonstrate two typical measurements with cascade path and fold-back path. The measured results achieve an uncertainty of less than 2.8% within 20 GHz. Our measurements show stable and repeatable results because the optical carrier and its phase-modulated sidebands are affected by the same fiber impairments. The proposed method requires only dispersive fibers and works without any small-signal assumption, which is applicable for swept frequency measurement at different driving levels and operating wavelengths.

  14. Atmospheric dispersion estimates in the vicinity of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    A model describing atmospheric dispersion in the vicinity of buildings was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the late 1980s. That model has recently undergone additional peer review. The reviewers identified four areas of concern related to the model and its application. This report describes revisions to the model in response to the reviewers concerns. Model revision involved incorporation of explicit treatment of enhanced dispersion at low wind speeds in addition to explicit treatment of enhanced dispersion at high speeds resulting from building wakes. Model parameters are evaluated from turbulence data. Experimental diffusion data from seven reactor sites are used for model evaluation. Compared with models recommended in current NRC guidance to licensees, the revised model is less biased and shows more predictive skill. The revised model is also compared with two non-Gaussian models developed to estimate maximum concentrations in building wakes. The revised model concentration predictions are nearly the same as the predictions of the non-Gaussian models. On the basis of these comparisons of the revised model concentration predictions with experimental data and the predictions of other models, the revised model is found to be an appropriate model for estimating concentrations in the vicinity of buildings

  15. Presentation of Austrians recommended dispersion model for tunnel portals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettl, D.; Sturm, P.; Almbauer, R. [Inst. for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Street tunnels in cities are often suggested as solution to avoid daily congestions but also to prevent residential areas from high noise and air pollution emissions. In case of longitudinal ventilated tunnels high pollution levels may occur in the vicinity of the portals. The dispersion of pollutants from tunnel portals is considered to differ significantly from those of other sources, such as line or point sources. To the best of the authors knowledge, there exist currently two distinct dispersion models, which are especially designed to treat dispersion from tunnel portals. Okamoto et al proposed a diagnostic wind field model, where the dispersion is modelled using a Taylor-Galerkin-Forester filter method. Oettl et al. developed a Lagrangian-type model (GRAL TM 3.5=Graz Lagrangian model Tunnel Module version 3.5), which is briefly described in the next section. (orig.)

  16. Polymeric dispersants for control of steam generator fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Klimas, S.J.; Lepine, L.; Turner, C.W.

    1999-05-01

    Fouling of steam generators by corrosion products from the feedtrain leads to loss of heat-transfer efficiency, disturbances in thermalhydraulics, and potential corrosion problems resulting from the development of sites for localized accumulation of aggressive chemicals. This report summarizes studies of the use of polymeric dispersants for the control of fouling, which were conducted at the Chalk River Laboratories. High-temperature settling studies on magnetite suspensions were performed to screen available generic dispersants, and the dispersants were ranked in terms of their dispersion efficiency; polyacrylic acid (PAA) and the phosphonate, HEDP, were ranked as the most efficient. Polyacrylic acid was considered more suitable than HEDP for nuclear steam generators, and more emphasis was given to the former in these studies. The dispersants had no effect on the particle deposition rates under single-phase forced-convective flow, but did reduce the deposition rates under flow-boiling conditions. The extent to which the deposition rates were reduced increased in proportion to the dispersant concentration. Preliminary corrosion tests indicated that pitting or general corrosion of steam generator tube materials in the presence of PAA was negligible. Corrosion of carbon steel, although higher in a magnetite-packed crevice under heat flux than in bulk water, was lower in the presence of PAA than in its absence. Some impurities (e.g., sulphate, sodium) were observed in commercially available PAA products at small, though significant concentrations, making these products unacceptable for use in nuclear plants. However, the PAA could be purified by ion exchange. Preliminary experiments, to assess the thermal stability of PAA at steam generator operating temperature, showed the polymer to break down in deaerated solutions and under argon cover to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide as the two major products in the gas phase and variable concentrations of acetate and formate

  17. Ultraviolet radiation induces dose-dependent pigment dispersion in crustacean chromatophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Glauce Ribeiro; Lopes, Thaís Martins; Neves, Carla Amorim; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Trindade, Gilma Santos

    2004-10-01

    Pigment dispersion in chromatophores as a response to UV radiation was investigated in two species of crustaceans, the crab Chasmagnathus granulata and the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus. Eyestalkless crabs and shrimps maintained on either a black or a white background were irradiated with different UV bands. In eyestalkless crabs the significant minimal effective dose inducing pigment dispersion was 0.42 J/cm(2) for UVA and 2.15 J/cm(2) for UVB. Maximal response was achieved with 10.0 J/cm(2) UVA and 8.6 J/cm(2) UVB. UVA was more effective than UVB in inducing pigment dispersion. Soon after UV exposure, melanophores once again reached the initial stage of pigment aggregation after 45 min. Aggregated erythrophores of shrimps adapted to a white background showed significant pigment dispersion with 2.5 J/cm(2) UVA and 0.29 J/cm(2) UVC. Dispersed erythrophores of shrimps adapted to a black background did not show any significant response to UVA, UVB or UVC radiation. UVB did not induce any significant pigment dispersion in shrimps adapted to either a white or a black background. As opposed to the tanning response, which only protects against future UV exposure, the pigment dispersion response could be an important agent protecting against the harmful effects of UV radiation exposure.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Metallic Dispersion Fuel for Advanced Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Chae, Hee Taek; Song, Kee Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, New York (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Uranium alloys with a high uranium density has been developed for high power research reactor fuel using low-enriched uranium (LEU). U-Mo alloys have been developed as candidate fuel material because of excellent irradiation behavior. Irradiation behavior of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel has been investigated to develop high performance research reactor fuel as RERTR international research program. While plate-type and rod-type dispersion fuel elements are used for research reactors, HANARO uses rod-type dispersion fuel elements. PLATE code is developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the performance evaluation of plate-type dispersion fuel, but there is no counterpart for rod-type dispersion fuel. Especially, thermal conductivity of fuel meat decreases during the irradiation mainly because of interaction layer formation at the interface between the U-Mo fuel particle and Al matrix. The thermal conductivity of the interaction layer is not as high as the Al matrix. The growth of interaction layer is interactively affected by the temperature of fuel because it is associated with a diffusion reaction which is a thermally activated process. It is difficult to estimate the temperature profile during irradiation test due to the interdependency of fuel temperature and thermal conductivity changed by interaction layer growth. In this study, fuel performance of rod-type U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels during irradiation tests were estimated by considering the effect of interaction layer growth on the thermal conductivity of fuel meat.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Metallic Dispersion Fuel for Advanced Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Chae, Hee Taek; Song, Kee Chan; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2007-01-01

    Uranium alloys with a high uranium density has been developed for high power research reactor fuel using low-enriched uranium (LEU). U-Mo alloys have been developed as candidate fuel material because of excellent irradiation behavior. Irradiation behavior of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel has been investigated to develop high performance research reactor fuel as RERTR international research program. While plate-type and rod-type dispersion fuel elements are used for research reactors, HANARO uses rod-type dispersion fuel elements. PLATE code is developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the performance evaluation of plate-type dispersion fuel, but there is no counterpart for rod-type dispersion fuel. Especially, thermal conductivity of fuel meat decreases during the irradiation mainly because of interaction layer formation at the interface between the U-Mo fuel particle and Al matrix. The thermal conductivity of the interaction layer is not as high as the Al matrix. The growth of interaction layer is interactively affected by the temperature of fuel because it is associated with a diffusion reaction which is a thermally activated process. It is difficult to estimate the temperature profile during irradiation test due to the interdependency of fuel temperature and thermal conductivity changed by interaction layer growth. In this study, fuel performance of rod-type U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels during irradiation tests were estimated by considering the effect of interaction layer growth on the thermal conductivity of fuel meat

  20. Mate-finding as an overlooked critical determinant of dispersal variation in sexually-reproducing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal is a critically important process in ecology, but robust predictive models of animal dispersal remain elusive. We identify a potentially ubiquitous component of variation in animal dispersal that has been largely overlooked until now: the influence of mate encounters on settlement probability. We use an individual-based model to simulate dispersal in sexually-reproducing organisms that follow a simple set of movement rules based on conspecific encounters, within an environment lacking spatial habitat heterogeneity. We show that dispersal distances vary dramatically with fluctuations in population density in such a model, even in the absence of variation in dispersive traits between individuals. In a simple random-walk model with promiscuous mating, dispersal distributions become increasingly 'fat-tailed' at low population densities due to the increasing scarcity of mates. Similar variation arises in models incorporating territoriality. In a model with polygynous mating, we show that patterns of sex-biased dispersal can even be reversed across a gradient of population density, despite underlying dispersal mechanisms remaining unchanged. We show that some widespread dispersal patterns found in nature (e.g. fat tailed distributions) can arise as a result of demographic variability in the absence of heterogeneity in dispersive traits across the population. This implies that models in which individual dispersal distances are considered to be fixed traits might be unrealistic, as dispersal distances vary widely under a single dispersal mechanism when settlement is influenced by mate encounters. Mechanistic models offer a promising means of advancing our understanding of dispersal in sexually-reproducing organisms.

  1. Implication of Broadband Dispersion Measurements in Constraining Upper Mantle Velocity Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuponiyi, A.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Dosso, S. E.; Gosselin, J. M.; Spence, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dispersion measurements from earthquake (EQ) data are traditionally inverted to obtain 1-D shear-wave velocity models, which provide information on deep earth structures. However, in many cases, EQ-derived dispersion measurements lack short-period information, which theoretically should provide details of shallow structures. We show that in at least some cases short-period information, such as can be obtained from ambient seismic noise (ASN) processing, must be combined with EQ dispersion measurements to properly constrain deeper (e.g. upper-mantle) structures. To verify this, synthetic dispersion data are generated using hypothetical velocity models under four scenarios: EQ only (with and without deep low-velocity layers) and combined EQ and ASN data (with and without deep low-velocity layers). The now "broadband" dispersion data are inverted using a trans-dimensional Bayesian framework with the aim of recovering the initial velocity models and assessing uncertainties. Our results show that the deep low-velocity layer could only be recovered from the inversion of the combined ASN-EQ dispersion measurements. Given this result, we proceed to describe a method for obtaining reliable broadband dispersion measurements from both ASN and EQ and show examples for real data. The implication of this study in the characterization of lithospheric and upper mantle structures, such as the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), is also discussed.

  2. Improvement of the chromatic dispersion tolerance in coherent optical OFDM systems using shifted DFT windows for ultra-long-haul optical transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minkyu; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Jaehoon; Jeong, Jichai

    2014-09-22

    In a high-capacity ultra-long-haul optical coherent orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system, the dispersion tolerance is determined by the length of cyclic extension (CE). In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to substantially improve the dispersion tolerance of CO-OFDM systems without increasing the CE length. Multiple time-shifted discrete Fourier transform (DFT) windows are exploited at the receiver, each demodulating only a part of the subcarriers. Effectively, the proposed scheme reduces the bandwidth of the OFDM signals under demodulation. Numerical simulations are performed to show the improved dispersion tolerance of the proposed scheme in comparison with the conventional CO-OFDM system. We show that the dispersion tolerance improves by a factor equal to the number of DFT windows. The tradeoff between the improved dispersion tolerance and increased receiver complexity is also presented.

  3. Thieving rodents as substitute dispersers of megafaunal seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Hirsch, Ben T.; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other’s buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees. PMID:22802644

  4. High temperature oxidation test of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2006-07-01

    In a feasibility study of ODS steel cladding, its high temperature oxidation resistance was evaluated. Although addition of Cr is effective for preventing high temperature oxidation, excessively higher amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the Cr-rich α' precipitate formation. In the ODS steel developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Cr content is controlled in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite. In this study, high temperature oxidation test was conducted for ODS steels, and their results were compared with that of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) 9Cr-ODS martensitic and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11mass%Cr PNC-FMS and even 17mass% SUS430 and equivalent to austenitic PNC316. (2) The superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel was attributed to earlier formation of the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer at the matrix and inner oxide scale interface. The grain size of ODS steel is finer than that of PNC-FMS, so the superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel can be attributed to the enhanced Cr-supplying rate throughout the accelerated grain boundary diffusion. Finely dispersed Y 2 O 3 oxide particles in the ODS steel matrix may also stabilized the adherence between the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer and the matrix. (author)

  5. Polymer-Particle Nanocomposites: Size and Dispersion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Joseph

    also addresses the interfacial, rigid polymer layer, or 'bound layer' which has long been of interest in polymer nanocomposites and polymer thin films. The divergent properties of the 'bound layer' as compared to the bulk material can have very important effects on properties, including mechanical properties. This is especially true in polymer nanocomposites, where at high weight fractions, 'bound layer' polymer can easily make up 20% or more of total material! Here we quantify this layer of bound polymer as a function of particle size, polymer molecular weight and other variables, primarily using thermogravimetric analysis but also dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. We find that as nanoparticles become smaller, the 'bound layer' systematically decreases in thickness. This result is quite relevant to explanations of many polymer nanocomposite properties that depend on size, including mechanical and barrier properties. Many additional important and new results are reported herein. These include the importance of dispersion state in the resulting mechanical properties of polymer-particle nanocomposites, where a systematic study showed an optimal dispersion state of a connected particle network. An additional and unexpected finding in this system was the critical dependence of composite properties on grafted chain length of particles. As the grafted chain length is increased, the strain which leads to yielding in a steady shear experiment is increased in a linear relationship. At very high rates, this yielding process completely switches mechanisms, from yielding of the particle network to yielding of the entangled polymer network! A surprising correlation between the amount of bound polymer in solution and in the bulk was also found and is interpreted herein. Self-assembly was further explored in a range of different systems and it was found that grafted particles and there mimics have vast potential in the creation of a wide array of

  6. Effects of different dispersal patterns on the presence-absence of multiple species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Mohd Hafiz; Murray, Rua; Plank, Michael J.; Godsoe, William

    2018-03-01

    Predicting which species will be present (or absent) across a geographical region remains one of the key problems in ecology. Numerous studies have suggested several ecological factors that can determine species presence-absence: environmental factors (i.e. abiotic environments), interactions among species (i.e. biotic interactions) and dispersal process. While various ecological factors have been considered, less attention has been given to the problem of understanding how different dispersal patterns, in interaction with other factors, shape community assembly in the presence of priority effects (i.e. where relative initial abundances determine the long-term presence-absence of each species). By employing both local and non-local dispersal models, we investigate the consequences of different dispersal patterns on the occurrence of priority effects and coexistence in multi-species communities. In the case of non-local, but short-range dispersal, we observe agreement with the predictions of local models for weak and medium dispersal strength, but disagreement for relatively strong dispersal levels. Our analysis shows the existence of a threshold value in dispersal strength (i.e. saddle-node bifurcation) above which priority effects disappear. These results also reveal a co-dimension 2 point, corresponding to a degenerate transcritical bifurcation: at this point, the transcritical bifurcation changes from subcritical to supercritical with corresponding creation of a saddle-node bifurcation curve. We observe further contrasting effects of non-local dispersal as dispersal distance changes: while very long-range dispersal can lead to species extinctions, intermediate-range dispersal can permit more outcomes with multi-species coexistence than short-range dispersal (or purely local dispersal). Overall, our results show that priority effects are more pronounced in the non-local dispersal models than in the local dispersal models. Taken together, our findings highlight

  7. Dispersion and betatron matching into the linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Adolphsen, C.; Corbett, W.J.; Emma, P.; Hsu, I.; Moshammer, H.; Seeman, J.T.; Spence, W.L.

    1991-05-01

    In high energy linear colliders, the low emittance beam from a damping ring has to be preserved all the way to the linac, in the linac and to the interaction point. In particular, the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) should provide an exact betatron and dispersion match from the damping ring to the linac. A beam with a non-zero dispersion shows up immediately as an increased emittance, while with a betatron mismatch the beam filaments in the linac. Experimental tests and tuning procedures have shown that the linearized beta matching algorithms are insufficient if the actual transport line has some unknown errors not included in the model. Also, adjusting quadrupole strengths steers the beam if it is offset in the quadrupole magnets. These and other effects have lead to a lengthy tuning process, which in the end improves the matching, but is not optimal. Different ideas will be discussed which should improve this matching procedure and make it a more reliable, faster and simpler process. 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Active dispersal of Triatoma infestans and other triatomines in the Argentinean arid Chaco before and after vector control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahan, Luciana; Gorla, David; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Peridomestic structures are considered the main sites where Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) remain and disperse, representing the first risk factor for intradomestic invasion, even after vector control activities. This study analyzed T. infestans dispersal during vector control interventions in six rural houses of the arid Chaco (La Rioja, Argentina). Flying and walking dispersers were captured during five months of two consecutive warm seasons after insecticide spraying of intra- and peridomiciles. These data were compared with previous published data in the same scenario but without insecticide spraying in peridomiciles. Recorded climatic conditions were favorable for active dispersion during the study. Total number of T. infestans dispersers moving among domestic habitats decreased after insecticide spraying. Sylvatic triatomines T. guasayana, T. eratyrusiformis, T. garciabesi, and T. platensis, not targeted by insecticide spraying, were captured simultaneously within peridomestic areas and showed higher invasion pressure than T. infestans. Adult T. infestans peridomestic populations showed high nutritional status, indicating low dispersion probability. Some peridomiciles remained infested at the end of the study. However, no intradomiciles were recolonized. These results suggest that there is a low probability of intradomestic recolonization by active dispersion from peridomiciles during 15 months post-spraying. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Three Nanoclay Dispersion Methods of Epoxy/Organoclay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Keyoonwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study, firstly, to obtain high degree of clay exfoliation in the epoxy matrix by three dispersion methods such as normal mixing, shear mixing, and high-speed mixing and, secondly, to investigate corrosion behavior of epoxy/organoclay nanocomposite, immersion test, weight change, and penetration behavior were conducted. From the three mixing methods, the high-speed mixing method showed larger clay interlayer distance, smaller clay aggregate, and more homogeneity and expectedly resulted in high anticorrosive properties. Penetration depths of these nanocomposites showed a small difference; however, the most noticeable improvements in anticorrosion performance for epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites under high-speed mixing method were found to reduce penetration and weight uptake which are described via the model of nanoparticulate-filled structure and discussed in corrosion protection mechanism against environmental liquid penetration.

  10. Nanocomposites from Stable Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymeric Matrices Using Dispersion Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymeric matrices include CNTs dispersed in a host polymer or copolymer whose monomers have delocalized electron orbitals, so that a dispersion interaction results between the host polymer or copolymer and the CNTs dispersed therein. Nanocomposite products, which are presented in bulk, or when fabricated as a film, fiber, foam, coating, adhesive, paste, or molding, are prepared by standard means from the present stable dispersions of CNTs in polymeric matrices, employing dispersion interactions, as presented hereinabove.

  11. Operational mesoscale atmospheric dispersion prediction using high performance parallel computing cluster for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan, R.; Muralidharan, N.V.; Das, Someshwar; Dass, Hari; Eswara Kumar, P.

    2005-08-01

    An operational atmospheric dispersion prediction system is implemented on a cluster super computer for 'Online Emergency Response' for Kalpakkam nuclear site. The numerical system constitutes a parallel version of a nested grid meso-scale meteorological model MM5 coupled to a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The system provides 48 hour forecast of the local weather and radioactive plume dispersion due to hypothetical air borne releases in a range of 100 km around the site. The parallel code was implemented on different cluster configurations like distributed and shared memory systems. Results of MM5 run time performance for 1-day prediction are reported on all the machines available for testing. A reduction of 5 times in runtime is achieved using 9 dual Xeon nodes (18 physical/36 logical processors) compared to a single node sequential run. Based on the above run time results a cluster computer facility with 9-node Dual Xeon is commissioned at IGCAR for model operation. The run time of a triple nested domain MM5 is about 4 h for 24 h forecast. The system has been operated continuously for a few months and results were ported on the IMSc home page. Initial and periodic boundary condition data for MM5 are provided by NCMRWF, New Delhi. An alternative source is found to be NCEP, USA. These two sources provide the input data to the operational models at different spatial and temporal resolutions and using different assimilation methods. A comparative study on the results of forecast is presented using these two data sources for present operational use. Slight improvement is noticed in rainfall, winds, geopotential heights and the vertical atmospheric structure while using NCEP data probably because of its high spatial and temporal resolution. (author)

  12. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyer-Prost, M., E-mail: marie.loyer-prost@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Merot, J.-S. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Ribis, J. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Bouar, Y. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Chaffron, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legendre, F. [DEN-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) {sub bcc} iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15–20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials. - Highlights: • We observed an ODS ball-milled powder by high resolution transmission microscopy. • The ODS ball-milled powder exhibits a lamellar microstructure. • Small crystalline nanoclusters were detected in the milled ODS powder. • The nanoclusters in the ODS milled powder are enriched in titanium. • Larger NCs of 15–20 nm in size are, at least, partly coherent with the matrix.

  13. Allopatric speciation of Meteterakis (Heterakoidea: Heterakidae), a highly dispersible parasitic nematode, in the East Asian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Naoya

    2018-04-25

    To clarify how the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites has developed, molecular phylogenetic analyses of Meteterakis spp., multi-host endoparasitic nematodes of reptiles and amphibians from the East Asian islands, were conducted. The results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, the J- and A-groups, with exclusive geographic ranges that are discordant with the host faunal province. However, diversification within the J-group was concordant with the host biogeography and suggested co-divergence of this group with vicariance of the host fauna. In contrast, the phylogenetic pattern within the A-group was discordant with host biogeography and implied diversification by repeated colonization. In addition, the mosaic distribution pattern of a J-group and an A-group species in the Japanese Archipelago, along with comparison of population genetic parameters and the genetic distance from their closest relatives, suggested the initial occurrence of a J-group lineage followed by exclusion in the western part of this region caused by invasion of an A-group lineage. Thus, the present study suggested that the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites including Meteterakis is formed not only by co-divergence with host faunal vicariance but also by peripatric speciation and exclusive interactions between species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Paleocene wind-dispersed fruits and seeds from Colombia and their implications for early Neotropical rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Fabiany

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant Neotropical rainforests are well known for their remarkable diversity of fruit and seed types. Biotic agents disperse most of these disseminules, whereas wind dispersal is less common. Although wind-dispersed fruits and seeds are greatly overshadowed in closed rainforests, many important families in the Neotropics (e.g., Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sapindaceae show numerous morphological adaptations for anemochory (i.e. wings, accessory hairs. Most of these living groups have high to moderate levels of plant diversity in the upper levels of the canopy. Little is known about the fossil record of wind-dispersed fruits and seeds in the Neotropics. Six new species of disseminules with varied adaptations for wind dispersal are documented here. These fossils, representing extinct genera of Ulmaceae, Malvaceae, and some uncertain families, indicate that wind-dispersed fruit and seed syndromes were already common in the Neotropics by the Paleocene, coinciding with the early development of multistratal rainforests. Although the major families known to include most of the wind-dispersed disseminules in extant rainforests are still missing from the Paleogene fossil record of South and Central America, the new fossils imply that anemochory was a relatively important product and/or mechanism of plant evolution and diversification in early Neotropical rainforests.

  15. Trajectory and Relative Dispersion Case Studies and Statistics from the Green River Mesoscale Deformation, Dispersion, and Dissipation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Brand Lee

    A major field program to study beta-mesoscale transport and dispersion over complex mountainous terrain was conducted during 1969 with the cooperation of three government agencies at the White Sands Missile Range in central Utah. The purpose of the program was to measure simultaneously on a large number of days the synoptic and mesoscale wind fields, the relative dispersion between pairs of particle trajectories and the rate of small scale turbulence dissipation. The field program included measurements during more than 60 days in the months of March, June, and November. The large quantity of data generated from this program has been processed and analyzed to provide case studies and statistics to evaluate and refine Lagrangian variable trajectory models. The case studies selected to illustrate the complexities of mesoscale transport and dispersion over complex terrain include those with terrain blocking, lee waves, and stagnation, as well as those with large vertical wind shears and horizontal wind field deformation. The statistics of relative particle dispersion were computed and compared to the classical theories of Richardson and Batchelor and the more recent theories of Lin and Kao among others. The relative particle dispersion was generally found to increase with travel time in the alongwind and crosswind directions, but in a more oscillatory than sustained or even accelerated manner as predicted by most theories, unless substantial wind shears or finite vertical separations between particles were present. The relative particle dispersion in the vertical was generally found to be small and bounded even when substantial vertical motions due to lee waves were present because of the limiting effect of stable temperature stratification. The data show that velocity shears have a more significant effect than turbulence on relative particle dispersion and that sufficient turbulence may not always be present above the planetary boundary layer for "wind direction shear

  16. Inbreeding avoidance, patch isolation and matrix permeability influence dispersal and settlement choices by male agile antechinus in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-03-01

    Animal dispersal is highly non-random and has important implications for the dynamics of populations in fragmented habitat. We identified interpatch dispersal events from genetic tagging, parentage analyses and assignment tests and modelled the factors associated with apparent emigration and post-dispersal settlement choices by individual male agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis, a marsupial carnivore of south-east Australian forests). Emigration decisions were best modelled with on data patch isolation and inbreeding risk. The choice of dispersal destination by males was influenced by inbreeding risk, female abundance, patch size, patch quality and matrix permeability (variation in land cover). Males were less likely to settle in patches without highly unrelated females. Our findings highlight the importance of individual-level dispersal data for understanding how multiple processes drive non-randomness in dispersal in modified landscapes. Fragmented landscapes present novel environmental, demographic and genetic contexts in which dispersal decisions are made, so the major factors affecting dispersal decisions in fragmented habitat may differ considerably from unfragmented landscapes. We show that the spatial scale of genetic neighbourhoods can be large in fragmented habitat, such that dispersing males can potentially settle in the presence of genetically similar females after moving considerable distances, thereby necessitating both a choice to emigrate and a choice of where to settle to avoid inbreeding. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  17. Dodecylamine functionalization of carbon nanotubes to improve dispersion, thermal and mechanical properties of polyethylene based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. V.; Franceschi, W.; Menezes, B. R. C.; Brito, F. S.; Lozano, K.; Coutinho, A. R.; Cividanes, L. S.; Thim, G. P.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the effect of dodecylamine (DDA) functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the thermo-physical and mechanical properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) based composites. Here, we showed that the functionalization with DDA improved the dispersion of the CNTs as well as the interfacial adhesion with the HDPE matrix via non-covalent interactions. The better dispersion and interaction of CNT in the HDPE matrix as a function of the surface chemistry was correlated with the improved thermo-physical and mechanical properties.

  18. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  19. Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Epigallocatechin Gallate for Enhanced Physical Stability and Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizheng Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG has been recognized as the most prominent green tea extract due to its healthy influences. The high instability and low bioavailability, however, strongly limit its utilization in food and drug industries. This work, for the first time, develops amorphous solid dispersion of EGCG to enhance its bioavailability and physical stability. Four commonly used polymeric excipients are found to be compatible with EGCG in water-dioxane mixtures via a stepwise mixing method aided by vigorous mechanical interference. The dispersions are successfully generated by lyophilization. The physical stability of the dispersions is significantly improved compared to pure amorphous EGCG in stress condition (elevated temperature and relative humidity and simulated gastrointestinal tract environment. From the drug release tests, one of the dispersions, EGCG-Soluplus® 50:50 (w/w shows a dissolution profile that only 50% EGCG is released in the first 20 min, and the remains are slowly released in 24 h. This sustained release profile may open up new possibilities to increase EGCG bioavailability via extending its elimination time in plasma.

  20. Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Epigallocatechin Gallate for Enhanced Physical Stability and Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yizheng; Teng, Jing; Selbo, Jon

    2017-11-09

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been recognized as the most prominent green tea extract due to its healthy influences. The high instability and low bioavailability, however, strongly limit its utilization in food and drug industries. This work, for the first time, develops amorphous solid dispersion of EGCG to enhance its bioavailability and physical stability. Four commonly used polymeric excipients are found to be compatible with EGCG in water-dioxane mixtures via a stepwise mixing method aided by vigorous mechanical interference. The dispersions are successfully generated by lyophilization. The physical stability of the dispersions is significantly improved compared to pure amorphous EGCG in stress condition (elevated temperature and relative humidity) and simulated gastrointestinal tract environment. From the drug release tests, one of the dispersions, EGCG-Soluplus ® 50:50 ( w / w ) shows a dissolution profile that only 50% EGCG is released in the first 20 min, and the remains are slowly released in 24 h. This sustained release profile may open up new possibilities to increase EGCG bioavailability via extending its elimination time in plasma.

  1. STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  2. Dispersion of nanoparticulate suspensions using self-assembled surfactant aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    The dispersion of particles is critical for several industrial applications such as paints, inks, coatings, and cosmetics. Several emerging applications such as abrasives for precision polishing, and drug delivery systems are increasingly relying on nanoparticulates to achieve the desired performance. In the case of nanoparticles, the dispersion becomes more challenging because of the lack of fundamental understanding of dispersant adsorption and interparticle force prediction. Additionally, many of these processes use severe processing environments such as high normal forces (>100 mN/m), high shear forces (>10,000 s -1), and high ionic strengths (>0.1 M). Under such processing conditions, traditionally used dispersants based on electrostatics, and steric force repulsion mechanism may not be adequate. Hence, the development of optimally performing dispersants requires a fundamental understanding of the dispersion mechanism at the atomic/molecular scale. This study explores the use of self-assembled surfactant aggregates at the solid-liquid interface for dispersing nanoparticles in severe processing environments. Surfactant molecules can provide a feasible alternative to polymeric or inorganic dispersants for stabilizing ultrafine particles. The barrier to aggregation in the presence of surfactant molecules was measured using atomic force microscopy. The barrier heights correlated to suspension stability. To understand the mechanism for nanoparticulate suspension stability in the presence of surfactant films, the interface was characterized using zeta potential, contact angle, adsorption, and FT-IR (adsorbed surfactant film structure measurements). The effect of solution conditions such as pH and ionic strength on the suspension stability, and the self-assembled surfactant films was also investigated. It was determined that a transition from a random to an ordered orientation of the surfactant molecules at the interface was responsible for stability of

  3. Mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, D.W.; Raven, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates the hydrogeologic parameters describing the flow of groundwater and transport of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks. This report describes the processes of mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rocks, and compiles and evaluates the dispersion parameters determined from both laboratory and field tracer experiments. The compiled data show that extrapolation of the reliable test results performed over intermediate scales (10's of m and 10's to 100's of hours) to larger spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock is not justified. The reliable measures of longitudinal dispersivity of fractured crystalline rock are found to range between 0.4 and 7.8 m

  4. Dispersion Modeling Using Ensemble Forecasts Compared to ETEX Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Anne Grete; N'dri Koffi, Ernest; Nodop, Katrin

    1998-11-01

    Numerous numerical models are developed to predict long-range transport of hazardous air pollution in connection with accidental releases. When evaluating and improving such a model, it is important to detect uncertainties connected to the meteorological input data. A Lagrangian dispersion model, the Severe Nuclear Accident Program, is used here to investigate the effect of errors in the meteorological input data due to analysis error. An ensemble forecast, produced at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, is then used as model input. The ensemble forecast members are generated by perturbing the initial meteorological fields of the weather forecast. The perturbations are calculated from singular vectors meant to represent possible forecast developments generated by instabilities in the atmospheric flow during the early part of the forecast. The instabilities are generated by errors in the analyzed fields. Puff predictions from the dispersion model, using ensemble forecast input, are compared, and a large spread in the predicted puff evolutions is found. This shows that the quality of the meteorological input data is important for the success of the dispersion model. In order to evaluate the dispersion model, the calculations are compared with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment. The model manages to predict the measured puff evolution concerning shape and time of arrival to a fairly high extent, up to 60 h after the start of the release. The modeled puff is still too narrow in the advection direction.

  5. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-01-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive. - Highlights: • We performed Discrete Element Methods simulation for fuel relocation and dispersal during LOCA transients. • The approach provides a mechanistic description of these phenomena. • The approach shows the ability of the technique to reproduce experimental observations. • The packing fraction in the balloon is shown to stabilize at 50–60%.

  6. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on a Potassium Faraday Dispersive Filter for Daytime Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is proposed for measuring the profiles of atmospheric temperature in daytime. Based on the theory of high resolution Rayleigh scattering, the feasibility and advantages of using potassium (K Faraday dispersive optical filters as blocking filters for measuring atmospheric temperature are demonstrated with a numerical simulation. It was found that temperature profiles could be measured within 1K error for the height of 9 km with a 500 m range resolution in 60 min by using laser pulses with 1mJ/pulse and 1 kHz, and a 50 cm diameter telescope. Furthermore, we are developing compact pulsed laser system for temperature lidar transmitter.

  7. Evidence for an association between post-fledging dispersal and microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity in a large population of greater flamingos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A F Gillingham

    Full Text Available Dispersal can be divided into three stages: departure, transience and settlement. Despite the fact that theoretical studies have emphasized the importance of heterozygosity on dispersal strategies, empirical evidence of its effect on different stages of dispersal is lacking. Here, using multi-event capture-mark-recapture models, we show a negative association between microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity (MLH; 10 loci; n = 1023 and post-fledging dispersal propensity for greater flamingos, Phoenicopterus roseus, born in southern France. We propose that the negative effects of inbreeding depression affects competitive ability and therefore more homozygous individuals are more likely to disperse because they are less able to compete within the highly saturated natal site. Finally, a model with the effect of MLH on propensity of post-fledgling dispersers to disperse to the long-distance sites of Africa was equivalent to the null model, suggesting that MLH had low to no effect on dispersal distance. Variations in individual genetic quality thus result in context-dependent heterogeneity in dispersal strategies at each stage of dispersal. Our results have important implications on fitness since sites visited early in life are known to influence site selection later on in life and future survival.

  8. Diffusive–Dispersive and Reactive Fronts in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberer, Christina M.; Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Grathwohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , across the unsaturated–saturated interface, under both conservative and reactive transport conditions. As reactive system we considered the abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ in the presence of O2. We studied the reaction kinetics in batch experiments and its coupling with diffusive and dispersive transport...... processes by means of one-dimensional columns and two-dimensional flow-through experiments, respectively. A noninvasive optode technique was used to track O2 transport into the initially anoxic porous medium at highly resolved spatial and temporal scales. The results show significant differences...

  9. Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in FRW spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Giacomo; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Marcianò, Antonino; Matassa, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Planck-scale modifications of the dispersion relation have been attracting increasing interest also from the viewpoint of possible applications in astrophysics and cosmology, where spacetime curvature cannot be neglected. Nonetheless, the interplay between Planck-scale effects and spacetime curvature is still poorly understood, particularly in cases where curvature is not constant. These challenges have been so far postponed by relying on an ansatz, first introduced by Jacob and Piran. We propose here a general strategy of analysis of the effects of modifications of the dispersion relation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes, applicable both to cases where the relativistic equivalence of frames is spoiled ("preferred-frame scenarios") and to the alternative possibility of "DSR-relativistic theories," theories that are fully relativistic but with relativistic laws deformed so that the modified dispersion relation is observer independent. We show that the Jacob-Piran ansatz implicitly assumes that spacetime translations are not affected by the Planck scale, while under rather general conditions, the same Planck-scale quantum-spacetime structures producing modifications of the dispersion relation also affect translations. Through the explicit analysis of one of the effects produced by modifications of the dispersion relation, an effect amounting to Planck-scale corrections to travel times, we show that our concerns are not merely conceptual but rather can have significant quantitative implications.

  10. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  11. Feasibility of using Ohmsett for dispersant testing and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.L.; Buist, I.A.; Potter, S.G.; Belore, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory dispersant testing proved to be of limited value for the prediction of actual dispersant effectiveness in spill situations. Variables such as oil type, weathered state, dispersant type, dispersant-to-oil ratio application method etc. were difficult to reproduce. A feasibility study was conducted at the Ohmsett facility in Leonardo, New Jersey to determine if the site was suitable for dispersant effectiveness testing. The study consisted of four phases: (1) interfacial tension laboratory tests, (2) turbidity tests, (3) the determination of the efficiency of filtering materials at the facility and alternative filtering materials, and (3) full-scale testing. Results indicated that dispersant in the water after the tests affected the interfacial tension of oils used in other tests following this one. Noticeable dispersion of floating oil occurred only after the concentration of dispersant in the water reached 400 ppm, making it possible to conduct consecutive experiments without having to worry about residual dispersant in the tank. The filtering of water to remove the dispersed oil was only required after several experiments had taken place on a given day. Evidently, it was only possible to have an underwater view of the dispersant testing during the first test of a series. The use of cellulose to aid the filtering at the facility removed most of the dispersed oil. The use of activated carbon resulted in a high degree of efficiency for the removal of dissolved dispersant. The testing of dispersant at Ohmsett proved possible as long as the design and implementation phases of the testing program respected the limitations stipulated above. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Dispersion and Reinforcement of Nanotubes in High Temperature Polymers for Ultrahigh Strength and Thermally Conductive Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Arnold C

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental approaches for controlled dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in polymers and the molecular reinforcement in their nanocomposites were studied to design and fabricate well-dispersed...

  13. Frozen dispersions of nanomaterials are a useful operational procedure in nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Laura; Rubio, Laura; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; García-Rodríguez, Alba; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2017-02-01

    The variability observed in nanoparticle (NP) dispersions can affect the reliability of the results obtained in short-term tests, and mainly in long-term experiments. In addition, obtaining a good dispersion is time-consuming and acts as a bottleneck in the development of high-throughput screening methodologies. The freezing of different aliquots from a stock dispersion would overcome such limitations, but no studies have explored the impact of freezing thawing the samples on the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanomaterial (NM). This work aims to compare fresh-prepared and frozen MWCNT, ZnO-, Ag-, TiO 2- and CeO 2 -NP dispersions, used as models. NP characterization (size and morphology by TEM), hydrodynamic size and zeta potential were performed. Viability comparisons were determined in BEAS-2B cells. Cellular NP uptake and induced ROS production was assessed by TEM and flow cytometry, respectively. The obtained results show no important differences between frozen and fresh NP in their physico-chemical characteristics or their biological effects. This study is the first to demonstrate that there is no scientific evidence to dismiss the use of frozen NP, opening the door to the development of short- and long-term experiments with higher consistency, accuracy and reproducibility in a much shorter time and using a simplified procedure.

  14. High-dispersion observations of H-alpha in the suspected brown dwarf, white dwarf binary system G29-38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Saffer, R.A.; Pilachowski, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-dispersion spectroscopy of the H-alpha absorption line of the cool DA white dwarf G29-38 is reported. This is the star for which a recently detected IR excess has been suggested to be due to a possible brown dwarf companion. Three echelle spectra show no evidence for radial-velocity variations larger than about 1.1 + or - 8.7 km/s and are used to derive a weighted heliocentric radial velocity of 33.7 + or - 4.3 kms/s for the white dwarf. The observations of a sharp absorption-line core restricts the possible rotation of the white dwarf to 40 km/s or less and ensures that any surface magnetic field has a strength of 100,000 G or less. These results make it unlikely that the DA white dwarf has previously been in a cataclysmic variable accretion phase. 18 references

  15. Humans as long-distance dispersers of rural plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G Auffret

    Full Text Available Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24,354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36% are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion.

  16. Long-distance seed dispersal by straw-coloured fruit bats varies by season and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abedi-Lartey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On-going fragmentation of tropical forest ecosystems and associated depletion of seed dispersers threatens the long-term survival of animal-dispersed plants. These threats do not only affect biodiversity and species abundance, but ultimately ecosystem functions and services. Thus, seed dispersers such as the straw-coloured fruit bat, E. helvum, which traverse long distances across fragmented landscapes, are particularly important for maintaining genetic connectivity and colonizing new sites for plant species. Using high-resolution GPS-tracking of movements, field observations and gut retention experiments, we quantify dispersal distances for small- and large-seeded fruits foraged by E. helvum during periods of colony population low (wet season and high (dry season in an urban and a rural landscape in the forest zone of Ghana. Gut passage time averaged 116 min (range 4–1143 min, comparable to other fruit bats. Movements were generally longer in the urban than in the rural landscape and also longer in the dry than in the wet season. As the majority of seeds are dispersed only to feeding roosts, median dispersal distances were similar for both large (42–67 m and small (42–65 m seeds. However, small seeds were potentially dispersed up to 75.4 km, four times further than the previous maximum distance estimated for a similar-sized frugivore. Maximum seed dispersal distances for small seeds were almost twice as long in the rural (49.7 km compare to the urban (31.2 km landscape. Within the urban landscape, estimated maximum dispersal distances for small seeds were three times longer during the dry season (75.4 km compared to the wet season (22.8 km; in contrast, distances in the rural landscape were three times longer in the wet season (67 km compared to the dry season (24.4. Dispersal distances for large seeds during the dry season (551 m in the rural landscape were almost twice that in the wet season (319 m. We found no influence of food

  17. Diagnostics for liquid dispersion due to a high-speed impact with accident or vulnerability assessment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepsen, Richard A; O'Hern, Timothy; Demosthenous, Byron; Bystrom, Ed; Nissen, Mark; Romero, Edward; Yoon, Sam S

    2009-01-01

    The high-speed impact and subsequent dispersion of a large liquid slug is of interest for assessing vulnerability of structures when subjected to such an event. The Weber number associated with such liquid impacts is generally between 10 5 and 10 8 . Because of the experiment scale and destructive nature of these high-energy impacts, most traditional diagnostics are difficult to implement. Therefore, unique diagnostics were employed in several tests to gather information on impact force, spreading instability, slug break-up, ejection velocity, droplet deformation and spray characteristics. Measurement techniques discussed here include high-speed photometrics, particle image velocimetry (PIV), TrackEye particle analysis, speckle correlation, single-pass schlieren imaging, phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and load cell measurements as applied to large-scale, high-speed liquid impacts

  18. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Dissecting the structure of surface stabilizer on the dispersion of inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yong; Yu, Zongzhi; Zheng, Junping, E-mail: jpzheng@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-03-15

    Dispersing inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is a key requirement for a great variety of products and processes, including carriers in drug delivery or fillers in polymers. To be highly functional in the final product, inorganic particles are required to be finely dispersed in nanoscale. In this study, silica was selected as a representative inorganic particle. Surface stabilizers with different chain length and charged group were designed to reveal the influence of electrostatic and van der Waals forces between silica and stabilizer on the dispersion of silica particles in aqueous medium. Results showed surface stabilizer with longer alkyl chain and charged group exerted best ability to deaggregate silica, leading to a hydrodynamic size of 51.1 nm. Surface stabilizer designing with rational structure is a promising solution for deagglomerating and reducing process time and energy. Giving the designability and adaptability of surface stabilizer, this method is of potential for dispersion of other inorganic nanoparticles.

  20. Dissecting the structure of surface stabilizer on the dispersion of inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Yu, Zongzhi; Zheng, Junping

    2017-03-01

    Dispersing inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is a key requirement for a great variety of products and processes, including carriers in drug delivery or fillers in polymers. To be highly functional in the final product, inorganic particles are required to be finely dispersed in nanoscale. In this study, silica was selected as a representative inorganic particle. Surface stabilizers with different chain length and charged group were designed to reveal the influence of electrostatic and van der Waals forces between silica and stabilizer on the dispersion of silica particles in aqueous medium. Results showed surface stabilizer with longer alkyl chain and charged group exerted best ability to deaggregate silica, leading to a hydrodynamic size of 51.1 nm. Surface stabilizer designing with rational structure is a promising solution for deagglomerating and reducing process time and energy. Giving the designability and adaptability of surface stabilizer, this method is of potential for dispersion of other inorganic nanoparticles.

  1. RAFT Aqueous Dispersion Polymerization of N-(2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone: A Convenient Low Viscosity Route to High Molecular Weight Water-Soluble Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Victoria J; Derry, Matthew J; Fielding, Lee A; Musa, Osama M; Armes, Steven P

    2016-06-28

    RAFT solution polymerization of N -(2-(methacryoyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone (NMEP) in ethanol at 70 °C was conducted to produce a series of PNMEP homopolymers with mean degrees of polymerization (DP) varying from 31 to 467. Turbidimetry was used to assess their inverse temperature solubility behavior in dilute aqueous solution, with an LCST of approximately 55 °C being observed in the high molecular weight limit. Then a poly(glycerol monomethacylate) (PGMA) macro-CTA with a mean DP of 63 was chain-extended with NMEP using a RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation at 70 °C. The target PNMEP DP was systematically varied from 100 up to 6000 to generate a series of PGMA 63 -PNMEP x diblock copolymers. High conversions (≥92%) could be achieved when targeting up to x = 5000. GPC analysis confirmed high blocking efficiencies and a linear evolution in M n with increasing PNMEP DP. A gradual increase in M w / M n was also observed when targeting higher DPs. However, this problem could be minimized ( M w / M n RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of NMEP was approximately four times faster than the RAFT solution polymerization of NMEP in ethanol when targeting the same DP in each case. This is perhaps surprising because both 1 H NMR and SAXS studies indicate that the core-forming PNMEP chains remain relatively solvated at 70 °C in the latter formulation. Moreover, dissolution of the initial PGMA 63 -PNMEP x particles occurs on cooling from 70 to 20 °C as the PNMEP block passes through its LCST. Hence this RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation offers an efficient route to a high molecular weight water-soluble polymer in a rather convenient low-viscosity form. Finally, the relatively expensive PGMA macro-CTA was replaced with a poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) macro-CTA. High conversions were also achieved for PMAA 85 -PNMEP x diblock copolymers prepared via RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization for x ≤ 4000. Again, better control was achieved when

  2. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph; Pen, I.

    2012-01-01

    viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T...... above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed...... the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population...

  3. Chromatic Dispersion Compensation Using Photonic Crystal Fibers with Hexagonal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick E. Reyes-Vera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show various configurations of photonic crystal fiber with hexagonal holes distribution for compensation of chromatic dispersion in optical communications links. The vectorial finite element method with scattering boundary condition was used for the analysis of the fibers. From these results it was estimated variation of the dispersion and the dispersion slope with respect to change in the diameter of the holes in the microstructure. With the above was possible to obtain values of dispersion in the C and L bands of telecommunications close to -850 ps / nm * km, with confinement losses 10-3 dB / km

  4. Highly anisotropic magnon dispersion in Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. Evidence for strong spin orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkemoeller, Stefan; Khomskii, Daniel; Braden, Markus [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Steffens, Paul; Piovano, Andrea [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Nugroho, Augustinus Agung [Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-07-01

    Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is a key material for the understanding of the impact of spin-orbit coupling in 4d and 5d compounds, which is intensively studied at present. We have studied the magnon dispersion in Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} by inelastic neutron scattering on large single crystals containing 1% of Ti. With this unmagnetic substitution large single crystals could be obtained with the floating zone method. The magnon dispersion can be well described with the simple conventional Heisenberg model. Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} reveals a large anisotropy gap of 13 meV, which shows that spin-orbit coupling and some in-plane orbital ordering are both important parameters for the description of the electronic and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.

  5. Constraining the CMB optical depth through the dispersion measure of cosmological radio transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion measure of extragalactic radio transients can be used to measure the column density of free electrons in the intergalactic medium. The same electrons also scatter the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, affecting precision measurements of cosmological parameters. We explore the connection between the dispersion measure of radio transients existing during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and the total optical depth for the CMB showing that the existence of such transients would provide a new sensitive probe of the CMB optical depth. As an example, we consider the population of FRBs. Assuming they exist during the EoR, we show that: (i) such sources can probe the reionization history by measuring the optical depth to sub-percent accuracy, and (ii) they can be detected with high significance by an instrument such as the Square Kilometer Array.

  6. Constraining the CMB optical depth through the dispersion measure of cosmological radio transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A., E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Teory and Computation, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The dispersion measure of extragalactic radio transients can be used to measure the column density of free electrons in the intergalactic medium. The same electrons also scatter the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, affecting precision measurements of cosmological parameters. We explore the connection between the dispersion measure of radio transients existing during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and the total optical depth for the CMB showing that the existence of such transients would provide a new sensitive probe of the CMB optical depth. As an example, we consider the population of FRBs. Assuming they exist during the EoR, we show that: (i) such sources can probe the reionization history by measuring the optical depth to sub-percent accuracy, and (ii) they can be detected with high significance by an instrument such as the Square Kilometer Array.

  7. Antiwear performance of ionic liquid+graphene dispersions with anomalous viscosity-temperature behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pamies Porras, Ramón Francisco; Arias Pardilla, Joaquín; Espinosa Rodríguez, Tulia; Carrión Vilches, Francisco José; Bermúdez Olivares, María Dolores; Sanes Molina, José; Avilés González, María Dolores

    2018-01-01

    New dispersions of few-layers graphene (G) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([EMIM]) ionic liquids (ILs) with dicyanamide ([DCA]) or bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]) anions have been obtained by mechanical mixing and sonication. IL+0.5 wt% G dispersions show constant viscosity values from 357K (for IL = [EMIM][DCA]) or from 385K (for IL = [EMIM][TFSI]) to 393K. IL + G dispersions with G > 0.5 wt% show linear viscosity increases with increasing temperature, from 306K (for [EMIM][DCA]+1...

  8. Determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in fruits by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Marine Dispersal Scales Are Congruent over Evolutionary and Ecological Time

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsky, Malin L.

    2016-12-15

    The degree to which offspring remain near their parents or disperse widely is critical for understanding population dynamics, evolution, and biogeography, and for designing conservation actions. In the ocean, most estimates suggesting short-distance dispersal are based on direct ecological observations of dispersing individuals, while indirect evolutionary estimates often suggest substantially greater homogeneity among populations. Reconciling these two approaches and their seemingly competing perspectives on dispersal has been a major challenge. Here we show for the first time that evolutionary and ecological measures of larval dispersal can closely agree by using both to estimate the distribution of dispersal distances. In orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) populations in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, we found that evolutionary dispersal kernels were 17 km (95% confidence interval: 12–24 km) wide, while an exhaustive set of direct larval dispersal observations suggested kernel widths of 27 km (19–36 km) or 19 km (15–27 km) across two years. The similarity between these two approaches suggests that ecological and evolutionary dispersal kernels can be equivalent, and that the apparent disagreement between direct and indirect measurements can be overcome. Our results suggest that carefully applied evolutionary methods, which are often less expensive, can be broadly relevant for understanding ecological dispersal across the tree of life.

  10. High dispersal in a frog species suggests that it is vulnerable to habitat fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, W. Chris; Greene, Allison E; Corn, Paul Stephen; Allendorf, Fred W

    2005-01-01

    Global losses of amphibian populations are a major conservation concern and their causes have generated substantial debate. Habitat fragmentation is considered one important cause of amphibian decline. However, if fragmentation is to be invoked as a mechanism of amphibian decline, it must first be established that dispersal is prevalent among contiguous amphibian populations using formal movement estimators. In contrast, if dispersal is naturally low in amphibians, fragmentation can be disreg...

  11. Dispersal of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plants during succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de León, David; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Jairus, Teele; Neuenkamp, Lena; Vasar, Martti; Bueno, C. Guillermo; Gerz, Maret; Davison, John; Zobel, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are important root symbionts that enhance plant nutrient uptake and tolerance to pathogens and drought. While the role of plant dispersal in shaping successional vegetation is well studied, there is very little information about the dispersal abilities of AM fungi. We conducted a trap-box experiment in a recently abandoned quarry at 10 different distances from the quarry edge (i.e. the potential propagule source) over eleven months to assess the short term, within-year, arrival of plant and AM fungal assemblages and hence their dispersal abilities. Using DNA based techniques we identified AM fungal taxa and analyzed their phylogenetic diversity. Plant diversity was determined by transporting trap soil to a greenhouse and identifying emerging seedlings. We recorded 30 AM fungal taxa. These contained a high proportion of ruderal AM fungi (30% of taxa, 79% of sequences) but the richness and abundance of AM fungi were not related to the distance from the presumed propagule source. The number of sequences of AM fungi decreased over time. Twenty seven plant species (30% of them ruderal) were recorded from the soil seed traps. Plant diversity decreased with distance from the propagule source and increased over time. Our data show that AM fungi with ruderal traits can be fast colonizers of early successional habitats.

  12. Dispersions of attractive semiflexible fiberlike colloidal particles from bacterial cellulose microfibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Anke; Koppert, Remco; Versluis, Peter; van Dalen, Gerard; Remijn, Caroline; Hazekamp, Johan; Nijsse, Jaap; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2013-11-26

    We prepared dispersions from bacterial cellulose microfibrils (CMF) of a commercial Nata de Coco source. We used an ultra-high-energy mechanical deagglomeration process that is able to disperse the CMFs from the pellicle in which they are organized in an irregular network. Because of the strong attractions between the CMFs, the dispersion remained highly heterogeneous, consisting of fiber bundles, flocs, and voids spanning tens to hundreds of micrometers depending on concentration. The size of these flocs increased with CMF concentration, the size of the bundles stayed constant, and the size of the voids decreased. The observed percolation threshold in MFC dispersions is lower than the theoretical prediction, which is accounted for by the attractive interactions in the system. Because bacterial cellulose is chemically very pure, it can be used to study the interaction of attractive and highly shape-anisotropic, semiflexible fiberlike colloidal particles.

  13. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  14. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Guimarães

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals > 10(3 kg, yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10-15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4-10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits > 10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size with either a single or few ( 100 seeds. Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among

  15. Disperse reinforced concrete used in obtaining prefabricated elements for roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MEZEI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most used material in construction. By improving the performance of materials and of technologies, concretes with outstanding performances were also developed, in the past two decades. Concrete with dispersed reinforcement represents a new generation of reinforced concrete that combines a good behavior of concrete compressive strength with an increased tensile strength of steel fibers. Using this material, monolithic and prefabricated concrete elements with high mechanical strengths and high durability can be obtained. Technological processes for preparation of concrete with dispersed reinforcement are similar to the conventional methods and do not involve using additional equipment for dosing the dispersed reinforcement. The study aimed the development of road plates made with optimized disperse- reinforced concrete. The first tests were done on plates from the gutter roadway, having a classic reinforcement, using different percentages of fibre reinforcement in the concrete composition, leading to the development of a new optimized economical solution. The results prove the enhanced characteristics of the disperse-reinforced concrete versus conventional concrete, and hence of the developed concrete plates.

  16. Atmospheric and dispersion modeling in areas of highly complex terrain employing a four-dimensional data assimilation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, J.D.; O'Steen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that the current data assimilation technique can have a positive impact on the mesoscale flow fields; however, care must be taken in its application to grids of relatively fine horizontal resolution. Continuous FDDA is a useful tool in producing high-resolution mesoscale analysis fields that can be used to (1) create a better initial conditions for mesoscale atmospheric models and (2) drive transport models for dispersion studies. While RAMS is capable of predicting the qualitative flow during this evening, additional experiments need to be performed to improve the prognostic forecasts made by RAMS and refine the FDDA procedure so that the overall errors are reduced even further. Despite the fact that a great deal of computational time is necessary in executing RAMS and LPDM in the configuration employed in this study, recent advances in workstations is making applications such as this more practical. As the speed of these machines increase in the next few years, it will become feasible to employ prognostic, three-dimensional mesoscale/transport models to routinely predict atmospheric dispersion of pollutants, even to highly complex terrain. For example, the version of RAMS in this study could be run in a ''nowcasting'' model that would continually assimilate local and regional observations as soon as they become available. The atmospheric physics in the model would be used to determine the wind field where no observations are available. The three-dimensional flow fields could be used as dynamic initial conditions for a model forecast. The output from this type of modeling system will have to be compared to existing diagnostic, mass-consistent models to determine whether the wind field and dispersion forecasts are significantly improved

  17. Jet noise reduction via dispersed phase injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greska, Brent; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Arakeri, Vijay

    2001-11-01

    A recently developed hot jet aeroacoustics facility at FMRL,FAMU-FSU College of Engineering has been used to study the far field noise characteristics of hot supersonic jets as influenced by the injection of a dispersed phase with low mass loading.The measured SPL from a fully expanded Mach 1.36 hot jet shows a peak value of about 139 dB at 40 deg from the jet axis.By injecting atomized water,the SPL are reduced in the angular region of about 30 deg to 50 deg with the maximum reduction being about 2 dB at 40 deg.However,with the use of non atomized aqueous polymer solution as a dispersed phase the noise levels are reduced over all angular positions by at least 1 dB with the maximum reduction being about 3 dB at 40 deg.The injection of a dispersed phase readily kills the screech; the initial results show promise and optimization studies are underway to find methods of further noise reduction.

  18. Food supplementation mitigates dispersal-dependent differences in nest defence in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récapet, Charlotte; Daniel, Grégory; Taroni, Joëlle; Bize, Pierre; Doligez, Blandine

    2016-05-01

    Dispersing and non-dispersing individuals often differ in phenotypic traits (e.g. physiology, behaviour), but to what extent these differences are fixed or driven by external conditions remains elusive. We experimentally tested whether differences in nest-defence behaviour between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals changed with local habitat quality in collared flycatchers, by providing additional food during the nestling rearing period. In control (non-food-supplemented) nests, dispersers were less prone to defend their brood compared with non-dispersers, whereas in food-supplemented nests, dispersing and non-dispersing individuals showed equally strong nest defence. We discuss the importance of dispersal costs versus adaptive flexibility in reproductive investment in shaping these differences in nest-defence behaviour between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms, our study emphasizes the importance of accounting for environmental effects when comparing traits between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals, and in turn assessing the costs and benefits of dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Determination of five antiarrhythmic drugs in human plasma by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Fazeli-Bakhtiyari, Rana

    2015-03-01

    A fast and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five antiarrhythmic drugs (metoprolol, propranolol, carvedilol, diltiazem, and verapamil) in human plasma samples. It involves dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of the desired drugs from 660 µL plasma and separation using isocratic elution with UV detection at 200 nm. The complete separation of all analytes was achieved within 7 min. Acetonitrile (as disperser solvent) resulting from the protein precipitation procedure was mixed with 100 µL dichloromethane (as an extraction solvent) and rapidly injected into 5 mL aqueous solution (pH 11.5) containing 1% (w/v), NaCl. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase containing enriched analytes was collected and evaporated to dryness. The residue was re-dissolved in 50 µL de-ionized water (acidified to pH 3) and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries ranged between 4.4-10.8 and 33-82%, respectively. The suggested method was linear (r(2) ≥0.997) over a dynamic range of 0.02-0.80 µg mL(-1) in plasma. The intra- and inter-days relative standard deviation (RSD%) and relative error (RE%) values of the method were below 20%, which shows good precision and accuracy. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of real plasma samples obtained from the patients treated with these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Environmental Knowledge Inhibit Hominin Dispersal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Colin D; Costopoulos, Andre

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between the dispersal potential of a hominin population, its local-scale foraging strategies, and the characteristics of the resource environment using an agent-based modeling approach. In previous work we demonstrated that natural selection can favor a relatively low capacity for assessing and predicting the quality of the resource environment, especially when the distribution of resources is highly clustered. That work also suggested that the more knowledge foraging populations had about their environment, the less likely they were to abandon the landscape they know and disperse into novel territory. The present study gives agents new individual and social strategies for learning about their environment. For both individual and social learning, natural selection favors decreased levels of environmental knowledge, particularly in low-heterogeneity environments. Social acquisition of detailed environmental knowledge results in crowding of agents, which reduces available reproductive space and relative fitness. Agents with less environmental knowledge move away from resource clusters and into areas with more space available for reproduction. These results suggest that, rather than being a requirement for successful dispersal, environmental knowledge strengthens the ties to particular locations and significantly reduces the dispersal potential as a result. The evolved level of environmental knowledge in a population depends on the characteristics of the resource environment and affects the dispersal capacity of the population.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion models of radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the rapid industrialization in recent time, atmospheric dispersion models have become indispensible 'tools' to ensure that the effects of releases are well within the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority. In the case of radioactive releases from the nuclear facility, though negligible in quantity and many a times not even measurable, it is required to demonstrate the compliance of these releases to the regulatory limits set by the regulatory authority by carrying out radiological impact assessment. During routine operations of nuclear facility, the releases are so low that environmental impact is usually assessed with the help of atmospheric dispersion models as it is difficult to distinguish negligible contribution of nuclear facility to relatively high natural background radiation. The accidental releases from nuclear facility, though with negligible probability of occurrence, cannot be ruled out. In such cases, the atmospheric dispersion models are of great help to emergency planners for deciding the intervention actions to minimize the consequences in public domain and also to workout strategies for the management of situation. In case of accidental conditions, the atmospheric dispersion models are also utilized for the estimation of probable quantities of radionuclides which might have got released to the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric dispersion models are an essential tool for nuclear facility during routine operation as well as in the case of accidental conditions

  2. Surface functionalization of microwave plasma-synthesized silica nanoparticles for enhancing the stability of dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlleier, Yee Hwa; Abdali, Ali; Schnurre, Sophie Marie; Wiggers, Hartmut; Schulz, Christof

    2014-08-01

    Gas phase-synthesized silica nanoparticles were functionalized with three different silane coupling agents (SCAs) including amine, amine/phosphonate and octyltriethoxy functional groups and the stability of dispersions in polar and non-polar dispersing media such as water, ethanol, methanol, chloroform, benzene, and toluene was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that all three SCAs are chemically attached to the surface of silica nanoparticles. Amine-functionalized particles using steric dispersion stabilization alone showed limited stability. Thus, an additional SCA with sufficiently long hydrocarbon chains and strong positively charged phosphonate groups was introduced in order to achieve electrosteric stabilization. Steric stabilization was successful with hydrophobic octyltriethoxy-functionalized silica nanoparticles in non-polar solvents. The results from dynamic light scattering measurements showed that in dispersions of amine/phosphonate- and octyltriethoxy-functionalized silica particles are dispersed on a primary particle level. Stable dispersions were successfully prepared from initially agglomerated nanoparticles synthesized in a microwave plasma reactor by designing the surface functionalization.

  3. Effects of fourth-order dispersion in very high-speed optical time-division multiplexed transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Pastor, D; Sales, S; Ortega, B

    2002-06-01

    We present a closed-form expression for computation of the output pulse's rms time width in an optical fiber link with up to fourth-order dispersion (FOD) by use of an optical source with arbitrary linewidth and chirp parameters. We then specialize the expression to analyze the effect of FOD on the transmission of very high-speed linear optical time-division multiplexing systems. By suitable source chirping, FOD can be compensated for to an upper link-length limit above which other techniques must be employed. Finally, a design formula to estimate the maximum attainable bit rate limited by FOD as a function of the link length is also presented.

  4. Branch migration and the international dispersal of families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, N; Lucas, D; Mok, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the dispersal of facilities where family members migrate to different destination countries. Terminology for internationally dispersed families is proposed, and the term branch migration is suggested for the migration of related people from the same source country to different destination countries. Data from two 1993 surveys of senior secondary students show that 22% of Sydney students and 20% of Hong Kong students have relatives in two or more other countries. The data suggest that many Asian migrant families have branched between the US, Canada, Australia and other migrant-receiving nations. The causes and implications of the international dispersal of families are discussed.

  5. Preparation of LuAG Powders with Single Phase and Good Dispersion for Transparent Ceramics Using Co-Precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liangjie; Jiang, Benxue; Fan, Jintai; Yang, Qiuhong; Zhou, Chunlin; Zhang, Pande; Mao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Long

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of pure and well dispersed lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG) powder is crucial and important for the preparation of LuAG transparent ceramics. In this paper, high purity and well dispersed LuAG powders have been synthesized via co-precipitation method with lutetium nitrate and aluminum nitrate as raw materials. Ammonium hydrogen carbonate (AHC) was used as the precipitant. The influence of aging time, pH value, and dripping speed on the prepared LuAG powders were investigated. It showed that long aging duration (>15 h) with high terminal pH value (>7.80) resulted in segregation of rhombus Lu precipitate and Al precipitate. By decreasing the initial pH value or accelerating the dripping speed, rhombus Lu precipitate was eliminated and pure LuAG nano powders were synthesized. High quality LuAG transparent ceramics with transmission >75% at 1064 nm were fabricated using these well dispersed nano LuAG powders. PMID:28793510

  6. Preparation of LuAG Powders with Single Phase and Good Dispersion for Transparent Ceramics Using Co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjie Pan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of pure and well dispersed lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG powder is crucial and important for the preparation of LuAG transparent ceramics. In this paper, high purity and well dispersed LuAG powders have been synthesized via co-precipitation method with lutetium nitrate and aluminum nitrate as raw materials. Ammonium hydrogen carbonate (AHC was used as the precipitant. The influence of aging time, pH value, and dripping speed on the prepared LuAG powders were investigated. It showed that long aging duration (>15 h with high terminal pH value (>7.80 resulted in segregation of rhombus Lu precipitate and Al precipitate. By decreasing the initial pH value or accelerating the dripping speed, rhombus Lu precipitate was eliminated and pure LuAG nano powders were synthesized. High quality LuAG transparent ceramics with transmission >75% at 1064 nm were fabricated using these well dispersed nano LuAG powders.

  7. Practice for dispersing pigments and other materials into water-based suspensions with a high intensity mixer

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 In preparing ceramic glazes and slurries for use, it is often necessary to add pigments to develop a desired fired color, to incorporate viscosity control agents for developing, or providing to develop the desired thickness of the glaze on the ware, to add materials which stabilize the suspension, control bacterial growth, and develop the desired hardness of the glaze on the ware to allow moving and handling before firing. While it is convenient to add these materials to the glaze or slurry in the dry form, it is often possible to use slurries where these materials are dispersed in a slurry and the slurry then added to the liquid glaze. Regardless of the state of the additions (dry or slurry), the dispersion can be done efficiently and effectively by the use of a high intensity mixer (sometimes referred to as a dissolver) and the procedure used is described here. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if...

  8. Measuring polarization dependent dispersion of non-polarizing beam splitter cubes with spectrally resolved white light interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonti, K.; Hanyecz, V.; Mészáros, G.; Kovács, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have measured the group-delay dispersion of an empty Michelson interferometer for s- and p-polarized light beams applying two different non-polarizing beam splitter cubes. The interference pattern appearing at the output of the interferometer was resolved with two different spectrometers. It was found that the group-delay dispersion of the empty interferometer depended on the polarization directions in case of both beam splitter cubes. The results were checked by inserting a glass plate in the sample arm of the interferometer and similar difference was obtained for the two polarization directions. These results show that to reach high precision, linearly polarized white light beam should be used and the residual dispersion of the empty interferometer should be measured at both polarization directions.

  9. Dispersion-modulation by high material loss in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    2009-01-01

    The influence of strong loss peaks on the dispersion (through the Kramers-Kronig relations) of a nonlinear waveguide is investigated theore­ti­cally. It is found specifically for degenerate four-wave mixing in a poly(methyl methacrylate) microstructured polymer optical fiber that the loss...

  10. Postirradiation examination of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Strain, R.V.

    1998-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles, designated RERTR-2, were inserted into the Advanced Test reactor in Idaho in August 1997. These tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels, including U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru and U-10Mo-0.05Sn: the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U-10Mo-0.-5Sn; the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U 3 Si 2 were also included in the fuel test matrix. These fuels are included in the experiments as microplates (76 mm x 22 mm x 1.3mm outer dimensions) with a nominal fuel volume loading of 25% and irradiated at relatively low temperature (∼100 deg C). RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 were discharged from the reactor in November 1997 and July 1998, respectively at calculated peak fuel burnups of 45 and 71 at %-U 235 Both experiments are currently under examination at the Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago. This paper presents the postirradiation examination results available to date from these experiments. (author)

  11. The high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle white-pupil spectrometer of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Robert G.; Macqueen, Phillip J.; Sneden, Christopher; Lambert, David L.

    1995-01-01

    A new high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer has been installed at the coude focus of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope. Its primary goal was simultaneously to gather spectra over as much of the spectral range 3400 A to 1 micrometer as practical, at a resolution R identical with lambda/Delta lambda which approximately = 60,000 with signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 100 for stars down to magnitude 11, using 1-h exposures. In the instrument as built, two exposures are all that are needed to cover the full range. Featuring a white-pupil design, fused silica prism cross disperser, and folded Schmidt camera with a Tektronix 2048x2048 CCD used at either of two foci, it has been in regularly scheduled operation since 1992 April. Design details and performance are described.

  12. Influence of dispersing additives and blend composition on stability of marine high-viscosity fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Митусова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a definition of the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel from the point of view of the colloid-chemical concept of oil dispersed systems. The necessity and importance of the inclusion in the current regulatory requirements of this quality parameter of high-viscosity marine fuel is indicated. The objects of the research are high-viscosity marine fuels, the basic components of which are heavy oil residues: fuel oil that is the atmospheric residue of oil refining and viscosity breaking residue that is the product of light thermal cracking of fuel oil. As a thinning agent or distillate component, a light gas oil was taken from the catalytic cracking unit. The stability of the obtained samples was determined through the xylene equivalent index, which characterizes the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel to lamination during storage, transportation and operation processes. To improve performance, the resulting base compositions of high-viscosity marine fuels were modified by introducing small concentrations (0.05 % by weight of stabilizing additives based on oxyethylated amines of domestic origin and alkyl naphthalenes of foreign origin.

  13. Facile and sensitive determination of N-nitrosamines in food samples by high-performance liquid chromatography via combining fluorescent labeling with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuaimin; Wu, Di; Li, Guoliang; Lv, Zhengxian; Gong, Peiwei; Xia, Lian; Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Guang; Chen, Xuefeng; You, Jinmao; Wu, Yongning

    2017-11-01

    The intake of N-nitrosamines (NAs) from foodstuffs is considered to be an important influence factor for several cancers. But the rapid and sensitive screening of NAs remains a challenge in the field of food safety. Inspired by that, a sensitive and rapid method was demonstrated for determination of five NAs (Nitrosopyrrolidine, Nitrosodimethylamine, Nitrosodiethylamine, Nitrosodipropylamine and Nitrosodibutylamine) using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The NAs were firstly denitrosated and labeled by 2-(11H-benzo[a]carbazol-11-yl) ethyl carbonochloridate (BCEC-Cl) and finally enriched by DLLME. Furthermore, the main DLLME conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, satisfactory limits of detection (LODs) were obtained with a range of 0.01-0.07ngg -1 , which were significantly lower than the reported methods. The developed method showed many merits including rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and excellent selectivity, which shows a broad prospect in food safety analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of multimode Love wave dispersion curve inversion for geotechnical site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamimu, La; Nawawi, Mohd; Safani, Jamhir

    2011-01-01

    Inversion codes based on a modified genetic algorithm (GA) have been developed to invert multimode Love wave dispersion curves. The multimode Love wave dispersion curves were synthesized from the profile representing shear-wave velocity reversal using a full SH (shear horizontal) waveform. In this study, we used a frequency–slowness transform to extract the dispersion curve from the full SH waveform. Dispersion curves overlain in dispersion images were picked manually. These curves were then inverted using the modified GA. To assess the accuracy of the inversion results, differences between the true and inverted shear-wave velocity profile were quantified in terms of shear-wave velocity and thickness errors, E S and E H . Our numerical modeling showed that the inversion of multimode dispersion curves can significantly provide the better assessment of a shear-wave velocity structure, especially with a velocity reversal profile at typical geotechnical site investigations. This approach has been applied on field data acquired at a site in Niigata prefecture, Japan. In these field data, our inversion results show good agreement between the calculated and experimental dispersion curves and accurately detect low velocity layer targets

  15. Theory of dispersive microlenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, B.; Gal, George

    1993-01-01

    A dispersive microlens is a miniature optical element which simultaneously focuses and disperses light. Arrays of dispersive mircolenses have potential applications in multicolor focal planes. They have a 100 percent optical fill factor and can focus light down to detectors of diffraction spot size, freeing up areas on the focal plane for on-chip analog signal processing. Use of dispersive microlenses allows inband color separation within a pixel and perfect scene registration. A dual-color separation has the potential for temperature discrimination. We discuss the design of dispersive microlenses and present sample results for efficient designs.

  16. Signals can trump rewards in attracting seed-dispersing ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Turner

    Full Text Available Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds.

  17. Microwave-induced synthesis of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles within the pore channels of mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jinlou; Fan Wei; Shimojima, Atsushi; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles have been incorporated into the pore channels of SBA-15 mesoporous silica through a newly developed strategy assisted by microwave radiation (MR). The sizes of gold are effectively controlled attributed to the rapid and homogeneous nucleation, simultaneous propagation and termination of gold precursor by MR. Diol moieties with high dielectric and dielectric loss constants, and hence a high microwave activation, were firstly introduced to the pore channels of SBA-15 by a simple addition reaction between amino group and glycidiol and subsequently served as the reduction centers for gold nanoparticles. Extraction of the entrapped gold from the nanocomposite resulted in milligram quantities of gold nanoparticles with low dispersity. The successful assembly process of diol groups and formation of gold nanoparticles were monitored and tracked by solid-state NMR and UV-vis measurements. Characterization by small angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the incorporation of gold nanoparticles would not breakup the structural integrity and long-range periodicity of SBA-15. The gold nanoparticles had a narrow size distribution with diameters in the size range of 5-10 nm through TEM observation. The average particles size is 7.9 nm via calculation by the Scherrer formula and TEM measurements. Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms gave further evidence that the employed method was efficient and gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the pore channels of SBA-15. - Graphical abstract: A facile and novel strategy has been developed to incorporate gold nanoparticles into the pore channels of mesoporous SBA-15 assisted by microwave radiation (MR) with mild reaction condition and rapid reaction speed. Due to the rapid and homogeneous nucleation, simultaneous propagation and termination by MR, the size of gold nanoparticles are effectively controlled

  18. Particle dispersion and mixing induced by breaking internal gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Koudella, C.; Staquet, C.; Winters, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze diapycnal mixing induced by the breaking of an internal gravity wave — the primary wave — either standing or propagating. To achieve this aim we apply two different methods. The first method consists of a direct estimate of vertical eddy diffusion from particle dispersion while the second method relies upon potential energy budgets [Winters, K.B., Lombard, P.N., Riley, J.J., D'Asaro, E.A., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 289, 115-128; Winters, K.B., D'Asaro, E.A., 1996. J. Fluid Mech. 317, 179-193]. The primary wave we consider is of small amplitude and is statically stable, a case for which the breaking process involves two-dimensional instabilities. The dynamics of the waves have been previously analyzed by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations [Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 285, 265-301; Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1996. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 29, 41-63; Koudella, C., Staquet, C., 1998. In: Davis, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the IMA Conference on Mixing and Dispersion on Stably-stratified Flows, Dundee, September 1996. IMA Publication]. High resolution three-dimensional calculations of the same wave are also reported here [Koudella, C., 1999]. A local estimate of mixing is first inferred from the time evolution of sets of particles released in the flow during the breaking regime. We show that, after an early evolution dominated by shear effects, a diffusion law is reached and the dispersion coefficient is fairly independent of the initial seeding location of the particles in the flow. The eddy diffusion coefficient, K, is then estimated from the diapycnal diffusive flux. A good agreement with the value inferred from particle dispersion is obtained. This finding is of particular interest regarding the interpretation of in situ estimates of K inferred either from tracer dispersion or from microstructure measurements. Computation of the Cox number, equal to the

  19. Modified magnetite nanoparticles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as superior adsorbent for rapid removal of the disperse dyes from wastewater of textile companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Rajabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports application of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs as a novel adsorbent for removal of two types of disperse dyes, including disperse red 167, and disperse blue 183, from wastewater of textile companies. The effect of parameters including type of surfactant, pH of solution, surfactant concentration, and amount of salt, was investigated and optimized. The obtained results showed that the ratio of initial dye concentration to CTAB amounts has critical effect on removal processes so that removal efficiencies higher than 95% can be achieved even at high concentration of dyes as high as 500 mg l-1 when the ratio is optimum. Removal of dyes is very fast, and equilibrium is reached at times less than 10 min even for high concentration of the dyes. Very high adsorbent capacity (as high as 2000 mg g-1 was yielded for maximum tested concentration of the dyes (500 mg g-1. The obtained result was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis data. This study showed that CTAB coated Fe3O4 NPs is a very efficient adsorbent for removal of dyes from wastewater of textile companies and has high capacity under optimum conditions.

  20. Using Photosensitive Dye To Improve Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Costanzo, Guadalupe; Goyanes, Silvia [Laboratorio de PolImeros y Materiales Compuestos, Dpto. de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) (Argentina); Ledesma, Silvia, E-mail: ledesma@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Procesado de Imagenes, Dpto. de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) (Argentina)

    2011-01-01

    As already well-known, the outstanding mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are partially lost when CNT aggregate. The fact that CNT tend to aggregate makes difficult to put them into a host matrix, for example. Until now, achieving stable dispersions of CNT is still a challenge. In the present work, we show that the addition of an azobenzene derivative, Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) to dispersions of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in the organic solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF) efficiently helps debundling MWCNT and makes dispersions stable for days. We report UV-Vis optical absorption experiments that suggest an interaction between MWCNT and DO3 molecules following the behavior qualitatively observed. Dispersions with MWCNT and DO3 in THF were observed qualitatively over time. Successful suspensions (for the higher DO3 concentrations studied) were stable for several days. Also, we prepared polymeric films doped with MWCNT non-covalent functionalized with DO3 in one of the proper DO3/MWCNT weight relation where stable supensions were obtained. In this study we show preliminary results where the optical response of these samples was also measured.

  1. Cefuroxime axetil solid dispersions prepared using solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Seoung Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Jo, Guk Hyun; Lee, Sibeum; Woo, Jong Soo; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2005-12-01

    Cefuroxime axetil (CA) solid dispersions with HPMC 2910/PVP K-30 were prepared using solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) in an effort to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Their physicochemical properties in solid state were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy. No endothermic and characteristic diffraction peaks corresponding to CA were observed for the solid dispersions in DSC and PXRD. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between CA and HPMC 2910/PVP K-30 in solid dispersions, resulting in the formation of amorphous or non-crystalline CA. Dissolution studies indicated that the dissolution rates were remarkably increased in solid dispersions compared with those in the physical mixture and drug alone. In conclusion, an amorphous or non-crystalline CA solid dispersion prepared using SEDS could be very useful for the formulation of solid dosage forms.

  2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Lignin-Based Concrete Dispersing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Dagmara; Heck, Tobias; Schubert, Mark; Yerlikaya, Alpaslan; Weymuth, Christophe; Rentsch, Daniel; Schober, Irene; Richter, Michael

    2018-03-15

    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer, functioning as an integral component of woody materials. In its unmodified form it shows limited water solubility and is relatively unreactive, so biotechnological lignin valorisation for high-performance applications is greatly underexploited. Lignin can be obtained from the pulp and paper industry as a by-product. To expand its application, a new synthesis route to new dispersing agents for use as concrete additives was developed. The route is based on lignin functionalisation by enzymatic transformation. Screening of lignin-modifying systems resulted in functionalised lignin polymers with improved solubility in aqueous systems. Through grafting of sulfanilic acid or p-aminobenzoic acid by fungal laccases, lignin became soluble in water at pH≤4 or pH≤7, respectively. Products were analysed and evaluated in miniaturised application tests in cement paste and mortar. Their dispersing properties match the performance criteria of commercially available lignosulfonates. The study provides examples of new perspectives for the use of lignin. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A study of the physical factors affecting air pollution dispersion in Helwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution is considered as one of the most important environmental problems facing the humanity. Cement industry, usually, is responsible for building high levels of pollutants. The present research focused on the study of air pollution control of cement industry using mathematical modeling. A mathematical dispersion model was developed based on Gaussian distribution where the dispersion parameters increase with increasing atmospheric turbulence. The Gaussian equation takes in consideration the effect of emission rates. stack height, buoyant plume rise, weather and meteorological parameters. The model was tested for different stack heights, wind speeds. And atmospheric stability classes. Maximum ground level concentration of cement pollutants were measured in different locations of Helwan, south Cairo around the cement factories. Analysis of results shows that the ground level of pollutants concentrations are inversely proportional to wind speed and atmospheric stability classes. Stack height also affects the behaviour of deposition of cement particulates. The model results show satisfactory agreement with the measured concentrations. 6 figs

  4. Effects of biotic interactions and dispersal on the presence-absence of multiple species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, Mohd Hafiz; Murray, Rua; Plank, Michael J.; Godsoe, William

    2017-01-01

    One of the important issues in ecology is to predict which species will be present (or absent) across a geographical region. Dispersal is thought to have an important influence on the range limits of species, and understanding this problem in a multi-species community with priority effects (i.e. initial abundances determine species presence-absence) is a challenging task because dispersal also interacts with biotic and abiotic factors. Here, we propose a simple multi-species model to investigate the joint effects of biotic interactions and dispersal on species presence-absence. Our results show that dispersal can substantially expand species ranges when biotic and abiotic forces are present; consequently, coexistence of multiple species is possible. The model also exhibits ecologically interesting priority effects, mediated by intense biotic interactions. In the absence of dispersal, competitive exclusion of all but one species occurs. We find that dispersal reduces competitive exclusion effects that occur in no-dispersal case and promotes coexistence of multiple species. These results also show that priority effects are still prevalent in multi-species communities in the presence of dispersal process. We also illustrate the existence of threshold values of competitive strength (i.e. transcritical bifurcations), which results in different species presence-absence in multi-species communities with and without dispersal.

  5. Hypercrosslinked particles for the extraction of sweeteners using dispersive solid-phase extraction from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakade, Sameer S; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa M

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a new extraction material, namely, Q-100, based on hypercrosslinked magnetic particles, which was tested in dispersive solid-phase extraction for a group of sweeteners from environmental samples. The hypercrosslinked Q-100 magnetic particles had the advantage of suitable pore size distribution and high surface area, and showed good retention behavior toward sweeteners. Different dispersive solid-phase extraction parameters such as amount of magnetic particles or extraction time were optimized. Under optimum conditions, Q-100 showed suitable apparent recovery, ranging in the case of river water sample from 21 to 88% for all the sweeteners, except for alitame (12%). The validated method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction using Q-100 followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry provided good linearity and limits of quantification between 0.01 and 0.1 μg/L. The method was applied to analyze samples from river water and effluent wastewater, and four sweeteners (acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose) were found in both types of sample. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained

  7. Synthesis and investigation of PMMA films with homogeneously dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja-Castro, M.A.; Pérez-Robles, J.F.; González-Rodríguez, H.; Vorobiev-Vasilievitch, Y.; Martínez-Tejada, H.V.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) modified by 2.2′-azoiso-butyronitrile (AIBN) were incorporated into methyl methacrylate (MMA) by sonochemistry method, resulting in homogenous dispersion of MWNT, which makes possible to obtain flexible conductive polymer-matrix nanocomposites films of PMMA, with MWNT concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.5 wt%. Modified MWNT (AIBN-MWNT) were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and through visual observations in order to compare the dispersion in 2-propanone and toluene with that of pristine MWNT. Synthesized PMMA-AIBN-MWNT films were studied by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using FT-IR for the AIBN-MWNT it was not possible to identify any group or groups attached to the nanotubes. Raman spectroscopy shows a small modification in the Lorentzian peaks ratio I D/G of AIBN-MWNT, meanwhile XPS showed that atomic compositions does not change for AIBN-MWNT compared to the pristine nanotubes. Also by impedance it was analyzed the conductivity of PMMA-MWNT films and the results showed a threshold percolation at 0.5 wt%. FT-IR and Raman analyses for PMMA-AIBN-MWNT composite indicate a covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT due to the opening of π-bonds of the nanotubes, which is related with a possible proposed reaction scheme. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We used sonochemistry-in situ polymerization to disperse MWNT very soon in PMMA. • A high and homogenous dispersion of MWNT in PMMA was achieved. • The modification of MWNT by AIBN was analyzed using Raman. • A covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT was analyzed by FT-IR and Raman. • According to the results of PMMA-MWNT it was proposed a scheme reaction

  8. Synthesis and investigation of PMMA films with homogeneously dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantoja-Castro, M.A., E-mail: m_pantojaq@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. J. Múgica S/N Col., Villa Universidad, CP 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Pérez-Robles, J.F. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); González-Rodríguez, H. [Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. J. Múgica S/N Col., Villa Universidad, CP 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Vorobiev-Vasilievitch, Y. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); Martínez-Tejada, H.V. [Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 No. 70-01, Bloque 22, Medellín (Colombia); Velasco-Santos, C. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de México, Av. Boulevard Juriquilla, No. 3001 Juriquilla, CP 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) modified by 2.2′-azoiso-butyronitrile (AIBN) were incorporated into methyl methacrylate (MMA) by sonochemistry method, resulting in homogenous dispersion of MWNT, which makes possible to obtain flexible conductive polymer-matrix nanocomposites films of PMMA, with MWNT concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.5 wt%. Modified MWNT (AIBN-MWNT) were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and through visual observations in order to compare the dispersion in 2-propanone and toluene with that of pristine MWNT. Synthesized PMMA-AIBN-MWNT films were studied by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using FT-IR for the AIBN-MWNT it was not possible to identify any group or groups attached to the nanotubes. Raman spectroscopy shows a small modification in the Lorentzian peaks ratio I{sub D/G} of AIBN-MWNT, meanwhile XPS showed that atomic compositions does not change for AIBN-MWNT compared to the pristine nanotubes. Also by impedance it was analyzed the conductivity of PMMA-MWNT films and the results showed a threshold percolation at 0.5 wt%. FT-IR and Raman analyses for PMMA-AIBN-MWNT composite indicate a covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT due to the opening of π-bonds of the nanotubes, which is related with a possible proposed reaction scheme. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We used sonochemistry-in situ polymerization to disperse MWNT very soon in PMMA. • A high and homogenous dispersion of MWNT in PMMA was achieved. • The modification of MWNT by AIBN was analyzed using Raman. • A covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT was analyzed by FT-IR and Raman. • According to the results of PMMA-MWNT it was proposed a scheme reaction.

  9. An efficient method of reducing glass dispersion tolerance sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrold, Scott W.; Shepard, R. Hamilton

    2014-12-01

    Constraining the Seidel aberrations of optical surfaces is a common technique for relaxing tolerance sensitivities in the optimization process. We offer an observation that a lens's Abbe number tolerance is directly related to the magnitude by which its longitudinal and transverse color are permitted to vary in production. Based on this observation, we propose a computationally efficient and easy-to-use merit function constraint for relaxing dispersion tolerance sensitivity. Using the relationship between an element's chromatic aberration and dispersion sensitivity, we derive a fundamental limit for lens scale and power that is capable of achieving high production yield for a given performance specification, which provides insight on the point at which lens splitting or melt fitting becomes necessary. The theory is validated by comparing its predictions to a formal tolerance analysis of a Cooke Triplet, and then applied to the design of a 1.5x visible linescan lens to illustrate optimization for reduced dispersion sensitivity. A selection of lenses in high volume production is then used to corroborate the proposed method of dispersion tolerance allocation.

  10. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  11. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Poursafa, P.; Mehrabian, S.; Farkhani, D.; Mirmoghtadaee, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30 C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05). Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05). Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from off shores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  12. Experimental Measurements of Temporal Dispersion for Underwater Laser Communications and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochenour, Brandon Michael

    The challenge in implementing optical sensors underwater lies in the high variability of the ocean environment where propagation of light in the ocean is complicated by absorption and scattering. Most underwater optical sensors operate in the blue/green portion of the electromagnetic spectrum where seawater exhibits an absorption minimum. Mitigating scattering however is a greater challenge. In particular, scattering causes both spatial distortion (beam spreading) and temporal dispersion (pulse spreading or distortion). Each of type of dispersion decreases sensor performance (operating range, image resolution, data bandwidth, etc.). While spatial dispersion has received a great deal of attention in previous decades, technological limitations of sensor hardware have made experimental measurements of temporal dispersion underwater difficult until now. The main contribution of this thesis are experimental measurements of temporal dispersion of optical beams in turbid water, made with a high sensitivity/high dynamic range experimental technique. Measurements are performed as a function of water clarity (0-20 attenuation lengths), transmitter/receiver alignment (0-30 degrees, half angle), receiver field of view (1-7 degrees, full angle), and transmitter beam divergence (collimated and diffuse). Special attention is paid to the interdependency between spatial and temporal dispersion. This work provides severable notable contributions: 1. While experimental characterization of spatial dispersion has received significant attention underwater, there has been a lack of measurements characterizing temporal dispersion underwater. This work provides the most comprehensive set of experimental measurements to date regarding the temporal dispersion of optical beams underwater. 2. An experimental analysis of the influence of scattering phase function on temporal dispersion. Coarse estimates of the scattering phase function are used to determine the ranges (or attenuation lengths

  13. Operating range, hold-up, droplet size and axial mixing of pulsed plate columns in highly disperse and low-continuity volume flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Miller, H.

    Operating behavior, hold-up, droplet size and axial mixing are investigated in highly disperse and slightly continuous volume flows in a pulsed plate column. The geometry of the column of 4-m length and 10-cm inside diameter was held constant. The hole shape of the column bases was changed, wherby the cylindrical, sharp-edge drilled hole is compared with the punched, nozzle-shaped hole in their effects on the fluid-dynamic behavior. In this case we varied the volume flows, the ratio of volume flows, the pulse frequency and the operating temperature. The operation was held constant for the aqueous, the organic, the continuous and the disperse phases. The objective was to demonstrate the applicability of pulsed plate columns with very large differences between the organic disperse and the aqueous continuous volume flow, to obtain design data for such columns and to perform a scale-up to industrial reprocessing plant-size. 18 references, 11 figures, 3 tables

  14. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for intermediate abundance classes earlier than the distributions of high dispersal ability species. Importantly, when plotted as function of sample size, the raw moments of the SADs of arthropods have a power law pattern similar...

  15. Dispersion analysis for waves propagated in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesniak, A; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Dispersion of velocity is defined as a variation of the phase velocity with frequency. This paper describes the dispersion analysis of compressional body waves propagated in the heterogeneous fractured media. The new method proposed and discussed here permitted the evaluation of the variation in P wave arrival with frequency. For this processing method, any information about the attenuation of the medium are not required, and only an assumption of weak heterogeneity is important. It was shown that different mechanisms of dispersion can be distinguished and its value can be quantitatively estimated. Although the frequency used in this study was lower than those in most previous experiments reported in literature, the evaluated dispersion was large. It was suggested that such a large dispersion may be caused by the velocity structure of the media studied and by frequency dependent processes in a highly fractured zone. It was demonstrated that the present method can be used in the evaluation of subsurface fracture systems or characterization of any kind of heterogeneities. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Accident consequence assessments with different atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, H.J.

    1989-11-01

    An essential aim of the improvements of the new program system UFOMOD for Accident Consequence Assessments (ACAs) was to substitute the straight-line Gaussian plume model conventionally used in ACA models by more realistic atmospheric dispersion models. To identify improved models which can be applied in ACA codes and to quantify the implications of different dispersion models on the results of an ACA, probabilistic comparative calculations with different atmospheric dispersion models have been performed. The study showed that there are trajectory models available which can be applied in ACAs and that they provide more realistic results of ACAs than straight-line Gaussian models. This led to a completely novel concept of atmospheric dispersion modelling in which two different distance ranges of validity are distinguished: the near range of some ten kilometres distance and the adjacent far range which are assigned to respective trajectory models. (orig.) [de

  17. Sail or sink: novel behavioural adaptations on water in aerially dispersing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Morito; Bakkali, Mohammed; Hyde, Alexander; Goodacre, Sara L

    2015-07-03

    Long-distance dispersal events have the potential to shape species distributions and ecosystem diversity over large spatial scales, and to influence processes such as population persistence and the pace and scale of invasion. How such dispersal strategies have evolved and are maintained within species is, however, often unclear. We have studied long-distance dispersal in a range of pest-controlling terrestrial spiders that are important predators within agricultural ecosystems. These species persist in heterogeneous environments through their ability to re-colonise vacant habitat by repeated long-distance aerial dispersal ("ballooning") using spun silk lines. Individuals are strictly terrestrial, are not thought to tolerate landing on water, and have no control over where they land once airborne. Their tendency to spread via aerial dispersal has thus been thought to be limited by the costs of encountering water, which is a frequent hazard in the landscape. In our study we find that ballooning in a subset of individuals from two groups of widely-distributed and phylogenetically distinct terrestrial spiders (linyphiids and one tetragnathid) is associated with a hitherto undescribed ability of those same individuals to survive encounters with both fresh and marine water. Individuals that showed a high tendency to adopt 'ballooning' behaviour adopted elaborate postures to seemingly take advantage of the wind current whilst on the water surface. The ability of individuals capable of long-distance aerial dispersal to survive encounters with water allows them to disperse repeatedly, thereby increasing the pace and spatial scale over which they can spread and subsequently exert an influence on the ecosystems into which they migrate. The potential for genetic connectivity between populations, which can influence the rate of localized adaptation, thus exists over much larger geographic scales than previously thought. Newly available habitat may be particularly influenced

  18. Buoyancy-driven chaotic regimes during solute dispersion in pore networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakiroglou, C.D.; Theodoropoulou, M.A.; Karoutsos, V.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate gravity effects on solute dispersion at the scale of a pore network, single source-solute transport visualization experiments are performed on glass-etched pore networks of varying morphology and degree of pore-scale heterogeneities. The (lighter) low solute concentration aqueous solution flows steadily through the porous medium and the (heavier) high solute concentration solution is injected at a very low and constant flow rate through an inner port. The transient evolution of the solute concentration distribution over various regions of the pore network is determined at different scales by capturing and video-recording snapshots of the dispersion on PC, measuring automatically the spatial variation of the color intensity of the solution, and transforming the color intensities to solute concentrations. Without the action of gravity, the steady-state dispersion regime changes with Peclet (Pe) number, and the longitudinal and transverse dispersivities are estimated by fitting the experimental datasets to approximate analytic solutions of the advection-dispersion equation. Under the action of gravity, multiple of steady-state solute dispersion regimes is developed at each Pe value, and lobe-shaped instabilities of the solute concentration are observed across the pore network, as the downward flow of the denser (higher solute concentration) fluid is counterbalanced by the upward flow of the less dense (lower solute concentration) fluid. The steady-state dispersion regimes may be periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic depending on the system parameters. The nature of the transient fluctuations of the average solute concentration is analyzed by identifying the periodicity of the fluctuations, determining the autocorrelation function and the statistical moments of the time series, and inspecting the FFT (fast Fourier transform) power spectra. It is found that the mixing zone tends to be stabilized at higher values of the Peclet (Pe) number

  19. An investigation on fuel meats extruded with atomized U-10wt% Mo powder for uranium high-density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Jong-Man; Lee, Don-Bae; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    1997-01-01

    The RERTR program has been making an effort to develop dispersion fuels with uranium densities of 8 to 9 g U/cm3 for research and test reactors. Using atomized U-10wt%Mo powder, fuel meats have been fabricated successfully up to 55 volume % of fuel powder. The uranium density of an extruded meat with a 55 volume % of fuel powder was obtained to be 7.7 g/cm3. A relatively high porosity of 7.3% was formed due to cracking of particles, presumably induced by the impingement among agglomerated particles. Tensile test results indicated that the strength of fuel meats with 55% volume fraction decreased some and a little of ductility was maintained. Examination on the fracture surface revealed that some U-10%Mo particles appeared to be broken by the tensile force in brittle rupture mode. The increase of broken particles in high fuel fraction is considered to be induced mainly by the impingement among agglomerated particles. Uranium loading density is assumed to be improved through the development of the better homogeneous dispersion technology. (author)

  20. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    We present a new cladding design for photonic crystal fiber (PCF) on a decagonal structure to simultaneously achieve ultra-flattened large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence. Numerical results confirm that the proposed PCFexhibits ultra-flattened large negative dispersion over the S ...

  1. Role of Acetone in the Formation of Highly Dispersed Cationic Polystyrene Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernawati Lusi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified emulsion polymerisation synthesis route for preparing highly dispersed cationic polystyrene (PS nanoparticles is reported. The combined use of 2,2′-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin- 2-ylpropane] di-hydrochloride (VA-044 as the initiator and acetone/water as the solvent medium afforded successful synthesis of cationic PS particles as small as 31 nm in diameter. A formation mechanism for the preparation of PS nanoparticles was proposed, whereby the occurrence of rapid acetone diffusion caused spontaneous rupture of emulsion droplets into smaller droplets. Additionally, acetone helped to reduce the surface tension and increase the solubility of styrene, thus inhibiting aggregation and coagulation among the particles. In contrast, VA-044 initiator could effectively regulate the stability of the PS nanoparticles including both the surface charge and size. Other reaction parameters i.e. VA-044 concentration and reaction time were examined to establish the optimum polymerisation conditions.

  2. Aqueous dispersion of monodisperse magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals through phase transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, William W; Chang, Emmanuel; Sayes, Christie M; Drezek, Rebekah; Colvin, Vicki L

    2006-01-01

    A facile method was developed for completely transferring high quality monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals from organic solvents to water. The as-prepared aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanocrystals were extremely stable and could be functionalized for bioconjugation with biomolecules. These iron oxide nanocrystals showed negligible cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) and human dermal fibroblast cells. This method is general and versatile for many organic solvent-synthesized nanoparticles, including fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals

  3. High-resolution modelling of atmospheric dispersion of dense gas using TWODEE-2.1: application to the 1986 Lake Nyos limnic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Arnau; Barcons, Jordi; Kozono, Tomofumi; Costa, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric dispersal of a gas denser than air can threat the environment and surrounding communities if the terrain and meteorological conditions favour its accumulation in topographic depressions, thereby reaching toxic concentration levels. Numerical modelling of atmospheric gas dispersion constitutes a useful tool for gas hazard assessment studies, essential for planning risk mitigation actions. In complex terrains, microscale winds and local orographic features can have a strong influence on the gas cloud behaviour, potentially leading to inaccurate results if not captured by coarser-scale modelling. We introduce a methodology for microscale wind field characterisation based on transfer functions that couple a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model with a microscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting time-dependent high-resolution microscale wind field is used as input for a shallow-layer gas dispersal model (TWODEE-2.1) to simulate the time evolution of CO2 gas concentration at different heights above the terrain. The strategy is applied to review simulations of the 1986 Lake Nyos event in Cameroon, where a huge CO2 cloud released by a limnic eruption spread downslopes from the lake, suffocating thousands of people and animals across the Nyos and adjacent secondary valleys. Besides several new features introduced in the new version of the gas dispersal code (TWODEE-2.1), we have also implemented a novel impact criterion based on the percentage of human fatalities depending on CO2 concentration and exposure time. New model results are quantitatively validated using the reported percentage of fatalities at several locations. The comparison with previous simulations that assumed coarser-scale steady winds and topography illustrates the importance of high-resolution modelling in complex terrains.

  4. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  5. In vitro Dissolution Studies on Solid Dispersions of Mefenamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K R S Sambasiva; Nagabhushanam, M V; Chowdary, K P R

    2011-03-01

    Solid dispersions of mefanamic acid with a water-soluble polymer polyvinyl pyrrolidine and a super disintegrant, primojel were prepared by common solvent and solvent evaporation methods employing methanol as the solvent. The dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency of the prepared solid dispersions were evaluated in comparison to the corresponding pure drug. Solid dispersions of mefenamic acid showed a marked enhancement in dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency. At 1:4 ratio of mefenamic acid-primojel a 2.61 fold increase in the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid was observed with solid dispersion. The solid dispersions in combined carriers gave much higher rates of dissolution than super disintegrants alone. Mefanamic acid-primojel-polyvinyl pyrrolidine (1:3.2:0.8) solid dispersion gave a 4.11 fold increase in the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid. Super disintegrants alone or in combination with polyvinyl pyrrolidine could be used to enhance the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid.

  6. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which...... are the components of the bi-disperse melt. The measurements show three separated relaxation regimes: a fast regime, a transition regime, and a slow regime. In the fast regime, the orientation of the long chains is frozen and the stress relaxation is due to stretch relaxation of the short chains primarily....... Conversely in the slow regime, the long chains have retracted and undergo relaxation of orientation in fully relaxed short chains....

  7. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-09-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive.

  8. Approximate method for treating dispersion in one-way quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stace, T. M.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Coupling the output of a source quantum system into a target quantum system is easily treated by cascaded systems theory if the intervening quantum channel is dispersionless. However, dispersion may be important in some transfer protocols, especially in solid-state systems. In this paper we show how to generalize cascaded systems theory to treat such dispersion, provided it is not too strong. We show that the technique also works for fermionic systems with a low flux, and can be extended to treat fermionic systems with large flux. To test our theory, we calculate the effect of dispersion on the fidelity of a simple protocol of quantum state transfer. We find good agreement with an approximate analytical theory that had been previously developed for this example

  9. Atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials according to the local weather and emission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hye Yeon; Kang, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yoo Keun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Keun [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study evaluated the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material according to local weather conditions and emission conditions. Local weather conditions were defined as 8 patterns that frequently occur around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant and emission conditions were defined as 6 patterns from a combination of emission rates and the total number of particles of the {sup 137}Cs, using the WRF/HYSPLIT modeling system. The highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0900 LST under the ME4{sub 1} (main wind direction: SSW, daily average wind speed: 2.8 ms{sup -1}), with a wide region of its high concentration due to the continuous wind changes between 0000 and 0900 LST; under the ME3 (NE, 4.1 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 1500 and 2100 LST with a narrow dispersion along a strong northeasterly wind. In the case of ME4{sub 4} (S, 2.7 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0300 LST because {sup 137}Cs stayed around the KNPP under low wind speed and low boundary layer height. As for the emission conditions, EM1{sub 3} and EM2{sub 3} that had the maximum total number of particles showed the widest dispersion of {sup 137}Cs, while its highest mean concentration was estimated under the EM1{sub 1} considering the relatively narrow dispersion and high emission rate. This study showed that even though an area may be located within the same radius around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant, the distribution and levels of {sup 137}Cs concentration vary according to the change in time and space of weather conditions (the altitude of the atmospheric boundary layer, the horizontal and vertical distribution of the local winds, and the precipitation levels), the topography of the regions where {sup 137}Cs is dispersed, the emission rate of {sup 137}Cs, and the number of emitted particles.

  10. Improvement of CNT dispersion in HDPE by acid and octadecylamine functionalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Beatriz Rossi Canuto de; Ferreira, Filipe Vargas; Franceschi, Wesley; Brito, Felipe Sales; Nunes, Evelyn Alves; Rodrigues, Karla Faquine; Cividanes, Luciana de Simone; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio; Rosa, Cintia

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great attention due to their extraordinary structure and exceptional mechanical properties that make them a suitable candidate for polymer-based nanocomposites reinforcement [1]. However, CNTs full potential can only be achieved with a proper dispersion in the matrix, that depends of Van der Waals interactions among CNTs due to the large surface area and the small size. These interactions decrease the CNT dispersion due to the formation of agglomerates. In order to overcome this limitation, surface functionalization with acid and alkyl groups has been used to increase the CNTs dispersion and compatibility with polymer matrix [2]. Therefore, the focus of the present work is to improve the dispersion of CNTs in high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix through their functionalization with acid (H 2 SO 4 +HNO 3 ) and octadecylamine (ODA:CH 3 (CH 2 ) 17 NH 2 ). The CNT/HDPE nanocomposites (0.8%wt of CNTs) were prepared by mechanical agitation of the melted mixture of CNTs and HDPE and subsequent compression molding. Three nanocomposites were prepared: (1) HDPE + pristine CNTs, (2) HDPE + acid functionalized CNTs, and (3) HDPE + ODA functionalized CNTs. In order to confirm the surface treatment, CNTs was characterized by FT-IR, XPS, Raman, and TEM. The improvement in CNTs dispersion and compatibility with HDPE was verified by tensile test, microhardness, SEM-FEG. The results showed an improvement in the CNTs dispersion for HDPE with acid and ODA functionalized CNTs. The Young's modulus and Vickers microhardness increased significantly for HDPE with treated CNTs when compared with pristine CNTs. References: [1] S Iijima, Nature 354, 56-58 (1991). [2] R Ansari, S Ajori, S Rouhi, Appl Surf Sci 332, 640-647 (2015). (author)

  11. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  12. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  13. Enhanced thermal conductivity of nano-SiC dispersed water based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticle dispersed water based nanofluids were prepared using up to 0.1 vol% of nanoparticles. Use of suitable stirring routine ensured uniformity and stability of dispersion. Thermal conductivity ratio of nanofluid measured using transient hot wire device shows a significant increase of up to 12% ...

  14. The Dispersion of Employees' Wage Increases and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Christian; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    does not induce any monetary incentives. Evidence from unique Danish linked employer employee data shows that large dispersion of wage growth within firms is generally connected with low firm performance. The results are mainly driven by white collar rather than blue collar workers.......In this contribution, we examine the interrelation between intra-firm wage increases and firm performance. Previous studies have focused on the dispersion of wages in order to examine for the empirical dominance of positive monetary incentives effects compared to adverse effects due to fairness...... considerations. We argue that the dispersion of wage increases rather than wage levels is a crucial measure for monetary incentives in firms. The larger the dispersion of wage increases the higher the amount of monetary incentives in firms. In contrast, huge wage inequality without any promotion possibilities...

  15. Surfactive stabilization of multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersions with dissolved humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, Mark A. [Environmental Laboratory, Engineering Research and Development Center, US Army Corps of Engineers, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)], E-mail: mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mil; George, Aaron J.; Dontsova, Katerina M.; Porter, Beth E. [SpecPro, Inc., 4815 Bradford Drive, Suite 201, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Price, Cynthia L. [Environmental Laboratory, Engineering Research and Development Center, US Army Corps of Engineers, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Zhou Pingheng; Morikawa, Eizi [J. Bennett Johnston Sr. Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Kennedy, Alan J.; Steevens, Jeffery A. [Environmental Laboratory, Engineering Research and Development Center, US Army Corps of Engineers, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Soil humic substances (HS) stabilize carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersions, a mechanism we hypothesized arose from the surfactive nature of HS. Experiments dispersing multi-walled CNT in solutions of dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) or water-extractable Catlin soil HS demonstrated enhanced stability at 150 and 300 mg L{sup -1} added Aldrich HA and Catlin HS, respectively, corresponding with decreased CNT mean particle diameter (MPD) and polydispersivity (PD) of 250 nm and 0.3 for Aldrich HA and 450 nm and 0.35 for Catlin HS. Analogous trends in MPD and PD were observed with addition of the surfactants Brij 35, Triton X-405, and SDS, corresponding to surfactant sorption maximum. NEXAFS characterization showed that Aldrich HA contained highly surfactive domains while Catlin soil possessed a mostly carbohydrate-based structure. This work demonstrates that the chemical structure of humic materials in natural waters is directly linked to their surfactive ability to disperse CNT released into the environment. - Suspensions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes are stabilized by relatively low concentrations of dissolved humic substances in solution through surfactive mechanisms.

  16. Preparations and thermal properties of micro- and nano-BN dispersed HDPE composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinwoo; Kim, Jaewoo; Uhm, Young Rang; Jeon, Jae-Kyun; Lee, Sol; Lee, Hi Min; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The thermal properties of micro-sized boron nitride (BN) and nano-sized BN dispersed high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Nano-BN powder was prepared by using a ball mill process before it was mixed in HDPE. To enhance the dispersivity of nano-BN in the polymer matrix, the surfaces of the nano-particles were treated with low density polyethylene (LDPE) which was dissolved in the cyclohexane solvent. The average particle sizes of micro-BN powder and LDPE coated nano-BN powder were ∼10 μm and ∼100 nm respectively. Dispersion and distribution of 5 wt% and 20 wt% of micro-BN and nano-BN respectively mixed in HDPE were observed by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the thermal analyses of pure HDPE, micro-BN/HDPE, and nano-BN/HDPE, 20 wt% nano-BN/HDPE composite shows the lowest enthalpy of fusion (ΔH m ) and better thermal conductive characteristics compared to the others.

  17. Surfactive stabilization of multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersions with dissolved humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappell, Mark A.; George, Aaron J.; Dontsova, Katerina M.; Porter, Beth E.; Price, Cynthia L.; Zhou Pingheng; Morikawa, Eizi; Kennedy, Alan J.; Steevens, Jeffery A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil humic substances (HS) stabilize carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersions, a mechanism we hypothesized arose from the surfactive nature of HS. Experiments dispersing multi-walled CNT in solutions of dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) or water-extractable Catlin soil HS demonstrated enhanced stability at 1