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Sample records for show growth consistent

  1. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  2. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  3. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  4. Self-consistent calculation of steady-state creep and growth in textured zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, C.N.; So, C.B.; Woo, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation creep and growth in zirconium alloys result in anisotropic dimensional changes relative to the crystallographic axis in each individual grain. Several methods have been attempted to model such dimensional changes, taking into account the development of intergranular stresses. In this paper, we compare the predictions of several such models, namely the upper-bound, the lower-bound, the isotropic K* self-consistent (analytical) and the fully self-consistent (numerical) models. For given single-crystal creep compliances and growth factors, the polycrystal compliances predicted by the upper- and lower-bound models are unreliable. The predictions of the two self-consistent approaches are usually similar. The analytical isotropic K* approach is simple to implement and can be used to estimate the creep and growth rates of the polycrystal in many cases. The numerical fully self-consistent approach should be used when an accurate prediction of polycrystal creep is required, particularly for the important case of a closed-end internally pressurized tube. In most cases, the variations in grain shape introduce only minor corrections to the behaviour of polycrystalline materials. (author)

  5. Self-consistent quasi-static radial transport during the substorm growth phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Pellat, R.; Roux, A.

    2000-06-01

    We develop a self-consistent description of the slowly changing magnetic configuration of the near-Earth plasma sheet (NEPS) during substorm growth phase. This new approach is valid for quasi-static fluctuations ωcurrent. The quasi-neutrality condition (QNC) is solved via an expansion in the small parameter Te/Ti (Te/Ti is the ratio between the electronic and ionic temperatures). To the lowest order in Te/Ti, we find that the enforcement of QNC implies the presence of a global electrostatic potential which is constant for a given magnetic field line but varies across the magnetic field. The corresponding electric field shields the effect of the inductive component of the electric field, thereby producing a partial reduction of the motion that would correspond to the inductive electric field. Furthermore, we show that enforcing the QNC implies a field-aligned potential drop which is computed to the next order in Te/Ti in a companion paper [Le Contel et al., this issue]. In the present paper, we show that the direction of the azimuthal electric field varies along the field line, thus the equatorial electric field cannot be mapped onto the ionosphere. Furthermore during the growth phase, the (total) azimuthal electric field is directed eastward, close to the equator, and westward, off-equator. Thus large equatorial pitch angle particles drift tailward, whereas small pitch angle particles drift earthward.

  6. "A Simplified 'Benchmark” Stock-flow Consistent (SFC) Post-Keynesian Growth Model"

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio H. Dos Santos; Gennaro Zezza

    2007-01-01

    Despite being arguably one of the most active areas of research in heterodox macroeconomics, the study of the dynamic properties of stock-flow consistent (SFC) growth models of financially sophisticated economies is still in its early stages. This paper attempts to offer a contribution to this line of research by presenting a simplified Post-Keynesian SFC growth model with well-defined dynamic properties, and using it to shed light on the merits and limitations of the current heterodox SFC li...

  7. CT findings of rectosigmoid carcinoma showing exophytic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mutsumi

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 7 rectosigmoid carcinomas showing exophytic growth were evaluated. All cases had bulky masses, ranging from 6.0 to 11.5 cm in maximum diameter. All masses were difficult to differentiate from the other pelvic masses on CT, presumably due to their exophytic growth and/or invasion to the surrounding organs. However, 3 out of 7 cases showed diffuse rectosigmoidal wall thickening adjacent to the primary tumor, and it is considered to be valuable in the determination of primary site. All female cases had gynecological symptom such as genital bleeding, due to uterine and/or vaginal invasion. When indeterminate pelvic mass is revealed by CT, rectosigmoid carcinoma should be considered into differential diagnosis. (author)

  8. Fungal mycelia show lag time before re-growth on endogenous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Judith K; Li, Zheng Jian; Marten, Mark R

    2008-06-15

    Nutrient starvation is a common occurrence for filamentous fungi. To better understand the effects of starvation, we used a parallel plate flow chamber to study individual fungal mycelia when subjected to a step change in glucose concentration. We report the presence of a finite "lag time" in starved mycelia during which they ceased to grow/extend while switching from growth on exogenous carbon to re-growth on endogenous carbon. This lag time precedes other morphological or physiological changes such as change in growth rate (50-70% reduction), vacuolation (up to 16%), and decreased hyphal diameter (almost 50% reduction). Data suggests that during lag time, vacuolar degradation produces sufficient endogenous carbon to support survival and restart hyphal extension. Lag time is inversely related to the size of the mycelium at the time of starvation, which suggests a critical flow of endogenous carbon to the apical tip. We present a mathematical model consistent with our experimental observations that relate lag time, area, and flow of endogenous carbon. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Two tropical conifers show strong growth and water-use efficiency responses to altered CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalling, James W; Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Virgo, Aurelio; Cheesman, Alexander W; Baresch, Andres; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-11-01

    Conifers dominated wet lowland tropical forests 100 million years ago (MYA). With a few exceptions in the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae, conifers are now absent from this biome. This shift to angiosperm dominance also coincided with a large decline in atmospheric CO 2 concentration (c a ). We compared growth and physiological performance of two lowland tropical angiosperms and conifers at c a levels representing pre-industrial (280 ppm), ambient (400 ppm) and Eocene (800 ppm) conditions to explore how differences in c a affect the growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) of seedlings from these groups. Two conifers (Araucaria heterophylla and Podocarpus guatemalensis) and two angiosperm trees (Tabebuia rosea and Chrysophyllum cainito) were grown in climate-controlled glasshouses in Panama. Growth, photosynthetic rates, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use and water-use efficiencies were measured. Podocarpus seedlings showed a stronger (66 %) increase in relative growth rate with increasing c a relative to Araucaria (19 %) and the angiosperms (no growth enhancement). The response of Podocarpus is consistent with expectations for species with conservative growth traits and low mesophyll diffusion conductance. While previous work has shown limited stomatal response of conifers to c a , we found that the two conifers had significantly greater increases in leaf and whole-plant WUE than the angiosperms, reflecting increased photosynthetic rate and reduced stomatal conductance. Foliar nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) and soil nitrate concentrations indicated a preference in Podocarpus for ammonium over nitrate, which may impact nitrogen uptake relative to nitrate assimilators under high c a SIGNIFICANCE: Podocarps colonized tropical forests after angiosperms achieved dominance and are now restricted to infertile soils. Although limited to a single species, our data suggest that higher c a may have been favourable for podocarp colonization of tropical South America 60

  10. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  11. Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, N.; Siegumfeldt, H.; Andersen, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    Applying a newly developed user-interactive optical trapping system, we controllably surrounded individual cells of one yeast species, Hanseniaspora uvarum, with viable cells of another yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thus creating a confinement of the former. Growth of surrounded and non......-surrounded H. uvarum cells was followed under a microscope by determining their generation time. The average generation time of surrounded H. uvarum cells was 15% higher than that of non-surrounded cells thereby showing that the confinement imposed by viable S. cerevisiae cells on H. uvarum inhibits growth...

  12. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  13. No evidence for consistent long-term growth stimulation of 13 tropical tree species: results from tree-ring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, Peter; van der Sleen, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Bongers, Frans; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-10-01

    The important role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle makes it imperative to assess changes in their carbon dynamics for accurate projections of future climate-vegetation feedbacks. Forest monitoring studies conducted over the past decades have found evidence for both increasing and decreasing growth rates of tropical forest trees. The limited duration of these studies restrained analyses to decadal scales, and it is still unclear whether growth changes occurred over longer time scales, as would be expected if CO2 -fertilization stimulated tree growth. Furthermore, studies have so far dealt with changes in biomass gain at forest-stand level, but insights into species-specific growth changes - that ultimately determine community-level responses - are lacking. Here, we analyse species-specific growth changes on a centennial scale, using growth data from tree-ring analysis for 13 tree species (~1300 trees), from three sites distributed across the tropics. We used an established (regional curve standardization) and a new (size-class isolation) growth-trend detection method and explicitly assessed the influence of biases on the trend detection. In addition, we assessed whether aggregated trends were present within and across study sites. We found evidence for decreasing growth rates over time for 8-10 species, whereas increases were noted for two species and one showed no trend. Additionally, we found evidence for weak aggregated growth decreases at the site in Thailand and when analysing all sites simultaneously. The observed growth reductions suggest deteriorating growth conditions, perhaps due to warming. However, other causes cannot be excluded, such as recovery from large-scale disturbances or changing forest dynamics. Our findings contrast growth patterns that would be expected if elevated CO2 would stimulate tree growth. These results suggest that commonly assumed growth increases of tropical forests may not occur, which could lead to erroneous

  14. A consistent partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Jesper L.; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto

    2007-01-01

    Present extended finite element method (XFEM) elements for cohesive crack growth may often not be able to model equal stresses on both sides of the discontinuity when acting as a crack-tip element. The authors have developed a new partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth with extra...... enrichments to the cracked elements. The extra enrichments are element side local and were developed by superposition of the standard nodal shape functions for the element and standard nodal shape functions for a sub-triangle of the cracked element. With the extra enrichments, the crack-tip element becomes...... capable of modelling variations in the discontinuous displacement field on both sides of the crack and hence also capable of modelling the case where equal stresses are present on each side of the crack. The enrichment was implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and a standard algorithm...

  15. Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains show wide variation in growth at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marjo; Surakka, Anu; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-10-01

    Outgrowth from Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in milk can lead to butyric acid fermentation in cheeses, causing spoilage and economical loss to the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of 10 C. tyrobutyricum strains at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions. Up to 7.5-fold differences among the maximum growth rates of different strains in the presence of 2.0% NaCl were observed. Five of 10 strains were able to grow in the presence of 3.0% NaCl, while a NaCl concentration of 3.5% was completely inhibitory to all strains. Seven of 10 strains were able to grow at pH 5.0, and up to 4- and 12.5-fold differences were observed among the maximum growth rates of different strains at pH 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. The maximum growth temperatures varied from 40.2 to 43.3°C. The temperature of 10°C inhibited the growth of all strains, while 8 of 10 strains grew at 12 and 15°C. Despite showing no growth, all strains were able to survive at 10°C. In conclusion, wide variation was observed among different C. tyrobutyricum strains in their ability to grow at different stressful conditions. Understanding the physiological diversity among the strains is important when designing food control measures and predictive models for the growth of spoilage organisms in cheese.

  16. Self-consistency and coherent effects in nonlinear resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.; Franchetti, G.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of space charge on emittance growth is studied in simulations of a coasting beam exposed to a strong octupolar perturbation in an otherwise linear lattice, and under stationary parameters. We explore the importance of self-consistency by comparing results with a non-self-consistent model, where the space charge electric field is kept 'frozen-in' to its initial values. For Gaussian distribution functions we find that the 'frozen-in' model results in a good approximation of the self-consistent model, hence coherent response is practically absent and the emittance growth is self-limiting due to space charge de-tuning. For KV or waterbag distributions, instead, strong coherent response is found, which we explain in terms of absence of Landau damping

  17. Light requirements of Australian tropical vs. cool-temperate rainforest tree species show different relationships with seedling growth and functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Christopher H; Kelly, Jeff W G; Gleason, Sean M

    2013-03-01

    A trade-off between shade tolerance and growth in high light is thought to underlie the temporal dynamics of humid forests. On the other hand, it has been suggested that tree species sorting on temperature gradients involves a trade-off between growth rate and cold resistance. Little is known about how these two major trade-offs interact. Seedlings of Australian tropical and cool-temperate rainforest trees were grown in glasshouse environments to compare growth versus shade-tolerance trade-offs in these two assemblages. Biomass distribution, photosynthetic capacity and vessel diameters were measured in order to examine the functional correlates of species differences in light requirements and growth rate. Species light requirements were assessed by field estimation of the light compensation point for stem growth. Light-demanding and shade-tolerant tropical species differed markedly in relative growth rates (RGR), but this trend was less evident among temperate species. This pattern was paralleled by biomass distribution data: specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area ratio (LAR) of tropical species were significantly positively correlated with compensation points, but not those of cool-temperate species. The relatively slow growth and small SLA and LAR of Tasmanian light-demanders were associated with narrow vessels and low potential sapwood conductivity. The conservative xylem traits, small LAR and modest RGR of Tasmanian light-demanders are consistent with selection for resistance to freeze-thaw embolism, at the expense of growth rate. Whereas competition for light favours rapid growth in light-demanding trees native to environments with warm, frost-free growing seasons, frost resistance may be an equally important determinant of the fitness of light-demanders in cool-temperate rainforest, as seedlings establishing in large openings are exposed to sub-zero temperatures that can occur throughout most of the year.

  18. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2018-06-07

    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  19. Phosphate absorption and distribution in flue-cured tobacco under different ozone consistency by using 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiye

    2004-01-01

    The absorption and distribution of phosphate in flue-cured tobacco under different ozone consistencies was studied by using 32 P. The results showed that the percentage of root of whole tobacco plant assimilating 32 p reduced as growing, but in stem it increased as growing in the sand culture. Root and stem of flue-cured tobacco assimilating 32 P varied little in the whole growing period in the solution culture. Distribution situation in leaf with two consistencies was in the order of lower leaf>cutters leaf>upper leaf, and the ratio of radioactivity showed root>stem>lower leaf>cutters leaf>upper leaf. However, flue-cured tobacco assimilating phosphate in the two consistencies showed significantly positive correlation with length of growth period. Assimilating phosphate in the solution culture was more and faster than in the low ozone consistency culture

  20. End-of-Decade Survey Shows Academic Growth in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Compared surveys of public relations education (1970, 1975, 1980). Found, among other results, that (1) enrollment growth is the most significant change; (2) students are graduating with weak backgrounds in business; (3) teachers need stronger backgrounds, interest, and records in research. For journal availability, see CS 705 902. (PD)

  1. Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia of the palate showing an angiocentric/angiodestructive growth pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ferreira Brasileiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE is a benign, self-limiting lesion of the oral mucosa with unknown pathogenesis. A 65-year-old male patient presented with an ulcerative palate lesion, which on microscopic examination exhibited an exuberant polymorphic lymphoid proliferation, numerous eosinophils, and extensive vascular destruction. The atypical lymphoid cells infiltrating the medium-sized vessels showed positivity for CD3, CD30, and granzyme B, implicating an activated cytotoxic T-cell phenotype. The lesion diagnosed as TUGSE achieved complete resolution within 3 months. This unusual presentation has expanded the spectrum of oral CD30+ T-cell atypical infiltrates and must be distinguished from lymphomas showing angiocentric/angiodestructive growth pattern.

  2. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  3. Growth Pattern of Body Dimension of Arfak Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Irma Jeanne Joice Kawulur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth pattern of body height and weight reflect the nutritional status and health condition of a population. Assessment of growth pattern and nutritional status of children and adolescence is urgently needed because during this growth period there is a transition period frominfant to adult with fast growth spurt, secondary sexual character maturation, and dramatic body proportion change. A cross-sectional study of the physical growth status was done to 514Arfak children consisted of 231 girls aged 6-19 years and 283 boys aged 6-23 years, in Manokwari, West Papua Province.The study was conducted to find out the growth pattern of the body size of Arfak children. Anthropometry measurement consists of body height (cm and body weight (kg. Growth charts of these variables showed increase with age in both sexes. Growth rate of body weight of Arfak children at juvenile phase was higher than those of other populations, such as India, Purwakarta, and Karawang, except American population.

  4. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  5. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  6. TOURIST ARRIVALS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SARAWAK

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Evan; Oh, Swee-Ling; Hu, Sing-Sing

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the comovements and the causality relationship between tourist arrivals and economic growth in Sarawak during the period of 1972 to 2004. The empirical evidence clearly shows that the long run causality running from tourist arrivals to economic growth in the estimation period. As one of the income generator for Sarawak, the findings are consistent with economic theory and proffer important policy conclusions.

  7. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  8. The reverse transcription inhibitor abacavir shows anticancer activity in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carlini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transposable Elements (TEs comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1 and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT. Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC, a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI, on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications.

  9. Mathematical modeling of microbial growth in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhony Tiago Teleken

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to predict microbial growth in milk was developed and analyzed. The model consists of a system of two differential equations of first order. The equations are based on physical hypotheses of population growth. The model was applied to five different sets of data of microbial growth in dairy products selected from Combase, which is the most important database in the area with thousands of datasets from around the world, and the results showed a good fit. In addition, the model provides equations for the evaluation of the maximum specific growth rate and the duration of the lag phase which may provide useful information about microbial growth.

  10. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Akbar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Results: Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L-1 within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4 and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1. These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200 mg kg-1 within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76 mg-1 kg-1 d-1 with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069 d-1. These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200 mg L-1 was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5

  11. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100mgL(-1)) within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4) and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1). These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200mgkg(-1)) within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76mg(-1)kg(-1)d(-1) with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069d(-1). These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200mgL(-1)) was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5.69mg(-1)kg(-1)d(-1)) in planted soil. The

  12. Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS. The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD. Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.

  13. A case of supratentorial intra-axial ependymoma showing exophytic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Eung Yeop [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    A 17-year-old female had headache for several weeks and she developed an episode of seizure one day prior to admission. She underwent both CT and MRI, which both revealed a large tumor with cystic and solid portions at the right frontoparietal convexity. During operation, a well-defined tumor was found to have a stalk connecting the tumor itself with the brain parenchyma, proving that it was growing exophytically and expanding into the subarachnoid space. Histopathological examination revealed an anaplastic ependymoma with high cellularity. We report here on this case of an unusual supratentorial ependymoma with exophytic growth, and this can be mistaken as another exophytic growing intra-axial tumor or even as an extra-axial tumor.

  14. Constitutional growth delay pattern of growth in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Serap; Ozdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS -3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch-up and ended up with a final height of -2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

  15. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  16. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J E; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Different growth regimes in InP nanowire growth mediated by Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S; Zavarize, M; Tizei, L H G; Walls, M; Ospina, C A; Iikawa, F; Ugarte, D; Cotta, M A

    2017-12-15

    We report on the existence of two different regimes in one-step Ag-seeded InP nanowire growth. The vapor-liquid-solid-mechanism is present at larger In precursor flows and temperatures, ∼500 °C, yielding high aspect ratio and pure wurtzite InP nanowires with a semi-spherical metal particle at the thin apex. Periodic diameter oscillations can be achieved under extreme In supersaturations at this temperature range, showing the presence of a liquid catalyst. However, under lower temperatures and In precursor flows, large diameter InP nanowires with mixed wurtzite/zincblende segments are obtained, similarly to In-assisted growth. Chemical composition analysis suggest that In-rich droplet formation is catalyzed at the substrate surface via Ag nanoparticles; this process might be facilitated by the sulfur contamination detected in these nanoparticles. Furthermore, part of the original Ag nanoparticle remains solid and is embedded inside the actual catalyst, providing an in situ method to switch growth mechanisms upon changing In precursor flow. Nevertheless, our Ag-seeded InP nanowires exhibit overall optical emission spectra consistent with the observed structural properties and similar to Au-catalyzed InP nanowires. We thus show that Ag nanoparticles may be a suitable replacement for Au in InP nanowire growth.

  18. Cosmological consistency tests of gravity theory and cosmic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.

    2017-01-01

    Testing general relativity at cosmological scales and probing the cause of cosmic acceleration are among the important objectives targeted by incoming and future astronomical surveys and experiments. I present our recent results on consistency tests that can provide insights about the underlying gravity theory and cosmic acceleration using cosmological data sets. We use statistical measures, the rate of cosmic expansion, the growth rate of large scale structure, and the physical consistency of these probes with one another.

  19. Simulation of recrystallization textures in FCC materials based on a self consistent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolmaro, R.E; Roatta, A; Fourty, A.L; Signorelli, J.W; Bertinetti, M.A

    2004-01-01

    The development of re-crystallization textures in FCC polycrystalline materials has been a long lasting scientific problem. The appearance of the so-called cubic component in high stack fault energy laminated FCC materials is not an entirely understood phenomenon. This work approaches the problem using a self- consistent simulation technique of homogenization. The information on first preferential neighbors is used in the model to consider grain boundary energies and intra granular misorientations and to treat the growth of grains and the mobility of the grain boundary. The energies accumulated by deformations are taken as conducting energies of the nucleation and the later growth is statistically governed by the grain boundary energies. The model shows the correct trend for re-crystallization textures obtained from previously simulated deformation textures for high and low stack fault energy FCC materials. The model's topological representation is discussed (CW)

  20. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor-mediated proliferation of central nervous system precursors depends on endogenous production of insulin-like growth factor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, J.; Murphy, M.; Carroll, S.M.; Harvey, R.P.; Bartlett, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor stimulates proliferation and subsequent differentiation of precursor cells isolated from the neuroepithelium of embryonic day 10 mice in vitro. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor-induced proliferation is dependent on the presence of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and that IGF-I is endogenously produced by the neuroepithelial cells. Blocking of endogenous IGF-I activity with anti-IGF-I antibodies results in complete inhibition of fibroblast growth factor-mediated proliferation and in cell death. IGF-I alone acts as a survival agent. These observations correlate with the detection of transcripts for IGF-I and basic fibroblast growth factor in freshly isolated neuroepithelium and are consistent with an autocrine action of these factors in early brain development in vivo

  2. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  3. Constitutional Growth Delay Pattern of Growth in Velo−Cardio−Facial Syndrome: Longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo−cardio−facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS −3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch−up and ended up with a final height of −2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318064

  4. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R M

    1988-01-01

    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Black Holes Lead Galaxy Growth, New Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers may have solved a cosmic chicken-and-egg problem -- the question of which formed first in the early Universe -- galaxies or the supermassive black holes seen at their cores. "It looks like the black holes came first. The evidence is piling up," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Carilli outlined the conclusions from recent research done by an international team studying conditions in the first billion years of the Universe's history in a lecture presented to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. Gas in Distant Galaxy VLA image (right) of gas in young galaxy seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, SDSS Full-size JPEG, 323 KB PDF file, 180 KB Galaxy image, no annotation, JPEG 21 KB Earlier studies of galaxies and their central black holes in the nearby Universe revealed an intriguing linkage between the masses of the black holes and of the central "bulges" of stars and gas in the galaxies. The ratio of the black hole and the bulge mass is nearly the same for a wide range of galactic sizes and ages. For central black holes from a few million to many billions of times the mass of our Sun, the black hole's mass is about one one-thousandth of the mass of the surrounding galactic bulge. "This constant ratio indicates that the black hole and the bulge affect each others' growth in some sort of interactive relationship," said Dominik Riechers, of Caltech. "The big question has been whether one grows before the other or if they grow together, maintaining their mass ratio throughout the entire process." In the past few years, scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in France to peer far back in the 13.7 billion-year history of the Universe, to the dawn of the first galaxies. "We finally have been able to measure black-hole and bulge masses in several galaxies seen

  6. On the estimation of the volatility-growth link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launov, Andrey; Posch, Olaf; Wälde, Klaus

    It is common practice to estimate the volatility-growth link by specifying a standard growth equation such that the variance of the error term appears as an explanatory variable in this growth equation. The variance in turn is modelled by a second equation. Hardly any of existing applications...... of this framework includes exogenous controls in this second variance equation. Our theoretical …ndings suggest that the absence of relevant explanatory variables in the variance equation leads to a biased and inconsistent estimate of the volatility-growth link. Our simulations show that this effect is large. Once...... the appropriate controls are included in the variance equation consistency is restored. In short, we suggest that the variance equation must include relevant control variables to estimate the volatility-growth link....

  7. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  8. Fatigue crack propagation and delamination growth in Glare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fibre Metal Laminate Glare consists of thin aluminium layers bonded together with pre-impregnated glass fibre layers and shows an excellent fatigue crack growth behaviour compared to monolithic aluminium. The fibres are insensitive to the occurring fatigue loads and remain intact while the fatigue

  9. Inequality and economic growth: The empirical relationship reconsidered in the light of comparable data

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    All of the recent empirical work on the relationship between income inequality and economic growth has used inequality data that are not consistently measured. This paper argues that this is inappropriate and shows that the significant negative correlation often found between income inequality and growth across countries is not robust when income inequality is measured in a consistent manner, using data from the World Income Inequality Database. However, evidence is found of a significant neg...

  10. Structure and growth of weighted networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccaboni, Massimo [Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Schiavo, Stefano [Department of Economics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)], E-mail: massimo.riccaboni@unitn.it, E-mail: stefano.schiavo@unitn.it

    2010-02-15

    We develop a simple theoretical framework for the evolution of weighted networks that is consistent with a number of stylized features of real-world data. In our framework, the Barabasi-Albert model of network evolution is extended by assuming that link weights evolve according to a geometric Brownian motion. Our model is verified by means of simulations and real-world trade data. We show that the model correctly predicts the intensity and growth distribution of links, the size-variance relationship of the growth of link weights, the relationship between the degree and strength of nodes, and the scale-free structure of the network.

  11. Context-dependent individual behavioral consistency in Daphnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Ekvall, Mikael T.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of consistent individual differences in behavior, often termed "personality," for adapting and coping with threats and novel environmental conditions has advanced considerably during the last decade. However, advancements are almost exclusively associated with higher-order animals......, whereas studies focusing on smaller aquatic organisms are still rare. Here, we show individual differences in the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna, a clonal freshwater invertebrate, before, during, and after being exposed to a lethal threat, ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We show consistency in swimming...... that of adults. Overall, we show that aquatic invertebrates are far from being identical robots, but instead they show considerable individual differences in behavior that can be attributed to both ontogenetic development and individual consistency. Our study also demonstrates, for the first time...

  12. The implications of automation for economic growth and the labor share of income

    OpenAIRE

    Prettner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce automation into the standard Solovian model of capital accumulation and show that (i) there is the possibility of perpetual growth, even in the absence of technological progress; (ii) the long-run economic growth rate declines with population growth, which is consistent with the available empirical evidence; (iii) there is a unique share of savings diverted to automation that maximizes the long-run growth rate of the economy; (iv) the labor share declines with automation to an ex...

  13. Triplet ultrasound growth parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta L; Ruthazer, Robin; House, Michael; Chelmow, David

    2006-03-01

    To create ultrasound growth curves for normal growth of fetal triplets using statistical methodology that properly accounts for similarities of growth of fetuses within a mother as well as repeated measurements over time for each fetus. In this longitudinal study, all triplet pregnancies managed at a single tertiary center from 1992-2004 were reviewed. Fetuses with major anomalies, prior selective reduction, or fetal demise were excluded. Data from early and late gestation in which there were fewer than 30 fetal measurements available for analysis were excluded. We used multilevel models to account for variation in growth within a single fetus over time, variations in growth between multiple fetuses within a single mother, and variations in fetal growth between mothers. Medians (50th), 10th, and 90th percentiles were estimated by the creation of multiple quadratic growth models from bootstrap samples adapting a previously published method to compute prediction intervals. Estimated fetal weight was derived from Hadlock's formula. One hundred fifty triplet pregnancies were identified. Twenty-seven pregnancies were excluded for the following reasons: missing records (23), fetal demise (3), and fetal anomaly (1). The study group consisted of 123 pregnancies. The gestational age range was restricted to 14-34 weeks. Figures and tables were developed showing medians, 10th and 90th percentiles for estimated fetal weight, femur length, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and head circumference. Growth curves for triplet pregnancies were derived. These may be useful for identification of abnormal growth in triplet fetuses. III.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomicresponses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N. Ari; Heo, Hye J.; Tozour, Jessica N.; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M.; Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age (LGA) growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular aging and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life. PMID:25300954

  15. Tree Growth Response to Drought Along a Depth to Groundwater Gradient in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciruzzi, D. M.; Loheide, S. P., II

    2017-12-01

    Understanding complex spatial and temporal patterns of drought-induced forest stress requires knowledge of the physiological drivers and ecosystem attributes that lead to or inhibit tree mortality. Prevailing meteorological conditions leading to drought may have lesser effect on vegetation that has evolved to avoid drought by accessing deeper soil moisture reserves or shallow groundwater to meet evapotranspiration demand. This is especially true in arid and semi-arid regions, yet groundwater use by trees is rarely explored in temperate systems and the extent to which groundwater use reduces drought vulnerability in these climates and regions is unknown. We explored responses of radial growth in temperate tress to wet and dry years across a depth to groundwater gradient from 1 to 9 meters in sandy forests in northern Wisconsin. The spatial patterns of tree growth in this watershed show areas where tree growth is influenced by depth to groundwater. Preliminary results showed trees in areas of shallower groundwater with low variability in tree growth and indicated that tree growth remains consistent during both wet and dry years. Conversely, trees in areas of deeper groundwater showed higher variability in tree growth during wet and dry years. We hypothesize that even in this humid region, the sandy soils do not retain sufficient moisture leading to potentially frequent water stress in trees and reductions in productivity. However, where and when accessible, we suspect trees use shallow groundwater to sustain evapotranspiration and maintain consistent growth during dry periods.

  16. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  17. Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

  18. Seeds and plantlets of Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”: biometry, germination, and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson E. Medina Bardales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to determine seed biometrics, recording cellular respiration in the imbibition process, evaluate the effect of inducing chemicals in germination and early growth analysis. Cellular respiration during imbibition was measured by reduction of methylene blue and Janus Green B. The inductor effect of five chemical compounds in germination was evaluated. Initial growth was recorded by stereoscopic. Results showed that the seeds have an average weight of 520 ± 172 mg, length of 13.50 ± 1.76 mm, width of 10.61 ± 1.14 mm, and thickness of 4.68 ± 0 62 mm. These variables showed significant correlations (r of 0.494 to 0.897 and p 90% and 65% respectively. Seedling initial growth consisted of six stages and occurred over a period of 22 days after radicle emergence. In conclusion, M. dubia seeds show wide variation in their biometrics (weight, length, width and thickness, but show significant correlations with each other. Likewise, seeds are metabolically active in imbibition process, and germination is induced by sodium nitrite and potassium cyanide. Furthermore, seedling initial growth to occur over a period of 22 days after emergence of the radicle and consists of six distinct stages.

  19. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  20. Financial Development, Environmental Quality and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.

  1. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Ruben A T; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L

    2015-03-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions.

  2. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  3. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander

    , we show that cross-firm moves at the non-executive level provide sizeable short-run gains (similar to the effect of a promotion), consistent with the existing literature. These gains, however, appear modest when compared with the persistent impact on earnings growth of promotions (either within...... or across firms) and subsequent mobility at a higher hierarchy level....

  4. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Lopez-Alonso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1 on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI. We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, paired associative stimulation (PAS25, and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28 were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online, 1 day after training (consolidation, and 1 week after training (retention. We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning.

  5. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Liew, Sook-Lei; Fernández del Olmo, Miguel; Cheeran, Binith; Sandrini, Marco; Abe, Mitsunari; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI). We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), paired associative stimulation (PAS25), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28) were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online), 1 day after training (consolidation), and 1 week after training (retention). We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning. PMID:29740271

  6. Childhood central adiposity at ages 5 and 9 shows consistent relationship with that of the maternal grandmother but not other grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R; Khalil, H; Segurado, R; Mehegan, J; Viljoen, K; Heinen, M; Murrin, C; Kelleher, C C

    2018-05-09

    The importance of a life course approach to childhood obesity has been emphasized; however, few studies can prospectively investigate relationships in three-generation families. To prospectively investigate the relationship between grandparental and grandchild waist circumference (WC) at ages 5 and 9 down maternal and paternal lines. At baseline in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort, 1094 children were born to 1082 mothers; 585 were examined at age 5 and 298 at age 9. Of the total 589 children with measured WC, data were also available from 745 grandparents. Child WC was standardized for age and sex, and theory-based hierarchical linear regression was used. Maternal grandmother (MGM) WC was predictive of grandchild WC at both time points. At age 5, grandchild's standardized birth weight (B = 0.266, p = 0.001), mother's means tested eligibility for free medical care (B = 1.029, p = 0.001) and grandchild seeing maternal grandparents daily (B = 0.312, p = 0.048) were significant alongside MGM WC (B = 0.015, p = 0.019). At age 9, only MGM WC (B = 0.022, p = 0.033) and mother's WC (B = 0.032, p = 0.005) were significant. Mediation analysis with mother's WC showed significant direct relationship of MGM and grandchild WC. This prospective cross-generational cohort shows consistent patterns of association between MGM and grandchild WC, not seen in other grandparental lineages. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Yolk testosterone affects growth and promotes individual-level consistency in behavioral lateralization of yellow-legged gull chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Spiezio, Caterina; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral lateralization is common in animals and may be expressed at the individual- and at the population-level. The ontogenetic processes that control lateralization, however, are largely unknown. Well-established sex-dependence in androgen physiology and sex-dependent variation in lateralization have led to the hypothesis that testosterone (T) has organizational effects on lateralization. The effects of T exposure in early life on lateralization can be efficiently investigated by manipulating T levels in the cleidoic eggs of birds, because the embryo is isolated from maternal and sibling physiological interference, but this approach has been adopted very rarely. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) we increased yolk T concentration within the physiological limits and tested the effects on the direction of lateralization in two functionally fundamental behaviors (begging for parental care and escape to cover) of molecularly sexed hatchlings. We also speculated that T may intervene in regulating consistency, rather than direction of lateralization, and therefore tested if T affected the 'repeatability' of lateral preference in consecutive behavioral trials. T treatment had no effect on the direction of lateralization, but enhanced the consistency of lateral preference in escape responses. Sex did not predict lateralization. Neither behavior was lateralized at the population-level. We therefore showed for the first time in any species an effect of egg T on consistency in lateralization. The implications of the effect of T for the evolution of trade-offs in maternal allocation of egg hormones, and the evolutionary interpretations of findings from our studies on lateralization among unmanipulated birds are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Elmendorf, Sarah C.; Beck, Pieter S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid climate warming in the tundra biome has been linked to increasing shrub dominance1–4. Shrub expansion can modify climate by altering surface albedo, energy and water balance, and permafrost2,5–8, yet the drivers of shrub growth remain poorly understood. Dendroecological data consisting...... of multi-decadal time series of annual shrub growth provide an underused resource to explore climate–growth relationships. Here, we analyse circumpolar data from 37 Arctic and alpine sites in 9 countries, including 25 species, and 42,000 annual growth records from 1,821 individuals. Our analyses...... demonstrate that the sensitivity of shrub growth to climate was: (1) heterogeneous, with European sites showing greater summer temperature sensitivity than North American sites, and (2) higher at sites with greater soil moisture and for taller shrubs (for example, alders and willows) growing at their northern...

  9. Preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formula until 6 months show improved growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ga Won; Jung, Yu Jin; Koh, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Sung Shin; Shim, Jae Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched preterm formula to preterm infants until 6 months' corrected age (CA) on growth and development in the first 18 months of life. Very low-birthweight preterm infants were fed preterm formula until term (40 weeks CA). Infants were then assigned to one of three groups and were fed term formula until 6 months' CA (group 1, n= 29); preterm formula to 3 months' CA and then term formula to 6 months' CA (group 2, n= 30); or preterm formula until 6 months' CA (group 3, n= 31). Anthropometry was performed at term, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and at s18 months' CA. Mental and psychomotor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 18 months' CA. Although body weight, length, head circumference and z score for CA at term in group 3 were significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 2, growth rates of these parameters were significantly higher in group 3 up to 18 months CA', as compared to groups 1 and 2. The mental developmental index and psychomotor developmental index of the Bayley test were not significantly different between the three groups. Very low-birthweight preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched preterm formula until 6 months' CA demonstrated significantly improved growth rates for bodyweight, length and head circumference, and comparable mental and psychomotor development throughout the first 18 months of life. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Dinosaur incubation periods directly determined from growth-line counts in embryonic teeth show reptilian-grade development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Kay, David Ian; Norell, Mark A

    2017-01-17

    Birds stand out from other egg-laying amniotes by producing relatively small numbers of large eggs with very short incubation periods (average 11-85 d). This aspect promotes high survivorship by limiting exposure to predation and environmental perturbation, allows for larger more fit young, and facilitates rapid attainment of adult size. Birds are living dinosaurs; their rapid development has been considered to reflect the primitive dinosaurian condition. Here, nonavian dinosaurian incubation periods in both small and large ornithischian taxa are empirically determined through growth-line counts in embryonic teeth. Our results show unexpectedly slow incubation (2.8 and 5.8 mo) like those of outgroup reptiles. Developmental and physiological constraints would have rendered tooth formation and incubation inherently slow in other dinosaur lineages and basal birds. The capacity to determine incubation periods in extinct egg-laying amniotes has implications for dinosaurian embryology, life history strategies, and survivorship across the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event.

  11. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-05-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here, we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: conservative detrending (CD) applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring widths with age; basal area correction (BAC) transforms diameter into basal area growth; regional curve standardization (RCS) detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and size class isolation (SCI) calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring data set of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used CD method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth-trend detection), reliability (100% minus probability of detecting false trends) and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade) and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except CD, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. BAC showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability

  12. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  13. Self-consistent calculation of 208Pb spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chik, V.V.; Pyatov, N.I.; Fayans, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The self-consistent model with exact accounting for one-particle continuum is applied to calculate all discrete particle-hole natural parity states with 2 208 Pb nucleus (up to the neutron emission threshold, 7.4 MeV). Contributions to the energy-weighted sum rules S(EL) of the first collective levels and total contributions of all discrete levels are evaluated. Most strongly the collectivization is manifested for octupole states. With multipolarity growth L contributions of discrete levels are sharply reduced. The results are compared with other models and the experimental data obtained in (e, e'), (p, p') reactions and other data [ru

  14. Photorespiratory Bypasses Lead to Increased Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana: Are Predictions Consistent with Experimental Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Georg; Küken, Anika; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Arguably, the biggest challenge of modern plant systems biology lies in predicting the performance of plant species, and crops in particular, upon different intracellular and external perturbations. Recently, an increased growth of Arabidopsis thaliana plants was achieved by introducing two different photorespiratory bypasses via metabolic engineering. Here, we investigate the extent to which these findings match the predictions from constraint-based modeling. To determine the effect of the employed metabolic network model on the predictions, we perform a comparative analysis involving three state-of-the-art metabolic reconstructions of A. thaliana. In addition, we investigate three scenarios with respect to experimental findings on the ratios of the carboxylation and oxygenation reactions of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We demonstrate that the condition-dependent growth phenotypes of one of the engineered bypasses can be qualitatively reproduced by each reconstruction, particularly upon considering the additional constraints with respect to the ratio of fluxes for the RuBisCO reactions. Moreover, our results lend support for the hypothesis of a reduced photorespiration in the engineered plants, and indicate that specific changes in CO2 exchange as well as in the proxies for co-factor turnover are associated with the predicted growth increase in the engineered plants. We discuss our findings with respect to the structure of the used models, the modeling approaches taken, and the available experimental evidence. Our study sets the ground for investigating other strategies for increase of plant biomass by insertion of synthetic reactions. PMID:27092301

  15. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  16. Targeted deletion of hepatocyte Ikkβ confers growth advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Katherine S.; Maeda, Shin; He, Guobin; Karin, Michael; Leffert, Hyam L.

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking hepatocyte IKKβ (Ikkβ Δhep ) are defective in TNFα-activation of hepatocellular transcription factor NF-κB, and highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity. Following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure, Ikkβ Δhep mice develop more hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than control mice due partly to enhanced DEN-induced hepatocyte death. Here we show that Ikkβ Δhep hepatocytes display growth advantages over normal hepatocytes consisting of precocious PCNA and cyclin D1 expression during liver regeneration (shortened hepatocyte G 0 → G 1 transitions), and enhanced recovery efficiency, cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation after plating. Ex vivo deletion of Ikkβ also accelerates hepatocyte growth. Ikkβ Δhep hepatocyte proliferative responses show heightened sensitivity to TGFα and TNFα, and heightened expression of fibronectin, collagens I/III, nidogen, β-actin and integrin β1 mRNAs. These findings suggest that altered mitogen signaling and expression of extracellular matrix and its associated components underlie growth advantages. Increased HCC development in Ikkβ Δhep mice may also be caused by growth advantages of surviving Ikkβ-deleted hepatocytes.

  17. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Juday, Glenn P; Alix, Claire; Barber, Valerie A; Winslow, Stephen E; Sousa, Emily E; Heiser, Patricia; Herriges, James D; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-04-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest productivity since 1982 across boreal Alaska by linking satellite estimates of primary productivity and a large tree-ring data set. Trends in both records show consistent growth increases at the boreal-tundra ecotones that contrast with drought-induced productivity declines throughout interior Alaska. These patterns support the hypothesized effects of an initiating biome shift. Ultimately, tree dispersal rates, habitat availability and the rate of future climate change, and how it changes disturbance regimes, are expected to determine where the boreal biome will undergo a gradual geographic range shift, and where a more rapid decline. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Effect of growth regulators on growth, flowering and rhizome yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2001 and 2002, to study the effect of foliar application of growth regulators on growth; flowering and rhizome yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Treatments consisted of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0,150 and 300 ppm; ethrel at 0,100 and 200 ppm and cycocel (CCC) at 0,250 ppm ...

  19. Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity shows enhanced growth when grown under N2-fixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Sayed; Seger, Mark; Villanueva, Fabiola Muro; Ortega, Jose Luis; Bagga, Suman; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2015-10-01

    Overexpression of SPS in alfalfa is accompanied by early flowering, increased plant growth and an increase in elemental N and protein content when grown under N2-fixing conditions. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.3.1.14) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of sucrose in plants. The outcome of overexpression of SPS in different plants using transgenic approaches has been quite varied, but the general consensus is that increased SPS activity is associated with the production of new sinks and increased sink strength. In legumes, the root nodule is a strong C sink and in this study our objective was to see how increasing SPS activity in a legume would affect nodule number and function. Here we have transformed alfalfa (Medicago sativa, cv. Regen SY), with a maize SPS gene driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Our results showed that overexpression of SPS in alfalfa, is accompanied by an increase in nodule number and mass and an overall increase in nitrogenase activity at the whole plant level. The nodules exhibited an increase in the level of key enzymes contributing to N assimilation including glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase. Moreover, the stems of the transformants showed higher level of the transport amino acids, Asx, indicating increased export of N from the nodules. The transformants exhibited a dramatic increase in growth both of the shoots and roots, and earlier flowering time, leading to increased yields. Moreover, the transformants showed an increase in elemental N and protein content. The overall conclusion is that increased SPS activity improves the N status and plant performance, suggesting that the availability of more C in the form of sucrose enhances N acquisition and assimilation in the nodules.

  20. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  1. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  2. Two Impossibility Results on the Converse Consistency Principle in Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsub Chun

    1999-01-01

    We present two impossibility results on the converse consistency principle in the context of bargaining. First, we show that there is no solution satis-fying Pareto optimality, contraction independence, and converse consistency. Next, we show that there is no solution satisfying Pareto optimality, strong individual rationality, individual monotonicity, and converse consistency.

  3. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  4. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  5. Climate-growth analysis for a Mexican dry forest tree shows strong impact of sea surface temperatures and predicts future growth declines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brienen, R.J.W.; Lebrija Trejos, E.E.; Zuidema, P.A.; Martínez- Ramos, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests will experience relatively large changes in temperature and rainfall towards the end of this century. Little is known about how tropical trees will respond to these changes. We used tree rings to establish climate-growth relations of a pioneer tree, Mimosa acantholoba, occurring in

  6. Laboratory Evidence for Stochastic Plasma-Wave Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D. R.; Hole, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Dallaqua, R.

    2007-01-01

    The first laboratory confirmation of stochastic growth theory is reported. Floating potential fluctuations are measured in a vacuum arc centrifuge using a Langmuir probe. Statistical analysis of the energy density reveals a lognormal distribution over roughly 2 orders of magnitude, with a high-field nonlinear cutoff whose spatial dependence is consistent with the predicted eigenmode profile. These results are consistent with stochastic growth and nonlinear saturation of a spatially extended eigenmode, the first evidence for stochastic growth of an extended structure

  7. Uranium-series growth history of a Quaternary phosphatic crust from the Peruvian continental margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kee Hyun; Burnett, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    A 20-mm-thick oriented phosphatic crust recovered together with its overlying (14 cm) and underlying (4 cm) associated sediment from the Peruvian sea floor has been analyzed in detail for uranium-series radionuclides in an attempt to determine its rate and direction of growth. Growth curves based upon 226 Ra and 230 Th ages show that this crust grew upward toward the sediment-water interface. Calculated growth rates in the range of 12-13 mm ka -1 are slightly higher but comparable to values previously reported. Crystallographical analyses of this phosphatic crust show a trend of decreasing unit-cell dimension a with sample age. The upward growth of a buried crust toward the sediment-water interface is consistent with results from recent pore-water studies of fluoride and phosphate in Peru shelf sediments. (orig.)

  8. Quasi-Particle Self-Consistent GW for Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, F; Harding, M E; Seiler, C; Weigend, F; Evers, F; van Setten, M J

    2016-06-14

    We present the formalism and implementation of quasi-particle self-consistent GW (qsGW) and eigenvalue only quasi-particle self-consistent GW (evGW) adapted to standard quantum chemistry packages. Our implementation is benchmarked against high-level quantum chemistry computations (coupled-cluster theory) and experimental results using a representative set of molecules. Furthermore, we compare the qsGW approach for five molecules relevant for organic photovoltaics to self-consistent GW results (scGW) and analyze the effects of the self-consistency on the ground state density by comparing calculated dipole moments to their experimental values. We show that qsGW makes a significant improvement over conventional G0W0 and that partially self-consistent flavors (in particular evGW) can be excellent alternatives.

  9. A Microarray Study of Carpet-Shell Clam (Ruditapes decussatus Shows Common and Organ-Specific Growth-Related Gene Expression Differences in Gills and Digestive Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saavedra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes. A total of 356 differentially expressed genes (DEG were found. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression might be concentrated at the growth control gene core (GCGC, i.e., the set of genes that underlie the molecular mechanisms of genetic control of tissue and organ growth and body size, as demonstrated in model organisms. The GCGC includes the genes coding for enzymes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS, enzymes of four additional signaling pathways (Raf/Ras/Mapk, Jnk, TOR, and Hippo, and transcription factors acting at the end of those pathways. Only two out of 97 GCGC genes present in the microarray showed differential expression, indicating a very little contribution of GCGC genes to growth-related differential gene expression. Forty eight DEGs were shared by both organs, with gene ontology (GO annotations corresponding to transcription regulation, RNA splicing, sugar metabolism, protein catabolism, immunity, defense against pathogens, and fatty acid biosynthesis. GO term enrichment tests indicated that genes related to growth regulation, development and morphogenesis, extracellular matrix proteins, and proteolysis were overrepresented in the gills. In the digestive gland overrepresented GO terms referred to gene expression control through chromatin rearrangement, RAS-related small GTPases, glucolysis, and energy metabolism. These analyses suggest a relevant role of, among others

  10. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  11. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  12. Institutions and growth: theoretical foundations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.F.

    2000-09-01

    Institutions and growth rates are strongly linked both theoretically and empirically. They act through 'efficiency of governance'), as institutions of conflict management, and as devices for inter temporal optimization. Contrary to most of the literature, a non-linear (inversely u-shaped) influence of institutions on growth is also formally derived as a general hypothesis; this reflects the widely neglected notion that institutions also bring opportunity costs with them. Systematic econometric evaluations for a world-wide cross-sectional sample and a European Union panel show mixed results: the rule of law, property rights, and contract and law enforcement are consistently positively related to growth. In Europe, a non-linear relationship is often found for these and other institutions. Corporatism and trust are good for growth in Europe; both bring with them significant rent-seeking costs, though. Comparing the results one notes that no easy transfer of knowledge is possible from one sample to the other. This is an important policy conclusion in its own right. (author)

  13. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Arnott, Stephen A.; Biondo, Patrick; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Wadsworth, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of stock structure is important for understanding the ecology and management of many fish populations, particularly those with wide-ranging distributions and high levels of harvest. Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a popular commercial and recreational species along the southeast Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico, USA. Recent studies have provided genetic and otolith morphology evidence that the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks differ. Using age and growth data from four states (Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) we expanded upon the traditional von Bertalanffy model in order to compare growth rates of putative geographic stocks of southern flounder. We improved the model fitting process by adding a hierarchical Bayesian framework to allow each parameter to vary spatially or temporally as a random effect, as well as log transforming the three model parameters (L∞, K, andt0). Multiple comparisons of parameters showed that growth rates varied (even within states) for females, but less for males. Growth rates were also consistent through time, when long-term data were available. Since within-basin populations are thought to be genetically well-mixed, our results suggest that consistent small-scale environmental conditions (i.e., within estuaries) likely drive growth rates and should be considered when developing broader scale management plans.

  14. Evolution of space dependent growth in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya D Gallo

    Full Text Available The relationship between growth rate and environmental space is an unresolved issue in teleosts. While it is known from aquaculture studies that stocking density has a negative relationship to growth, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, primarily because the growth rate of populations rather than individual fish were the subject of all previous studies. Here we investigate this problem in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of a sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish and several blind cave-dwelling (cavefish forms. Surface fish and cavefish are distinguished by living in spatially contrasting environments and therefore are excellent models to study the effects of environmental size on growth. Multiple controlled growth experiments with individual fish raised in confined or unconfined spaces showed that environmental size has a major impact on growth rate in surface fish, a trait we have termed space dependent growth (SDG. In contrast, SDG has regressed to different degrees in the Pachón and Tinaja populations of cavefish. Mating experiments between surface and Pachón cavefish show that SDG is inherited as a dominant trait and is controlled by multiple genetic factors. Despite its regression in blind cavefish, SDG is not affected when sighted surface fish are raised in darkness, indicating that vision is not required to perceive and react to environmental space. Analysis of plasma cortisol levels showed that an elevation above basal levels occurred soon after surface fish were exposed to confined space. This initial cortisol peak was absent in Pachón cavefish, suggesting that the effects of confined space on growth may be mediated partly through a stress response. We conclude that Astyanax reacts to confined spaces by exhibiting SDG, which has a genetic component and shows evolutionary regression during adaptation of cavefish to confined environments.

  15. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times

  16. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J.E.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for

  17. Corporate Stability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    He, Kathy S.; Morck, Randall; Yeung, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Greater instability in a country's list of top corporations is associated with faster economic growth. This faster growth is primarily due to faster growth in total factor productivity in industrialized countries, and faster capital accumulation in developing countries. These findings are consistent with the view that economic growth is more closely tied to the rise of new large firms than to the prosperity of established large firms. Although a stable list of leading corporations is highly c...

  18. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate

  20. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradera, J.; Cuesta-López, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM ® CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation

  1. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM{sup ®} CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium

  2. Development of regional growth centres and impact on regional growth: A case study of Thailand’s Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapon Sang-arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatial economic structure and inequality in Thailand at the national and regional levels, with a particular focus on the Northeastern region in the period from 1987 to 2007. The study has three main points: 1 examination of the economic structure and inequality at the national level and in the Northeastern region according to the Theil index, 2 determination of regional growth centres and satellite towns by using growth pole theory as a conceptual framework and incorporating spatial interaction analysis and 3 analysis of the relationship between regional growth centres and satellite towns with regard to the impact on growth and inequality. The results show that the Northeastern region is definitely the lagging region in the nation, by both gross domestic product (GDP and gross regional product (GRP per capita. It was therefore selected for a case study. Spatial analysis identified Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani and Ubon Ratchathani as regional growth centres. Each of them has its own sphere of influence (or satellite towns, and the total area of regional growth centres and satellite towns are classified as sub-regions. The development of regional growth centres has a direct impact on sub-regional economic growth through economic and social relationships: urbanisation, industrial development, per capita growth, the number of higher educational institutes and so on. However, such growth negatively correlates with economic equality among the provinces in a sub-region. The inequality trend is obviously on an upswing. This study suggests that industrial links between regional growth centres and their satellite towns should be improved in order for regional growth centre development to have a consistently desirable effect on both economic growth and equality. Such a strong process means that the growth of regional growth centres will spread, leading to the development of their surrounding areas.

  3. Causal relationships between energy consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth: Fresh evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equations models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omri, Anis; Kahouli, Bassem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the interrelationships between energy consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth using dynamic panel data models in simultaneous-equations for a global panel consisting of 65 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1990–2011 inclusive. To make the panel data analysis more homogenous, we also investigate this interrelationship for a number of sub-panels which are constructed based on the income level of countries. In this way, we end up with three income panels; namely, high income, middle income, and low income panels. In the empirical part, we draw on the growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of capital stock, labor force and inflation, with foreign direct investment and energy. Generally, we show mixed results about the interrelationship between energy consumption, FDI and economic growth. - Highlights: • We examine the energy–FDI–growth nexus for a global panel of 65 countries. • Dynamic simultaneous-equation panel data models are used to address this issue. • We also investigate this nexus for three sub-panels which are constructed based on the income level of countries. • We show mixed results about the interrelationship between the three variables

  4. Steady-state solution growth of microcrystalline silicon on nanocrystalline seed layers on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansen, R.; Ehlers, C.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.

    2016-09-01

    The growth of polycrystalline silicon layers on glass from tin solutions at low temperatures is presented. This approach is based on the steady-state solution growth of Si crystallites on nanocrystalline seed layers, which are prepared in a preceding process step. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations reveal details about the seed layer surfaces, which consist of small hillocks, as well as about Sn inclusions and gaps along the glass substrate after solution growth. The successful growth of continuous microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes up to several ten micrometers shows the feasibility of the process and makes it interesting for photovoltaics. Project supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) (No. BO 1129/5-1).

  5. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  6. Population-based study shows improved postnatal growth in preterm very-low-birthweight infants between 1995 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Reichman, Brian; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Boyko, Valentina; Bar-Oz, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    To assess whether the postnatal growth of preterm very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants, as determined by measures of postnatal growth failure (PNGF), improved during the period 1995-2010 and to evaluate postnatal growth by gestational age (GA) and intrauterine growth groups. The study was based on the Israel national VLBW infant database and comprised 13 531 VLBW infants of 24-32 weeks' GA, discharged at a postmenstrual age of ≤40 weeks. Z-scores were determined for weight at birth and discharge. Severe and mild PNGF was defined as a decrease >2 and 1-2 z-scores, respectively. Three time periods were considered: 1995-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent effect of time period on PNGF. Severe PNGF decreased from 11.7% in 1995-2000 to 7.2% in 2001-2005 and 5.2% in 2006-2010. Infants born in 2006-2010 had sixfold lower odds for severe PNGF than babies born in 1995-2000 (adjusted odds ratio 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.21) and

  7. The Inlfuence of Biochar on Growth of Lettuce and Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalika P. Upadhyay; Doug George; Roger S. Swift; Victor Galea

    2014-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted in a glasshouse to determine the growth pattern of lettuce, true potato seedlings (TPS) and single node cuttings of TPS in response to biochar. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments (0, 10, 30, 50 and 100 t ha-1) of biochar from greenwaste with 5 replications in lettuce, 10 in TPS and 5 in single node cuttings of TPS. The observations recorded on growth parameters showed that biochar had signiifcant effect on growth of lettuce but no consistent effect on growth of TPS and single node cuttings. Among the biochar rates, 30 t ha-1 had the greatest inlfuence on overall growth of lettuce. The pH and electrical conductivity increased as the biochar rates increased in all experiments. These results provide an avenue for soil management system by using biochar as an amendment in horticultural crops. However, their veriifcation in the ifeld is important for speciifc recommendations.

  8. Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonho; Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Ekerdt, John G.; Shih, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si nanowires is reported. Using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, we show that the flower consists of an Au/SiO x core-shell structure. Moreover, the growth of flower starts at the interface between the gold catalyst and the silicon nanowire, presumably by enhanced oxidation at this interface. The pattern formation can be classified as dense branching morphology (DBM). It is the first observation of DBM in a spherical geometry and at the nanoscale. The analysis of the average branching distance of this pattern shows that the pattern is most likely formed during the growth process, not the cooling process, and that the curvature of the gold droplet plays a crucial role in the frequency of branching

  9. Money and Growth: An Alternative Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Peter N

    1994-01-01

    This paper takes an alternative approach to the topic of money and growth by developing a model in which the effects of sustained capital accumulation on an evolving system of payments, in addition to the conventional effects of sustained inflation on growth, are examined. While the effects of inflation on growth are small, the effects of growth on the monetary system are substantial. The results are consistent with ideas about money and growth contained in work that predates that of James To...

  10. Controllable mineral coatings on PCL scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Barnhart, Kara; Migneco, Francesco; Flanagan, Colleen; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have developed mineral coatings on polycaprolactone scaffolds to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO(3)) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mm, 25 mm, and 100 mm. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic constituent of human bone tissue in coatings formed in all HCO(3) concentrations. Mineral coatings with increased HCO(3) substitution showed more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate but showed re-precipitation in an environment with the aforementioned ions. The mineral coating provided an effective mechanism for growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. We also demonstrated sustained release of all growth factors with release kinetics that were strongly dependent in the solubility of the mineral coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Microelectrode Array with Reproducible Performance Shows Loss of Consistency Following Functionalization with a Self-Assembled 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damion K. Corrigan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For analytical applications involving label-free biosensors and multiple measurements, i.e., across an electrode array, it is essential to develop complete sensor systems capable of functionalization and of producing highly consistent responses. To achieve this, a multi-microelectrode device bearing twenty-four equivalent 50 µm diameter Pt disc microelectrodes was designed in an integrated 3-electrode system configuration and then fabricated. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for initial electrochemical characterization of the individual working electrodes. These confirmed the expected consistency of performance with a high degree of measurement reproducibility for each microelectrode across the array. With the aim of assessing the potential for production of an enhanced multi-electrode sensor for biomedical use, the working electrodes were then functionalized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH. This is a well-known and commonly employed surface modification process, which involves the same principles of thiol attachment chemistry and self-assembled monolayer (SAM formation commonly employed in the functionalization of electrodes and the formation of biosensors. Following this SAM formation, the reproducibility of the observed electrochemical signal between electrodes was seen to decrease markedly, compromising the ability to achieve consistent analytical measurements from the sensor array following this relatively simple and well-established surface modification. To successfully and consistently functionalize the sensors, it was necessary to dilute the constituent molecules by a factor of ten thousand to support adequate SAM formation on microelectrodes. The use of this multi-electrode device therefore demonstrates in a high throughput manner irreproducibility in the SAM formation process at the higher concentration, even though these electrodes are apparently functionalized simultaneously in the same film

  12. Growth of ZnO nanostructures on Au-coated Si: Influence of growth temperature on growth mechanism and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; McGlynn, E.; Biswas, M.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on Au-catalyzed Si silicon substrates using vapor phase transport at growth temperatures from 800 to 1150 degrees C. The sample location ensured a low Zn vapor supersaturation during growth. Nanostructures grown at 800 and 850 degrees C showed a faceted rodlike...... growth tended to dominate resulting in the formation of a porous, nanostructured morphology. In all cases growth was seen only on the Au-coated region. Our results show that the majority of the nanostructures grow via a vapor-solid mechanism at low growth temperatures with no evidence of Au nanoparticles...

  13. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  14. World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards and 2007 growth reference charts: A discussion paper by the committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique; Michaelsen, Kim F; Shamir, Raanan; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamás; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Growth charts are essential for evaluating children's health including their nutrition; however, the evaluation of child growth trajectories and consequently the decision to intervene are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The aim of this discussion paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition is to provide information on the background and rationale of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 child growth standards and WHO 2007 growth reference charts, describe their development, outline their main innovative aspects, discuss potential limitations, and make recommendations. WHO 2006 child growth standards (0-5 years) are based on prospectively collected data describing the growth of healthy infants who were breast-fed according to WHO recommendations, showing a pattern of linear growth, which is remarkably consistent between different countries and ethnic groups. WHO 2007 growth reference charts (5-19 years) are based mainly on a re-analysis of National Centre for Health Statistics data from 1977, without information on feeding. European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends that WHO child growth standards should be used to monitor growth in all children in the age range 0 to 2 years in Europe, whether breast- or formula-fed, and that they should be considered to be used in the age range 2 to 5 years. Implementation of the WHO child growth standards should be preceded by evaluation of the implication of their use on national healthcare policies. Health professionals should be guided on their use and interpretation and an adequate communication strategy should be available locally to ensure that parents receive clear and consistent advice. The decision on whether to implement the WHO growth references (5-19 years) should be made by national bodies because the growth pattern during the 5- to 19-year period differs between

  15. Fibroblast growth factor regulates insulin-like growth factor-binding protein production by vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1994-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells, and its effects are regulated by several binding proteins. Western ligand blotting of conditioned medium from rat aortic smooth muscle cells detected a 24 kDa binding protein and a 28 kDa glycosylated variant of this protein, consistent with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 by size. Low amounts of a glycosylated 38 to 42 kDa doublet (consistent with binding protein-3) and a 31 kDa non-glycosylated protein also were present. Basic fibroblast growth factor markedly increased secretion of the 24 kDa binding protein and its 28 kDa glycosylated variant. This effect was dose- and time-dependent and was inhibited by co-incubation with cycloheximide. Crosslinking of [125I]-insulin-like growth factor I to cell monolayers revealed no surface-associated binding proteins, either basally or after agonist treatment. Induction of binding protein production by fibroblast growth factor at sites of vascular injury may be important in vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  16. Recent widespread tree growth decline despite increasing atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Anand, Madhur; Leithead, Mark D

    2010-07-21

    The synergetic effects of recent rising atmospheric CO(2) and temperature are expected to favor tree growth in boreal and temperate forests. However, recent dendrochronological studies have shown site-specific unprecedented growth enhancements or declines. The question of whether either of these trends is caused by changes in the atmosphere remains unanswered because dendrochronology alone has not been able to clarify the physiological basis of such trends. Here we combined standard dendrochronological methods with carbon isotopic analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of two deciduous and two coniferous tree species along a 9 degrees latitudinal gradient across temperate and boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. Our results show that although trees have had around 53% increases in WUE over the past century, growth decline (measured as a decrease in basal area increment--BAI) has been the prevalent response in recent decades irrespective of species identity and latitude. Since the 1950s, tree BAI was predominantly negatively correlated with warmer climates and/or positively correlated with precipitation, suggesting warming induced water stress. However, where growth declines were not explained by climate, WUE and BAI were linearly and positively correlated, showing that declines are not always attributable to warming induced stress and additional stressors may exist. Our results show an unexpected widespread tree growth decline in temperate and boreal forests due to warming induced stress but are also suggestive of additional stressors. Rising atmospheric CO2 levels during the past century resulted in consistent increases in water use efficiency, but this did not prevent growth decline. These findings challenge current predictions of increasing terrestrial carbon stocks under climate change scenarios.

  17. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Noone, Martha; Carton, Mary; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE ROLE OF GROWTH HORMONE IN LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Dewi Ratnayanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is one of the hormones that regulate metabolism, including lipid metabolism. GH can regulate the amount of fat in the tissue and also the level of lipid profile. Growth hormone affects the lipid in the tissue and blood by modulating the lipid metabolism, especially through the regulation of synthesis, excretion and breakdown of internal lipids. Research showed that GH could consistently lower the level of total cholesterol and LDL, whereas its effect on triglyceride and HDL level showed varying results. Growth hormone induces lypolisis by stimulating the activity of HSL and LPL and thereby influenced the triglyceride level and tissue fat storage. Cholesterol and lipoprotein levels are controlled by regulating the synthesis of cholesterol by lowering the activity of HMGCoA reductase. The excretion of cholesterol through the bile is also enhanced by stimulating the activity of enzymes C7?OH. The breakdown of VLDL and LDL are enhanced by increasing the expression of LDL receptor and ApoE as well as affecting the editing of mRNA ApoB100. Increase activity of LPL is also known to be the important factor in the HDL metabolism

  19. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  20. Intraspecific Arabidopsis hybrids show different patterns of heterosis despite the close relatedness of the parental genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Greaves, Ian K; Wang, Li; Huen, Amanda K; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis is important for agriculture; however, little is known about the mechanisms driving hybrid vigor. Ultimately, heterosis depends on the interactions of specific alleles and epialleles provided by the parents, which is why hybrids can exhibit different levels of heterosis, even within the same species. We characterize the development of several intraspecific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) F1 hybrids that show different levels of heterosis at maturity. We identify several phases of heterosis beginning during embryogenesis and culminating in a final phase of vegetative maturity and seed production. During each phase, the hybrids show different levels and patterns of growth, despite the close relatedness of the parents. For instance, during the vegetative phases, the hybrids develop larger leaves than the parents to varied extents, and they do so by exploiting increases in cell size and cell numbers in different ratios. Consistent with this finding, we observed changes in the expression of genes known to regulate leaf size in developing rosettes of the hybrids, with the patterns of altered expression differing between combinations. The data show that heterosis is dependent on changes in development throughout the growth cycle of the hybrid, with the traits of mature vegetative biomass and reproductive yield as cumulative outcomes of heterosis at different levels, tissues, and times of development. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Symbiotic Cell Differentiation and Cooperative Growth in Multicellular Aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei F Yamagishi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As cells grow and divide under a given environment, they become crowded and resources are limited, as seen in bacterial biofilms and multicellular aggregates. These cells often show strong interactions through exchanging chemicals, as evident in quorum sensing, to achieve mutualism and division of labor. Here, to achieve stable division of labor, three characteristics are required. First, isogenous cells differentiate into several types. Second, this aggregate of distinct cell types shows better growth than that of isolated cells without interaction and differentiation, by achieving division of labor. Third, this cell aggregate is robust with respect to the number distribution of differentiated cell types. Indeed, theoretical studies have thus far considered how such cooperation is achieved when the ability of cell differentiation is presumed. Here, we address how cells acquire the ability of cell differentiation and division of labor simultaneously, which is also connected with the robustness of a cell society. For this purpose, we developed a dynamical-systems model of cells consisting of chemical components with intracellular catalytic reaction dynamics. The reactions convert external nutrients into internal components for cellular growth, and the divided cells interact through chemical diffusion. We found that cells sharing an identical catalytic network spontaneously differentiate via induction from cell-cell interactions, and then achieve division of labor, enabling a higher growth rate than that in the unicellular case. This symbiotic differentiation emerged for a class of reaction networks under the condition of nutrient limitation and strong cell-cell interactions. Then, robustness in the cell type distribution was achieved, while instability of collective growth could emerge even among the cooperative cells when the internal reserves of products were dominant. The present mechanism is simple and general as a natural consequence of

  2. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  3. Continuous growth of the motor system in the axolotl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.; Clarke, J.D.; Stephens, N.; Wilson, S.W.; Orsi, C.; Bloomer, T.; Tonge, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    During growth of the axolotl, motor neurons, and muscle fibres are added to the motor system. By double labelling neurons with tritiated thymidine and retrogradely transported HRP, we show that some motor neurons are born at postembryonic stages. Further analysis of motor neurons with the aid of HRP reveals this population of newly born cells relatively frequently in small (5-7 cm long) axolotls, but only rarely in large (7-13 cm long) axolotls. Evidence is presented that suggests that these immature cells are in the process of migrating from close to the ependyma out to the ventral horn. HRP transport also reveals growth cones of advancing axons within spinal nerves in animals up to 6 cm in length. Cell counts by light and electron microscopic methods show that muscle fibres are generated throughout larval life in the iliotibialis, a typical limb muscle. This analysis provides data consistent with the notion that new muscle fibres are added from a localised growth zone situated at the superficial edge of the muscle. These results are discussed in terms of the correlation between continuous growth of the motor system and the ability of the axolotl to functionally repair lesions to the peripheral nervous system

  4. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Perc, Matjaž; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy.

  5. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy. PMID:29134106

  6. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  7. The cluster bootstrap consistency in generalized estimating equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2013-03-01

    The cluster bootstrap resamples clusters or subjects instead of individual observations in order to preserve the dependence within each cluster or subject. In this paper, we provide a theoretical justification of using the cluster bootstrap for the inferences of the generalized estimating equations (GEE) for clustered/longitudinal data. Under the general exchangeable bootstrap weights, we show that the cluster bootstrap yields a consistent approximation of the distribution of the regression estimate, and a consistent approximation of the confidence sets. We also show that a computationally more efficient one-step version of the cluster bootstrap provides asymptotically equivalent inference. © 2012.

  8. Growth of cortical neuronal network in vitro: Modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.-Y.; Jia, L. C.; Chan, C. K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis and theoretical growth models to account for recent experimental data on the growth of cortical neuronal networks in vitro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 088101 (2004)]. The experimentally observed synchronized firing frequency of a well-connected neuronal network is shown to be proportional to the mean network connectivity. The growth of the network is consistent with the model of an early enhanced growth of connection, but followed by a retarded growth once the synchronized cluster is formed. Microscopic models with dominant excluded volume interactions are consistent with the observed exponential decay of the mean connection probability as a function of the mean network connectivity. The biological implications of the growth model are also discussed

  9. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  10. Resolving Iron(II) Sorption and Oxidative Growth on Hematite (001) Using Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Sandra D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Liu, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Schreiber, Daniel K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Perea, Daniel E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2018-02-13

    The distribution of iron resulting from the autocatalytic interaction of aqueous Fe(II) with the hematite (001) surface was directly mapped in three dimensions (3D) for the first time, using iron isotopic labelling and atom probe tomography (APT). Analyses of the mass spectrum showed that natural abundance ratios in 56Fe-dominant hematite are recovered at depth with good accuracy, whereas at the relict interface with 57Fe(II) solution evidence for hematite growth by oxidative adsorption of Fe(II) was found. 3D reconstructions of the isotope positions along the surface normal direction showed a zone enriched in 57Fe, which was consistent with an average net adsorption of 3.2 – 4.3 57Fe atoms nm–2. Statistical analyses utilizing grid-based frequency distribution analyses show a heterogeneous, non-random distribution of oxidized Fe on the (001) surface, consistent with Volmer-Weber-like island growth. The unique 3D nature of the APT data provides an unprecedented means to quantify the atomic-scale distribution of sorbed 57Fe atoms and the extent of segregation on the hematite surface. This new ability to spatially map growth on single crystal faces at the atomic scale will enable resolution to long-standing unanswered questions about the underlying mechanisms for electron and atom exchange involved in a wide variety of redox-catalyzed processes at this archetypal and broadly relevant interface.

  11. Revisiting a model of ontogenetic growth: estimating model parameters from theory and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Melanie E; Hou, Chen; Woodruff, William H; West, Geoffrey B; Nekola, Jeffery C; Zuo, Wenyun; Brown, James H

    2008-05-01

    The ontogenetic growth model (OGM) of West et al. provides a general description of how metabolic energy is allocated between production of new biomass and maintenance of existing biomass during ontogeny. Here, we reexamine the OGM, make some minor modifications and corrections, and further evaluate its ability to account for empirical variation on rates of metabolism and biomass in vertebrates both during ontogeny and across species of varying adult body size. We show that the updated version of the model is internally consistent and is consistent with other predictions of metabolic scaling theory and empirical data. The OGM predicts not only the near universal sigmoidal form of growth curves but also the M(1/4) scaling of the characteristic times of ontogenetic stages in addition to the curvilinear decline in growth efficiency described by Brody. Additionally, the OGM relates the M(3/4) scaling across adults of different species to the scaling of metabolic rate across ontogeny within species. In providing a simple, quantitative description of how energy is allocated to growth, the OGM calls attention to unexplained variation, unanswered questions, and opportunities for future research.

  12. EFFECT OF VARIOUS GROWING MEDIA AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON GROWTH OF Antherura Rubra Lour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Kurniawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antherura rubra Lour is one of the critical plant at Cibodas Botanical Garden. Study of cultivation through vegetative propagation of A. Rubra is rare. Therefore, the research of A. rubra on various of media and inorganic fertilizers is required to conserve A.rubra at Cibodas Botanical Garden. This study was conducted at the Nursery - Cibodas Botanic Garden for 10 months. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD with four replications. Treatments consisted of three combinations of natural compost media with three levels of inorganic fertilizer (0, 1g/L, and 2g/L, three katalek compost combination with three levels of inorganic fertilizer and a control (top soil without inorganic fertilizers. Variable tested consists of plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight shoot and root as an indicator of growth A. rubra Lour The results showed that the growth of seedlings A. rubra Lour on katalek compost media's with one dose of levels inorganic fertilizer growth better than other treatments.

  13. Cyclophosphamide Enhances Human Tumor Growth in Nude Rat Xenografted Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjen Jeffrey Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide (CTX on tumor growth was investigated in primary and metastatic intracerebral and subcutaneous rat xenograft models. Nude rats were treated with CTX (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 24 hours before human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3, small cell lung carcinoma (LX-1 SCLC, and glioma (UW28, U87MG, and U251 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or in the right cerebral hemisphere or were infused into the right internal carotid artery. Tumor development was monitored and recorded. Potential mechanisms were further investigated. Only animals that received both CTX and Matrigel showed consistent growth of subcutaneous tumors. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment increased the percentage (83.3% vs 0% of animals showing intraperitoneal tumors. In intracerebral implantation tumor models, CTX pretreatment increased the tumor volume and the percentage of animals showing tumors. Cyclophosphamide increased lung carcinoma bone and facial metastases after intra-arterial injection, and 20% of animals showed brain metastases. Cyclophosphamide transiently decreased nude rat white blood cell counts and glutathione concentration, whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated. Cyclophosphamide also increased CD31 reactivity, a marker of vascular endothelium, and macrophage (CD68-positive infiltration into glioma cell-inoculated rat brains. Cyclophosphamide may enhance primary and metastatic tumor growth through multiple mechanisms, including immune modulation, decreased response to oxidative stress, increased tumor vascularization, and increased macrophage infiltration. These findings may be clinically relevant because chemotherapy may predispose human cancer subjects to tumor growth in the brain or other tissues.

  14. The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus and three plant species on the aquaponic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustikasari, A.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus fish and three types of plants consist of Ipomoea Aquatica, Brassica rapa, and Capsicum annuum on the aquaponic technology have been studied. The aquaponic technology system has been done with 200 fishes m-3, water pump with 15 watts solar energy panel, physical and biological filter, and deep flow technique (DFT). In this study, we have reported that the specific growth rate (SGR), survival (SR), Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and Wet weight (W) are used as the physical growth indicator of Oreochromis niloticus fish, while the length and the number of leaves of plants are used as the physical growth indicator of plants. The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus fish showed that SGR is 5,56% day-1, SR is 97,67%, FCR is 0,92g and the wet weight is 1220g. The physical growth of the plant in aquaponic technology systems has been compared with the hydroponic treatment systems as controls. Analysis with t-test shows that physical growth of Ipomoea Aquatica and Brassica rapa has no significant difference respectively, whereas Capsicum annuum has significant differences compared with controls. Also, Brassica rapa in the aquaponic technology system shows a more yellow leaf color than the control. Based on these results, we conclude that aquaponic technology system provides effective results for the physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus with Ipomoea Aquatica, while additional nutrients for the both Brassica rapa and Capsicum annuum are required.

  15. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A L

    2015-08-12

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ1 from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex Γ(E)). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. The results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question-which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT. It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on perturbation theory (PT) systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.

  16. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. GALAXY FORMATION WITH SELF-CONSISTENTLY MODELED STARS AND MASSIVE BLACK HOLES. I. FEEDBACK-REGULATED STAR FORMATION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Abel, Tom; Wise, John H.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10 11 M sun galactic halo and its 10 5 M sun embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological ΛCDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10 6 K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  18. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  19. EFFECT OF COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON GROWTH PLANLET OF DENDROBIUM ORCHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Raodah Garuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniqueness of stunning Dendrobium variety such as shapes, colors, and sizes are main attraction of this plant. Germination oforchid seeds can be carried out in a laboratory with in vitro techniques.Medium used for germination of orchid seeds are Vacin and Went medium. Researcher stried to add other substances that may increase growth explants, such as complex organic compounds. Study aims to determine effect of complex organic compounds into growth medium VW Dendrobium plantlets. Research used complete randomized design consist five treatment:VW medium without extract (control, VW medium+banana extract, VW medium+ melon extrac, VW medium+guava extract and VW medium+pepaya extract, with three replications, each replication consist two culture bottles.. Each culture bottle planted four planlets. Addition of complex organic compounds such as melon extract gave best vegetative growth of leaves quantity, roots quantity, root length and fresh weight. While guava extract provide best results to plantlet high and saplings. Plant lets with melon extract treatment showed appearance of muscular orchid plantlets is characteristic of plants that can survive during acclimatization. While both guava extract is best used for purpose of orchid plantlets regeneration.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes strains show large variations in competitive growth in mixed culture biofilms and suspensions with bacteria from food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Even; Møretrø, Trond; Simensen, Andreas; Langsrud, Solveig

    2018-06-20

    Interactions and competition between resident bacteria in food processing environments could affect their ability to survive, grow and persist in microhabitats and niches in the food industry. In this study, the competitive ability of L. monocytogenes strains grown together in separate culture mixes with other L. monocytogenes (L. mono mix), L. innocua (Listeria mix), Gram-negative bacteria (Gram- mix) and with a multigenera mix (Listeria + Gram- mix) was investigated in biofilms on stainless steel and in suspensions at 12 °C. The mixed cultures included resident bacteria from processing surfaces in meat and salmon industry represented by L. monocytogenes (n = 6), L. innocua (n = 5) and Gram-negative bacteria (n = 6; Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia liquefaciens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Despite hampered in growth in mixed cultures, L. monocytogenes established in biofilms with counts at day nine between 7.3 and 9.0 log per coupon with the lowest counts in the Listeria + G- mix that was dominated by Pseudomonas. Specific L. innocua inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes strains differently; inhibition that was further enhanced by the background Gram-negative microbiota. In these multispecies and multibacteria cultures, the growth competitive effects lead to the dominance of a strong competitor L. monocytogenes strain that was only slightly inhibited by L. innocua and showed strong competitive abilities in mixed cultures with resident Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicates complex patterns of bacterial interactions and L. monocytogenes inhibition in the multibacteria cultures that only partially depend on cell contact and likely involve various antagonistic and bacterial tolerance mechanisms. The study indicates large variations among L. monocytogenes in their competitiveness under multibacterial culture conditions that should be considered in further studies towards understanding of L

  1. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  2. Rotation-limited growth of three-dimensional body-centered-cubic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Jens M; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    According to classical grain growth laws, grain growth is driven by the minimization of surface energy and will continue until a single grain prevails. These laws do not take into account the lattice anisotropy and the details of the microscopic rearrangement of mass between grains. Here we consider coarsening of body-centered-cubic polycrystalline materials in three dimensions using the phase field crystal model. We observe, as a function of the quenching depth, a crossover between a state where grain rotation halts and the growth stagnates and a state where grains coarsen rapidly by coalescence through rotation and alignment of the lattices of neighboring grains. We show that the grain rotation per volume change of a grain follows a power law with an exponent of -1.25. The scaling exponent is consistent with theoretical considerations based on the conservation of dislocations.

  3. Growth faltering in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of growth data from over 50 low and low-middle income countries shows a consistent pattern of stunting and poor weight gain from about 3 months of age and persisting until at least 5 years. Children tend not to be wasted because their short stature offsets their underweight, leading to a rather adequately proportioned appearance. This frequently conceals the true levels of malnutrition in communities. At the macro-environmental level such growth faltering is due to the combined effects of poverty, food insecurity, low-dietary diversity, a highly infectious environment, poor washing facilities and poor understanding of the principles of nutrition and hygiene. These tend to be ameliorated as communities pass through the demographic transition with improved incomes and education. Because such changes will take generations to achieve, the global health community continues to search for effective interim solutions. Disappointingly, apart from intensive feeding programmes aimed at rehabilitating severely malnourished children, there are few examples of very successful nutrition interventions. This emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the etiology of growth failure. This paper uses anthropometric data collected over 6 decades in subsistence-farming communities from rural Gambia to illustrate the typical key features of growth faltering. Arising from this analysis, and from gaps in the published literature, the following issues are highlighted as still requiring a better resolution: (1) the pre-natal and inter-generational influences on growth failure; (2) the ontogeny of the infant immune system; (3) the exact nature of the precipitating insults that initiate gastroenteropathy; (4) the effects of both enteric and systemic infections on the hormonal regulation of growth; (5) interactions between macro- and micro-nutrient deficiencies and infections in causing growth failure, and (6) the role of the microbiome in modulating dietary influences on

  4. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  5. Consistent probabilities in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David A; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue for any quantum cosmological theory is to specify how probabilities can be assigned to various quantum events or sequences of events such as the occurrence of singularities or bounces. In previous work, we have demonstrated how this issue can be successfully addressed within the consistent histories approach to quantum theory for Wheeler–DeWitt-quantized cosmological models. In this work, we generalize that analysis to the exactly solvable loop quantization of a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmology sourced with a massless, minimally coupled scalar field known as sLQC. We provide an explicit, rigorous and complete decoherent-histories formulation for this model and compute the probabilities for the occurrence of a quantum bounce versus a singularity. Using the scalar field as an emergent internal time, we show for generic states that the probability for a singularity to occur in this model is zero, and that of a bounce is unity, complementing earlier studies of the expectation values of the volume and matter density in this theory. We also show from the consistent histories point of view that all states in this model, whether quantum or classical, achieve arbitrarily large volume in the limit of infinite ‘past’ or ‘future’ scalar ‘time’, in the sense that the wave function evaluated at any arbitrary fixed value of the volume vanishes in that limit. Finally, we briefly discuss certain misconceptions concerning the utility of the consistent histories approach in these models. (paper)

  6. Constraints to obtaining consistent annual yields in perennial tree crops. I: Heavy fruit load dominates over vegetative growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harley M; Samach, Alon

    2013-06-01

    Farmers lack effective methods to achieve and maintain stable production from year to year in many commercial fruit crops. Annual fruit yield within a region often alternates between high and low fruit load and is termed alternate bearing. The underlying cause of alternate bearing is the negative impact of high fruit load on vegetative growth and next year's flowering. In this review, we emphasize common responses of diverse perennials to heavy crop load. We present botanical, ecological and horticultural perspectives on irregular bearing. The later part of this review focuses on understanding how high fruit load dominates over vegetative growth. We discuss sink strengths and putative mobile signals (hormones), perhaps seed-derived. We highlight gaps in current understanding of alternate bearing, and discuss new approaches to better understand fruit load dominance. Assuming the effect of high fruit load may be related to other mechanisms of sink partitioning, other forms of dominance are presented such as apical, first fruit and king fruit dominance. Dominance seems to be enforced, in independent cases through the establishment of a polar auxin transport system from the stronger sink. Once established this somehow perturbs the transport of auxin out of weaker sinks. Possibly, fruit derived auxin may alter the polar auxin transport system of the shoot to inhibit shoot growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastaugh, Chris S.; Potzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenaueur, Hubert

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the climate change has had an apparent impact in Austrian forests. This research has been conducted on Norway spruce forests as this is the predominant species in Austria. Growth data between regions which have different temperature and precipitation trendsw was then compared, with results showing increased productivity in all regions thus implying that growth of the forest is driven by other factors than climate. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies supporting that forest growth is mainly driven by increasing nitrogen deposition.

  8. A New Family of Consistent and Asymptotically-Normal Estimators for the Extremal Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Olmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The extremal index (θ is the key parameter for extending extreme value theory results from i.i.d. to stationary sequences. One important property of this parameter is that its inverse determines the degree of clustering in the extremes. This article introduces a novel interpretation of the extremal index as a limiting probability characterized by two Poisson processes and a simple family of estimators derived from this new characterization. Unlike most estimators for θ in the literature, this estimator is consistent, asymptotically normal and very stable across partitions of the sample. Further, we show in an extensive simulation study that this estimator outperforms in finite samples the logs, blocks and runs estimation methods. Finally, we apply this new estimator to test for clustering of extremes in monthly time series of unemployment growth and inflation rates and conclude that runs of large unemployment rates are more prolonged than periods of high inflation.

  9. Growth, survival and bone alterations in Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae under different rearing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roque Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is a neotropical freshwater fish. It is one of the most important species farmed in areas of the Parana and Paraguay Rivers basins. The effects of different rearing protocols on growth, survival and incidence of skeletal malformations in pacu larvae were analyzed. A total of six experimental treatments were considered, consisting of: a semi-intensive larviculture (LS in ponds; intensive larviculture (LIn in laboratory (both LS and LIn until 60 days of life; and mixed larviculture, with 20 days of semi-intensive larviculture into cages in ponds after 14 (L1, 21 (L2, 33 (L3 or 40 (L4 days of laboratory larviculture. At the end of the experimental period, LSlarvae showed higher growth rate, with average weight values (2.28g and total length (TL-48.20mm statistically higher than the rest (P1 to L4 treatments showed intermediate growth values, without differences between them (P>0.05, while LIn presented the lowest growth (PS, that presented a significantly lower value (17.5%, PIn and L1 presented the lowest incidence. In no case, visible morphological alterations were found. This study shows that prolonging pacu rearing under laboratory conditions at high densities improves temporal availability and survival of juvenile without affecting growth or subsequent osteological development of fish.

  10. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, A.; Mouget, J.L.; Vincent, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect was dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs

  11. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  12. Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-04

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  13. Natural and laboratory OSL growth curve–Verification of the basic assumption of luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijek, N.; Chruścińska, A.

    2016-01-01

    The basic assumption of luminescence dating is the equality between the growth curve of OSL generated by the natural radiation and the OSL growth curve reconstructed in laboratory conditions. The dose rates that generate the OSL in nature and in laboratory experiments differ by about ten orders of magnitude. Recently some discrepancies between the natural and laboratory growth curves have been observed. It is important to establish their reasons in order to introduce appropriate correction into the OSL dating protocol or to find a test that allows to eliminate the samples which should not be used for dating. For this purpose, both growth curves, natural and laboratory, were reconstructed by means of computer simulations of the processes occurring in the sample during its deposition time in environment as well as those which occur in a laboratory during dating procedure. The simulations were carried out for three models including one shallow trap, two OSL traps, one disconnected deep and one luminescence center. The OSL model for quartz can be more complex than the one used in the presented simulations, but in spite of that the results show effects of growth curves discrepancies similar to those observed in experiments. It is clear that the consistency of growth curves is not a general feature of the OSL processes, but rather a result of an advantageous configuration of trap parameters. The deep disconnected traps play the key role and their complete filling before the zeroing of OSL signal is a necessary condition of the growth curves' consistency. - Highlights: • Process of OSL growth curve generation in nature and in laboratory was simulated. • Discrepancies between the natural and the laboratory growth curves are observed. • Deep disconnected traps play the key role in growth curve inequality. • Empty deep traps before zeroing of OSL cause the inequality of growth curves.

  14. Growth and Project Finance in the Least Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth F.; Müller, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    for economic growth in LDCs. We find that a higher regulatory quality, lower government consumption and a higher level of education helps increase growth. The significance of these variables are, however, not as consistently robust as the results for project finance.......This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using...... data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of financing in the selected set of countries. Additionally, the project sheds light on other factors of importance...

  15. Long-term monitoring of growth in the Eastern Elliptio, Elliptio complanata (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Rhode Island: A transplant experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D.H.; Newton, T.J.; Green, L.

    2007-01-01

    The lengths of marked specimens of the freshwater mussel, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata [Lightfoot 1786]), were monitored annually in 3 lakes in Rhode Island, USA, from 1991 to 2005. Mussels growing in Worden Pond showed a change in mean shell length of only 4.3 mm over 14 y, whereas mussel growth in 2 nearby lakes was 3 to 8x greater than growth in Worden Pond over the same time period. L???, the length at which shell growth stops, was significantly different (p < 0.001) among lakes and ranged from 60.5 to 87.4 mm. Transplant experiments revealed that mussels moved to Worden Pond stopped growing, whereas mussels moved from Worden Pond to the 2 other lakes grew at rates similar to the rates observed for resident mussels in the 2 lakes. Standard water-quality measures did not explain the observed growth cessation and lower condition indices of mussels in Worden Pond. Our growth data are consistent with food limitation. The consistent slow growth of E. complanata in Worden Pond, without high mortality, and its ability to increase growth when placed in environments more favorable than Worden Pond, suggests both growth plasticity and longevity in these animals. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  16. Modeling Math Growth Trajectory--An Application of Conventional Growth Curve Model and Growth Mixture Model to ECLS K-5 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To model students' math growth trajectory, three conventional growth curve models and three growth mixture models are applied to the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten-Fifth grade (ECLS K-5) dataset in this study. The results of conventional growth curve model show gender differences on math IRT scores. When holding socio-economic…

  17. Growth Kinetics and Size Distribution Dynamics of Viscous Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Shilling, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Div.; Liu, Jiumeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Div.; Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. of Atmospheric Chemistry; D’Ambro, Emma L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences and Dept. of Chemistry; Gaston, Cassandra J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Thornton, Joel A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences and Dept. of Chemistry; Laskin, Alexander [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lin, Peng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Div.; Easter, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental & Climate Sciences Dept.; Bertram, Allan K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Martin, Scot T. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Seinfeld, John H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Div. of Engineering and Applied Science; Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry

    2017-12-15

    Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration time scale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. In this article, we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or α-pinene SOA) mode particles. Aerosol composition measurements and evaporation kinetics indicate that isoprene SOA is composed of several semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), with some reversibly reacting to form oligomers. Model analysis shows that liquid-like bulk diffusivities can be used to fit the observed evaporation kinetics of accumulation mode particles but fail to explain the growth kinetics of bimodal aerosol by significantly under-predicting the evolution of the Aitken mode. In contrast, the semisolid scenario successfully reproduces both evaporation and growth kinetics, with the interpretation that hindered partitioning of SVOCs into large viscous particles effectively promotes the growth of smaller particles that have shorter diffusion time scales. This effect has important implications for the growth of atmospheric ultrafine particles to climatically active sizes.

  18. Rapid warming forces contrasting growth trends of subalpine fir ( Abies fabri ) at higher- and lower-elevations in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Jia, Min; Wang, Genxu; Zhu, Wanze; McDowell, Nate G.

    2017-10-01

    Tree radial growth is expected to increase at higher elevations under climate warming, while lower elevation tree growth is expected to decline. However, numerous studies have found tree radial growth responds consistently to climate along elevational gradients. Here, we sampled five plots across the subalpine Abies fabri forest belt on Gongga Mountain in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to determine tree radial growth trends and responses to climate. Three commonly used detrending methods all consistently showed that tree radial growth at high elevation (> 3100 m) increased, while tree growth declined at the lower elevations (2700 m–2900 m) over the last three decades. Increasing late-growing season temperature positively (p < 0.05) correlated to tree radial growth at higher elevations, but the sign of this relationship reversed to become negative at lower elevations. Moving-window correlation analyses indicated the difference between high and low elevations response to temperature variation increased strongly with warming. Placing our result into the global context, 62% of 39 published studies found that trees along elevation gradients respond divergently to warming, and that these are located in warmer and wetter regions of the Earth. Notably, 28% of studies found non-significant responses to temperature at both high and low elevations. Our findings in the subalpine mountain forest in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were consistent with the majority of published datasets, and imply increasing temperature benefit for tree populations at higher elevation, while warming dampens growth at lower elevations.

  19. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  20. Consistent treatment of ground deposition together with species growth and decay during atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.; Nelson, C.B.; Ohr, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the adaptation of a trajectory model to an initial pollutant species and a series of successor species at mesoscale distances. The effect of source height is discussed since it is important in determining close-in ground level concentration, which influences plume depletion due to dry deposition. A scheme is outlined which handles deposition and species decay in a consistent manner and which does so for an arbitrary number of successor pollutant species. This scheme is discussed in terms of a Lagrangian trajectory model which accounts for initial source height and which calculates ground-level concentrations out to mesoscale distances

  1. Effect of young maternal age and skeletal growth on placental growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C E; Greenwood, S L; Sibley, C P; Baker, P N; Jones, R L

    2011-12-01

    Teenagers are susceptible to delivering small-for-gestational-age infants. Previous studies implicate continued skeletal growth as a contributory factor, and impaired placental development was the primary cause of fetal growth restriction in growing adolescent sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of young maternal age and growth on placental development. Placentas were collected from 31 teenagers, of which 12 were growing and 17 non-growing based on knee height measurements. An adult control group (n = 12) was included. Placental weight and morphometric measurements of villous, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and vessel areas, as well as indices of proliferation and apoptosis, were analysed in relation to maternal growth and age. Growing teenagers had a higher birthweight:placental weight ratio than non-growing teenagers (p adult and teenage pregnancies. Maternal smoking, a potential confounding factor, did not exert a major influence on the placental parameters examined, except for a stimulatory effect on placental proliferation (p development, and is consistent with our recent observations that maternal growth was not detrimental to fetal growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fractal growth in impurity-controlled solidification in lipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1987-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional microscopic model is proposed to describe solidifcation processes in systems with impurities which are miscible only in the fluid phase. Computer simulation of the model shows that the resulting solids are fractal over a wide range of impurity concentrations and impurity...... diffusional constants. A fractal-forming mechanism is suggested for impurity-controlled solidification which is consistent with recent experimental observations of fractal growth of solid phospholipid domains in monolayers. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  3. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  4. Effects of aluminum and manganese on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G W; Medve, R J

    1984-09-01

    Cenococcum graniforme, Suillus luteus, Thelephora terrestris, and three isolates of Pisolithus tinctorius were cultured on modified Melin-Norkrans medium at pH 3.4 and adjusted to 0 to 500 ppm (0 to 500 mug/ml) of aluminum or manganese sulfate. Except for T. terrestris, which was intolerant of aluminum at 150 and 250 to 500 ppm, and P. tinctorius isolate 250, which was intolerant of aluminum at 450 ppm, all fungi showed some growth at all concentrations of aluminum. S. luteus was the most tolerant to aluminum. Manganese was less fungitoxic than aluminum, with all fungi showing at least 65% growth at 500 ppm as compared with the control. C. graniforme was not inhibited at any concentration of manganese, and S. luteus was only affected at 500 ppm. P. tinctorius isolate 230 showed no significant variation in growth when subjected to various concentrations of three forms of manganese salts. Significant differences in growth were detected in response to three aluminum salts, but no detectable pattern was apparent. Genotypic responses to aluminum and manganese were evident for P. tinctorius. Isolates 210 and 230 were more tolerant to manganese than was isolate 250. Aluminum tolerance was in the order of isolate 230 > 210 > 250. Results of in vitro studies concerning tolerance responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to aluminum and manganese were not consistent with field observations of the successional sequence of these fungi on acid coal spoils.

  5. Effects of aluminum and manganese on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.W.; Medve, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    Cenococcum graniforme, Suillus luteus, Thelephora terrestris, and three isolates of Pisolithus tinctorius were cultured on modified Melin-Norkrans medium at pH 3.4 and adjusted to 0 to 500 ppm (0 to 500 ..mu..g/ml) of aluminum or manganese sulfate. Except for T. terrestris, which was intolerant of aluminum at 150 and 250 to 500 ppm, and P. tinctorius isolate 250, which was intolerant of aluminum at 450 ppm, all fungi showed some growth at all concentrations of aluminum. S. luteus was the most tolerant to aluminum. Manganese was less fungitoxic than aluminum, with all fungi showing at least 65% growth at 500 ppm as compared with the control. C graniforme was not inhibited at any concentration of manganese, and S. luteus was only affected at 500 ppm. P. tinctorius isolate 230 showed no significant variation in growth when subjected to various concentrations of three forms of manganese salts. Significant differences in growth were detected in response to three aluminum salts, but no detectable pattern was apparent. Genotypic responses to aluminum and manganese were evident for P. tinctorius. Isolates 210 and 230 were more tolerant to manganese than was isolate 250. Aluminum tolerance was in the order of isolate 230 > 210 > 250. Results of in vitro studies concerning tolerance responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to aluminum and manganese were not consistent with field observations of the successional sequence of these fungi on acid coal spoils. 43 references, 3 tables.

  6. A novel mouse model carrying a human cytoplasmic dynein mutation shows motor behavior deficits consistent with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2O disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabblah, Thywill T; Nandini, Swaran; Ledray, Aaron P; Pasos, Julio; Calderon, Jami L Conley; Love, Rachal; King, Linda E; King, Stephen J

    2018-01-29

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a peripheral neuromuscular disorder in which axonal degeneration causes progressive loss of motor and sensory nerve function. The loss of motor nerve function leads to distal muscle weakness and atrophy, resulting in gait problems and difficulties with walking, running, and balance. A mutation in the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DHC) gene was discovered to cause an autosomal dominant form of the disease designated Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 O disease (CMT2O) in 2011. The mutation is a single amino acid change of histidine into arginine at amino acid 306 (H306R) in DHC. In order to understand the onset and progression of CMT2, we generated a knock-in mouse carrying the corresponding CMT2O mutation (H304R/+). We examined H304R/+ mouse cohorts in a 12-month longitudinal study of grip strength, tail suspension, and rotarod assays. H304R/+ mice displayed distal muscle weakness and loss of motor coordination phenotypes consistent with those of individuals with CMT2. Analysis of the gastrocnemius of H304R/+ male mice showed prominent defects in neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology including reduced size, branching, and complexity. Based on these results, the H304R/+ mouse will be an important model for uncovering functions of dynein in complex organisms, especially related to CMT onset and progression.

  7. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  8. Functional Response (FR) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) Do Not Show the Known Invasiveness of Lemna minuta (Kunth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Pieter; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing travel and trade threatens biodiversity as it increases the rate of biological invasions globally, either by accidental or intentional introduction. Therefore, avoiding these impacts by forecasting invasions and impeding further spread is of utmost importance. In this study, three forecasting approaches were tested and combined to predict the invasive behaviour of the alien macrophyte Lemna minuta in comparison with the native Lemna minor: the functional response (FR) and relative growth rate (RGR), supplemented with a combined biomass-based nutrient removal (BBNR). Based on the idea that widespread invasive species are more successful competitors than local, native species, a higher FR and RGR were expected for the invasive compared to the native species. Five different nutrient concentrations were tested, ranging from low (4 mgN.L-1 and 1 mgP.L-1) to high (70 mgN.L-1 and 21 mgP.L-1). After four days, a significant amount of nutrients was removed by both Lemna spp., though significant differences among L. minor and L. minuta were only observed at lower nutrient concentrations (lower than 17 mgN.L-1 and 6 mgP.L-1) with higher nutrient removal exerted by L. minor. The derived FR did not show a clear dominance of the invasive L. minuta, contradicting field observations. Similarly, the RGR ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 d-1, but did not show a biomass-based dominance of L. minuta (0.5 ± 0.1 d-1 versus 0.63 ± 0.09 d-1 for L. minor). BBNR showed similar results as the FR. Contrary to our expectations, all three approaches resulted in higher values for L. minor. Consequently, based on our results FR is sensitive to differences, though contradicted the expectations, while RGR and BBNR do not provide sufficient power to differentiate between a native and an invasive alien macrophyte and should be supplemented with additional ecosystem-based experiments to determine the invasion impact. PMID:27861603

  9. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Camehl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1 gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H₂O₂ and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1. A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H₂O₂ formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLDα1 or PLDδ mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade.

  10. Self-consistent atmosphere modeling with cloud formation for low-mass stars and exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncher, Diana; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Helling, Christiane

    2017-12-01

    Context. Low-mass stars and extrasolar planets have ultra-cool atmospheres where a rich chemistry occurs and clouds form. The increasing amount of spectroscopic observations for extrasolar planets requires self-consistent model atmosphere simulations to consistently include the formation processes that determine cloud formation and their feedback onto the atmosphere. Aims: Our aim is to complement the MARCS model atmosphere suit with simulations applicable to low-mass stars and exoplanets in preparation of E-ELT, JWST, PLATO and other upcoming facilities. Methods: The MARCS code calculates stellar atmosphere models, providing self-consistent solutions of the radiative transfer and the atmospheric structure and chemistry. We combine MARCS with a kinetic model that describes cloud formation in ultra-cool atmospheres (seed formation, growth/evaporation, gravitational settling, convective mixing, element depletion). Results: We present a small grid of self-consistently calculated atmosphere models for Teff = 2000-3000 K with solar initial abundances and log (g) = 4.5. Cloud formation in stellar and sub-stellar atmospheres appears for Teff day-night energy transport and no temperature inversion.

  11. Mechanism of growth delay induced in Escherichia coli by near ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramabhadran, T.V.; Jagger, J.

    1976-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of E. coli B/r were irradiated with a fluence of broad-band near-ultraviolet radiation (315 to 405 nm) sufficient to cause extensive growth delay and complete cessation of net RNA synthesis. Chloramphenicol treatment was found to stimulate resumption of RNA synthesis, similar to that observed with chloramphenicol treatment after amino-acid starvation. E. coli strains in which amino-acid starvation does not result in cessation of RNA synthesis (''relaxed'' or rel - strains) show no cessation of growth and only a slight effect on the rate of growth or of RNA synthesis. These findings show that such near-uv fluences do not inactivate the RNA synthetic machinery but affect the regulation of RNA synthesis, in a manner similar to that produced by amino-acid starvation. Such regulation is believed to be mediated through alterations in concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), and our estimations of ppGpp after near-uv irradiation are consistent with such an interpretation. These data, combined with earlier published data, strongly suggest that the mechanism of near-uv-induced growth delay in E. coli involves partial inactivation of certain tRNA species, which is interpreted by the cell in a manner similar to that of amino-acid starvation, causing a rise in ppGpp levels, a shut-off of net RNA synthesis, and the induction of a growth delay

  12. Association between parental socio-demographic factors and declined linear growth of young children in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Gunardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, approximately 35.5% of children under five years old were stunted. Stunting is related to shorter adult stature, poor cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity, and higher risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify parental socio-demographic risk factors of declined linear growth in children younger than 2 years old.Methods: This was a cohort-prospective study between August 2012 and May 2014 at three primary community health care centers (Puskesmas in Jakarta, Indonesia, namely Puskesmas Jatinegara, Mampang, and Tebet. Subjects were healthy children under 2 years old, in which their weight and height were measured serially (at 6–11 weeks old and 18–24 months old. The length-for-age based on those data was used to determine stature status. The serial measurement was done to detect growth pattern. Parental socio-demographic data were obtained from questionnairesResults: From the total of 160 subjects, 14 (8.7% showed declined growth pattern from normal to stunted and 10 (6.2% to severely stunted. As many as 134 (83.8% subjects showed consistent normal growth pattern. Only 2 (1.2% showed improvement in the linear growth. Maternal education duration less than 9 years (RR=2.60, 95% CI=1.23–5.46; p=0.02 showed statistically significant association with declined linear growth in children.Conclusion: Mother with education duration less than 9 years was the determining socio-demographic risk factor that contributed to the declined linear growth in children less than 2 years of age.

  13. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...... to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI...

  14. Aging and growth parameter from the Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu from the Cuiabá river, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Ambrosio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has aims to determine the age and to estimate the growth parameters using scales of the species. Individuals of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 used in this study were captured in the commercial fishery conducted in the region, along the year 2006. The model selected to express the growth of the species was the von Bertalanffy Sl= Sl∞*[1-exp-k(t-to]. To determine if scales are suitable for studying the growth of pacu, we analyzed the relation between standard length (Sl and the radius of the scales through linear regression. The period of annuli formation was determined analyzing the variations in the marginal increment and evaluating the consistency of the readings through the analysis of the coefficient of variations (CVs for the average standard lengths of each age (number of rings observed in the scales. The relationship between Ls of the fish and the radius of the scales showed that scales can be used to study the age and growth of P. mesopotamicus (R= 0.79. CVs were always below 20%, demonstrating the consistency of the readings. Annuli formation occurred in February, probably related to trophic migration that occurs in this month in the region. Equations that represents the growth in length obtained for P. mesopotamicus are Sl=50.00*[1-exp-0.18(t-(-3.00] for males and Sl=59.23*[1-exp-0.14(t-(-3.36] for females. The growth parameters obtained in this study were lower compared to other studies previously conducted for the same species and can related to overexploitation that species is submitted by fishing in the region. These values show also that females of pacu attain greater asymptotic length than males that growth faster.

  15. Consistency of hand preference: predictions to intelligence and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D W; Gottfried, A; Bathurst, K

    1991-05-01

    Gottfried and Bathurst (1983) reported that hand preference consistency measured over time during infancy and early childhood predicts intellectual precocity for females, but not for males. In the present study longitudinal assessments of children previously classified by Gottfried and Bathurst as consistent or nonconsistent in cross-time hand preference were conducted during middle childhood (ages 5 to 9). Findings show that (a) early measurement of hand preference consistency for females predicts school-age intellectual precocity, (b) the locus of the difference between consistent vs. nonconsistent females is in verbal intelligence, and (c) the precocity of the consistent females was also revealed on tests of school achievement, particularly tests of reading and mathematics.

  16. How do Labor Market Institutions affect the Link between Growth and Unemployment: the case of the European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langot, François

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how the frictions in the labor market simultaneously affect the economic growth and the long run unemployment. To this goal, we develop a schumpeterian model of endogenous growth: agents have the choice between employment and R and D activities. Unemployment is caused by the wage-setting behavior of unions. We show that: (i Increases in the labor costs or in the power of trade unions lead to higher unemployment and lower economic growth. (ii Efficient bargain allows to increase employment, at the price of a lower growth rate. These theoretical predictions are consistent with the insights from our empirical analysis based on 183 European Regions, between 1980-2003

  17. Biochar and flyash inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria act as potential biofertilizer for luxuriant growth and yield of tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripti; Kumar, Adarsh; Usmani, Zeba; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2017-04-01

    Overuse of agrochemical fertilizers alarmingly causes deterioration in soil health and soil-flora. Persistence of these agrochemicals exerts detrimental effects on environment, potentially inducing toxic effects on human health, thus pronouncing an urgent need for a safer substitute. The present study investigates the potential use of agricultural and industrial wastes as carrier materials, viz. biochar and flyash, respectively, for preparation of bioformulations (or biofertilizers) using two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus sp. strain A30 and Burkholderia sp. strain L2, and its effect on growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato). The viability of strains was determined based on colony forming units (cfu) count of each bioformulation at an interval of 60 days for a period of 240 days. Seeds were coated with different carrier based bioformulations and pot experiment(s) were carried out to access its effects on plant growth parameters. Biochar based bioformulations showed higher cfu count and maximum viability for strain L2 (10 7  cfu g -1 ) at 240 days of storage. Maximum percentage of seed germination was also observed in biochar inoculated with strain L2. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth parameters (dry and fresh biomass, length, number of flowers) were ascertained from the pot experiment and amongst all bioformulations, biochar inoculated with strain L2 performed consistently thriving results for tomato yield. Furthermore, post-harvest study of this bioformulation treated soil improved physico-chemical properties and dehydrogenase activity as compared to pre-plantation soil status. Overall, we show that prepared biochar based bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. L2 as inoculum can tremendously enhance the productivity of tomato, soil fertility, and can also act as a sustainable substitute for chemical fertilizers. In addition, mixture of biochar and flyash inoculated with strain L2 also showed noteworthy results for the

  18. Autonomous Navigation with Constrained Consistency for C-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs have become the most widely used tools for undertaking complex exploration tasks in marine environments. Their synthetic ability to carry out localization autonomously and build an environmental map concurrently, in other words, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, are considered to be pivotal requirements for AUVs to have truly autonomous navigation. However, the consistency problem of the SLAM system has been greatly ignored during the past decades. In this paper, a consistency constrained extended Kalman filter (EKF SLAM algorithm, applying the idea of local consistency, is proposed and applied to the autonomous navigation of the C-Ranger AUV, which is developed as our experimental platform. The concept of local consistency (LC is introduced after an explicit theoretical derivation of the EKF-SLAM system. Then, we present a locally consistency-constrained EKF-SLAM design, LC-EKF, in which the landmark estimates used for linearization are fixed at the beginning of each local time period, rather than evaluated at the latest landmark estimates. Finally, our proposed LC-EKF algorithm is experimentally verified, both in simulations and sea trials. The experimental results show that the LC-EKF performs well with regard to consistency, accuracy and computational efficiency.

  19. Composition and structure of ion-bombardment-induced growth cones on InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.B.; Lakner, H.; Gries, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The previously reported effect of low-energy (several keV) ion bombardment on the surface topography of InP was investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Convergent beam electron diffraction patterns of the surface growth 'cones' induced by argon ion bombardment of (100) InP between 7 and 10 keV proved the cones to consist of crystalline InP (and not metallic indium, as has sometimes been claimed). The investigation showed that the irradiated surface region is not rendered completely amorphous but that it recrystallizes from the crystalline/amorphous interface in a columnar growth pattern, often terminating in growth cones protruding above the surface. Weak beam investigations revealed that the overwhelming majority of the cones have the orientation of the substrate. These phenomena were observed at all dose densities from 7 x 10 15 to 2 x 10 17 cm -2 . (author)

  20. Long memory in time series of economic growth and convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverberg, G.; Verspagen, B.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most hotly debated topics in macroeconomics in recent years has been the nature of fluctuations in the growth process of aggregate output in the longer term. Traditionally, economists have conceived of the growth process as consisting of a deterministic trend (such as exponential growth)

  1. Standard Model Vacuum Stability and Weyl Consistency Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Gillioz, Marc; Krog, Jens

    2013-01-01

    At high energy the standard model possesses conformal symmetry at the classical level. This is reflected at the quantum level by relations between the different beta functions of the model. These relations are known as the Weyl consistency conditions. We show that it is possible to satisfy them...... order by order in perturbation theory, provided that a suitable coupling constant counting scheme is used. As a direct phenomenological application, we study the stability of the standard model vacuum at high energies and compare with previous computations violating the Weyl consistency conditions....

  2. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  3. Metazoan operons accelerate recovery from growth arrested states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Baugh, L. Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Existing theories explain why operons are advantageous in prokaryotes, but their occurrence in metazoans is an enigma. Nematode operon genes, typically consisting of growth genes, are significantly up-regulated during recovery from growth-arrested states. This expression pattern is anti-correlated to non-operon genes consistent with a competition for transcriptional resources. We find that transcriptional resources are initially limiting during recovery, and that recovering animals are highly sensitive to any additional decrease in transcriptional resources. Operons become advantageous because by clustering growth genes into operons, fewer promoters compete for the limited transcriptional machinery, effectively increasing the concentration of transcriptional resources, and accelerating recovery. Mathematical modeling reveals how a moderate increase in transcriptional resources can substantially enhance transcription rate and recovery. This design principle occurs in different nematodes and the chordate C. intestinalis. As transition from arrest to rapid growth is shared by many metazoans, operons could have evolved to facilitate these processes. PMID:21663799

  4. Pulsed growth of fungal hyphal tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Franco, R; Bartnicki-Garcia, S; Bracker, C E

    1994-12-06

    Somatic fungal hyphae are generally assumed to elongate at steady linear rates when grown under constant environmental conditions with ample nutrients. However, patterns of pulsed hyphal elongation were detected during apparent steady growth of hyphal tips in fungi from several major taxonomic groups (Oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum and Saprolegnia ferax; Zygomycetes, Gilbertella persicaria; Deuteromycetes, Trichoderma viride; Ascomycetes, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium culmorum; Basidiomycetes, Rhizoctonia solani). Growing hyphal tips were recorded with video-enhanced phase-contrast microscopy at high magnification, and digital images were measured at very short time intervals (1-5 s). In all fungi tested, the hyphal elongation rate was never perfectly steady but fluctuated continuously with alternating periods of fast and slow growth at more or less regular intervals. Pulsed growth was observed in fungi differing in cell diameter, overall growth rate, taxonomic position, and presence and pattern of Spitzenkörper organization, suggesting that this is a general phenomenon. Frequency and amplitude of the pulses varied among the test organisms. T. viride and N. crassa showed the most frequent pulses (average of 13-14 per min), and F. culmorum the least frequent (2.7 per min). Average pulse amplitude varied from 0.012 microns/s for F. culmorum to 0.068 microns/s for G. persicaria. In F. culmorum and T. viride, the fast phase of the growth pulses was correlated with the merger of satellite Spitzenkörper with the main Spitzenkörper. These findings are consistent with a causal relationship between fluctuations in the overall rate of secretory vesicle delivery/discharge at the hyphal apex and the fluctuations in hyphal elongation rate.

  5. EFFECT OF TREATED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER USED AS CULTURE MEDIUM ON THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF Chlamydomonas sp. STRAIN ISOLATED FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Farias Neves

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been culturing to fix carbon and produce biofuels from the biomass. However, it is important to develop low cost strategies for microalgae production in orther to make it a viable alternative of renewable energy. The present research studied the effect of treated wastewater used as an alternative culture medium for growth and productivity of a Chlamydomonas sp. strain isolated from landfills leachate of a treatment pond located in Southern Brazil. Three culture media were evaluated, the control consisted of synthetic TAP medium, other, consisting of 50% TAP medium and 50% wastewater, and another consisting of 100% wastewater. The growth parameters do not have significant difference among the three culture media. Also, productivity do not have significant difference among the cultures with TAP medium and with 100% wastewater, resulting in dry weight values of 1,4±0,14g/L and 1,3±0,19g/L respectively. The culture with 50% TAP medium and 50% wastewater showed the highest productivity, showing an average dry weight value of 1,7±0,07g/L. The results indicate that treated wastewater can be used as an alternative culture medium for Chlamydomonas sp. strain without negative effects on growth and productivity, and possible leading to a decrease in production costs.

  6. Critique of the neoclassical theory of growth and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi L. Pasinetti

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys the main theories of income distribution in their relationship with the theories of economic growth. First, the Classical approach is considered, focusing on the Ricardian theory. Then the neoclassical theory is discussed, highlighting its origins (Bohm-Bawerk, Wicksell, Clark and the role of the aggregate production function. The emergence of a "Keynesian" theory of income distributionin the wake of Harrod's model of growth is then recalled together with the surprising resurgence of the neoclassical theory (following the contributions of Solow and Meade. But, as the paper shows, the neoclassical theory of income distributionlacks logical consistency and has shaky foundations, as has been revealed by the severecritiques moved to the neoclassical production function. Mainstream economic literature circumvents this problem by simply ignoring it, while the models of endogenous growth exclude the issue of distribution theory from their consideration. However, while mainstream economics bypasses the problems of incomedistribution, this is too relevant an issue to be ignored and a number of new research lines, briefly surveyed, try new approaches to it.

  7. Consistency of the postulates of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gron, O.; Nicola, M.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. It is shown that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a nonsymmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated

  8. Xylem traits, leaf longevity and growth phenology predict growth and mortality response to defoliation in northern temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane R

    2017-09-01

    Defoliation outbreaks are biological disturbances that alter tree growth and mortality in temperate forests. Trees respond to defoliation in many ways; some recover rapidly, while others decline gradually or die. Functional traits such as xylem anatomy, growth phenology or non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) storage could explain these responses, but idiosyncratic measures used by defoliation studies have frustrated efforts to generalize among species. Here, I test for functional differences with published growth and mortality data from 37 studies, including 24 tree species and 11 defoliators from North America and Eurasia. I synthesized data into standardized variables suitable for numerical models and used linear mixed-effects models to test the hypotheses that responses to defoliation vary among species and functional groups. Standardized data show that defoliation responses vary in shape and degree. Growth decreased linearly or curvilinearly, least in ring-porous Quercus and deciduous conifers (by 10-40% per 100% defoliation), whereas growth of diffuse-porous hardwoods and evergreen conifers declined by 40-100%. Mortality increased exponentially with defoliation, most rapidly for evergreen conifers, then diffuse-porous, then ring-porous species and deciduous conifers (Larix). Goodness-of-fit for functional-group models was strong (R2c = 0.61-0.88), if lower than species-specific mixed-models (R2c = 0.77-0.93), providing useful alternatives when species data are lacking. These responses are consistent with functional differences in leaf longevity, wood growth phenology and NSC storage. When defoliator activity lags behind wood-growth, either because xylem-growth precedes budburst (Quercus) or defoliator activity peaks later (sawflies on Larix), impacts on annual wood-growth will always be lower. Wood-growth phenology of diffuse-porous species and evergreen conifers coincides with defoliation and responds more drastically, and lower axial NSC storage makes them

  9. Urban growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Alexander Sick Nielsen, Thomas; Grünfelder, Julien

    2011-01-01

    , and finally urban attractivity policies. Effective regional bodies are needed to deal with urban expansion and peri-urbanisation at a relevant scale; European rural and agricultural policies makes up the main ‘policy complex’ targeting the non-urban area including its land uses; while lastly leverage of urban...... urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. Methodology The main methodology of the paper is a desk-research based review of policy options supplemented with field study and interviews in selected cased study regions. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is based on literature...... there are contradictions in the evidence presented in the literature, we believe that it may be safely said that urban growth management policies have an influence on urban growth under certain preconditions including: sufficient time for implementation and continuity of efforts; choice of appropriate policy measures...

  10. Moral Personality Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kalin

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning in terms of personality growth is a life-long process, just as personality growth itself is a life-long process. Kalin presents a number of psychological theories and their impact on moral development - which is an integral part of personality growth. The paper further treats the formation and changing of beliefs, and the role of education in the two processes. Great emphasis is put on cognitive theories; Kalin explains those formulated by L. Kohlberg and J. Rest. In discussing the process of shaping and changing one's views, special emphasis is put on the environment, or rather the social group an individual belongs to, and on the influence of personality traits and experience. The paper juxtaposes the influence - strengths and weaknesses - of the psychology of persuasion and education on forming and changing one's views, taken into consideration that views consist of cognitive, emotive and conative dimensions.

  11. Collagen VII deficient mice show morphologic and histologic corneal changes that phenotypically mimic human dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vicki M; Shelke, Rajani; Nyström, Alexander; Laver, Nora; Sampson, James F; Zhiyi, Cao; Bhat, Najma; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2018-06-16

    Absence of collagen VII causes blistering of the skin, eyes and many other tissues. This disease is termed dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB). Corneal fibrosis occurs in up to 41% and vision loss in up to 64% of patients. Standard treatments are supportive and there is no cure. The immune-histologic and morphologic changes in the corneas of the mouse model for this disease have not been described in the literature. Our purpose is to characterize the eyes of these mice to determine if this is an appropriate model for study of human therapeutics. Western blot analysis (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to assess the relative collagen VII protein levels and its location within the cornea. Additional IHC for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), proteinase 3, tenascin C and collagen III were performed. Clinical photographs documenting opacification of the corneas of animals of differing ages were assessed and scored independently by 2 examiners. Histology was then used to investigate morphologic changes. IHC and WB confirmed that these mice are deficient in collagen VII production at the level of the basement membrane when compared with wild-types. IHC showed anomalous deposition of collagen III throughout the stroma. Of the 5 biomarkers tested, TGF-β showed the strongest and most consistently staining. Photographs documented corneal opacities only in mice older than 10 weeks, opacities were not seen in younger animals. Histology showed multiple abnormalities, including epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, fibrosis, edema, dysplasia, neovascularization and bullae formation. The collagen VII hypomorphic mouse shows reduced collagen VII production at the level of the corneal basement membrane. Corneal changes are similar to pathology seen in humans with this disease. The presence of anomalous stromal collagen III and TGF-β appear to be

  12. Determinants of economic growth in BRIC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajjev K. Goel

    2011-01-01

    We study economic growth in four emerging economies - Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC). Questions addressed are: (a) How do medium term growth determinants differ from short term determinants? (b) What are differences between growth effects of aggregate versus disaggregated exports? And (c) Does lower institutional quality hinder growth? Results show that while BRIC nations have higher growth, there are significant within-group differences. China and Russia mostly showed higher growth,...

  13. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  15. The characteristics and stability of a range of Cox's Orange Pippin apple mutants showing different growth habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, C.N.D.; Campbell, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Seven hundred and fifty gamma-irradiated scions of Cox's Orange Pippin apple were grown to produce a V 1 generation and were then multiplied to produce a V 2 of 13158 individual trees. 272 obvious vegetative mutants, mainly dwarf or compact types, were found in this population and classified according to growth habit. These were propagated to produce clones of the mutant types (V 3 ) and a study of these clonal mutants as compared with their original (V 2 ) characteristics showed that while the vast majority of the selected mutants produced dwarf or compact clones, no clear indication of final cropping performance could be drawn from the original phenotype of the selected V 2 mutants. The majority of mutants produced were not of commercial value, and the main reasons for the rejection of V 3 clones depended, in many cases, on the phenotype of the V 2 selection. Thus while all types of V 2 mutant produced approximately the same proportion of acceptable trees, the reason for the rejection of the V 3 clones varies with the V 2 phenotype. Therefore selection can be carried out at an early stage in a mutation breeding programme to reduce the proportion of certain unwanted types such as mericlinal chimaeras as that otherwise are carried forward to yield trials. From the orchard trials of 82 mutant clones. 24 were short-listed for possible commercial introduction. All were derived from the less extreme mutant types. (Auth.)

  16. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Samuel Takashi; Trentin, Danielle da Silva; Macedo, Alexandre José; Pungartnik, Cristina; Gosmann, Grace; Silveira, Jaqueline de Deos; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Brendel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS). Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI < 3) only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications. PMID:22548121

  17. Single, Complete, Probability Spaces Consistent With EPR-Bohm-Bell Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, David; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-03-01

    We show that paradoxical consequences of violations of Bell's inequality are induced by the use of an unsuitable probabilistic description for the EPR-Bohm-Bell experiment. The conventional description (due to Bell) is based on a combination of statistical data collected for different settings of polarization beam splitters (PBSs). In fact, such data consists of some conditional probabilities which only partially define a probability space. Ignoring this conditioning leads to apparent contradictions in the classical probabilistic model (due to Kolmogorov). We show how to make a completely consistent probabilistic model by taking into account the probabilities of selecting the settings of the PBSs. Our model matches both the experimental data and is consistent with classical probability theory.

  18. An empirical nexus between oil price collapse and economic growth in Sub-Saharan African oil based economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEJI Sunday Anderu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study, is to empirically investigate the nexus between oil price collapse and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa oil based economies, specifically from Angola, Nigeria and Sudan between January, 2010 and December, 2015, through panel random effects model (REM: Economic growth rate (GDPR and independent variables: Oil price (OPR, Exchange rate (EXR, Industrial Output (IND and Terms of Trade (TOT. REM result showed that there is negative link between oil price collapse and the economic growth in the case of Angola, Nigeria and Sudan, which confirmed the nexus between oil price collapse and economic growth. Post estimation tests such as Hausman and Breusch and Pagan Lagrange Multiplier Test were adopted to empirically show the consistency and efficiency of the model. Interestingly, the two key variables (GDPR and OPR disclose how unprecedented oil price fall disrupts economic growth of the selected economies. Meanwhile, poor institutional quality in the oil sector coupled with poor fiscal measure among others, further expose these economies to unprecedented external shocks that was characterized by skyrocket exchange rate, hence destabilize growth within the period under review. Therefore, the need for a robust fiscal measure is pertinent in order to sustain economic growth

  19. Dentofacial growth changes in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion from late puberty through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare dentofacial growth changes in untreated subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with those in subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from late puberty through young adulthood. The Class II Division 1 sample consisted of 23 subjects (10 male, 13 female). The Class I sample included 30 subjects (13 male, 17 female). The lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups were analyzed at 2 consecutive stages of development: T1, postpubertal observation (cervical vertebral maturation stage 6), and T2, young adulthood stage. The average time between T1 and T2 was 3.5 years. The statistical comparisons of the growth changes in the 2 groups were performed with Mann-Whitney U tests. From late puberty through young adulthood, dentofacial growth in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion does not show significant differences when compared with that observed in untreated subjects with normal occlusion. These findings show that Class II dentoskeletal disharmony does not exhibit significant growth change from late puberty through young adulthood.

  20. A sharp interface model for void growth in irradiated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochrainer, Thomas; El-Azab, Anter

    2015-03-01

    A thermodynamic formalism for the interaction of point defects with free surfaces in single-component solids has been developed and applied to the problem of void growth by absorption of point defects in irradiated metals. This formalism consists of two parts, a detailed description of the dynamics of defects within the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame, and the application of the second law of thermodynamics to provide closure relations for all kinetic equations. Enforcing the principle of non-negative entropy production showed that the description of the problem of void evolution under irradiation must include a relationship between the normal fluxes of defects into the void surface and the driving thermodynamic forces for the void surface motion; these thermodynamic forces are identified for both vacancies and interstitials and the relationships between these forces and the normal point defect fluxes are established using the concepts of transition state theory. The latter theory implies that the defect accommodation into the surface is a thermally activated process. Numerical examples are given to illustrate void growth dynamics in this new formalism and to investigate the effect of the surface energy barriers on void growth. Consequences for phase field models of void growth are discussed.

  1. Self-consistent simulation studies of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Jameson, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional model is used to investigate intense charged-particle beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing channel, particularly in the regime in which there is a mismatch between the beam and the focusing channel. The present self-consistent studies confirm that mismatched beams exhibit nonlinear resonances and chaotic behavior in the envelope evolution, as predicted by an earlier envelope analysis [C. Chen and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2195 (1994)]. Transient effects due to emittance growth are studied, and halo formation is investigated. The halo size is estimated. The halo characteristics for a periodic focusing channel are found to be qualitatively the same as those for a uniform focusing channel. A threshold condition is obtained numerically for halo formation in mismatched beams in a uniform focusing channel, which indicates that relative envelope mismatch must be kept well below 20% to prevent space-charge-dominated beams from developing halos

  2. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...... and 2 focus groups with Italian communication managers. Findings show that, in order to enhance employee brand consistent behaviours, the most effective communication practices are those characterised as enablement-oriented. Such a communication creates the organizational conditions adequate to sustain......Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non...

  3. Self-consistent electrodynamic scattering in the symmetric Bragg case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed the symmetric Bragg case, introducing a model of self consistent scattering for two elliptically polarized beams. The crystal is taken as a set of mathematical planes, each of them defined by a surface density of dipoles. We have considered the mesofield and the epifield differently from that of the Ewald's theory and, we assumed a plane of dipoles and the associated fields as a self consistent scattering unit. The exact analytical treatment when applied to any two neighbouring planes, results in a general and self consistent Bragg's equation, in terms of the amplitude and phase variations. The generalized solution for the set of N planes was obtained after introducing an absorption factor in the incident radiation, in two ways: (i) the analytical one, through a rule of field similarity, which says that the incidence occurs in both faces of the all crystal planes and also, through a matricial development with the Chebyshev polynomials; (ii) using the numerical solution we calculated, iteratively, the reflectivity, the reflection phase, the transmissivity, the transmission phase and the energy. The results are showed through reflection and transmission curves, which are characteristics as from kinematical as dynamical theories. The conservation of the energy results from the Ewald's self consistency principle is used. In the absorption case, the results show that it is not the only cause for the asymmetric form in the reflection curves. The model contains basic elements for a unified, microscope, self consistent, vectorial and exact formulation for interpretating the X ray diffraction in perfect crystals. (author)

  4. Unexpected attitudinal growth in a course combining reformed curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Hull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show data from the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey that suggests that Georgetown physics majors become increasingly expert in their attitudes towards physics learning and knowing after taking a course that combines two reformed curricula, Matter and Interactions (M&I and Tutorials in Introductory Physics (TIPs. This occurs even though the two curricula do not send a consistent epistemological message to students. We analyze interview video data of two of these students to illustrate examples of this growth. We examine video data of one of these students in a tutorial session to describe a possible mechanism that may have contributed to the growth. Finally, we compare this qualitative video data with quantitative data from the newly developed Perceptions of Physics Classes survey and discuss aggregate responses to this survey in considering the ways in which other students developed more expertlike attitudes in this course. We conclude that the attitudinal growth observed cannot be explained simply “as the result of” either M&I or of TIPs but rather find the most plausible explanation to be that the growth is an emergent phenomena produced by M&I and TIPs working together in concert with other factors.

  5. Growth hormone positive effects on craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloski, Jovana; Dumančić, Jelena; Šćepan, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Milašin, Jelena; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumić, Miroslav; Babić, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in phenotypic females with complete or partial absence of X chromosome. The leading symptom is short stature, while numerous but mild stigmata manifest in the craniofacial region. These patients are commonly treated with growth hormone to improve their final height. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term growth hormone therapy on craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients. In this cross-sectional study cephalometric analysis was performed on 13 lateral cephalograms of patients with 45,X karyotype and the average age of 17.3 years, who have received growth hormone for at least two years. The control group consisted of 13 Turner syndrome patients naive to growth hormone treatment, matched to study group by age and karyotype. Sixteen linear and angular measurements were obtained from standard lateral cephalograms. Standard deviation scores were calculated in order to evaluate influence of growth hormone therapy on craniofacial components. In Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone most of linear measurements were significantly larger compared to untreated patients. Growth hormone therapy mainly influenced posterior face height, mandibular ramus height, total mandibular length, anterior face height and maxillary length. While the increase in linear measurements was evident, angular measurements and facial height ratio did not show statistically significant difference. Acromegalic features were not found. Long-term growth hormone therapy has positive influence on craniofacial development in Turner syndrome patients, with the greatest impact on posterior facial height and mandibular ramus. However, it could not compensate X chromosome deficiency and normalize craniofacial features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parametric calculations of fatigue-crack growth in piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, F.A.; Goodrich, C.W.

    1983-06-01

    This study presents calculations of the growth of piping flaws produced by fatigue. Flaw growth was predicted as a function of the initial flaw size, the level and number of stress cycles, the piping material, and environmental factors. The results indicate that the present flaw acceptance standards of ASME Section XI provide a relatively consistent set of allowable flaw sizes because the predicted life of flawed piping is relatively insensitive to pipe wall thickness, flaw aspect ratio, and piping material (ferritic versus austenitic). On the other hand, the results show that flaws that are acceptable under ASME Section XI can grow at unacceptable rates if the cyclic stresses are at the maximum level permitted by the design rules of ASME Section III. However, a review of the conservatisms inherent to the ASME code rules is presented to explain the low occurrence of piping fatigue failures in service. It is concluded that decreases in the allowable flaw sizes are not justified

  7. The influence of elevated levels of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase on tumourigenicity, tumour growth, and oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, L.; Stratford, I.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation of the effect of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) on various aspects of tumour growth in a xenograft model, including growth rate, tumourigenicity and oxygenation levels. Methods and Materials: MDA 231 breast cancer cells overexpressing PD-ECGF/TP protein were made by retroviral transduction. These cells were grown in vitro and in vivo as xenografts. Direct measurement of tumours was used to record growth parameters, while the comet assay with the bioreductive drug RSU 1069 was used to assess tumour cell oxygenation. Results: We report that MDA 231 breast tumour cell lines expressing an increased range of levels of PD-ECGF/TP have increased tumourigenicity positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP when implanted in nude mice. As previously reported, tumours grown from these overexpressing cell lines grew faster than the parental line. These tumours expressed higher levels of TP activity and showed increased immunocytochemical staining for PD-ECGF. In addition, the rate of growth was found to be positively related to the level of PD-ECGF/TP expressed by the tumour cells. When the comet assay was used to compare the oxygenation status of cells between the parental and PD-ECGF/TP overexpressing tumours, the latter were found to have a larger proportion of well oxygenated cells. This is consistent with these tumours having an increased and functionally competent vascular supply in response to the expression of PD-ECGF/TP. Conclusion: PD-ECGF/TP appears to be capable of influencing tumourigenicity, angiogenesis and tumour growth in a proportional manner and can directly influence tumour oxygenation levels via its role in formation of functional vasculature

  8. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  9. Growth Kinematics of Opening-Mode Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.; Alzayer, Y.; Laubach, S.; Fall, A.

    2014-12-01

    Fracture aperture is a primary control on flow in fractured reservoirs of low matrix permeability including unconventional oil and gas reservoirs and most geothermal systems. Guided by principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture aperture is generally assumed to be a linear function of fracture length and elastic material properties. Natural opening-mode fractures with significant preserved aperture are observed in core and outcrop indicative of fracture opening strain accommodated by permanent solution-precipitation creep. Fracture opening may thus be decoupled from length growth if the material effectively weakens after initial elastic fracture growth by either non-elastic deformation processes or changes in elastic properties. To investigate the kinematics of fracture length and aperture growth, we reconstructed the opening history of three opening-mode fractures that are bridged by crack-seal quartz cement in Travis Peak Sandstone of the SFOT-1 well, East Texas. Similar crack-seal cement bridges had been interpreted to form by repeated incremental fracture opening and subsequent precipitation of quartz cement. We imaged crack-seal cement textures for bridges sampled at varying distance from the tips using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence, and determined the number and thickness of crack-seal cement increments as a function of position along the fracture length and height. Observed trends in increment number and thickness are consistent with an initial stage of fast fracture propagation relative to aperture growth, followed by a stage of slow propagation and pronounced aperture growth. Consistent with fluid inclusion observations indicative of fracture opening and propagation occurring over 30-40 m.y., we interpret the second phase of pronounced aperture growth to result from fracture opening strain accommodated by solution-precipitation creep and concurrent slow, possibly subcritical, fracture propagation. Similar deformation

  10. Growth, technology, and environmental change—nonlinearity and non-constant returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a growth model with endogenous technology and environmental change. The economy consists of two sectors, production and environmental. The production sector produces goods with knowledge, labor, and capital as inputs under perfect competitive conditions. Knowledge accumulates through learning by doing. The environment is affected by production, consumption, the environmental sector's production efficiency, and the nature's purification. The simple model shows that it is difficult to explicitly judge the impact of factors such as environmental policy, knowledge accumulation efficiency and preference change on the environment.

  11. 1,4-Naphthoquinone derivatives potently suppress Candida albicans growth, inhibit formation of hyphae and show no toxicity toward zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Monika; Kubiński, Konrad; Martyna, Aleksandra; Muzyczka, Angelika; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Czernik, Sławomir; Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Chwedczuk, Marta; Demchuk, Oleg M; Golczyk, Hieronim; Masłyk, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we applied various assays to find new activities of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives for potential anti-Candida albicans applications. These assays determined (a) the antimicrobial effect on growth/cell multiplication in fungal cultures, (b) the effect on formation of hyphae and biofilm, (c) the influence on cell membrane integrity, (d) the effect on cell morphology using atomic force microscopy, and (e) toxicity against zebrafish embryos. We have demonstrated the activity of these compounds against different Candida species and clinical isolates of C. albicans. 1,4-Naphthoquinones significantly affected fungal strains at 8-250 mg l -1 of MIC. Interestingly, at concentrations below MICs, the chemicals showed effectiveness in inhibition of hyphal formation and cell aggregation in Candida. Of note, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed an influence of the compounds on cell morphological properties. However, at low concentrations (0.8-31.2 mg l -1 ), it did not exert any evident toxic effects on zebrafish embryos. Our research has evidenced the effectiveness of 1,4-naphthoquinones as potential anti-Candida agents.

  12. PAT1 (SLC36A1) shows nuclear localization and affect growth of smooth muscle cells from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    The proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) is a transporter of amino acids in small intestinal enterocytes. PAT1 is, however, also capable of regulating cell growth and sensing the availability of amino acids in other cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localiz...

  13. Layered growth model and epitaxial growth structures for SiCAlN alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoqing; Ni Jun; Su Xiaoao; Dai Zhenhong

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial growth structures for (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys are studied using a layered growth model. First-principle calculations are used to determine the parameters in the layered growth model. The phase diagrams of epitaxial growth are given. There is a rich variety of the new metastable polytype structures at x=1/6 ,1/5 ,1/4 ,1/3 , and 1/2 in the layered growth phase diagrams. We have also calculated the electronic properties of the short periodical SiCAlN alloys predicted by our layered growth model. The results show that various ordered structures of (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys with the band gaps over a wide range are possible to be synthesized by epitaxial growth.

  14. TEST OF THE CATCH-UP HYPOTHESIS IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tested the catch-up hypothesis in agricultural growth rates of twenty-six African countries. Panel data used was drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT of the United Nations. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method for measuring productivity was used to estimate productivity growth rates. The cross-section framework consisting of sigma-convergence and beta-convergence was employed to test the catching up process. Catching up is said to exist if the value of beta is negative and significant. Since catching up does not necessarily imply narrowing of national productivity inequalities, sigma-convergence which measures inequality, was estimated for the same variables. The results showed evidence of the catch-up process, but failed to find a narrowing of productivity inequalities among countries.

  15. Numerical prediction of rose growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsen, E.; Bokhove, Onno; van der Sar, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A new mathematical model is presented for the prediction of rose growth in a greenhouse. Given the measured ambient environmental conditions, the model consists of a local photosynthesis model, predicting the photosynthesis per unit leaf area, coupled to a global greenhouse model, which predicts the

  16. Space-time evolution of whistler mode wave growth in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.R.; Helliwell, R.A.; Inan, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    A new model is developed to simulate the space-time evolution of a propagating coherent whistler mode wave pulse in the magnetosphere. The model is applied to the case of single frequency (2-6 kHz) wave pulses injected into the magnetosphere near L ≅ 4, using the VLF transmitting facility at Siple Station, Antarctica. The mechanism for growth is cyclotron resonance between the circularly polarized waves and the gyrating energetic electrons of the radiation belts. Application of this model reproduces observed exponential wave growth up to a saturated level. Additionally, the model predicts the observed initial linear increase in the output frequency versus time. This is the first time these features have been reproduced using applied wave intensities small enough to be consistent with satellite measurements. The center velocities of the electrons entering the wave pulse are selected in a way which maximizes the growth rate. The results show the importance of the transient aspects in the wave growth process. The growth established as the wave propagates toward the geomagnetic equator results in a spatially advancing wave phase structure due mainly to the geomagnetic inhomogeneity. Through the feedback of this radiation upon other electrons, conditions are established which result in a linearly increasing output frequency with time

  17. Growth rates, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, F.P.; Buck, K.R.; Coale, K.H.; Martin, J.H.; DiTullio, G.R.; Welschmeyer, N.A.; Barber, R.T.; Jacobson, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of phytoplankton and NO 3 are consistently low and high in surface waters of the oceanic eastern and central equatorial Pacific, and phytoplankton populations are dominated by small solitary phytoplankton. Growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations, needed to assess the relative importance of many of the processes considered in the equatorial Pacific, were estimated by several methods. The growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations were found to be ∼0.7 d -1 or 1 biomass doubling d -1 and were similar for all methods. To keep this system in its observed balance requires that loss rates approximate observed growth rates. Grazing rates, measured with a dilution grazing experiment, were high, accounting for a large fraction of the daily production. Additions of various forms of Fe to 5-7-d incubations utilizing ultraclean techniques resulted in significant shifts in autotrophic and heterotrophic assemblages between initial samples, controls, and Fe enrichments, which were presumably due to Fe, grazing by both protistan and metazoan components, and incubation artifacts. Estimated growth rates of small pennate diatoms showed increases in Fe enrichments with respect to controls. The growth rates of the pennate diatoms were similar to those estimated for the larger size fraction of the natural populations

  18. Time Consistent Strategies for Mean-Variance Asset-Liability Management Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-qiang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal time consistent investment strategies in multiperiod asset-liability management problems under mean-variance criterion. By applying time consistent model of Chen et al. (2013 and employing dynamic programming technique, we derive two-time consistent policies for asset-liability management problems in a market with and without a riskless asset, respectively. We show that the presence of liability does affect the optimal strategy. More specifically, liability leads a parallel shift of optimal time-consistent investment policy. Moreover, for an arbitrarily risk averse investor (under the variance criterion with liability, the time-diversification effects could be ignored in a market with a riskless asset; however, it should be considered in a market without any riskless asset.

  19. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  20. Nanoscale abnormal grain growth in (001) epitaxial ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Develos-Bagarinao, Katherine; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro

    2009-01-01

    X-ray reciprocal-space mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to study kinetics and mechanisms of lateral grain growth in epitaxial (001) ceria (CeO 2 ) deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and (12 lowbar 10) (r-cut) sapphire. Rate and character of the grain growth during postannealing at 1050 deg. C are found to be strongly dependent on the type of the epitaxial substrate. Films deposited on YSZ exhibit signatures of normal grain growth, which stagnated after the lateral grain size reaches 40 nm, consistent with the grain-boundary pinning by the thermal grooving. In contrast, when r-cut sapphire substrate was used, abnormal (secondary) grain growth is observed. A small population of grains grow to well over 100 nm consuming smaller, 100 nm large (001) terminations and rendering the sample single-crystalline quality. The grain growth is accompanied by reduction in lateral rms strain, resulting in a universal grain size--rms strain dependence. Analysis of the AFM and x-ray diffraction data leads to the conclusion that bimodal initial grain population consisting of grains with very different sizes is responsible for initiation of the abnormal growth in (001) CeO 2 films on r-cut sapphire. Due to different surface chemistry, when a YSZ substrate is used, the initial grain distribution is monomodal, therefore only normal growth is active. We demonstrate that a 2.2 deg. miscut of the sapphire substrate eliminates the large-grain population, thus suppressing abnormal grain growth. It is concluded that utilization of abnormal grain growth is a promising way for synthesis of large (001) ceria terminations.

  1. Linear augmented plane wave method for self-consistent calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Kuebler, J.

    1979-01-01

    O.K. Andersen has recently introduced a linear augmented plane wave method (LAPW) for the calculation of electronic structure that was shown to be computationally fast. A more general formulation of an LAPW method is presented here. It makes use of a freely disposable number of eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. These eigenfunctions can be selected in a self-consistent way. The present formulation also results in a computationally fast method. It is shown that Andersen's LAPW is obtained in a special limit from the present formulation. Self-consistent test calculations for copper show the present method to be remarkably accurate. As an application, scalar-relativistic self-consistent calculations are presented for the band structure of FCC lanthanum. (author)

  2. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  3. Using Wmatrix to Explore Discourse of Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Growth is a concept of particular interest for economic discourse. This paper sets out to explore a small corpus of economic growth, which consists of articles from "The Economist". The corpus software used in this study is a web-based tool Wmatrix, an automatic tagging software able to assign semantic field (domain) tags, and to permit…

  4. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genetic Validation of Leishmania donovani Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Shows that It Is Indispensable for Parasite Growth and Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Sanya; Mallampudi, N Arjunreddy; Mohapatra, Debendra K; Madhubala, Rentala

    2017-01-01

    the proper construction of peptide chains. These enzymes provide raw materials for protein translation and also ensure fidelity of translation. L. donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. It is a continuously proliferating parasite that depends heavily on efficient protein translation. Lysyl-tRNA synthetase is one of the aaRSs which charges lysine to its cognate tRNA. Two different coding sequences for lysyl-tRNA synthetases ( Ld LysRS) are present in this parasite. Ld LysRS-1 is closer to apicomplexans and eukaryotes, whereas Ld LysRS-2 is closer to bacteria. Here, we have characterized Ld LysRS-1 of L. donovani . Ld LysRS-1 appears to be an essential gene, as the chromosomal null mutants did not survive. The heterozygous mutants showed slower growth kinetics and exhibited attenuated virulence. This study also provides a platform to explore Ld LysRS-1 as a potential drug target.

  6. Effects of Space Flight, Clinorotation, and Centrifugation on the Growth and Metabolism of Escherichia Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that space flight stimulates bacterial growth and metabolism. An explanation for these results is proposed, which may eventually lead to improved terrestrial pharmaceutical production efficiency. It is hypothesized that inertial acceleration affects bacterial growth and metabolism by altering the transport phenomena in the cells external fluid environment. It is believed that this occurs indirectly through changes in the sedimentation rate acting on the bacteria and buoyancy-driven convection acting on their excreted by-products. Experiments over a broad range of accelerations consistently supported this theory. Experiments at I g indicated that higher concentrations of excreted by products surrounding bacterial cells result in a shorter lag phase. Nineteen additional experiments simulated 0 g and 0.5 g using a clinostat, and achieved 50 g, 180 g, and 400 g using a centrifuge. These experiments showed that final cell density is inversely related to the level of acceleration. The experiments also consistently showed that acceleration affects the length of the lag phase in a non-monotonic, yet predictable, manner. Additional data indicated that E. coli metabolize glucose less efficiently at hypergravity, and more efficiently at hypogravity. A space-flight experiment was also performed. Samples on orbit had a statistically significant higher final cell density and more efficient metabolism than did ground controls. These results. which were similar to simulations of 0 g using a clinostat, support the theory that gravity only affects bacterial growth and metabolism indirectly, through changes in the bacteria's fluid environment.

  7. Probability Machines: Consistent Probability Estimation Using Nonparametric Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, J. D.; Kruppa, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Malley, K. G.; Ziegler, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Most machine learning approaches only provide a classification for binary responses. However, probabilities are required for risk estimation using individual patient characteristics. It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. Objectives The aim of this paper is to show how random forests and nearest neighbors can be used for consistent estimation of individual probabilities. Methods Two random forest algorithms and two nearest neighbor algorithms are described in detail for estimation of individual probabilities. We discuss the consistency of random forests, nearest neighbors and other learning machines in detail. We conduct a simulation study to illustrate the validity of the methods. We exemplify the algorithms by analyzing two well-known data sets on the diagnosis of appendicitis and the diagnosis of diabetes in Pima Indians. Results Simulations demonstrate the validity of the method. With the real data application, we show the accuracy and practicality of this approach. We provide sample code from R packages in which the probability estimation is already available. This means that all calculations can be performed using existing software. Conclusions Random forest algorithms as well as nearest neighbor approaches are valid machine learning methods for estimating individual probabilities for binary responses. Freely available implementations are available in R and may be used for applications. PMID:21915433

  8. Regulatory design governing progression of population growth phases in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustino Martínez-Antonio

    Full Text Available It has long been noted that batch cultures inoculated with resting bacteria exhibit a progression of growth phases traditionally labeled lag, exponential, pre-stationary and stationary. However, a detailed molecular description of the mechanisms controlling the transitions between these phases is lacking. A core circuit, formed by a subset of regulatory interactions involving five global transcription factors (FIS, HNS, IHF, RpoS and GadX, has been identified by correlating information from the well- established transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli and genome-wide expression data from cultures in these different growth phases. We propose a functional role for this circuit in controlling progression through these phases. Two alternative hypotheses for controlling the transition between the growth phases are first, a continuous graded adjustment to changing environmental conditions, and second, a discontinuous hysteretic switch at critical thresholds between growth phases. We formulate a simple mathematical model of the core circuit, consisting of differential equations based on the power-law formalism, and show by mathematical and computer-assisted analysis that there are critical conditions among the parameters of the model that can lead to hysteretic switch behavior, which--if validated experimentally--would suggest that the transitions between different growth phases might be analogous to cellular differentiation. Based on these provocative results, we propose experiments to test the alternative hypotheses.

  9. Regulatory design governing progression of population growth phases in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Lomnitz, Jason G; Sandoval, Santiago; Aldana, Maximino; Savageau, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    It has long been noted that batch cultures inoculated with resting bacteria exhibit a progression of growth phases traditionally labeled lag, exponential, pre-stationary and stationary. However, a detailed molecular description of the mechanisms controlling the transitions between these phases is lacking. A core circuit, formed by a subset of regulatory interactions involving five global transcription factors (FIS, HNS, IHF, RpoS and GadX), has been identified by correlating information from the well- established transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli and genome-wide expression data from cultures in these different growth phases. We propose a functional role for this circuit in controlling progression through these phases. Two alternative hypotheses for controlling the transition between the growth phases are first, a continuous graded adjustment to changing environmental conditions, and second, a discontinuous hysteretic switch at critical thresholds between growth phases. We formulate a simple mathematical model of the core circuit, consisting of differential equations based on the power-law formalism, and show by mathematical and computer-assisted analysis that there are critical conditions among the parameters of the model that can lead to hysteretic switch behavior, which--if validated experimentally--would suggest that the transitions between different growth phases might be analogous to cellular differentiation. Based on these provocative results, we propose experiments to test the alternative hypotheses.

  10. Rate-dependent mode I interlaminar crack growth mechanisms in graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlsson, L. A.; Smiley, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the mode I fracture behavior of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK composites is examined over four decades of crosshead rates (0.25-250 mm/min). Straight-sided double-cantilever-beam specimens consisting of unidirectional laminates were tested at room temperature. For graphite/epoxy the load-deflection response was linear to fracture, and stable slow crack growth initiating at the highest load level was observed for all rates tested. In contrast, mode I crack growth in the graphite/PEEK material was often unstable and showed stick-slip behavior. Subcritical crack growth occurring prior to the onset of fracture was observed at intermediate displacement rates. A mechanism for the fracture behavior of the graphite/PEEK material (based on viscoelastic, plastic, and microcrack coalescence in the process zone) is proposed and related to the observed rate-dependent phenomena.

  11. Accretion growth of water-ice grains in astrophysically-relevant dusty plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Marshall, Ryan; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water-ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera equipped with a long-distance microscope lens. It is found that (i) the ice grain number density decreases four-fold as the average grain length increases from 20 to 80 um, (ii) the ice grain length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (iii) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge so the agglomeration growth is prevented by their strong mutual repulsion. It is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is in good agreement with the observed ice grain growth. The volumetric packing factor of the ice grains must be less than 0.25 in order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains; this conclusion is consistent with ice grain images showing a fractal character.

  12. Effective Teaching Strategies for Predicting Reading Growth in English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Melina

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine how effective use of teaching strategies predict reading growth among a sample of English Language Learners. The study specifically examined whether the types of teaching strategies that predict growth in decoding skills also predict growth in comprehension skills. The sample consisted of students in…

  13. Consistent Partial Least Squares Path Modeling via Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunho; Park, JaeHong

    2018-01-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling is a component-based structural equation modeling that has been adopted in social and psychological research due to its data-analytic capability and flexibility. A recent methodological advance is consistent PLS (PLSc), designed to produce consistent estimates of path coefficients in structural models involving common factors. In practice, however, PLSc may frequently encounter multicollinearity in part because it takes a strategy of estimating path coefficients based on consistent correlations among independent latent variables. PLSc has yet no remedy for this multicollinearity problem, which can cause loss of statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation. Thus, a ridge type of regularization is incorporated into PLSc, creating a new technique called regularized PLSc. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of regularized PLSc as compared to its non-regularized counterpart in terms of power and accuracy. The results show that our regularized PLSc is recommended for use when serious multicollinearity is present.

  14. Consistent Partial Least Squares Path Modeling via Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunho Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS path modeling is a component-based structural equation modeling that has been adopted in social and psychological research due to its data-analytic capability and flexibility. A recent methodological advance is consistent PLS (PLSc, designed to produce consistent estimates of path coefficients in structural models involving common factors. In practice, however, PLSc may frequently encounter multicollinearity in part because it takes a strategy of estimating path coefficients based on consistent correlations among independent latent variables. PLSc has yet no remedy for this multicollinearity problem, which can cause loss of statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation. Thus, a ridge type of regularization is incorporated into PLSc, creating a new technique called regularized PLSc. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of regularized PLSc as compared to its non-regularized counterpart in terms of power and accuracy. The results show that our regularized PLSc is recommended for use when serious multicollinearity is present.

  15. Variations in growth pattern and predictablity of liveweight growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction equations results for rate of liveweight growth showed that of the four models used, the quadratic function was the best predictor of liveweight growth, as indicated by the highest and significant R2 value of 90.7 %. This was closely followed by the linear function which had a significant R2 value of 88.1 %.

  16. Gene structure and functional characterization of growth hormone in dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Shunsuke; Oda, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Tomohide; Yamaguchi, Kiyoko; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Amano, Masafumi; Goto, Tomoaki; Nozaki, Masumi; Meguro, Hiroshi; Kawauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) growth hormone (GH) was identified by cDNA cloning and protein purification from the pituitary gland. Dogfish GH cDNA encoded a prehormone of 210 amino acids (aa). Sequence analysis of purified GH revealed that the prehormone is composed of a signal peptide of 27 aa and a mature protein of 183 aa. Dogfish GH showed 94% sequence identity with blue shark GH, and also showed 37-66%, 26%, and 48-67% sequence identity with GH from osteichtyes, an agnathan, and tetrapods. The site of production was identified through immunocytochemistry to be cells of the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary gland. Dogfish GH stimulates both insulin-like growth factor-I and II mRNA levels in dogfish liver in vitro. The dogfish GH gene consisted of five exons and four introns, the same as in lamprey, teleosts such as cypriniforms and siluriforms, and tetrapods. The 5'-flanking region within 1082 bp of the transcription start site contained consensus sequences for the TATA box, Pit-1/GHF-1, CRE, TRE, and ERE. These results show that the endocrine mechanism for growth stimulation by the GH-IGF axis was established at an early stage of vertebrate evolution, and that the 5-exon-type gene organization might reflect the structure of the ancestral gene for the GH gene family.

  17. Attutude-action consistency and social policy related to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.; Greene, M.

    1980-06-01

    This study reports the results of a further analysis of questionnaire data--parts of which have been previously reported by Lindell, Earle, Hebert and Perry (1978)--that are related to the issue of consistency of attitudes and behavior toward nuclear power and nuclear waste management. Three factors are considered that might be expected to have a significant bearing on attitude-action consistency: social support, attitude object importance and past activism. Analysis of the data indicated that pronuclear respondents were more likely to show consistency of attitudes and actions (66%) than were antinuclear respondents (51%) although the difference in proportions is not statistically significant. Further analyses showed a strong positive relation between attitude-action consistency and perceived social support, measured by the degree to which the respondent believed that close friends and work associated agreed with his attitude. This relationship held up even when controls for attitude object importance and past activism were introduced. Attitude object importance--the salience of the issue of energy shortage--had a statistically significant effect only when perceived social support was low. Past activism had no significant relation to attitude-action consistency. These data suggest that the level of active support for or opposition to nuclear technology will be affected by the distribution of favorable and unfavorable attitudes among residents of an area. Situations in which pro- and antinuclear attitudes are concentrated among members of interacting groups, rather than distributed randomly, are more likely to produce high levels of polarization

  18. Money growth and aggregate stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Böing, Tobias; Stadtmann, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We empirically evaluate the predictive power of money growth measured by M2 for stock returns of the S&P 500 index. We use monthly US data and predict multiperiod returns over 1, 3, and 5 years with long-horizon regressions. In-sample regressions show that money growth is useful for predicting returns. Higher recent money growth has a significantly negative effect on subsequent returns of the S&P 500. An out-of-sample analysis shows that a simple model with money growth as a single predictor ...

  19. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  20. Predator-induced changes in metabolism cannot explain the growth/predation risk tradeoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Van Buskirk, Josh

    2009-01-01

    , consistent with the "fight-or-flight" response observed in many organisms. The long term reaction showed the opposite pattern: tadpoles reduced oxygen consumption after three weeks exposure to predators, which would act to reduce the growth cost of predator defence. The results point to an instantaneous...... and reversible stress response to predation risk. This suggests that the tradeoff between avoiding predators and growing rapidly is not caused by changes in metabolic rate, and must be sought in other behavioural or physiological processes....

  1. A multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework to modeling stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidian, M., E-mail: jamshidian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstrasse 15, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Thamburaja, P., E-mail: prakash.thamburaja@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Rabczuk, T., E-mail: timon.rabczuk@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Computational Mechanics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    A previously-developed finite-deformation- and crystal-elasticity-based constitutive theory for stressed grain growth in cubic polycrystalline bodies has been augmented to include a description of excess surface energy and grain-growth stagnation mechanisms through the use of surface effect state variables in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. The constitutive theory was also implemented into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field computational framework. With the material parameters in the constitutive theory suitably calibrated, our three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the constitutive model is able to accurately predict the experimentally-determined evolution of crystallographic texture and grain size statistics in polycrystalline copper thin films deposited on polyimide substrate and annealed at high-homologous temperatures. In particular, our numerical analyses show that the broad texture transition observed in the annealing experiments of polycrystalline thin films is caused by grain growth stagnation mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developing a theory for stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films. • Implementation into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework. • Quantitative reproduction of the experimental grain growth data by simulations. • Revealing the cause of texture transition to be due to the stagnation mechanisms.

  2. Recognizing Non-Stationary Climate Response in Tree Growth for Southern Coastal Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G. C.; Jarvis, S. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Vargo, L. J.; Appleton, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stationarity in growth response of trees to climate over time is assumed in dendroclimatic studies. Recent studies of Alaskan yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) have identified warming-induced early loss of insulating snowpack and frost damage as a mechanism that can lead to decline in tree growth, which for this species is documented over the last century. A similar stress may be put on temperature-sensitive mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) trees at low elevations, which in some cases show a decline in tree growth with warming temperatures. One of the challenges of using tree-ring based SAT, SST, PDO and PNA-related reconstructions for southern coastal Alaska has been understanding the response of tree-ring chronologies to the warming temperatures over the past 50 years. Comparisons of tree growth with long meteorological records from Sitka Alaska that extend back to 1830 suggest many mountain hemlock sites at low elevations are showing decreasing ring-widths, at mid elevations most sites show a steady increasing growth tracking warming, and at treeline a release is documented. The recognition of this recent divergence or decoupling of tree-ring and temperature trends allows for divergence-free temperature reconstructions using trees from moderate elevations. These reconstructions now provide a better perspective for comparing recent warming to Medieval warming and a better understanding of forest dynamics as biomes shift in response to the transition from the Little Ice Age to contemporary warming. Reconstructed temperatures are consistent with well-established, entirely independent tree-ring dated ice advances of land-terminating glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska providing an additional check for stationarity in the reconstructed interval.

  3. Biological growth in bodies with incoherent interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag

    2018-01-01

    A general theory of thermodynamically consistent biomechanical-biochemical growth in a body, considering mass addition in the bulk and at an incoherent interface, is developed. The incoherency arises due to incompatibility of growth and elastic distortion tensors at the interface. The incoherent interface therefore acts as an additional source of internal stress besides allowing for rich growth kinematics. All the biochemicals in the model are essentially represented in terms of nutrient concentration fields, in the bulk and at the interface. A nutrient balance law is postulated which, combined with mechanical balances and kinetic laws, yields an initial-boundary-value problem coupling the evolution of bulk and interfacial growth, on the one hand, and the evolution of growth and nutrient concentration on the other. The problem is solved, and discussed in detail, for two distinct examples: annual ring formation during tree growth and healing of cutaneous wounds in animals.

  4. Probing the Vacuum Decay Hypothesis with Growth Function Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edésio M. Barboza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method to probe the vacuum decay hypothesis by searching for deviations of the uncoupled dark matter density evolution formula. The method consists of expanding the dark matter density in a Taylor series and then comparing the series coefficients obtained from the observational analysis with its uncoupled values. We use the growth rate data to put constraints on the series coefficients. The results obtained are consistent with the Λ CDM model, but it is shown that the possibility of vacuum decay cannot be ruled out by current growth rate data.

  5. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  6. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  7. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata, E-mail: mukhopadhyay.debabrata@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-02-24

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  8. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2011-01-01

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed

  9. High consistency cellulase treatment of hardwood prehydrolysis kraft based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    For enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp, there is a need to improve the process to facilitate its commercialization. For this purpose, the high consistency cellulase treatment was conducted based on the hypothesis that a high cellulose concentration would favor the interactions of cellulase and cellulose, thus improves the cellulase efficiency while decreasing the water usage. The results showed that compared with a low consistency of 3%, the high consistency of 20% led to 24% increases of cellulase adsorption ratio. As a result, the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase at consistency of 20% were enhanced from 510 mL/g and 70.3% to 471 mL/g and 77.6%, respectively, compared with low consistency of 3% at 24h. The results on other properties such as alpha cellulose, alkali solubility and molecular weight distribution also supported the conclusion that a high consistency of cellulase treatment was more effective than a low pulp consistency process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  11. Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from...... the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants...

  12. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  13. Grain nucleation and growth during phase transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offerman, S.E.; Dijk, N.H. van; Sietsma, J.

    2002-01-01

    of individual grains. Our measurements show that the activation energy for grain nucleation is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by thermodynamic models. The observed growth curves of the newly formed grains confirm the parabolic growth model but also show three fundamentally...... different types of growth. Insight into the grain nucleation and growth mechanisms during phase transformations contributes to the development of materials with optimal mechanical properties....

  14. A new model for fungal hyphae growth using the thin viscous sheet equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, T.G.; Prokert, G.; Hulshof, J.; Itou, H.; Kimura, M.; Chalupecký, V.; Ohtsuka, K.; Tagami, D.; Takada, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the growth of single nonbranching fungal hypha cell. The growth proceeds as an elongating expansion in a single direction. Modelling of hyphae growth consists out of two parts: transport of cell wall building material to the cell wall and growth of the cell wall as new cell

  15. Nanoparticle growth by particle-phase chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsokardu, Michael J.; Johnston, Murray V.

    2018-02-01

    The ability of particle-phase chemistry to alter the molecular composition and enhance the growth rate of nanoparticles in the 2-100 nm diameter range is investigated through the use of a kinetic growth model. The molecular components included are sulfuric acid, ammonia, water, a non-volatile organic compound, and a semi-volatile organic compound. Molecular composition and growth rate are compared for particles that grow by partitioning alone vs. those that grow by a combination of partitioning and an accretion reaction in the particle phase between two organic molecules. Particle-phase chemistry causes a change in molecular composition that is particle diameter dependent, and when the reaction involves semi-volatile molecules, the particles grow faster than by partitioning alone. These effects are most pronounced for particles larger than about 20 nm in diameter. The modeling results provide a fundamental basis for understanding recent experimental measurements of the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol showing that accretion reaction product formation increases linearly with increasing aerosol volume-to-surface-area. They also allow initial estimates of the reaction rate constants for these systems. For secondary aerosol produced by either OH oxidation of the cyclic dimethylsiloxane (D5) or ozonolysis of β-pinene, oligomerization rate constants on the order of 10-3 to 10-1 M-1 s-1 are needed to explain the experimental results. These values are consistent with previously measured rate constants for reactions of hydroperoxides and/or peroxyacids in the condensed phase.

  16. Temperature and rainfall strongly drive temporal growth variation in Asian tropical forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlam, Mart; Baker, Patrick J; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2014-04-01

    Climate change effects on growth rates of tropical trees may lead to alterations in carbon cycling of carbon-rich tropical forests. However, climate sensitivity of broad-leaved lowland tropical trees is poorly understood. Dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) provides a powerful tool to study the relationship between tropical tree growth and annual climate variability. We aimed to establish climate-growth relationships for five annual-ring forming tree species, using ring-width data from 459 canopy and understory trees from a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Based on 183/459 trees, chronologies with total lengths between 29 and 62 years were produced for four out of five species. Bootstrapped correlation analysis revealed that climate-growth responses were similar among these four species. Growth was significantly negatively correlated with current-year maximum and minimum temperatures, and positively correlated with dry-season precipitation levels. Negative correlations between growth and temperature may be attributed to a positive relationship between temperature and autotrophic respiration rates. The positive relationship between growth and dry-season precipitation levels likely reflects the strong water demand during leaf flush. Mixed-effect models yielded results that were consistent across species: a negative effect of current wet-season maximum temperatures on growth, but also additive positive effects of, for example, prior dry-season maximum temperatures. Our analyses showed that annual growth variability in tropical trees is determined by a combination of both temperature and precipitation variability. With rising temperature, the predominantly negative relationship between temperature and growth may imply decreasing growth rates of tropical trees as a result of global warming.

  17. Do Health Systems Have Consistent Performance Across Locations and Is Consistency Associated With Higher Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Daniel J; Christianson, Jon B; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Finch, Michael D

    This study addresses whether health systems have consistent diabetes care performance across their ambulatory clinics and whether increasing consistency is associated with improvements in clinic performance. Study data included 2007 to 2013 diabetes care intermediate outcome measures for 661 ambulatory clinics in Minnesota and bordering states. Health systems provided more consistent performance, as measured by the standard deviation of performance for clinics in a system, relative to propensity score-matched proxy systems created for comparison purposes. No evidence was found that improvements in consistency were associated with higher clinic performance. The combination of high performance and consistent care is likely to enhance a health system's brand reputation, allowing it to better mitigate the financial risks of consumers seeking care outside the organization. These results suggest that larger health systems are most likely to deliver the combination of consistent and high-performance care. Future research should explore the mechanisms that drive consistent care within health systems.

  18. Growth and Its Relationship to Individual Genetic Diversity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana at Alpine Treeline in Alaska: Combining Dendrochronology and Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, alpine treelines are characterized as temperature-limited environments with strong controls on tree growth. However, at local scales spatially heterogeneous environments generally have more variable impacts on individual patterns of tree growth. In addition to the landscape spatial heterogeneity there is local variability in individual tree genetic diversity (level of individual heterozygosity. It has been hypothesized that higher individual heterozygosity will result in more consistent patterns of growth. In this article, we combine genomics and dendrochronology to explore the relationship between individual genetic diversity and tree growth at a mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana Bong. Carr alpine treeline on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA. We correlated average observed individual heterozygosity with average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width within individuals to test the hypothesis that trees with higher individual heterozygosity will also have more consistent growth patterns, suggesting that they may be more resilient to climate and environmental fluctuations at the alpine treeline. Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between tree growth and individual heterozygosity. However, there was a significant positive relationship between average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width implying that overall, fast growing trees in stressful environments, such as the alpine treeline, grow unstably regardless of the level of individual heterozygosity.

  19. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  20. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...... the 21 core OTUs into three clusters: cluster 1 consisting of saprotrophs, cluster 2 consisting mainly of yeasts and saprotrophs and cluster 3 consisting of wheat pathogens. Principal component extraction showed that the Fusarium graminearum group was inversely related to OTUs of clusters 1 and 2....

  1. Classic Bartter syndrome complicated with profound growth hormone deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masanori; Tajima, Toshihiro; Muroya, Koji; Asakura, Yumi

    2013-12-30

    Classic Bartter syndrome is a salt-wasting tubulopathy caused by mutations in the CLCNKB (chloride channel Kb) gene. Although growth hormone deficiency has been suggested as a cause for persistent growth failure in patients with classic Bartter syndrome, in our opinion the diagnoses of growth hormone deficiency has been unconvincing in some reports. Moreover, Gitelman syndrome seems to have been confused with Bartter syndrome in some cases in the literature. In the present work, we describe a new case with CLCNKB gene mutations and review the reported cases of classic Bartter syndrome associated with growth hormone deficiency. Our patient was a Japanese boy diagnosed as having classic Bartter syndrome at eight months of age. The diagnosis of Bartter syndrome was confirmed by CLCNKB gene analysis, which revealed compound heterozygous mutations with deletion of exons 1 to 3 (derived from his mother) and ΔL130 (derived from his father). His medical therapy consisted of potassium (K), sodium chloride, spironolactone, and anti-inflammatory agents; this regime was started at eight months of age. Our patient was very short (131.1cm, -4.9 standard deviation) at 14.3 years and showed profoundly impaired growth hormone responses to pharmacological stimulants: 0.15μg/L to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and 0.39μg/L to arginine. His growth response to growth hormone therapy was excellent. The present case strengthens the association between classic Bartter syndrome and growth hormone deficiency. We propose that growth hormone status should be considered while treating children with classic Bartter syndrome.

  2. Habitat-specific population growth of a farmland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess population persistence of species living in heterogeneous landscapes, the effects of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a matrix population model to estimate habitat-specific population growth rates for a population of northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe breeding in farmland consisting of a mosaic of distinct habitat (land use types. Based on extensive long-term data on reproduction and survival, habitats characterised by tall field layers (spring- and autumn-sown crop fields, ungrazed grasslands displayed negative stochastic population growth rates (log lambda(s: -0.332, -0.429, -0.168, respectively, that were markedly lower than growth rates of habitats characterised by permanently short field layers (pastures grazed by cattle or horses, and farmyards, log lambda(s: -0.056, +0.081, -0.059. Although habitats differed with respect to reproductive performance, differences in habitat-specific population growth were largely due to differences in adult and first-year survival rates, as shown by a life table response experiment (LTRE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that estimation of survival rates is important for realistic assessments of habitat quality. Results also indicate that grazed grasslands and farmyards may act as source habitats, whereas crop fields and ungrazed grasslands with tall field layers may act as sink habitats. We suggest that the strong decline of northern wheatears in Swedish farmland may be linked to the corresponding observed loss of high quality breeding habitat, i.e. grazed semi-natural grasslands.

  3. Electronic growth charts: watching our patients grow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cynthia A; Carstens, Kimberly; Villamayor, Precy

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric Growth Charts have been used in the pediatric community since 1977. The first growth charts were developed by the National Center for Health Statistics as a clinical tool for health care professionals. The growth charts, revised in 2000, by the Center for Disease Control consists of a series of percentile curves for selected body measurements in children [1]. Capitalizing on the benefits of our Electronic Medical Record (EMR), and as a byproduct of nursing electronic documentation of routine heights, weights, and frontal occipital circumferences, our system plots the routine measurements without additional intervention by the staff. Clinicians can view the graphs online or generate printed reports as needed during routine examination for outpatient or hospitalized care. This abstract outlines the background, design process, programming rules utilized to plot growth curves, and the evaluation of the electronic CDC growth charts in our organization.

  4. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  5. Growth and project finance in the least developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth F. la Cour; Jennifer Müller

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of ...

  6. Division-Based, Growth Rate Diversity in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Y. Gangwe Nana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the nature and origins of growth rate diversity in bacteria, we grew Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis in liquid minimal media and, after different periods of 15N-labeling, analyzed and imaged isotope distributions in individual cells with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We find a striking inter- and intra-cellular diversity, even in steady state growth. This is consistent with the strand-dependent, hyperstructure-based hypothesis that a major function of the cell cycle is to generate coherent, growth rate diversity via the semi-conservative pattern of inheritance of strands of DNA and associated macromolecular assemblies. We also propose quantitative, general, measures of growth rate diversity for studies of cell physiology that include antibiotic resistance.

  7. 76 FR 55347 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at Singapore Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... Commercial Setting The Singapore Air Show (SAS) is Asia's largest aerospace and defense event and one of the... growth, with Asia being one of the major hubs of the air freight business. Also, the rising GDP rates... Mission at Singapore Air Show AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION...

  8. Robust Visual Tracking Via Consistent Low-Rank Sparse Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-06-19

    Object tracking is the process of determining the states of a target in consecutive video frames based on properties of motion and appearance consistency. In this paper, we propose a consistent low-rank sparse tracker (CLRST) that builds upon the particle filter framework for tracking. By exploiting temporal consistency, the proposed CLRST algorithm adaptively prunes and selects candidate particles. By using linear sparse combinations of dictionary templates, the proposed method learns the sparse representations of image regions corresponding to candidate particles jointly by exploiting the underlying low-rank constraints. In addition, the proposed CLRST algorithm is computationally attractive since temporal consistency property helps prune particles and the low-rank minimization problem for learning joint sparse representations can be efficiently solved by a sequence of closed form update operations. We evaluate the proposed CLRST algorithm against 14 state-of-the-art tracking methods on a set of 25 challenging image sequences. Experimental results show that the CLRST algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  9. Leverage, Investment, and Firm Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lang; Eli Ofek; Rene M. Stulz

    1995-01-01

    We show that there is a negative relation between leverage and future growth at the firm level and, for diversified firms, at the segment level. Further, this negative relation between leverage and growth holds for firms with low Tobin's q, but not for high-q firms or firms in high-q industries. Therefore, leverage does not reduce growth for firms known to have good investment opportunities, but is negatively related to growth for firms whose growth opportunities are either not recognized by ...

  10. Finite element simulation for creep crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Toru; Nakagaki, Michihiko; Brust, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    A finite element method was applied to a generation phase simulation of creep crack growth. Experimental data on creep crack growth in a 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel compact tension specimen were numerically simulated using a node-release technique and the variations of various fracture mechanics parameters such as CTOA, J, C * and T * during creep crack growth were calculated. The path-dependencies of the integral parameters J, C * and T * were also obtained to examine whether or not they could characterize the stress field near the tip of a crack propagating under creep condition. The following conclusions were obtained from the present analysis. (1) The J integral shows strong path-dependency during creep crack growth, so that it is does not characterize creep crack growth. (2) The C * integral shows path-dependency to some extent during creep crack growth even in the case of Norton type steady state creep law. Strictly speaking, we cannot use it as a fracture mechanics parameter characterizing creep crack growth. It is, however, useful from the practical viewpoint because it correlates well the rate of creep crack growth. (3) The T * integral shows good path-independency during creep crack growth. Therefore, it is a candidate for a fracture mechanics parameter characterizing creep crack growth. (author)

  11. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Consistency analysis of subspace identification methods based on a linear regression approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    In the literature results can be found which claim consistency for the subspace method under certain quite weak assumptions. Unfortunately, a new result gives a counter example showing inconsistency under these assumptions and then gives new more strict sufficient assumptions which however does n...... not include important model structures as e.g. Box-Jenkins. Based on a simple least squares approach this paper shows the possible inconsistency under the weak assumptions and develops only slightly stricter assumptions sufficient for consistency and which includes any model structure...

  13. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) Ec/Mechano Growth factor--a splice variant of IGF-1 within the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Werner; Raimann, Adalbert; Halbauer, Daniel; Scharmer, Daniela; Sagmeister, Susanne; Wessner, Barbara; Helmreich, Magdalena; Haeusler, Gabriele; Egerbacher, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor 1 Ec (IGF-1Ec), also called mechano growth factor (MGF), is a splice variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been shown in vitro as well as in vivo to induce growth and hypertrophy in mechanically stimulated or damaged muscle. Growth, hypertrophy and responses to mechanical stimulation are important reactions of cartilaginous tissues, especially those in growth plates. Therefore, we wanted to ascertain if MGF is expressed in growth plate cartilage and if it influences proliferation of chondrocytes, as it does in musculoskeletal tissues. MGF expression was analyzed in growth plate and control tissue samples from piglets aged 3 to 6 weeks. Furthermore, growth plate chondrocyte cell culture was used to evaluate the effects of the MGF peptide on proliferation. We showed that MGF is expressed in considerable amounts in the tissues evaluated. We found the MGF peptide to be primarily located in the cytoplasm, and in some instances, it was also found in the nucleus of the cells. Addition of MGF peptides was not associated with growth plate chondrocyte proliferation.

  14. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency.

  15. Corruption and economic growth with non constant labor force growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Campisi, Giovanni; Russo, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Based on Brianzoni et al. [1] in the present work we propose an economic model regarding the relationship between corruption in public procurement and economic growth. We extend the benchmark model by introducing endogenous labor force growth, described by the logistic equation. The results of previous studies, as Del Monte and Papagni [2] and Mauro [3], show that countries are stuck in one of the two equilibria (high corruption and low economic growth or low corruption and high economic growth). Brianzoni et al. [1] prove the existence of a further steady state characterized by intermediate levels of capital per capita and corruption. Our aim is to investigate the effects of the endogenous growth around such equilibrium. Moreover, due to the high number of parameters of the model, specific attention is given to the numerical simulations which highlight new policy measures that can be adopted by the government to fight corruption.

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  17. CONSISTENCY UNDER SAMPLING OF EXPONENTIAL RANDOM GRAPH MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Rinaldo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The growing availability of network data and of scientific interest in distributed systems has led to the rapid development of statistical models of network structure. Typically, however, these are models for the entire network, while the data consists only of a sampled sub-network. Parameters for the whole network, which is what is of interest, are estimated by applying the model to the sub-network. This assumes that the model is consistent under sampling , or, in terms of the theory of stochastic processes, that it defines a projective family. Focusing on the popular class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we show that this apparently trivial condition is in fact violated by many popular and scientifically appealing models, and that satisfying it drastically limits ERGM's expressive power. These results are actually special cases of more general results about exponential families of dependent random variables, which we also prove. Using such results, we offer easily checked conditions for the consistency of maximum likelihood estimation in ERGMs, and discuss some possible constructive responses.

  18. Was dinosaurian physiology inherited by birds? Reconciling slow growth in archaeopteryx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Erickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeopteryx is the oldest and most primitive known bird (Avialae. It is believed that the growth and energetic physiology of basalmost birds such as Archaeopteryx were inherited in their entirety from non-avialan dinosaurs. This hypothesis predicts that the long bones in these birds formed using rapidly growing, well-vascularized woven tissue typical of non-avialan dinosaurs.We report that Archaeopteryx long bones are composed of nearly avascular parallel-fibered bone. This is among the slowest growing osseous tissues and is common in ectothermic reptiles. These findings dispute the hypothesis that non-avialan dinosaur growth and physiology were inherited in totality by the first birds. Examining these findings in a phylogenetic context required intensive sampling of outgroup dinosaurs and basalmost birds. Our results demonstrate the presence of a scale-dependent maniraptoran histological continuum that Archaeopteryx and other basalmost birds follow. Growth analysis for Archaeopteryx suggests that these animals showed exponential growth rates like non-avialan dinosaurs, three times slower than living precocial birds, but still within the lowermost range for all endothermic vertebrates.The unexpected histology of Archaeopteryx and other basalmost birds is actually consistent with retention of the phylogenetically earlier paravian dinosaur condition when size is considered. The first birds were simply feathered dinosaurs with respect to growth and energetic physiology. The evolution of the novel pattern in modern forms occurred later in the group's history.

  19. Contribution of population growth to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan, 1880-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Kennedy, G

    1984-09-01

    The authors measured the positive and negative contributions of population and labor force growth to the growth of per capita income and sectoral output in Japan in the 1880-1970 period. A 2-sector growth accounting model that treats population and labor growth as separate variables was used. 3 alternative methods were used: the Residual method, the Verdoorn method, and the factor augmenting rate method. The total contribution of population cum labor growth to per capita income growth tended to be negative in the 1880-1930 period and positive in the 1930-40 and 1950-70. Over the 1880-1970 period as a whole, population cum labor growth made a positive contribution to per capita income growth under the Residual method (0.35%/year), the factor augmenting rate method (0.29%/year), and the Verdoorn method (0.01%/year). In addition, population cum labor growth contributed positively to sectoral output growth. The average contribution to agricultural output growth ranged from 1.03% (Verdoorn) - 1.46%/year (factor augmenting rate), while the average contribution to nonagricultural output growth ranged from 1.22% (Verdoorn) - 1.60%/year (Residual). Although these results are dependent on the model used, the fact that all 3 methods yielded consistent results suggests that population cum labor growth did make a positive contribution to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan. These findings imply that in economies where the rate of technical change in agricultural and nonagricultural sectors exceeds population growth, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities may be preferable; on the other hand, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities are to be avoided in economies with low rates of technical change. Moreover, in the early stages of economic development, policies that increase agricultural income and price elasticities should be considered.

  20. Vibrational multiconfiguration self-consistent field theory: implementation and test calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heislbetz, Sandra; Rauhut, Guntram

    2010-03-28

    A state-specific vibrational multiconfiguration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approach based on a multimode expansion of the potential energy surface is presented for the accurate calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra. As a special case of this general approach vibrational complete active space self-consistent field calculations will be discussed. The latter method shows better convergence than the general VMCSCF approach and must be considered the preferred choice within the multiconfigurational framework. Benchmark calculations are provided for a small set of test molecules.

  1. Renormalization in self-consistent approximation schemes at finite temperature I: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hees, H. van; Knoll, J.

    2001-07-01

    Within finite temperature field theory, we show that truncated non-perturbative self-consistent Dyson resummation schemes can be renormalized with local counter-terms defined at the vacuum level. The requirements are that the underlying theory is renormalizable and that the self-consistent scheme follows Baym's Φ-derivable concept. The scheme generates both, the renormalized self-consistent equations of motion and the closed equations for the infinite set of counter terms. At the same time the corresponding 2PI-generating functional and the thermodynamic potential can be renormalized, in consistency with the equations of motion. This guarantees the standard Φ-derivable properties like thermodynamic consistency and exact conservation laws also for the renormalized approximation scheme to hold. The proof uses the techniques of BPHZ-renormalization to cope with the explicit and the hidden overlapping vacuum divergences. (orig.)

  2. On Consistency Test Method of Expert Opinion in Ecological Security Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zaiwu; Wang, Lihong

    2017-09-04

    To reflect the initiative design and initiative of human security management and safety warning, ecological safety assessment is of great value. In the comprehensive evaluation of regional ecological security with the participation of experts, the expert's individual judgment level, ability and the consistency of the expert's overall opinion will have a very important influence on the evaluation result. This paper studies the consistency measure and consensus measure based on the multiplicative and additive consistency property of fuzzy preference relation (FPR). We firstly propose the optimization methods to obtain the optimal multiplicative consistent and additively consistent FPRs of individual and group judgments, respectively. Then, we put forward a consistency measure by computing the distance between the original individual judgment and the optimal individual estimation, along with a consensus measure by computing the distance between the original collective judgment and the optimal collective estimation. In the end, we make a case study on ecological security for five cities. Result shows that the optimal FPRs are helpful in measuring the consistency degree of individual judgment and the consensus degree of collective judgment.

  3. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minegishi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Yasuo; Yahara, Yasuhito; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hosokawa, Ko; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1 Δchon cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone

  4. Normative biometrics for fetal ocular growth using volumetric MRI reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Estroff, Judy A; Warfield, Simon K

    2015-04-01

    To determine normative ranges for fetal ocular biometrics between 19 and 38 weeks gestational age (GA) using volumetric MRI reconstruction. The 3D images of 114 healthy fetuses between 19 and 38 weeks GA were created using super-resolution volume reconstructions from MRI slice acquisitions. These 3D images were semi-automatically segmented to measure fetal orbit volume, binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), and ocular diameter (OD). All biometry correlated with GA (Volume, Pearson's correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.9680; BOD, CC = 0.9552; OD, CC = 0.9445; and IOD, CC = 0.8429), and growth curves were plotted against linear and quadratic growth models. Regression analysis showed quadratic models to best fit BOD, IOD, and OD and a linear model to best fit volume. Orbital volume had the greatest correlation with GA, although BOD and OD also showed strong correlation. The normative data found in this study may be helpful for the detection of congenital fetal anomalies with more consistent measurements than are currently available. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A synthesis of radial growth patterns preceding tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleret, Maxime; Jansen, Steven; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Desoto, Lucia; Aakala, Tuomas; Antos, Joseph A.; Beikircher, Barbara; Bigler, Christof; Bugmann, Harald; Caccianiga, Marco; Cada, Vojtech; Camarero, Jesus J.; Cherubini, Paolo; Cochard, Herve; Coyea, Marie R.; Cufar, Katarina; Das, Adrian J.; Davi, Hendrik; Delzon, Sylvain; Dorman, Michael; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Gillner, Sten; Haavik, Laurel J.; Hartmann, Henrik; Heres, Ana-Maria; Hultine, Kevin R.; Janda, Pavel; Kane, Jeffrey M.; Kharuk, Vyacheslav I.; Kitzberger, Thomas; Klein, Tamir; Kramer, Koen; Lens, Frederic; Levanic, Tom; Calderon, Juan C. Linares; Lloret, Francisco; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Lombardi, Fabio; Lopez Rodriguez, Rosana; Makinen, Harri; Mayr, Stefan; Meszaros, IIona; Metsaranta, Juha M.; Minunno, Francesco; Oberhuber, Walter; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Petritan, Any M.; Rohner, Brigitte; Sanguesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Sarris, Dimitrios; Smith, Jeremy M.; Stan, Amanda B.; Sterck, Frank; Stojanovic, Dejan B.; Suarez, Maria L.; Svoboda, Miroslav; Tognetti, Roberto; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Villalba, Ricardo; Vodde, Floor; Westwood, Alana R.; Wyckoff, Peter H.; Zafirov, Nikolay; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2970 dead and 4224 living trees from 190 sites, including 36 species), and compared early and recent growth rates between trees that died and those that survived a given mortality event. We observed a decrease in radial growth before death in ca. 84% of the mortality events. The extent and duration of these reductions were highly variable (1–100 years in 96% of events) due to the complex interactions among study species and the source(s) of mortality. Strong and long-lasting declines were found for gymnosperms, shade- and drought-tolerant species, and trees that died from competition. Angiosperms and trees that died due to biotic attacks (especially bark-beetles) typically showed relatively small and short-term growth reductions. Our analysis did not highlight any universal trade-off between early growth and tree longevity within a species, although this result may also reflect high variability in sampling design among sites. The intersite and interspecific variability in growth patterns before mortality provides valuable information on the nature of the mortality process, which is consistent with our understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to mortality. Abrupt changes in growth immediately before death can be associated with generalized hydraulic failure and/or bark-beetle attack, while long-term decrease in growth may be associated with a gradual decline in hydraulic performance coupled with depletion in carbon reserves. Our results imply that growth-based mortality algorithms may be a powerful tool for predicting gymnosperm mortality induced by chronic stress, but not necessarily so for angiosperms and in case of intense drought or

  6. Towards a Self-Consistent Physical Framework for Modeling Coupled Human and Physical Activities during the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the response of global climate to anthropogenic activities rely upon scenarios for future human activity to provide a range of possible trajectories for greenhouse gases emissions over the coming century. Sophisticated integrated models are used to explore not only what will happen, but what should happen in order to optimize societal well-being. Hundreds of equations might be used to account for the interplay between human decisions, technological change, and macroeconomic priniciples. In contrast, the model equations used to describe geophysical phenomena look very different because they are a) purely deterministic and b) consistent with basic thermodynamic laws. This inconsistency between macroeconomics and physics suggests a rather unhappy marriage. During the Anthropocene the evolution of humanity and our environment will become increasingly intertwined. Representing such a coupling suggests a need for a common theoretical basis. To this end, the approach that is described here is to treat civilization like any other physical process, that is as an open, non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that dissipates energy and diffuses matter in order to sustain existing circulations and to further its material growth. Theoretical arguments and over 40 years of measurements show that a very general representation of global economic wealth (not GDP) has been tied to rates of global primary energy consumption through a constant 7.1 ± 0.1 mW per year 2005 USD. This link between physics and economics leads to very simple expressions for how fast civilization and its rate of energy consumption grow. These are expressible as a function of rates of energy and material resource discovery and depletion, and of the magnitude of externally imposed decay. The equations are validated through hindcasts that show, for example, that economic conditions in the 1950s can be invoked to make remarkably accurate forecasts of present rates of global GDP growth and primary energy

  7. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  8. Crystal growth and doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paorici, C.

    1980-01-01

    Section 1 contains a self-consistent review of the basic growth features. After a short introduction concerning the driving force acting in a crystallization process, three main topics are broadly discussed: (i) interface kinetics; (ii) transport kinetics, and (iii) growth stability conditions. On point (i), after definition of the nature of interface, using Temkin's model, the growth mechanisms predicted by Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) and bidimensional nucleation theories are fully developed. On points (ii) and (iii), the differential equations of the constitutional (concentration) and thermal fields are presented and discussed in terms of relevant approximations, suitable boundary conditions and limit values expected in order to have growth stability. Section 2 reports various experimental procedures for growing bulk crystals from the melt, from solutions and from the vapour phase. The basic concepts of Section 1 are amply employed for a critical discussion of possibilities, advantages and drawbacks of the methods described. Along the same lines, in Section 3 the principal epitaxial deposition procedures are highlighted. Section 4 contains a brief account of doping and of stoichiometry-defect control procedures. There is a long, carefully chosen list of bibliographical references. (author)

  9. Public Debt and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siew-Peng Lee; Yan-Ling Ng

    2015-01-01

    Public debt in the Malaysia increased because of fiscal expansions. This study examines whether public debt contributed to the economic growth in Malaysia over the period 1991 to 2013. It also examines whether other indicators of debt burden, such as budget deficit, budget expenditure, and external debt service and government consumption, have an impact on economic growth. The results of this study are consistent with the existing literature that found a negative association between diet and ...

  10. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  11. Using self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces to calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for the sulfuric acid-water binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Toon, O. B.

    2012-12-01

    We construct tables of reaction enthalpies and entropies for the association reactions involving sulfuric acid vapor, water vapor, and the bisulfate ion. These tables are created from experimental measurements and quantum chemical calculations for molecular clusters and a classical thermodynamic model for larger clusters. These initial tables are not thermodynamically consistent. For example, the Gibbs free energy of associating a cluster consisting of one acid molecule and two water molecules depends on the order in which the cluster was assembled: add two waters and then the acid or add an acid and a water and then the second water. We adjust the values within the tables using the method of Lagrange multipliers to minimize the adjustments and produce self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces for the neutral clusters and the charged clusters. With the self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces, we calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for a variety of atmospheric conditions. Depending on the conditions, nucleation can be dominated by growth along the neutral channel or growth along the ion channel followed by ion-ion recombination.

  12. Firm dynamic analysis for urban land use and economic growth modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Che'Man, N.; Sabri, S.; Hosni, N.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In urban growth processes, urbanisation is highly influenced by economic growth which triggers the dynamics of economic agents and land uses. This is consisted of complex subsystems which need sophisticated methods like agent-based modelling and simulation to understand the pattern, behaviour and

  13. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Rhizophora Mucronata Growth at first-year Mangrove Restoration at Abandoned Ponds, Langkat, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Telaumbanua, TFC; Wati, R.; Sulistyono, N.; Putri, LAP

    2018-03-01

    Degraded mangrove areas can be restored and rehabilitated. In Indonesia, one of the main recommended of mangrove species for restoration of degraded was Rhizophora mucronata. The purpose of the study was to evaluate R. mucronata growth at first-year mangrove restoration at abandoned shrimp ponds, Pulau Sembilan village, Langkat, North Sumatera, Indonesia. The recovery area divided into three zones based on the salinity concentration, landward, middle, and seaward zones. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaves number, and seedling growth rate. Results showed that 3 of 4 evaluation parameters of R. mucronata growth belong to landward zone, namely seedlings diameter, the number of leaves, and percentage of growth. By contrast, height R. mucronata seedlings dominated in the middle area. The study also found that the proper zone for mangrove restoration with R. mucronata was in the landward with 96% growth rate and 30 part per thousand salinity concentration. The present study, therefore, suggested that the recommended species for the degraded area was the prerequisite for successful mangrove restoration.

  15. An approach to a self-consistent nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Yoichi; Arie, Kazuo; Endo, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy system should provide a stable supply of energy without endangering the environment or humans. If there is fear about exhausting world energy resources, accumulating radionuclides, and nuclear reactor safety, tension is created in human society. Nuclear energy systems of the future should be able to eliminate fear from people's minds. In other words, the whole system, including the nuclear fuel cycle, should be self-consistent. This is the ultimate goal of nuclear energy. If it can be realized, public acceptance of nuclear energy will increase significantly. In a self-consistent nuclear energy system, misunderstandings between experts on nuclear energy and the public should be minimized. The way to achieve this goal is to explain using simple logic. This paper proposes specific targets for self-consistent nuclear energy systems and shows that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) lies on the route to attaining the final goal

  16. Does Firms’ Innovation Promote Export Growth Sustainably?—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangfeng Hao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical analysis and empirical studies have emphasized that firms’ innovation could significantly improve export growth. However, the positive effect of innovation on exports is likely to change due to unstable domestic offsetting for innovation and increasing worldwide competition for trade. This study aims to explore the dynamic link between them. We first develop a theoretical model between innovation and export growth based on the theory of heterogeneity. Export growth is measured through the dimensions of extensive margin and intensive margin so as to better investigate the effect of innovation on export performance. The propositions of mechanism analysis reveal that the effect of innovation on exports is non-linear rather than sustainable. An empirical study is followed to test the propositions by using data from a representative panel of Chinese manufacturing firms. Consistent with the theoretical predictions, the results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between innovation and extensive margin and a U-shaped relationship between innovation and intensive margin. The non-linear relations are verified by a threshold effect test. Further study shows less innovation and more firms on the left side of the relation curves. The distribution suggests irregular innovation ability among the exporters. Moreover, the role of innovation is more important for export growth and the corresponding threshold is higher in terms of high technological sectors. The contribution of this study is to introduce a comprehensive framework to investigate the dynamic effect of innovation on export growth, serving as a modest spur to induce the following studies to explore the sustainability of innovation effect.

  17. Which factors make the difference for explaining growth in newcomer organizational commitment? A latent growth modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maia, L. G.; Bastos, A. V. B.; Solinger, O.N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on newcomer socialization have evidenced quite consistently that newcomers' affective commitment tends to decline in the first years of employment. In this paper, we attempt to explain why a minority of Brazilian newcomers in a governmental organization (N=194) display growth in

  18. BATSE gamma-ray burst line search. 2: Bayesian consistency methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Ford, L. A.; Matteson, J. L.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.; Preece, R.; Palmer, D.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian methodology to evaluate the consistency between the reported Ginga and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detections of absorption features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Currently no features have been detected by BATSE, but this methodology will still be applicable if and when such features are discovered. The Bayesian methodology permits the comparison of hypotheses regarding the two detectors' observations and makes explicit the subjective aspects of our analysis (e.g., the quantification of our confidence in detector performance). We also present non-Bayesian consistency statistics. Based on preliminary calculations of line detectability, we find that both the Bayesian and non-Bayesian techniques show that the BATSE and Ginga observations are consistent given our understanding of these detectors.

  19. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  20. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 Ec/Mechano Growth factor--a splice variant of IGF-1 within the growth plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Schlegel

    Full Text Available Human insulin-like growth factor 1 Ec (IGF-1Ec, also called mechano growth factor (MGF, is a splice variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, which has been shown in vitro as well as in vivo to induce growth and hypertrophy in mechanically stimulated or damaged muscle. Growth, hypertrophy and responses to mechanical stimulation are important reactions of cartilaginous tissues, especially those in growth plates. Therefore, we wanted to ascertain if MGF is expressed in growth plate cartilage and if it influences proliferation of chondrocytes, as it does in musculoskeletal tissues. MGF expression was analyzed in growth plate and control tissue samples from piglets aged 3 to 6 weeks. Furthermore, growth plate chondrocyte cell culture was used to evaluate the effects of the MGF peptide on proliferation. We showed that MGF is expressed in considerable amounts in the tissues evaluated. We found the MGF peptide to be primarily located in the cytoplasm, and in some instances, it was also found in the nucleus of the cells. Addition of MGF peptides was not associated with growth plate chondrocyte proliferation.

  1. SLOWER BUT HEALTHIER GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's economic growth has slowed,economic statistics released on July 15 show,confirming market expectations.But officials said the country's economy is still on track. The recovery has gained traction in China,which registered a double-digit growth of 11.1 percent in the first half of this year.

  2. Funding of pensions and economic growth : are they really related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Eelco; Spierdijk, Laura

    We examine whether changes in the degree of pension funding affect economic growth. Our sample consists of 54 countries, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as non-OECD, during 2001-10. We do not find any effect of changes in the degree of funding on growth in the

  3. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  4. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  5. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  6. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  7. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    . In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  8. Serum IGF-1 is insufficient to restore skeletal size in the total absence of the growth hormone receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjie; Sun, Hui; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Cardoso, Luis; Kennedy, Oran D; Jasper, Hector; Domené, Horacio; Karabatas, Liliana; Guida, Clara; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    States of growth hormone (GH) resistance, such those observed in Laron’s dwarf patients, are characterized by mutations in the GH receptor (GHR), decreased serum and tissue IGF-1 levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired skeletal acquisition. IGF-1 replacement therapy in such patients increases growth velocity but does not normalize growth. Herein we combined the GH-resistant (GHR knockout, GHRKO) mouse model with mice expressing the hepatic Igf-1 transgene (HIT) to generate the GHRKO-HIT mouse model. In GHRKOHIT mice, serum IGF-1 levels were restored via transgenic expression of Igf-1 allowing us to study how endocrine IGF-1 affects growth, metabolic homeostasis, and skeletal integrity. We show that in a GH-resistant state, normalization of serum IGF-1 improved body adiposity and restored glucose tolerance but was insufficient to support normal skeletal growth, resulting in an osteopenic skeletal phenotype. The inability of serum IGF-1 to restore skeletal integrity in the total absence of GHR likely resulted from reduced skeletal Igf-1 gene expression, blunted GH-mediated effects on the skeleton that are independent of serum or tissue IGF-1, and from poor delivery of IGF-1 to the tissues. These findings are consistent with clinical data showing that IGF-I replacement therapy in patients with Laron’s syndrome does not achieve full skeletal growth. PMID:23456957

  9. Predator-induced changes in metabolism cannot explain the growth/predation risk tradeoff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich K Steiner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Defence against predators is usually accompanied by declining rates of growth or development. The classical growth/predation risk tradeoff assumes reduced activity as the cause of these declines. However, in many cases these costs cannot be explained by reduced foraging effort or enhanced allocation to defensive structures under predation risk. Here, we tested for a physiological origin of defence costs by measuring oxygen consumption in tadpoles (Rana temporaria exposed to predation risk over short and long periods of time. The short term reaction was an increase in oxygen consumption, consistent with the "fight-or-flight" response observed in many organisms. The long term reaction showed the opposite pattern: tadpoles reduced oxygen consumption after three weeks exposure to predators, which would act to reduce the growth cost of predator defence. The results point to an instantaneous and reversible stress response to predation risk. This suggests that the tradeoff between avoiding predators and growing rapidly is not caused by changes in metabolic rate, and must be sought in other behavioural or physiological processes.

  10. Simulation of the ultrasound-induced growth and collapse of a near-wall bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Bradley; Becker, Sid

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we consider the acoustically driven growth and collapse of a cavitation bubble in a fluid medium exposed to an ultrasound field. The bubble dynamics are modelled using a compressible, inviscid, multiphase model. The numerical scheme consists of a conservative interface capturing scheme which uses the fifth-order WENO reconstruction with a maximum-principle-satisfying and positivity-preserving limiter, and the HLLC approximate Riemann flux. To model the ultrasound input, a moving boundary oscillates through a fixed grid of finite-volume cells. The growth phase of the simulation shows the rapid non-spherical growth of the near-wall bubble. Once the bubble reaches its maximum size and the collapse phase begins, the simulation shows the formation of a jet which penetrates the bubble towards the wall at the later stages of the collapse. For a bubble with an initial radius of 50 μ m and an ultrasound pressure amplitude of 200 kPa, the pressure experienced by the wall increased rapidly nearing the end of the collapse, reaching a peak pressure of 13 MPa. This model is an important development in the field as it represents the physics of acoustic cavitation in more detail than before. This work was supported by the Royal Society of New Zealand's Marsden Fund.

  11. Nanoparticle growth by particle-phase chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Apsokardu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of particle-phase chemistry to alter the molecular composition and enhance the growth rate of nanoparticles in the 2–100 nm diameter range is investigated through the use of a kinetic growth model. The molecular components included are sulfuric acid, ammonia, water, a non-volatile organic compound, and a semi-volatile organic compound. Molecular composition and growth rate are compared for particles that grow by partitioning alone vs. those that grow by a combination of partitioning and an accretion reaction in the particle phase between two organic molecules. Particle-phase chemistry causes a change in molecular composition that is particle diameter dependent, and when the reaction involves semi-volatile molecules, the particles grow faster than by partitioning alone. These effects are most pronounced for particles larger than about 20 nm in diameter. The modeling results provide a fundamental basis for understanding recent experimental measurements of the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol showing that accretion reaction product formation increases linearly with increasing aerosol volume-to-surface-area. They also allow initial estimates of the reaction rate constants for these systems. For secondary aerosol produced by either OH oxidation of the cyclic dimethylsiloxane (D5 or ozonolysis of β-pinene, oligomerization rate constants on the order of 10−3 to 10−1 M−1 s−1 are needed to explain the experimental results. These values are consistent with previously measured rate constants for reactions of hydroperoxides and/or peroxyacids in the condensed phase.

  12. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  13. Catalyst–substrate interaction and growth delay in vapor–liquid–solid nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolíbal, Miroslav; Pejchal, Tomáš; Musálek, Tomáš; Šikola, Tomáš

    2018-05-01

    Understanding of the initial stage of nanowire growth on a bulk substrate is crucial for the rational design of nanowire building blocks in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we provide in situ scanning electron microscopy and Auger microscopy analysis of the initial stage of Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth on different substrates. Real-time microscopy imaging and elementally resolved spectroscopy clearly show that the catalyst dissolves the underlying substrate if held above a certain temperature. If the substrate dissolution is blocked (or in the case of heteroepitaxy) the catalyst needs to be filled with nanowire material from the external supply, which significantly increases the initial growth delay. The experiments presented here reveal the important role of the substrate in metal-catalyzed nanowire growth and pave the way for different growth delay mitigation strategies.

  14. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  15. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  16. Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter.

  17. Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter

  18. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  19. Economic growth, sectoral structure and unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts that deal with the relationship between the relative wealth of nations, economic growth, and the sectoral structure of economies. In the first part, the focus is on the relative stagnancy of Europe versus the USA in terms of productivity levels and unemployment.

  20. Diffusion and phase growth in heterophase systems. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mchedlov-Petrosyan, P.O.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper gives the view of theoretical study of diffusion processes in ternary and more component solid-state systems, caused by chemical reactions and phase growth. Internal oxidation of alloys, nitridation, borating etc. are the well-known and widely investigated processes of such type. Self-consistent theoretical model of such processes must take into account both the effect of concentration macroscopic districutions on new phase precipitation growth and precipitation reaction on concentration distribution; heterophase must be explicitly allowed for. As for binary system, diffusion theory, running into the phase growth, is well developed and completely presented in monographs, the carried out theoretical investigations of ternary systems are explicitly deficient. The first part of the review presents analysis of available theoretical studies approximately up to 1980. Ratios between various analytically solved models are discussed in detail. It is shown that they don't satisfy to full extent the above-given requirements. More consistent, both numerically and analytically solvable models developed for the last years, are considered in the review second part. 119 refs

  1. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  2. Knockdown of the placental growth factor gene inhibits laser induced choroidal neovascularization in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourinia, Ramin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Akrami, Hassan; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Samiei, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of placental growth factor (PlGF) gene knockdown in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Choroidal neovascularization was induced in the left eyes of 11 mice by infrared laser. Small interfering RNA (siRNA, 20 picomoles/10 μl) corresponding to PlGF mRNA was administered intravitreally by Hamilton syringe in all subjects. One month later, fluorescein angiography and histolologic examination were performed. No leakage was apparent in the 11 eyes treated with siRNA cognate to PlGF. The results of histological evaluation were consistent with angiographic findings showing absence of choroidal neovascularization. Knockdown of the PlGF gene can inhibit the growth of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice.

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Availability and Form on Phytoplankton Growth in a Eutrophied Estuary (Neuse River Estuary, NC, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Emily K; Paerl, Hans W; Wetz, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and form are important controls on estuarine phytoplankton growth. This study experimentally determined the influence of urea and nitrate additions on phytoplankton growth throughout the growing season (March 2012, June 2011, August 2011) in a temperate, eutrophied estuary (Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA). Photopigments (chlorophyll a and diagnostic photopigments: peridinin, fucoxanthin, alloxanthin, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll b) and microscopy-based cell counts were used as indicators of phytoplankton growth. In March, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Gyrodinium instriatum and only fucoxanthin-based growth rates were stimulated by nitrogen addition. The limited response to nitrogen suggests other factors may control phytoplankton growth and community composition in early spring. In June, inorganic nitrogen concentrations were low and stimulatory effects of both nitrogen forms were observed for chlorophyll a- and diagnostic photopigment-based growth rates. In contrast, cell counts showed that only cryptophyte and dinoflagellate (Heterocapsa rotundata) growth were stimulated. Responses of other photopigments may have been due to an increase in pigment per cell or growth of plankton too small to be counted with the microscopic methods used. Despite high nitrate concentrations in August, growth rates were elevated in response to urea and/or nitrate addition for all photopigments except peridinin. However, this response was not observed in cell counts, again suggesting that pigment-based growth responses may not always be indicative of a true community and/or taxa-specific growth response. This highlights the need to employ targeted microscopy-based cell enumeration concurrent with pigment-based technology to facilitate a more complete understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in estuarine systems. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the seasonal importance of nitrogen availability in estuaries, and also

  4. Age class, longevity and growth rate relationships: protracted growth increases in old trees in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Abrams, Marc D

    2009-11-01

    This study uses data from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank website and tree cores collected in the field to explore growth rate (basal area increment, BAI) relationships across age classes (from young to old) for eight tree species in the eastern US. These species represent a variety of ecological traits and include those in the genera Populus, Quercus, Pinus, Tsuga and Nyssa. We found that most trees in all age classes and species exhibit an increasing BAI throughout their lives. This is particularly unusual for trees in the older age classes that we expected to have declining growth in the later years, as predicted by physiological growth models. There exists an inverse relationship between growth rate and increasing age class. The oldest trees within each species have consistently slow growth throughout their lives, implying an inverse relationship between growth rate and longevity. Younger trees (trees when they are of the same age resulting from a higher proportion of fast-growing trees in these young age classes. Slow, but increasing, BAI in the oldest trees in recent decades is a continuation of their growth pattern established in previous centuries. The fact that they have not shown a decreasing growth rate in their old age contradicts physiological growth models and may be related to the stimulatory effects of global change phenomenon (climate and land-use history).

  5. Growth failure, somatomedin and growth hormone levels in juvenile diabetes mellitus--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, H

    1979-06-01

    Growth hormone (hGH) responsiveness to exercise and somatomedin C (SmC) activity were measured in ten children with insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus. Four of the ten children showed a significant degree of growth retardation. Normal SmC activity was found in association with elevated hGH levels. The hypothesis that growth-retarded diabetics have a failure of Sm production despite high hGH levels (analogous to malnutrition and Laron dwarfism) was not substantiated by this study. Chronic deficiency of insulin, itself a somatomedin, may play a major role in diabetic growth failure.

  6. The effect of pre-stress cycles on fatigue crack growth - An analysis of crack growth mechanism. [in Al alloy plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T. S.; Liu, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclic prestress increases subsequent fatigue crack growth rate in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. This increase in growth rate, caused by the prestress, and the increased rate, caused by temper embrittlement as observed by Ritchie and Knott (1973), cannot be explained by the crack tip blunting model alone. Each fatigue crack increment consists of two components, a brittle and a ductile component. They are controlled by the ductility of the material and its cyclic yield strength, respectively.

  7. Reduced growth due to belowground sink limitation is not fully explained by reduced photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campany, Courtney E; Medlyn, Belinda E; Duursma, Remko A

    2017-08-01

    Sink limitation is known to reduce plant growth, but it is not known how plant carbon (C) balance is affected, limiting our ability to predict growth under sink-limited conditions. We manipulated soil volume to impose sink limitation of growth in Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field in containers of different sizes and planted flush to the soil alongside freely rooted (Free) seedlings. Container volume negatively affected aboveground growth throughout the experiment, and light saturated rates of leaf photosynthesis were consistently lower in seedlings in containers (-26%) compared with Free seedlings. Significant reductions in photosynthetic capacity in containerized seedlings were related to both reduced leaf nitrogen content and starch accumulation, indicating direct effects of sink limitation on photosynthetic downregulation. After 120 days, harvested biomass of Free seedlings was on average 84% higher than seedlings in containers, but biomass distribution in leaves, stems and roots was not different. However, the reduction in net leaf photosynthesis over the growth period was insufficient to explain the reduction in growth, so that we also observed an apparent reduction in whole-plant C-use efficiency (CUE) between Free seedlings and seedlings in containers. Our results show that sink limitation affects plant growth through feedbacks to both photosynthesis and CUE. Mass balance approaches to predicting plant growth under sink-limited conditions need to incorporate both of these feedbacks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, Yoshiki [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Fukui Hospital, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakai, Yasuo [Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Bellland General Hospital, 500-3 Higashiyama Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8247 (Japan); Yahara, Yasuhito [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Akiyama, Haruhiko [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagito, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hosokawa, Ko [Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsumaki, Noriyuki, E-mail: ntsumaki@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1{sup Δchon} cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone.

  9. The dynamic relationship between health expenditure and economic growth: is the health-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Emre; Kilic, Dilek; Ertugrul, Hasan Murat

    2017-06-01

    The well-known health-led growth hypothesis claims a positive correlation between health expenditure and economic growth. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the health-led growth hypothesis for the Turkish economy. The bound test approach, autoregressive-distributed lag approach (ARDL) and Kalman filter modeling are employed for the 1975-2013 period to examine the co-integration relationship between economic growth and health expenditure. The ARDL model is employed in order to investigate the long-term and short-term static relationship between health expenditure and economic growth. The results show that a 1 % increase in per-capita health expenditure will lead to a 0.434 % increase in per-capita gross domestic product. These findings are also supported by the Kalman filter model's results. Our findings show that the health-led growth hypothesis is supported for Turkey.

  10. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue

  11. Growth of single crystals of BaFe12O19 by solid state crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, John G.; Sun, Hengyang; Kook, Young-Geun; Kim, Joon-Seong; Le, Phan Gia

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are grown for the first time by solid state crystal growth. Seed crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are buried in BaFe 12 O 19 +1 wt% BaCO 3 powder, which are then pressed into pellets containing the seed crystals. During sintering, single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 up to ∼130 μm thick in the c-axis direction grow on the seed crystals by consuming grains from the surrounding polycrystalline matrix. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that the single crystal and the surrounding polycrystalline matrix have the same chemical composition. Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal to have the BaFe 12 O 19 structure. The optimum growth temperature is found to be 1200 °C. The single crystal growth behavior is explained using the mixed control theory of grain growth. - Highlights: • Single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are grown by solid state crystal growth. • A single crystal up to ∼130 μm thick (c-axis direction) grows on the seed crystal. • The single crystal and surrounding ceramic matrix have similar composition. • Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal has the BaFe 12 O 19 structure.

  12. Abnormal growth of faceted (WC) grains in a (Co) liquid matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Yoon, D.Y.

    1996-01-01

    If the grains dispersed in a liquid matrix are spherical, their surface atomic structure is expected to be rough (diffuse), and their coarsening has been observed to be controlled by diffusion in the matrix. They do not, furthermore, undergo abnormal growth. On the other hand, in some compound material systems, the grains in liquid matrices are faceted and often show abnormal coarsening behavior. Their faceted surface planes are expected to be singular (atomically flat) and therefore grow by a defect-assisted process and two-dimensional (2-D) nucleation. Contrary to the usual coarsening theories, their growth velocity is not linearly dependent on the driving force arising from the grain size difference. If the growth of the faceted grains occurs by 2-D nucleation, the rate is expected to increase abruptly at a critical supersaturation, as has been observed in crystal growth in melts and solutions. It is proposed that this growth mechanism leads to the abnormal grain coarsening. The 2-D nucleation theory predicts that there is a threshold initial grain size for the abnormal grain growth (AGG), and the propensity for AGG will increase with the heat-treatment temperature. The AGG behavior will also vary with the defects in the grains. These predictions are qualitatively confirmed in the sintered WC-Co alloy prepared from fine (0.85-microm) and coarse (5.48-microm) WC powders and their mixtures. The observed dependence of the AGG behavior on the sintering temperature and the milling of the WC powder is also qualitatively consistent with the predicted behavior

  13. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  14. Direct and Maternal Additive Effects on Rabbit Growth and Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and linear body measurements of rabbits which consisted of 17 ew Zealand White (ZW), 19 Chinchilla (CH), 29 ZW x CH and 33 CH x ZW kittens were compared. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the crossbreeding effects (i.e direct and maternal additive effect) for growth (individual body weight, IBW) and ...

  15. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2016-10-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible-infectious-removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  16. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible–infectious–removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  17. Growth inhibition of shrimp pathogens by isolated gastrointestinal microflora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seehanat, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, cultivated in earthen pond at Maha Sarakham province, Thailand, consisted of 14 isolates of Bacillus (B1 – B14 and 18 isolates of Lactic acid bacteria (LA1 – LA18. The abilities of all isolated bacteria on growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by paperdisc plate method. The results showed that the Bacillus B2 and B5 were unable to inhibit the growth of all of the tested pathogens. Bacillus B1, B10 and B12 were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 of 4 tested pathogen strains. Although all of the isolated lactic acid bacteria (LA1 –LA18 could not inhibit the E. coli growth, all of them could inhibit the growth of B. cereus. The isolated lactic acid bacteria which were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 tested pathogen strains (excluded E. coli were LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18. In order to select the high potential strain of bacteria for using as probiotics, Bacillus B1 , B3 , B4 , B10 and B12 and lactic acid bacteria LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18 were tested for their growth abilities in various growth conditions. The tested growth conditions included various concentrations of the bile salt and salt (NaCl and various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that Bacillus B1 and B10 and lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 exhibited high potential for using as probiotics. The results of biochemical test for identification of these high potential strains showed that Bacillus B1 and B10 were possibly B. licheniformis and B. thuringiensis respectively. The lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 were possibly the same strain and belonged to the genus Pediococcus.

  18. Differential growth responses of Brachypodium distachyon genotypes to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Fernanda P; Pankievicz, Vânia C S; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio; Stacey, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can associate and enhance the growth of important crop grasses. However, in most cases, the molecular mechanisms responsible for growth promotion are not known. Such research could benefit by the adoption of a grass model species that showed a positive response to bacterial inoculation and was amenable to genetic and molecular research methods. In this work we inoculated different genotypes of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon with two, well-characterized PGPR bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense and Herbaspirillum seropedicae, and evaluated the growth response. Plants were grown in soil under no nitrogen or with low nitrogen (i.e., 0.5 mM KNO3). A variety of growth parameters (e.g., shoot height, root length, number of lateral roots, fresh and dry weight) were measured 35 days after inoculation. The data indicate that plant genotype plays a very important role in determining the plant response to PGPR inoculation. A positive growth response was observed with only four genotypes grown under no nitrogen and three genotypes tested under low nitrogen. However, in contrast, relatively good root colonization was seen with most genotypes, as measured by drop plate counting and direct, microscopic examination of roots. In particular, the endophytic bacteria H. seropedicae showed strong epiphytic and endophytic colonization of roots.

  19. Analisis Hubungan antara Berbagai Model Gabungan Proksi Investment Opportunity Set dan Real Growth dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Confirmatory Factor Analysis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and makes composite observed variables from individual Investment Opportunity Set (IOS proxies into one latent variable using structural equation models with a confirmatory factor analysis approach. Six composite investment opportunity set proxies are then created based on some individual proxies, namely price related IOS and investment related IOS. These composite IOS proxies are correlated with the real growth to prove that the model has consistency and ability to predict the real growth. A confirmatory factor analysis results in all observed variables that make latent variables for each model show different result in every model. At model 1, the CFA result show   that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 2, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 2 have significant measurement model fit, except for one proxies named Rasio Capital Expenditure to Total Book Asset (RACTE. At model 3, the CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 2 have significant measurement model fit, except for one proxies named Book Value of Property, Plant and Equipment to Book Value of Asset(BVPPEBVA. At model 4, the CFA result show   that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 5, the CFA result show   that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 6, the CFA result show that there is no significant measurement model fit for every investment related IOS proxies. Correlation test for all models show almost different result in every models. At model 1, the correlation test show that there is a weak, not significant-positive correlation between price related IOS proxies as latent variable, and real growth proxies. At model 2, the correlation test shows that there is a weak, significant negative correlation between price

  20. Was Dinosaurian Physiology Inherited by Birds? Reconciling Slow Growth in Archaeopteryx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Turner, Alan H.; Inouye, Brian D.; Hu, Dongyu; Norell, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Archaeopteryx is the oldest and most primitive known bird (Avialae). It is believed that the growth and energetic physiology of basalmost birds such as Archaeopteryx were inherited in their entirety from non-avialan dinosaurs. This hypothesis predicts that the long bones in these birds formed using rapidly growing, well-vascularized woven tissue typical of non-avialan dinosaurs. Methodology/Principal Findings We report that Archaeopteryx long bones are composed of nearly avascular parallel-fibered bone. This is among the slowest growing osseous tissues and is common in ectothermic reptiles. These findings dispute the hypothesis that non-avialan dinosaur growth and physiology were inherited in totality by the first birds. Examining these findings in a phylogenetic context required intensive sampling of outgroup dinosaurs and basalmost birds. Our results demonstrate the presence of a scale-dependent maniraptoran histological continuum that Archaeopteryx and other basalmost birds follow. Growth analysis for Archaeopteryx suggests that these animals showed exponential growth rates like non-avialan dinosaurs, three times slower than living precocial birds, but still within the lowermost range for all endothermic vertebrates. Conclusions/Significance The unexpected histology of Archaeopteryx and other basalmost birds is actually consistent with retention of the phylogenetically earlier paravian dinosaur condition when size is considered. The first birds were simply feathered dinosaurs with respect to growth and energetic physiology. The evolution of the novel pattern in modern forms occurred later in the group's history. PMID:19816582

  1. The Contribution of SMEs to the Economic Growth (Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Kruja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Small & Medium Sized Enterprises have an important place in the economical development of Albania. They already consist of the majority of private business and they are the main source of employment generation, innovation and productivity growth. In this context animportant determinant of the Albanian economy development lies in the development of small and medium enterprises, which is not based only on the number of start-ups but also on the positive change of business environment and entrepreneurial skills. The aim of the research is to examine the contribution of SMEs to the economic growth of the country through employment generation, building of added value, GDP, export activities etc., and the changes in entrepreneurial skills of Albanian SMEs to foresee the ways of improvement and enterprise development. The methods of research are: analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature discussing the problems SMEs are facing and the environmental changes; the systematic statistical data analysis of Albanian entrepreneurial skills of small and medium-sized enterprises. The analysis shows that from the weakest dimensions of SME sector in Albania are entrepreneurship education and training and the promotion of innovation and use of new technologies.Keywords: SMEs, economic growth, Albania

  2. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  3. Non-destructive measurement of soybean leaf thickness via X-ray computed tomography allows the study of diel leaf growth rhythms in the third dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Mielewczik, Michael; Friedli, Michael; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Present-day high-resolution leaf growth measurements provide exciting insights into diel (24-h) leaf growth rhythms and their control by the circadian clock, which match photosynthesis with oscillating environmental conditions. However, these methods are based on measurements of leaf area or elongation and neglect diel changes of leaf thickness. In contrast, the influence of various environmental stress factors to which leaves are exposed to during growth on the final leaf thickness has been studied extensively. Yet, these studies cannot elucidate how variation in leaf area and thickness are simultaneously regulated and influenced on smaller time scales. Only few methods are available to measure the thickness of young, growing leaves non-destructively. Therefore, we evaluated X-ray computed tomography to simultaneously and non-invasively record diel changes and growth of leaf thickness and area. Using conventional imaging and X-ray computed tomography leaf area, thickness and volume growth of young soybean leaves were simultaneously and non-destructively monitored at three cardinal time points during night and day for a period of 80 h under non-stressful growth conditions. Reference thickness measurements on paperboards were in good agreement to CT measurements. Comparison of CT with leaf mass data further proved the consistency of our method. Exploratory analysis showed that measurements were accurate enough for recording and analyzing relative diel changes of leaf thickness, which were considerably different to those of leaf area. Relative growth rates of leaf area were consistently positive and highest during 'nights', while diel changes in thickness fluctuated more and were temporarily negative, particularly during 'evenings'. The method is suitable for non-invasive, accurate monitoring of diel variation in leaf volume. Moreover, our results indicate that diel rhythms of leaf area and thickness show some similarity but are not tightly coupled. These

  4. Growth kinetics and initial stage growth during plasma-enhanced Ti atomic layer deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the growth kinetics of plasma-enhanced Ti atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a quartz crystal microbalance. Ti ALD films were grown at temperatures from 20 to 200 deg. C using TiCl sub 4 as a source gas and rf plasma-produced atomic H as the reducing agent. Postdeposition ex situ chemical analyses of thin films showed that the main impurity is oxygen, mostly incorporated during the air exposure prior to analysis. The thickness per cycle, corresponding to the growth rate, was measured by quartz crystal microbalance as a function of various key growth parameters, including TiCl sub 4 and H exposure time, rf plasma power, and sample temperature. The growth rates were independent of TiCl sub 4 exposure above 1x10 sup 3 L, indicating typical ALD mode growth. The key kinetic parameters for Cl extraction reaction and TiCl sub 4 adsorption kinetics were obtained and the growth kinetics were modeled to predict the growth rates based upon these results. Also, the dependency of growth kinetics on d...

  5. Effect of Nonviral Plasmid Delivered Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Mandibular Condylar Growth: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is an important regulator of tissue growth. Previous studies have shown that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulates bone growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible synergetic effect of LIPUS and local injection of nonviral bFGF plasmid DNA (pDNA on mandibular growth in rats. Design. Groups were control, blank pDNA, bFGF pDNA, LIPUS, and bFGF pDNA + LIPUS. Treatments were performed for 28 days. Significant increase was observed in mandibular height and condylar length in LIPUS groups. MicroCT analysis showed significant increase in bone volume fraction in bFGF pDNA + LIPUS group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased cell count and condylar proliferative and hypertrophic layers widths in bFGF pDNA group. Results. Current study showed increased mandibular condylar growth in either bFGF pDNA or LIPUS groups compared to the combined group that showed only increased bone volume fraction. Conclusion. It appears that there is an additive effect of bFGF + LIPUS on the mandibular growth.

  6. Reciprocal cross infection of sticklebacks with the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reveals consistent population differences in parasite growth and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Martin; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Scharsack, Jörn P; Jakobsen, Per J

    2016-03-08

    In host-parasite evolutionary arms races, parasites are generally expected to adapt more rapidly, due to their large population sizes and short generation times. There exist systems, though, where parasites cannot outpace their hosts because of similar generation times in both antagonists. In those cases concomitant adaptation is expected. We tested this hypothesis in the three-spined stickleback-Schistocephalus solidus tapeworm system, where generation times are comparable in both organisms. We chose two populations of sticklebacks which differ prominently in the prevalence of S. solidus and consequently in its level of selective pressure. We performed a full factorial common garden experiment. Particularly, Norwegian (NO) and German (DE) sticklebacks, as well as hybrids between both stickleback populations and in both parental combinations, were exposed each to a single S. solidus originating from the same two host populations. We found the infection phenotype to depend on the host population, the parasite population, but not their interaction. NO-parasites showed higher infectivity than DE-parasites, with NO-sticklebacks also being more resistant to DE-parasites than to the sympatric NO-parasite. Reciprocally, DE-hosts were more susceptible to the allopatric NO-parasite while DE-parasites grew less than NO-parasites in all stickleback groups. Despite this asymmetry, the ratio of worm to host weight, an indicator of parasite virulence, was identical in both sympatric combinations, suggesting an optimal virulence as a common outcome of parallel coevolved systems. In hybrid sticklebacks, intermediate infection rates and growth of S. solidus from either origin suggests a simple genetic basis of resistance. However, comparison of infection phenotypes in NO-maternal and DE-maternal hybrid sticklebacks indicates local adaptation to the sympatric counterpart in both the host and the parasite. Host-parasite systems with similar generation time show evidence for

  7. Evidence for Divergent Evolution of Growth Temperature Preference in Sympatric Saccharomyces Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Paula; Valério, Elisabete; Correia, Cláudia; de Almeida, João M. G. C. F.; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The genus Saccharomyces currently includes eight species in addition to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which can be consistently isolated from tree bark and soil. We recently found sympatric pairs of Saccharomyces species, composed of one cryotolerant and one thermotolerant species in oak bark samples of various geographic origins. In order to contribute to explain the occurrence in sympatry of Saccharomyces species, we screened Saccharomyces genomic data for protein divergence that might be correlated to distinct growth temperature preferences of the species, using the dN/dS ratio as a measure of protein evolution rates and pair-wise species comparisons. In addition to proteins previously implicated in growth at suboptimal temperatures, we found that glycolytic enzymes were among the proteins exhibiting higher than expected divergence when one cryotolerant and one thermotolerant species are compared. By measuring glycolytic fluxes and glycolytic enzymatic activities in different species and at different temperatures, we subsequently show that the unusual divergence of glycolytic genes may be related to divergent evolution of the glycolytic pathway aligning its performance to the growth temperature profiles of the different species. In general, our results support the view that growth temperature preference is a trait that may have undergone divergent selection in the course of ecological speciation in Saccharomyces. PMID:21674061

  8. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  9. A self-consistent nuclear energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Y.; Morita, T.; Kawakami, H.; Arie, K.; Suzuki, M.; Iida, M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1992-01-01

    A self-consistent nuclear energy supply system (SCNESS) is investigated for a Fast Reactor. SCNESS is proposed as a future stable energy supplier with no harmful influence on humans or environment for the ultimate goal of nuclear energy development. SCNESS should be inherently safe, be able to breed fissionable material, and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides (i.e., minor actinides and long-lived fission products). The relationship between these characteristics and the spatial assignment of excess neutrons (v-1) for each characteristic are analyzed. The analysis shows that excess neutrons play an intrinsic role in realizing SCNESS. The reactor concept of SCNESS is investigated by considering utilization of excess neutrons. Results show that a small-size axially double-layered annular core with metal fuel is a choice candidate for SCNESS. SCNESS is concluded feasible. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs

  10. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family  G. But is a given set  C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for  G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where  C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is  C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing  C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships.

  11. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  12. Renormalization of self-consistent Schwinger-Dyson equations at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hees, H. van; Knoll, J.

    2002-01-01

    We show that Dyson resummation schemes based on Baym's Φ-derivable approximations can be renormalized with counter term structures solely defined on the vacuum level. First applications to the self-consistent solution of the sunset self-energy in φ 4 -theory are presented. (orig.)

  13. Growth rates of breeder reactor fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    During the contract period, a consistent formalism for the definition of the growth rates (and thus the doubling time) of breeder reactor fuel has been developed. This formalism was then extended to symbiotic operation of breeder and converter reactors. Further, an estimation prescription for the growth rate has been developed which is based upon the breeding worth factors. The characteristics of this definition have been investigated, which led to an additional integral concept, the breeding bonus

  14. Thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations and the structure of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Kahl, G.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the application of the new thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations for the determination of the structural properties of liquid metals. We present a detailed comparison of the structure (S(q) and g(r)) for models of liquid alkali metals as obtained from two thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations and some published exact computer simulation results; the range of states extends from the triple point to the expanded metal. The theories which only impose thermodynamic self-consistency without any fitting of external data show an excellent agreement with the simulation results, thus demonstrating that this new type of integral equation is definitely superior to the conventional ones (hypernetted chain, Percus-Yevick, mean spherical approximation, etc). (author)

  15. Social Dimensions of Personal Growth following Widowhood: A Three-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recksiedler, Claudia; Loter, Katharina; Klaas, Hannah S; Hollstein, Betina; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina

    2018-01-01

    Losing one's spouse is one of the most stressful life events in old age, yet research on positive consequences of overcoming critical life events describes experiences of personal growth for survivors. Because prior studies conceptualized personal growth as a stable accomplishment of an individual, our study challenges this assumption by examining trajectories of personal growth and its links to two aspects of social support. We assume that personal growth is boosted by heightened levels of loss-related social support seeking during early years of widowhood. However, toward the later stages in the bereavement process, we expect personal growth to be fostered by perceived social embeddedness. Data stem from a survey on relationships in later life conducted in 2012, 2014, and 2016 in Switzerland. The final analytical sample consisted of 508 individuals aged 50+ years, who were on average 73 years old and widowed for about 3 years at baseline. Longitudinal explorative factor analyses yielded a 3-factorial solution for personal growth. Random-effects group-specific growth curves were used to examine the trajectories of personal growth and its subdimensions, by different levels of loss-related social support seeking and embeddedness in a supportive network, over the first 8 years of widowhood. Our analyses included time-invariant and time-varying covariates. On average, our findings point to a stable trajectory of personal growth after having become widowed in later life. Group-specific analyses, however, showed different courses in the trajectories for specific subdimensions of personal growth - particularly for spiritual change and appreciation of life. Average marginal effects also yielded group differences by loss-related support seeking in the level of personal growth over time, which highlight the importance of social support seeking, rather than social embeddedness, at all stages of the bereavement process. Findings underline the importance of a longitudinal and

  16. GSK3 controls axon growth via CLASP-mediated regulation of growth cone microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Saijilafu; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Xu, Wen-Lin; Zhou, Feng-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity in neurons yields pleiotropic outcomes, causing both axon growth promotion and inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that specific GSK3 substrates, such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), support axon growth by regulating the stability of axonal microtubules (MTs), but the substrate(s) and mechanisms conveying axon growth inhibition remain elusive. Here we show that CLIP (cytoplasmic linker protein)-associated protein (CLASP), originally identified as a MT plus end-binding protein, displays both plus end-binding and lattice-binding activities in nerve growth cones, and reveal that the two MT-binding activities regulate axon growth in an opposing manner: The lattice-binding activity mediates axon growth inhibition induced by suppression of GSK3 activity via preventing MT protrusion into the growth cone periphery, whereas the plus end-binding property supports axon extension via stabilizing the growing ends of axonal MTs. We propose a model in which CLASP transduces GSK3 activity levels to differentially control axon growth by coordinating the stability and configuration of growth cone MTs. PMID:21937714

  17. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  18. Lévy-based growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsdóttir, Kristjana Ýr; Schmiegel, Jürgen; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we give a condensed review, for the nonspecialist reader, of a new modelling framework for spatio-temporal processes, based on Lévy theory. We show the potential of the approach in stochastic geometry and spatial statistics by studying Lévy-based growth modelling of planar o...... objects. The growth models considered are spatio-temporal stochastic processes on the circle. As a by product, flexible new models for space–time covariance functions on the circle are provided. An application of the Lévy-based growth models to tumour growth is discussed....

  19. Growth, production and quality of pineapple in response to herbicide use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvalho Brant Maia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In pineapple fields, weed competition is exacerbated by the fact that the crop is small and has a very slow vegetative development. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of herbicides on growth, yield and quality of pineapple, cultivar 'Pérola'. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of weeding by hoe and the herbicides diuron; fluazifop-p-butyl and atrazine + S-metolachlor applied in post-emergence. The characteristics evaluated monthly during the vegetative stage were stem diameter, D-leaf length, number of leaves, number of emitted leaves and percentage of natural floral induction. In the reproductive phase, evaluations were made of average fruit weight (g with and without crown, fruits length and diameter, number of slip, slip-sucker and sucker type seedlings, determination of soluble solids and pH in the pulp. There was no effect of herbicide treatment on the vegetative growth characteristics. Stem diameter increased until 330 days after planting, showing a decrease after this period. The D-leaf grew over time in all treatments, although phytotoxicity symptoms were observed after the first application of herbicides. The traits evaluated on the reproductive phase showed no significant differences in response to treatments. Therefore, the use of diuron fluazifop-p-butyl and atrazine + S-metolachlor did not affect growth, yield and fruit quality of pineapple, cultivar 'Pérola'.

  20. Influence of water table decline on growth allocation and endogenous gibberellins in black cottonwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, S.B.; Zanewich, K.; Stefura, C. [Lethbridge Univ., Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Mahoney, J.M. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    Cottonwoods have shown an adaptation to the riparian zone by coordinating root elongation to maintain contact with the water table, whose depth varies with the elevation of the adjacent river. The rate of water decline on growth allocation and concentrations of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in black cottonwood saplings were studied at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta. Water declines were achieved by using rhizopods, and root elongation approximately doubled in response whereas leaf area was reduced. At some point, a greater water decline rate led to water stress resulting in reduced growth, increased leaf diffusive resistance, decreased water potential, and leaf senescence and abscission. After extraction of endogenous GAs, they were purified and analysed by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring with internal ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA standards. The results showed that GAs were higher in shoot tips and sequentially lower in basal stems, root tips, leaves and upper roots. Noticeable relationships did not appear between GA concentration and growth allocation across the water decline treatments. Only GA{sub 8} showed a consistent reduction in plants experiencing water table decline. This research did not permit the authors to conclude whether endogenous GAs play a primary role in the regulation of root elongation in response to water table decline. 7 figs., 25 refs.

  1. Modelling of epitaxial film growth with an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier dependent on the step height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, F F; Ferreira, S C; Ferreira, S O

    2011-01-01

    The formation of mounded surfaces in epitaxial growth is attributed to the presence of barriers against interlayer diffusion in the terrace edges, known as Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barriers. We investigate a model for epitaxial growth using an ES barrier explicitly dependent on the step height. Our model has an intrinsic topological step barrier even in the absence of an explicit ES barrier. We show that mounded morphologies can be obtained even for a small barrier while a self-affine growth, consistent with the Villain-Lai-Das Sarma equation, is observed in the absence of an explicit step barrier. The mounded surfaces are described by a super-roughness dynamical scaling characterized by locally smooth (facetted) surfaces and a global roughness exponent α > 1. The thin film limit is featured by surfaces with self-assembled three-dimensional structures having an aspect ratio (height/width) that may increase or decrease with temperature depending on the strength of the step barrier. (fast track communication)

  2. An Electron Microscopy Study of Graphite Growth in Nodular Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, L.; Jday, R.; Lacaze, J.

    2018-04-01

    Growth of graphite during solidification and high-temperature solid-state transformation has been investigated in samples cut out from a thin-wall casting which solidified partly in the stable (iron-graphite) and partly in the metastable (iron-cementite) systems. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize graphite nodules in as-cast state and in samples having been fully graphitized at various temperatures in the austenite field. Nodules in the as-cast material show a twofold structure characterized by an inner zone where graphite is disoriented and an outer zone where it is well crystallized. In heat-treated samples, graphite nodules consist of well-crystallized sectors radiating from the nucleus. These observations suggest that the disoriented zone appears because of mechanical deformation when the liquid contracts during its solidification in the metastable system. During heat-treatment, the graphite in this zone recrystallizes. In turn, it can be concluded that nodular graphite growth mechanism is the same during solidification and solid-state transformation.

  3. Fourier rebinning and consistency equations for time-of-flight PET planograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yusheng; Defrise, Michel; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unique geometry, dual-panel PET scanners have many advantages in dedicated breast imaging and on-board imaging applications since the compact scanners can be combined with other imaging and treatment modalities. The major challenges of dual-panel PET imaging are the limited-angle problem and data truncation, which can cause artifacts due to incomplete data sampling. The time-of-flight (TOF) information can be a promising solution to reduce these artifacts. The TOF planogram is the native data format for dual-panel TOF PET scanners, and the non-TOF planogram is the 3D extension of linogram. The TOF planograms is five-dimensional while the objects are three-dimensional, and there are two degrees of redundancy. In this paper, we derive consistency equations and Fourier-based rebinning algorithms to provide a complete understanding of the rich structure of the fully 3D TOF planograms. We first derive two consistency equations and John's equation for 3D TOF planograms. By taking the Fourier transforms, we obtain two Fourier consistency equations and the Fourier-John equation, which are the duals of the consistency equations and John's equation, respectively. We then solve the Fourier consistency equations and Fourier-John equation using the method of characteristics. The two degrees of entangled redundancy of the 3D TOF data can be explicitly elicited and exploited by the solutions along the characteristic curves. As the special cases of the general solutions, we obtain Fourier rebinning and consistency equations (FORCEs), and thus we obtain a complete scheme to convert among different types of PET planograms: 3D TOF, 3D non-TOF, 2D TOF and 2D non-TOF planograms. The FORCEs can be used as Fourier-based rebinning algorithms for TOF-PET data reduction, inverse rebinnings for designing fast projectors, or consistency conditions for estimating missing data. As a byproduct, we show the two consistency equations are necessary and sufficient for 3D TOF planograms

  4. Consistent errors in first strand cDNA due to random hexamer mispriming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P van Gurp

    Full Text Available Priming of random hexamers in cDNA synthesis is known to show sequence bias, but in addition it has been suggested recently that mismatches in random hexamer priming could be a cause of mismatches between the original RNA fragment and observed sequence reads. To explore random hexamer mispriming as a potential source of these errors, we analyzed two independently generated RNA-seq datasets of synthetic ERCC spikes for which the reference is known. First strand cDNA synthesized by random hexamer priming on RNA showed consistent position and nucleotide-specific mismatch errors in the first seven nucleotides. The mismatch errors found in both datasets are consistent in distribution and thermodynamically stable mismatches are more common. This strongly indicates that RNA-DNA mispriming of specific random hexamers causes these errors. Due to their consistency and specificity, mispriming errors can have profound implications for downstream applications if not dealt with properly.

  5. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  6. Multiplicative renormalizability and self-consistent treatments of the Schwinger-Dyson equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.; Dorey, N.

    1989-11-01

    Many approximations to the Schwinger-Dyson equations place constraints on the renormalization constants of a theory. The requirement that the solutions to the equations be multiplicatively renormalizable also places constraints on these constants. Demanding that these two sets of constraints be compatible is an important test of the self-consistency of the approximations made. We illustrate this idea by considering the equation for the fermion propagator in massless quenched quantum electrodynamics, (QED), checking the consistency of various approximations. In particular, we show that the much used 'ladder' approximation is self-consistent, provided that the coupling constant is renormalized in a particular way. We also propose another approximation which satisfies this self-consistency test, but requires that the coupling be unrenormalized, as should be the case in the full quenched approximation. This new approximation admits an exact solution, which also satisfies the renormalization group equation for the quenched approximation. (author)

  7. Expression of PML tumor suppressor in A 431 cells reduces cellular growth by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallian, S.; Chang, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the promyelocytic leukemia, PML, protein functions as a cellular and growth suppressor. Transient expression of PML was also found to repress the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene promoter. In this study we have examined the effects of PML on A431 cells, which express a high level of + protein. The PML gene was introduced into the cells using the adenovirus-mediated gene transfer system. Western blot analysis on the extracts from the cells expressing PML showed a significant repression in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor protein. The cells were examined for growth and DNA synthesis. The data showed a marked reduction in both growth and DNA synthesis rate in the cells expressing PML compared with the control cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the controls, the cells expressing PML were found to be more in G1 phase, fewer in S and about the same number in the G2/M phase. This data clearly demonstrated that the repression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in A 431 cells by PML was associated with inhibition of cell growth and alteration of the cell cycle distribution, suggesting a novel mechanism for the known growth inhibitory effects of PML

  8. Context-specific metabolic networks are consistent with experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Becker

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of cellular metabolism are publicly available for a variety of different microorganisms and some mammalian genomes. To date, these reconstructions are "genome-scale" and strive to include all reactions implied by the genome annotation, as well as those with direct experimental evidence. Clearly, many of the reactions in a genome-scale reconstruction will not be active under particular conditions or in a particular cell type. Methods to tailor these comprehensive genome-scale reconstructions into context-specific networks will aid predictive in silico modeling for a particular situation. We present a method called Gene Inactivity Moderated by Metabolism and Expression (GIMME to achieve this goal. The GIMME algorithm uses quantitative gene expression data and one or more presupposed metabolic objectives to produce the context-specific reconstruction that is most consistent with the available data. Furthermore, the algorithm provides a quantitative inconsistency score indicating how consistent a set of gene expression data is with a particular metabolic objective. We show that this algorithm produces results consistent with biological experiments and intuition for adaptive evolution of bacteria, rational design of metabolic engineering strains, and human skeletal muscle cells. This work represents progress towards producing constraint-based models of metabolism that are specific to the conditions where the expression profiling data is available.

  9. Growth of single crystals of BaFe12O19 by solid state crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John G.; Sun, Hengyang; Kook, Young-Geun; Kim, Joon-Seong; Le, Phan Gia

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of BaFe12O19 are grown for the first time by solid state crystal growth. Seed crystals of BaFe12O19 are buried in BaFe12O19+1 wt% BaCO3 powder, which are then pressed into pellets containing the seed crystals. During sintering, single crystals of BaFe12O19 up to ∼130 μm thick in the c-axis direction grow on the seed crystals by consuming grains from the surrounding polycrystalline matrix. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that the single crystal and the surrounding polycrystalline matrix have the same chemical composition. Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal to have the BaFe12O19 structure. The optimum growth temperature is found to be 1200 °C. The single crystal growth behavior is explained using the mixed control theory of grain growth.

  10. Multiphase flows of N immiscible incompressible fluids: A reduction-consistent and thermodynamically-consistent formulation and associated algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present a reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent formulation and an associated numerical algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an isothermal mixture consisting of N (N ⩾ 2) immiscible incompressible fluids with different physical properties (densities, viscosities, and pair-wise surface tensions). By reduction consistency we refer to the property that if only a set of M (1 ⩽ M ⩽ N - 1) fluids are present in the system then the N-phase governing equations and boundary conditions will exactly reduce to those for the corresponding M-phase system. By thermodynamic consistency we refer to the property that the formulation honors the thermodynamic principles. Our N-phase formulation is developed based on a more general method that allows for the systematic construction of reduction-consistent formulations, and the method suggests the existence of many possible forms of reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent N-phase formulations. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for flow problems involving multiple fluid components and large density ratios and large viscosity ratios, and the simulation results are compared with the physical theories or the available physical solutions. The comparisons demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for this class of problems.

  11. Life insurance, financial development and economic growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector may contribute to economic growth by its very mechanism of savings mobilisation and thereby performing an intermediation role in the economy. This ensures that capital is provided to deficient units who are in need of capital to finance their working capital requirements and invest in technology thereby resulting in an increase in output. In this way, it could be argued that life insurance development spurs financial development. In this article we investigate the causal relationship between the life insurance sector, financial development and economic growth in South Africa for the period 1990 to 2012. We make use of life insurance density as the proxy for life insurance development, real per capita growth domestic product as the proxy for economic growth and real broad money per capita as the proxy for financial development. We test for cointegration amongst the variables by applying the Johansen procedure and then proceed to test for Granger causality based on the vector error correction model (VECM. Our results confirm the existence of at least one cointegrating relationship amongst the variables. The results indicate that the direction of causality runs from the economy to the life insurance sector which is consistent with the “demand-following” insurance-growth hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality running from the economy to financial development which is consistent with the “demand following” finance-growth hypothesis. The results also reveal that life insurance complements economic growth in bringing about financial development further lending credence to the “complementarity” hypothesis

  12. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Uys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120 in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV, consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV, consisting of 2 twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age.Adjusting for birth mass, birth date,damparity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG, both pre-weaning (days 0–42 and overall (days 0–60, was higher inHMVthan inRMVcalves (P<0.001.After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001. The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMVcalves. Overall feed conversion rate ofHMVcalves was 9.6%better thanRMVcalves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea.We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  13. Multiscale Simulation and Modeling of Multilayer Heteroepitactic Growth of C60 on Pentacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Yaset M; Cantrell, Rebecca A; Berard, Philip G; Koch, Donald L; Clancy, Paulette

    2016-03-29

    We apply multiscale methods to describe the strained growth of multiple layers of C60 on a thin film of pentacene. We study this growth in the presence of a monolayer pentacene step to compare our simulations to recent experimental studies by Breuer and Witte of submonolayer growth in the presence of monolayer steps. The molecular-level details of this organic semiconductor interface have ramifications on the macroscale structural and electronic behavior of this system and allow us to describe several unexplained experimental observations for this system. The growth of a C60 thin film on a pentacene surface is complicated by the differing crystal habits of the two component species, leading to heteroepitactical growth. In order to probe this growth, we use three computational methods that offer different approaches to coarse-graining the system and differing degrees of computational efficiency. We present a new, efficient reaction-diffusion continuum model for 2D systems whose results compare well with mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) results for submonolayer growth. KMC extends our ability to simulate multiple layers but requires a library of predefined rates for event transitions. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) circumvents KMC's need for predefined lattices, allowing defects and grain boundaries to provide a more realistic thin film morphology. For multilayer growth, in this particularly suitable candidate for coarse-graining, CGMD is a preferable approach to KMC. Combining the results from these three methods, we show that the lattice strain induced by heteroepitactical growth promotes 3D growth and the creation of defects in the first monolayer. The CGMD results are consistent with experimental results on the same system by Conrad et al. and by Breuer and Witte in which C60 aggregates change from a 2D structure at low temperature to 3D clusters along the pentacene step edges at higher temperatures.

  14. Simplified models for dark matter face their consistent completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Machado, Pedro A. N.; No, Jose Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Simplified dark matter models have been recently advocated as a powerful tool to exploit the complementarity between dark matter direct detection, indirect detection and LHC experimental probes. Focusing on pseudoscalar mediators between the dark and visible sectors, we show that the simplified dark matter model phenomenology departs significantly from that of consistent ${SU(2)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times U(1)_{\\mathrm{Y}}}$ gauge invariant completions. We discuss the key physics simplified models fail to capture, and its impact on LHC searches. Notably, we show that resonant mono-Z searches provide competitive sensitivities to standard mono-jet analyses at $13$ TeV LHC.

  15. Minimum wage hikes and the wage growth of low-wage workers

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna K Swaffield

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of the British minimum wage on the wage growth of low-wage employees. Estimates of the probability of low-wage employees receiving positive wage growth have been significantly increased by the minimum wage upratings or hikes. However, whether the actual wage growth of these workers has been significantly raised or not depends crucially on the magnitude of the minimum wage hike considered. Findings are consistent with employ...

  16. Observations on human smooth muscle cell cultures from hyperplastic lesions of prosthetic bypass grafts: Production of a platelet-derived growth factor-like mitogen and expression of a gene for a platelet-derived growth factor receptor--a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birinyi, L.K.; Warner, S.J.; Salomon, R.N.; Callow, A.D.; Libby, P.

    1989-01-01

    Prosthetic bypass grafts placed to the distal lower extremity often fail because of an occlusive tissue response in the perianastomotic region. The origin of the cells that comprise this occlusive lesion and the causes of the cellular proliferation are not known. To increase our understanding of this process we cultured cells from hyperplastic lesions obtained from patients at the time of reexploration for lower extremity graft failure, and we studied their identity and growth factor production in tissue culture. These cultures contain cells that express muscle-specific actin isoforms, shown by immunohistochemical staining, consistent with vascular smooth muscle origin. These cultures also released material that stimulated smooth muscle cell growth. A portion of this activity was similar to platelet-derived growth factor, since preincubation with antibody-to-human platelet-derived growth factor partially blocked the mitogenic effect of medium conditioned by human anastomotic hyperplastic cells. These conditioned media also contained material that competed with platelet-derived growth factor for its receptor, as measured in a radioreceptor assay. Northern blot analysis showed that these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes the A chain but not the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor. In addition, these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes a platelet-derived growth factor receptor. We conclude that cultured smooth muscle cells from human anastomotic hyperplastic lesions express genes for platelet-derived growth factor A chain and a platelet-derived growth factor receptor and secrete biologically active molecules similar to platelet-derived growth factor

  17. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  18. EVALUATION OF CONSISTENCY AND SETTING TIME OF IRANIAN DENTAL STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F GOL BIDI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.

  19. Firm Growth Function and Extended-Gibrat’s Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atushi Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically show that the logarithmic average sales of firms first follow power-law growth and subsequently follow exponential growth, if the growth-rate distributions of the sales obey the extended-Gibrat’s property and Gibrat’s law. Here, the extended-Gibrat’s property and Gibrat’s law are statistically observed in short-term data, which denote the dependence of the growth-rate distributions on the initial values. In the derivation, we analytically show that the parameter of the extended-Gibrat’s property is identical to the power-law growth exponent and that it also decides the parameter of the exponential growth. By employing around one million bits of exhaustive sales data of Japanese firms in the ORBIS database, we confirmed our analytic results.

  20. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  1. Comparative study of impact of Azotobacter and Trichoderma with other fertilizers on maize growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mahato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers may be a better eco-friendly option to maintain soil fertility. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Azotobacter and Trichoderma on the vegetative growth of maize (Zea mays L. plants. The experiment was carried out in medium sized pots, at IAAS, Lamjung (Feb 2017 - May 2017 in completely randomized design (CRD, consisting eight treatments and three replications. Treatments were namely T1 (control, T2 (Azotobacter, T3 (Trichoderma, T4 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma, T5 (NPK, T6 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM, T7 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM + NPK, T8 (FYM. Azotobacter showed a positive increase in plant height, stem girth, dry shoot weight, root length and width, and root weight while Trichoderma displayed either negative or minimal impact. Effect of FYM was lower than Azotobacter but considerably higher than Trichoderma. Trichoderma seriously inhibited the expression of Azotobacter when used together. Trichoderma even suppressed the outcome (except shoot weight of FYM when used together. Root length was the longest in Azotobacter inoculation. The highest number of leaves was in T7 followed by Azotobacter (T2 and NPK (T5. Unlike leaf width, Azotobacter showed a negligible increase in leaves length while Trichoderma wherever present showed the negative impact. Minimum chlorophyll content was found in Azotobacter or Trichoderma after 73 days. Azotobacter treatment showed early tasseling than Trichoderma. The association of Azotobacter and Trichoderma increased the biomass. Azotobacter has significant effects on growth parameters of maize and can supplement chemical fertilizer, while Trichoderma was found to inhibit most of the growth parameters.

  2. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyser De La Torre-Ruiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (p < 0.05 on plant growth and the sugar content of A. americana, showing that these native plant growth-promoting bacteria are a practical, simple, and efficient alternative to promote the growth of agave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species.

  3. A generalized non-Gaussian consistency relation for single field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Pradenas, Bastián

    2018-05-01

    We show that a perturbed inflationary spacetime, driven by a canonical single scalar field, is invariant under a special class of coordinate transformations together with a field reparametrization of the curvature perturbation in co-moving gauge. This transformation may be used to derive the squeezed limit of the 3-point correlation function of the co-moving curvature perturbations valid in the case that these do not freeze after horizon crossing. This leads to a generalized version of Maldacena's non-Gaussian consistency relation in the sense that the bispectrum squeezed limit is completely determined by spacetime diffeomorphisms. Just as in the case of the standard consistency relation, this result may be understood as the consequence of how long-wavelength modes modulate those of shorter wavelengths. This relation allows one to derive the well known violation to the consistency relation encountered in ultra slow-roll, where curvature perturbations grow exponentially after horizon crossing.

  4. Knockdown of the Placental Growth Factor Gene Inhibits Laser Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Nourinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of placental growth factor (PlGF gene knockdown in a murine model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Methods: Choroidal neovascularization was induced in the left eyes of 11 mice by infrared laser. Small interfering RNA (siRNA, 20 picomoles/10 μl corresponding to PlGF mRNA was administered intravitreally by Hamilton syringe in all subjects. One month later, fluorescein angiography and histolologic examination were performed. Results: No leakage was apparent in the 11 eyes treated with siRNA cognate to PlGF. The results of histological evaluation were consistent with angiographic findings showing absence of choroidal neovascularization. Conclusion: Knockdown of the PlGF gene can inhibit the growth of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice.

  5. Does Methodological Guidance Produce Consistency? A Review of Methodological Consistency in Breast Cancer Utility Value Measurement in NICE Single Technology Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Micah; Rice, Stephen; Craig, Dawn

    2017-07-05

    Since 2004, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) methodological guidance for technology appraisals has emphasised a strong preference for using the validated EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) quality-of-life instrument, measuring patient health status from patients or carers, and using the general public's preference-based valuation of different health states when assessing health benefits in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to review all NICE single technology appraisals (STAs) for breast cancer treatments to explore consistency in the use of utility scores in light of NICE methodological guidance. A review of all published breast cancer STAs was undertaken using all publicly available STA documents for each included assessment. Utility scores were assessed for consistency with NICE-preferred methods and original data sources. Furthermore, academic assessment group work undertaken during the STA process was examined to evaluate the emphasis of NICE-preferred quality-of-life measurement methods. Twelve breast cancer STAs were identified, and many STAs used evidence that did not follow NICE's preferred utility score measurement methods. Recent STA submissions show companies using EQ-5D and mapping. Academic assessment groups rarely emphasized NICE-preferred methods, and queries about preferred methods were rare. While there appears to be a trend in recent STA submissions towards following NICE methodological guidance, historically STA guidance in breast cancer has generally not used NICE's preferred methods. Future STAs in breast cancer and reviews of older guidance should ensure that utility measurement methods are consistent with the NICE reference case to help produce consistent, equitable decision making.

  6. Growth and phase transformations of Ir on Ge(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, C. H.; Stenger, B. H.; Durand, A. M.; Morad, J. A.; Sato, Y.; Poppenheimer, E. C.; Chiang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The growth of Ir on Ge(111) as a function of temperature between 23 °C and 820 °C is characterized with low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Deposition onto a substrate at 350 °C revealed a novel growth mode consisting of multilayer Ir islands with (√3 × √3)R30° (abbreviated as √3) structure interconnected by ;bridges; of single-layer Ir several atoms wide. For deposition onto substrates above 500 °C, the √3 Ir phase grows with dendritic morphology, and substrate step bunches act as barriers to √3 Ir growth. LEEM images showed Stranski-Krastanov growth for 650-820 °C: after the √3 phase covers the surface, corresponding to 2 monolayers (ML) Ir coverage, multilayer hexagonal-shaped Ir islands form, surrounded by regions of IrGe alloy. Hexagonal-shaped Ir islands also formed upon heating 1.2 ML of √3 Ir beyond 830 °C, which resulted in the elimination of √3 structure from the surface. The transformation from √3 to (1 × 1) structure upon heating to 830 °C was an irreversible surface phase transition. Annealing > 2.0 ML of Ir in the √3 phase above the 830 °C disorder temperature, followed by cooling, produced a (3 × 1) structure. Subsequent heating and cooling through 830 °C give evidence for a reversible (3 × 1) to (1 × 1) phase transition.

  7. 20 CFR 220.27 - What is needed to show an impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is needed to show an impairment. 220.27... is needed to show an impairment. A physical or mental impairment must result from anatomical... diagnostic techniques. A physical or mental impairment must be established by medical evidence consisting of...

  8. Social Security Reform and Population Ageing in a Two-Sector Growth Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy.The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector and

  9. The relationship between energy and economic growth: Empirical evidence from 66 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Susan Sunila

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of electricity and non-electricity variables on economic growth for a global panel consisting of 66 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1986-2005 inclusive. We also estimate this relationship for four regional panels; namely, East/South Asian and the Pacific region, Europe and Central Asian region, Latin America and Caribbean region, and Sub-Saharan, North Africa and Middle Eastern region. In total, we use six proxies for energy. The empirical analysis is based on a sound theoretical framework, in that we draw on growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of inflation, capital stock, labour force and trade, with energy. Generally, the results on the impact of energy are mixed. (author)

  10. Growth, unemployment and wage inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Raurich, Xavier; Sorolla, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    We introduce wage setting via efficiency wages in the neoclassical one-sector growth model to study the growth effects of wage inertia. We compare the dynamic equilibrium of an economy with wage inertia with the equilibrium of an economy without wage inertia. We show that wage inertia affects the long run employment rate and that the transitional dynamics of the main economic variables will be different because wages are a state variable when wage inertia is introduced. In particular, we show...

  11. Influence of growth hormone replacement on neurological and psychomotor development. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Felipe; Eisencraft, Adriana Pasmanik; Crisostomo, Lindiane Gomes

    2018-05-14

    The height response to the use of growth hormone in short height cases has already been confirmed in the literature. The influence of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH-IGF1) axis components on development, function, regeneration, neuroprotection, cognition, and motor functions has been evaluated in experimental studies and in adults with central nervous system lesions. However, there is still little research on the clinical impact of hormone replacement on neurological and psychomotor development. This report presents the case of a patient with excellent weight-height recovery and, even more surprisingly, neurological and psychomotor development in response to use of growth hormone. The result strengthens the correlation between experimental and clinical findings related to cerebral plasticity response to growth hormone in children. A preterm male patient with multiple health problems during the neonatal and young infancy period, who for six years presented with a relevant deficit in growth, bone maturation, and neurological and psychomotor development. At six years of age, he had low stature (z-score -6.89), low growth rate, and low weight (z-score -7.91). He was incapable of sustaining his axial weight, had not developed fine motor skills or sphincter control, and presented with dysfunctional swallowing and language. Supplementary tests showed low IGF-11 levels, with no changes on the image of the hypothalamus-pituitary region, and bone age consistent with three-year-old children - for a chronological age of six years and one month. Growth hormone replacement therapy had a strong impact on the weight-height recovery as well as on the neurological and psychomotor development of this child.

  12. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  13. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of 2012-086)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadje, M.A.; Pelsser, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  14. Fetal, neonatal, infant, and child international growth standards: an unprecedented opportunity for an integrated approach to assess growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cutberto

    2015-07-01

    The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Consistency across repeated eyewitness interviews: contrasting police detectives' beliefs with actual eyewitness performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krix, Alana C; Sauerland, Melanie; Lorei, Clemens; Rispens, Imke

    2015-01-01

    In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses' credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled) at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84) provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall) and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81) consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure.

  16. Consistency across Repeated Eyewitness Interviews: Contrasting Police Detectives’ Beliefs with Actual Eyewitness Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krix, Alana C.; Sauerland, Melanie; Lorei, Clemens; Rispens, Imke

    2015-01-01

    In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses’ credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled) at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84) provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall) and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81) consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure. PMID:25695428

  17. Consistency across repeated eyewitness interviews: contrasting police detectives' beliefs with actual eyewitness performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana C Krix

    Full Text Available In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses' credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84 provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81 consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure.

  18. Growth and biochemical composition of Chlorella vulgaris in different growth media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHIAS A. CHIA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for clean and low-cost algae production demands for investigations on algal physiological response under different growth conditions. In this research, we investigated the growth, biomass production and biochemical composition of Chlorella vulgaris using semi-continuous cultures employing three growth media (LC Oligo, Chu 10 and WC media. The highest cell density was obtained in LC Oligo, while the lowest in Chu medium. Chlorophyll a, carbohydrate and protein concentrations and yield were highest in Chu and LC Oligo media. Lipid class analysis showed that hydrocarbons (HC, sterol esthers (SE, free fatty acids (FFA, aliphatic alcohols (ALC, acetone mobile polar lipids (AMPL and phospholipids (PL concentrations and yields were highest in the Chu medium. Triglyceride (TAG and sterol (ST concentrations were highest in the LC Oligo medium. The results suggested that for cost effective cultivation, LC Oligo medium is the best choice among those studied, as it saved the cost of buying vitamins and EDTA associated with the other growth media, while at the same time resulted in the best growth performance and biomass production.

  19. Resolving nanoparticle growth mechanisms from size- and time-dependent growth rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichelstorfer, Lukas; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Ortega, John; Karl, Thomas; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Winkler, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation occurs frequently in the global atmosphere and may play a crucial role in climate by affecting cloud properties. The relevance of newly formed nanoparticles depends largely on the dynamics governing their initial formation and growth to sizes where they become important for cloud microphysics. One key to the proper understanding of nanoparticle effects on climate is therefore hidden in the growth mechanisms. In this study we have developed and successfully tested two independent methods based on the aerosol general dynamics equation, allowing detailed retrieval of time- and size-dependent nanoparticle growth rates. Both methods were used to analyze particle formation from two different biogenic precursor vapors in controlled chamber experiments. Our results suggest that growth rates below 10 nm show much more variation than is currently thought and pin down the decisive size range of growth at around 5 nm where in-depth studies of physical and chemical particle properties are needed.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN-depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E; Warram, Jason M; Knowles, Joseph A; Sweeny, Larissa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2011-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma-mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer, there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were cocultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Coculture experiments showed fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN-silenced cells compared with control vector-transfected cells, whereas inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast coculture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast-mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed that EMMPRIN-silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast-independent tumor growth.

  1. The effect of pH and storage on copper speciation and bacterial growth in complex growth media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Bjerrum, Morten J.; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2009-01-01

    correlation between the free copper concentration and bacterial growth, than for the total copper concentration and growth. Furthermore, it is shown that the initial pH influences the amount of free copper ions in the media and that this has a direct effect on the ability of bacterial cultures to grow......In this paper we examine how the bacterial growth is influenced by the availability of copper ions in complex Mueller Hinton growth media. The data shows that the free copper concentration is seven to eight orders of magnitude lower the total copper concentration and that there seems to be a better....... However, there still remains an effect of pH on bacterial growth which cannot be attributed to the influence of the Cu2+ concentration alone. The study also shows that the sterilization treatment can have some effect on the availability of copper ions in the media over time. Freshly autoclaved and sterile...

  2. A herbicide-resistant ACCase 1781 Setaria mutant shows higher fitness than wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Picard, J C; Tian, X; Darmency, H

    2010-10-01

    It is often alleged that mutations conferring herbicide resistance have a negative impact on plant fitness. A mutant ACCase1781 allele endowing resistance to the sethoxydim herbicide was introgressed from a resistant green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv) population into foxtail millet (S. italica (L.) Beauv.). (1) Better and earlier growth of resistant plants was observed in a greenhouse cabinet. (2) Resistant plants of the advanced BC7 backcross generation showed more vigorous juvenile growth in the field, earlier flowering, more tillers and higher numbers of grains than susceptible plants did, especially when both genotypes were grown in mixture, but their seeds were lighter than susceptible seeds. (3) Field populations originating from segregating hybrids had the expected allele frequencies under normal growth conditions, but showed a genotype shift toward an excess of homozygous resistant plants within 3 years in stressful conditions. Lower seed size, lower germination rate and perhaps unexplored differences in seed longevity and predation could explain how the resistant plants have the same field fitness over the whole life cycle as the susceptible ones although they produce more seeds. More rapid growth kinetics probably accounted for higher fitness of the resistant plants in adverse conditions. The likelihood of a linkage with a beneficial gene is discussed versus the hypothesis of a pleiotropic effect of the ACCase resistance allele. It is suggested that autogamous species like Setaria could not develop a resistant population without the help of a linkage with a gene producing a higher fitness.

  3. Hepatocyte growth factor profile with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A EL-Attar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The multifunctional hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is the ligand of c-Met receptor; it plays important role in mammary differentiation. HGF-Met signaling is a critical downstream function of c-Src-Stat3 pathway in mammalian tumorigenesis. Aim: Evaluation of tissue c-Met receptor hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR and serum level of HGF in female breast ductal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight premenopausal females were divided as 30 control females subdivided into: [Group 1] 15 healthy volunteer females and [Group 2] five with fibrocystic disease and 10 having fibroadenoma of the breast and patients group [Group 3] consisted of 38 female patients with breast ductal carcinoma. Thorough clinical examination, preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology, estimation of fasting serum glucose, urea, creatinine, and uric acid levels, alanine aminotransferase activities, C-reactive protein, HGF level, before surgery and histopathological examination of the breast masses, and immunohistochemical detection of HGFR were done. Results and Conclusions: Significant increase in serum HGF levels were found in patients with breast cancer as compared with controls. Significant increase was also seen in patients with breast cancer with and without lymph node metastasis when each subgroup was compared with controls. Serum level of HGF is an independent prognostic indicator of breast cancer. Fibrocystic disease of the breast showed weak HGFR expression, while in normal tissue, HGFR was scanty; meanwhile, breast invasive ductal carcinoma showed homogenous strong reaction to HGFR. HGF is only one of a number of key factors involved in breast cancer and preoperative high serum HGF levels and malignancy occur usually together.

  4. Consistent three-equation model for thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gael; Gisclon, Marguerite; Ruyer-Quil, Christian; Vila, Jean-Paul

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of thin films of newtonian fluids down an inclined plane use reduced models for computational cost reasons. These models are usually derived by averaging over the fluid depth the physical equations of fluid mechanics with an asymptotic method in the long-wave limit. Two-equation models are based on the mass conservation equation and either on the momentum balance equation or on the work-energy theorem. We show that there is no two-equation model that is both consistent and theoretically coherent and that a third variable and a three-equation model are required to solve all theoretical contradictions. The linear and nonlinear properties of two and three-equation models are tested on various practical problems. We present a new consistent three-equation model with a simple mathematical structure which allows an easy and reliable numerical resolution. The numerical calculations agree fairly well with experimental measurements or with direct numerical resolutions for neutral stability curves, speed of kinematic waves and of solitary waves and depth profiles of wavy films. The model can also predict the flow reversal at the first capillary trough ahead of the main wave hump.

  5. SU-E-T-676: Reproducibility and Consistency of Two SunNuclear 3D Scanning Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessler, J; DiCostanzo, D; Grzetic, S; Ayan, A; Gupta, N; Woollard, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if two Sun Nuclear 3D Scanning (SNC 3DS) tanks collect reproducible and consistent data and test the precision of the SNC Dosimetry auto-setup. Methods: Percent depth doses (PDDs) and profiles were collected on two SNC 3DS tanks with a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. SNC Dosimetry auto-setup application was used with CC13 ionization chambers. After auto-setup, collimator light field was checked manually against the position of the chamber. Comparing measured data for repeated measurements with tank 1 allowed evaluation of SNC-3DS auto-setup and tank reproducibility. Comparing measured data between tanks 1 and 2 allowed evaluation of consistency between tanks. Results: Preliminary results showed reproducibility of depth of maximum dose (Dmax) of 0.38mm for a 10cmx10cm field and 0.67mm for 30cmx30cm on a single tank. PDD values at 5cm, 10cm, and 20cm depths were reproducible within 0.26%. Consistency of Dmax between tanks was 0.17mm for a 10cmx10cm field and 0.44mm for 30cmx30cm. PDD values at 5cm, 10cm, and 20cmwere consistent within 0.06%. Profiles showed reproducibility in field width within 0.4mm for a 10cmx10cm field and 0.7mm for a 30cmx30cm field. Profiles showed consistency in field width within 0.2mm for 10cmx10cm and 30cmx30cm field sizes. Penumbra width was reproducible and consistent to under 0.5mm except for 30cmx30cm field size at 30cm depth where the reproducibility was 2.2mm and the consistency was 2.6mm. Conclusion: In conclusion, the SNC 3DS tank shows good reproducibility in measured data. Since the tank to tank variation in measured data is within the uncertainty of repeated single tank measurements the tanks also perform consistently

  6. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David P; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-01-01

    Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall). Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22)mm/year of growth (± 1SD), with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13)mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  7. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Blair

    Full Text Available Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall. Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22mm/year of growth (± 1SD, with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  8. Misorientations in spheroidal graphite: some new insights about spheroidal graphite growth in cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, J; Theuwissen, K; Laffont, L; Véron, M

    2016-01-01

    Local diffraction patterning, orientation mapping and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging have been used to characterize misorientations in graphite spheroids of cast irons. Emphasis is put here on bulk graphite, away from the nucleus as well as from the outer surface of the spheroids in order to get information on their growth during solidification. The results show that spheroidal graphite consists in conical sectors made of elementary blocks piled up on each other. These blocks are elongated along the prismatic a direction of graphite with the c axes roughly parallel to the radius of the spheroids. This implies that the orientation of the blocks rotates around the spheroid centre giving low angle tilting misorientations along tangential direction within each sector. Misorientations between neighbouring sectors are of higher values and their interfaces show rippled layers which are characteristic of defects in graphene. Along a radius of the spheroid, clockwise and anticlockwise twisting between blocks is observed. These observations help challenging some of the models proposed to explain spheroidal growth in cast ions. (paper)

  9. Potential application of the consistency approach for vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, J; Sirota, L A

    2012-01-01

    The Consistency Approach offers the possibility of reducing the number of animals used for a potency test. However, it is critical to assess the effect that such reduction may have on assay performance. Consistency of production, sometimes referred to as consistency of manufacture or manufacturing, is an old concept implicit in regulation, which aims to ensure the uninterrupted release of safe and effective products. Consistency of manufacture can be described in terms of process capability, or the ability of a process to produce output within specification limits. For example, the standard method for potency testing of inactivated rabies vaccines is a multiple-dilution vaccination challenge test in mice that gives a quantitative, although highly variable estimate. On the other hand, a single-dilution test that does not give a quantitative estimate, but rather shows if the vaccine meets the specification has been proposed. This simplified test can lead to a considerable reduction in the number of animals used. However, traditional indices of process capability assume that the output population (potency values) is normally distributed, which clearly is not the case for the simplified approach. Appropriate computation of capability indices for the latter case will require special statistical considerations.

  10. A continuous Czochralski silicon crystal growth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Zhang, H.; Wang, T. H.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2003-03-01

    Demand for large silicon wafers has driven the growth of silicon crystals from 200 to 300 mm in diameter. With the increasing silicon ingot sizes, melt volume has grown dramatically. Melt flow becomes more turbulent as melt height and volume increase. To suppress turbulent flow in a large silicon melt, a new Czochralski (CZ) growth furnace has been designed that has a shallow melt. In this new design, a crucible consists of a shallow growth compartment in the center and a deep feeding compartment around the periphery. Two compartments are connected with a narrow annular channel. A long crystal may be continuously grown by feeding silicon pellets into the dedicated feeding compartment. We use our numerical model to simulate temperature distribution and velocity field in a conventional 200-mm CZ crystal growth system and also in the new shallow crucible CZ system. By comparison, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system are observed, operating conditions are determined, and the new system is improved.

  11. Relationship Between Education Expenditure And Economic Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical part of the result shows that there is unidirectional relationship between education and economic growth with causality running from education expenditure to economic growth. The result therefore suggests that policy makers should boost expenditure on education as it will further improve economic growth in ...

  12. Social security reform and population ageing in a two-sector growth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groezen, Bas van; Meijdam, L.; Verbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the e¤ects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy. The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector. Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector

  13. Osteochondromas and growth retardation secondary to externally or internally administered radiation in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcovici, Peter A. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Liebling, Melissa S. [Hackensack University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hackensack, NJ (United States)

    2007-03-15

    For over five decades, osteochondromas (exostoses) and associated growth retardation have been known to be caused by radiation damage to the growing skeleton.Patients can be divided into three exposure groups. Group I received external beam radiation therapy primarily for the treatment of childhood cancers (typical dose 3,500 cGy), and 6-20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation within the radiation portal. Group II consists of recently described patients who received total body irradiation in preparation for bone marrow transplant (typical dose: 800-1,200 cGy), and about 20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation. Group III consists of 206 German children who in the 1940s and early 1950s received intravenous radioactive Peteosthor (Ra-224) to treat bone tuberculosis (estimated typical dose: 1,000-2,000 cGy), and 14% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation, among other benign and malignant sequelae. Combining these three exposure groups, osteochondromas and growth retardation develop in at least 6-20% of children who receive therapeutic radiation to their growing skeletons. (orig.)

  14. Non-linear phenomena in electronic systems consisting of coupled single-electron oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikombo, Andrew Kilinga; Hirose, Tetsuya; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes non-linear dynamics of electronic systems consisting of single-electron oscillators. A single-electron oscillator is a circuit made up of a tunneling junction and a resistor, and produces simple relaxation oscillation. Coupled with another, single electron oscillators exhibit complex behavior described by a combination of continuous differential equations and discrete difference equations. Computer simulation shows that a double-oscillator system consisting of two coupled oscillators produces multi-periodic oscillation with a single attractor, and that a quadruple-oscillator system consisting of four oscillators also produces multi-periodic oscillation but has a number of possible attractors and takes one of them determined by initial conditions

  15. Studies on the consistency of internally taken contrast medium for pancreas CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Kishio; Mimura, Seiichi; Tahara, Seiji; Kitayama, Takuichi; Inamura, Keiji; Mikami, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio; Aono, Kaname

    1985-02-01

    A problem of Pancreatic CT scanning is the discrimination between the pancreas and the adjacent gastrointestinal tract. Generally we administer a dilution of gastrografin internally to make the discrimination. The degree of dilution has been decided by experience at each hospital. When the consistency of the contrast medium is low in density, an enhancement effect cannot be expected, but when the consistency is high, artifacts appear. We have experimented on the degree of the dilution and CT-No to decide the optimum consistency of gastrografin for the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. Statistical analysis of the results show the optimum dilution of gastrografin to be 1.5%.

  16. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Two-Dimensional Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Renjing

    Van der Waals (vdW) materials (also called as two-dimensional (2D) material in some literature) systems have received extensive attention recently due to their potential applications in next-generation electronics platform. Exciting properties have been discovered in this field, however, the performance and properties of the systems rely on the materials' quality and interface significantly, leading to the urgent need for scalable synthesis of high-quality vdW crystals and heterostructures. Toward this direction, this dissertation is devoted on the study of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and various characterization of vdW materials and heterostructures, especially graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The goal is to achieve high-quality vdW materials and related heterostructures. There are mainly four projects discussed in this dissertation. The first project (Chapter 2) is about MBE growth of large-area h-BN on copper foil. After the growth, the film was transferred onto SiO2 substrate for characterization. It is observed that as-grown film gives evident h-BN Raman spectrum; what's more, h-BN peak intensity and position is dependent on film thickness. N-1s and B-1s XPS peaks further suggest the formation of h-BN. AFM and SEM images show the film is flat and continuous over large area. Our synthesis method shows it's possible to use MBE to achieve h-BN growth and could also pave a way for some unique structure, such as h-BN/graphene heterostructures and doped h-BN films by MBE. The second project (Chapter 3) is focused on establishment of grapehene/h-BN heterostructure on cobalt (Co) film. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN heterostructures on Co film substrate was achieved by using plasma-assisted MBE. The direct graphene/h-BN vertical stacking structures were demonstrated and further confirmed by various characterizations, such as Raman spectroscopy, SEM, XPS and TEM. Large area heterostructures consisting of single- /bilayer graphene and

  17. Monitoring human growth and development : a continuum from the womb to the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villar, Jose; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Pang, Ruyan; Salomon, Laurent J.; Langer, Ana; Victora, Cesar; Purwar, Manorama; Chumlea, Cameron; Wu Qingqing, [Unknown; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Barros, Fernando C.; Carvalho, Maria; Altman, Douglas G.; Giuliani, Francesca; Bertino, Enrico; Jaffer, Yasmin A.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Ohuma, Eric O.; Lambert, Ann; Noble, J. Alison; Gravett, Michael G.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Kennedy, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of fully integrated anthropometric measures is needed to evaluate human growth from conception to infancy so that consistent judgments can be made about the appropriateness of fetal and infant growth. At present, there are 2 barriers to this strategy. First, descriptive reference

  18. Perceived Growth versus Actual Growth in Executive Leadership Competencies: An Application of the Stair-Step Behaviorally Anchored Evaluation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Michael J.; Dooley, Kim E.; Lindner, James R.; Cummins, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe student learning in executive leadership core competencies after being engaged in a two-semester leadership education sequence. The researchers used evaluative research techniques to compare perceived and actual growth in learning of executive leadership competencies. Data collection consisted of a…

  19. Fourier rebinning and consistency equations for time-of-flight PET planograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D; Defrise, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unique geometry, dual-panel PET scanners have many advantages in dedicated breast imaging and on-board imaging applications since the compact scanners can be combined with other imaging and treatment modalities. The major challenges of dual-panel PET imaging are the limited-angle problem and data truncation, which can cause artifacts due to incomplete data sampling. The time-of-flight (TOF) information can be a promising solution to reduce these artifacts. The TOF planogram is the native data format for dual-panel TOF PET scanners, and the non-TOF planogram is the 3D extension of linogram. The TOF planograms is five-dimensional while the objects are three-dimensional, and there are two degrees of redundancy. In this paper, we derive consistency equations and Fourier-based rebinning algorithms to provide a complete understanding of the rich structure of the fully 3D TOF planograms. We first derive two consistency equations and John’s equation for 3D TOF planograms. By taking the Fourier transforms, we obtain two Fourier consistency equations (FCEs) and the Fourier–John equation (FJE), which are the duals of the consistency equations and John’s equation, respectively. We then solve the FCEs and FJE using the method of characteristics. The two degrees of entangled redundancy of the 3D TOF data can be explicitly elicited and exploited by the solutions along the characteristic curves. As the special cases of the general solutions, we obtain Fourier rebinning and consistency equations (FORCEs), and thus we obtain a complete scheme to convert among different types of PET planograms: 3D TOF, 3D non-TOF, 2D TOF and 2D non-TOF planograms. The FORCEs can be used as Fourier-based rebinning algorithms for TOF-PET data reduction, inverse rebinnings for designing fast projectors, or consistency conditions for estimating missing data. As a byproduct, we show the two consistency equations are necessary and sufficient for 3D TOF planograms. Finally, we give

  20. Research progress of MRI in preoperative evaluation of pituitary adenoma's consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yiping; Yin Bo; Geng Daoying

    2013-01-01

    As the most common primary disease in pituitary fossa, the incidence of pituitary adenoma ranks 3rd in the primary tumors of the brain. To remove those resectable pituitary adenomas, there are 2 surgical approaches, named trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery and craniotomy. Which approach should be used depends on the size, invasive extension and the consistency of the tumors. The trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery is more suitable for the tumors with soft consistency which are easy to pull out, while the craniotomy is suitable for the hard ones. So, preoperative evaluation of the tumors' consistency can help to find the best surgical approach and treatments. MRI is not only an ideal method to show the structure of brain, but also can be used to evaluate consistency of tumor. This review illustrated the forming mechanism of the different consistency of pituitary adenoma and the research process in evaluating the consistency. (authors)

  1. Causes of spring vegetation growth trends in the northern mid–high latitudes from 1982 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Jiafu; Shi Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Piao Shilong; Wang Xuhui

    2012-01-01

    The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is applied to explore the spatial–temporal patterns of spring (April–May) vegetation growth trends over the northern mid–high latitudes (NMH) (>25°N) between 1982 and 2004. During the spring season through the 23 yr period, both the satellite-derived and simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies show a statistically significant correlation and an overall greening trend within the study area. Consistently with the observed NDVI–temperature relation, the CLM4 NDVI shows a significant positive association with the spring temperature anomaly for the NMH, North America and Eurasia. Large study areas experience temperature discontinuity associated with contrasting NDVI trends. Before and after the turning point (TP) of the temperature trends, climatic variability plays a dominant role, while the other environmental factors exert minor effects on the NDVI tendencies. Simulated vegetation growth is broadly stimulated by the increasing atmospheric CO 2 . Trends show that nitrogen deposition increases NDVI mostly in southeastern China, and decreases NDVI mainly in western Russia after the temperature TP. Furthermore, land use-induced NDVI trends vary roughly with the respective changes in land management practices (crop areas and forest coverage). Our results highlight how non-climatic factors mitigate or exacerbate the impact of temperature on spring vegetation growth, particularly across regions with intensive human activity. (letter)

  2. Different parts, different stories: climate sensitivity of growth is stronger in root collars vs. stems in tundra shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Pascale; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; Gagnon, Marianne; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables and assessed whether this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed). We found that root collars had greater sensitivity to climate than stems and that these differences were maintained across the three types of environments. Growth at the root collar was best explained by spring precipitation and summer temperature, whereas stem growth showed weak and inconsistent responses to climate variables. Moreover, sensitivity to climate was not consistent among plant parts, as individuals having climate-sensitive root collars did not tend to have climate-sensitive stems. These differences in sensitivity of shrub parts to climate highlight the complexity of resource allocation in multi-stemmed plants. Whereas stem initiation and growth are driven by microenvironmental variables such as light availability and competition, root collars integrate the growth of all plant parts instead, rendering them less affected by mechanisms such as competition and more responsive to signals of global change. Although further investigations are required to determine the degree to which these findings are generalizable across the tundra biome, our results indicate that consistency and caution in the choice of plant parts are a key

  3. Growth and characterization of Fe nanostructures on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Yuya; Hayakawa, Satoko; Hasegawa, Shigehiko; Asahi, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the growth of Fe nanostructures on GaN(0 0 0 1) substrates at room temperature using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. Initially, a ring RHEED pattern appears, indicating the growth of polycrystalline α-Fe. At around 0.5 nm deposition, the surface displays a transmission pattern from α-Fe films with the epitaxial relationship of Fe(1 1 0)//GaN(0 0 0 1) and Fe[1 -1 1]//GaN[1 1 -2 0] (Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientational relationship). Further deposition to 1 nm results in the appearance of a new spot pattern together with the pattern from domains with the KS orientation relationship. The newly observed pattern shows that Fe layers are formed with the epitaxial relationship of Fe(1 1 0)//GaN(0 0 0 1) and Fe[0 0 1]//GaN[1 1 -2 0] (Nishiyama-Wasserman (NW) orientational relationship). From STM images for Fe layers with the KS and NW orientational relationships, it can be seen that Fe layers with the KS relationship consist of round-shaped Fe nanodots with below 7 nm in average diameter. These nanodots coalesce to form nanodots elongating along the Fe[1 0 0] direction, and they have the KS orientational relationship. Elongated Fe nanodots with the NW relationship show ferromagnetism while round-shaped Fe nanodots with the KS relationship show super-paramagnetic behavior. We will discuss their magnetic properties in connection with the change in crystalline configurations of nanodots.

  4. Size of government and economic growth: A nonlinear analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herath Shanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new growth theory establishes, among other things, that government expenditure can manipulate the economic growth of a country. This study attempts to explain whether government expenditure increases or decreases economic growth in the context of Sri Lanka. Results obtained employing a productive output series and applying an analytical framework based on second degree polynomial regression are generally consistent with previous findings: government expenditure and economic growth are positively correlated; excessive government expenditure is negatively correlated with economic growth; and investment promotes growth. In a separate section, the article examines Armey’s idea of a quadratic curve that explains the level of government expenditure in an economy and the corresponding level of economic growth [Armey, D. (1995. The Freedom Revolution. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing Co.]. The findings confirm the possibility of constructing the Armey curve for Sri Lanka, and it estimates the optimal level of government expenditure to be approximately 27%. This article adds to the literature indicating that the Armey curve is a reality not only for developed economies, but also for developing economies.

  5. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  6. Innovation, Decentralization, and Planning in a Multi-Region Model of Schumpeterian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Batabyal, Amit; Nijkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study innovation and the resulting Schumpeterian economic growth that this innovation gives rise to in a model with N heterogeneous regions. For each region i where i=1,...,N, our analysis leads to five findings. First, we define the balanced growth path (BGP) allocations and the equilibrium of interest. Second, we stipulate the form of the innovation possibilities frontier that is consistent with balanced economic growth. Third, we derive the growth rate of the ith region in the decentral...

  7. ELEMENTS OF THE NEOCLASSICAL GROWTH THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the relevant components of the contemporary economic science is the economic growth theory, the economic background of the time leading to new guidelines of the research. The neoclassical growth theory - the core of modern analysis - explains how the capital accumulation and technological changes affect the economy, significant for the analysis of the economic growth process being the Solow’s neoclassical growth model. The paper brief describes the elements of the economic growth model developed by Solow, both for the situation when it allows the explanation of extensive growth and that wherein the growth is of intensive nature, as a result of the intervention of exogenous technical progress – a determinant of factors productivity growth. It is highlighted the importance of the exogenous neoclassical model, proposed by Solow, who showed the determinant role of the technical progress in the economic growth phenomenon.

  8. Entrepreneurship, Information, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Devin; Weiler, Stephan; Weiler, Stephan; Zahran, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    We examine the contribution to economic growth of entrepreneurial “marketplace information” within a regional endogenous growth framework. Entrepreneurs are posited to provide an input to economic growth through the information revealed by their successes and failures. We empirically identify this information source with the regional variation in establishment births and deaths, which create geographic information asymmetries that influence subsequent entrepreneurial activity and economic growth. We find that local establishment birth and death rates are significantly and positively correlated with subsequent entrepreneurship for US counties. To account for the potential endogeneity caused by forward-looking entrepreneurs, we utilize instruments based on historic mining activity. We find that the information spillover component of local establishment birth and death rates have significant positive effects on subsequent entrepreneurship and employment growth for US counties and metropolitan areas. With the help of these intruments, we show that establishment births have a positive and significant effect on future employment growth within all counties, and that in line with the information hypothesis, local establishment death rates have a similar positive effect within metropolitan counties. PMID:27516625

  9. Growth factor effects on costal chondrocytes for tissue engineering fibrocartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, D.E.; Athanasiou, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineered fibrocartilage could become a feasible option for replacing tissues like the knee meniscus or temporomandibular joint disc. This study employed five growth factors insulin-like growth factor-I, transforming growth factor-β1, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and basic fibroblast growth factor in a scaffoldless approach with costal chondrocytes, attempting to improve biochemical and mechanical properties of engineered constructs. Samples were quantitatively assessed for total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, collagen type I, collagen type II, cells, compressive properties, and tensile properties at two time points. Most treated constructs were worse than the no growth factor control, suggesting a detrimental effect, but the IGF treatment tended to improve the constructs. Additionally, the 6wk time point was consistently better than 3wks, with total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and aggregate modulus doubling during this time. Further optimization of the time in culture and exogenous stimuli will be important in making a more functional replacement tissue. PMID:18597118

  10. Crossover of the preferred growth orientation of AlN/Si(001) films during off-axis radio frequency sputter growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, H.W.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.; Yi, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    We found that the crystallographic orientation of AlN/Si(001) thin films crosses over from the substrate normal towards the direction of incident flux during off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputter growth. At high growth temperatures, the crystalline c-axis orientation is maintained along the substrate normal direction initially, but jumps discontinuously towards the direction of incident flux. In contrast, at low growth temperatures, the c-axis direction shifts continuously towards the incident flux direction and saturates in the middle agreeing with the tangential rule of oblique deposition, i.e., tan β=1/2 tan α, where α and β denote the angles of incident flux and column incline, respectively. Selected area transmission electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the crossover measured by in situ x-ray scattering experiments

  11. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  12. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Availability and Form on Phytoplankton Growth in a Eutrophied Estuary (Neuse River Estuary, NC, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, Hans W.; Wetz, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and form are important controls on estuarine phytoplankton growth. This study experimentally determined the influence of urea and nitrate additions on phytoplankton growth throughout the growing season (March 2012, June 2011, August 2011) in a temperate, eutrophied estuary (Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA). Photopigments (chlorophyll a and diagnostic photopigments: peridinin, fucoxanthin, alloxanthin, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll b) and microscopy-based cell counts were used as indicators of phytoplankton growth. In March, the phytoplankton community was dominated by Gyrodinium instriatum and only fucoxanthin-based growth rates were stimulated by nitrogen addition. The limited response to nitrogen suggests other factors may control phytoplankton growth and community composition in early spring. In June, inorganic nitrogen concentrations were low and stimulatory effects of both nitrogen forms were observed for chlorophyll a- and diagnostic photopigment-based growth rates. In contrast, cell counts showed that only cryptophyte and dinoflagellate (Heterocapsa rotundata) growth were stimulated. Responses of other photopigments may have been due to an increase in pigment per cell or growth of plankton too small to be counted with the microscopic methods used. Despite high nitrate concentrations in August, growth rates were elevated in response to urea and/or nitrate addition for all photopigments except peridinin. However, this response was not observed in cell counts, again suggesting that pigment-based growth responses may not always be indicative of a true community and/or taxa-specific growth response. This highlights the need to employ targeted microscopy-based cell enumeration concurrent with pigment-based technology to facilitate a more complete understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in estuarine systems. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the seasonal importance of nitrogen availability in estuaries, and also

  14. Toward fully self-consistent simulation of the interaction of E-Clouds and beams with WARP-POSINST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Sonnad, K.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-01-01

    beams with electron cloud by orders of magnitude. The computational cost of the fully self-consistent mode is then predicted to be comparable to that of the quasi-static mode, assuming that several stations per betatron period are needed. During the workshop, there was some debate about the number of stations per betatron period that are needed when using the quasi-static mode. The argument was made that if there is less than one station per betatron period, then artificial resonances can be triggered and the resulting emittance growth provides an upper bound. The emittance growth thus obtained will fall either above or below the operational requirements of the machine. In the latter case, one can conclude that the electron effect that has been simulated is of no concern. However, if the emittance growth that was obtained is above the threshold, then the results become inconclusive, and simulations which resolve the betatron motion are then needed. In this case, according to [10], the fully self-consistent approach becomes an option. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether this option is indeed practical

  15. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  16. Anisotropic Growth of Otavite on Calcite: Implications for Heteroepitaxial Growth Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechers, Shawn L.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2017-12-18

    Elucidating how cation intermixing can affect the mechanisms of heteroepitaxial growth in aqueous media has remained a challenging endeavor. Toward this goal, in situ atomic force microscopy was employed to image the heteroepitaxial growth of otavite (CdCO3) at the (10-14) surface of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals in static aqueous conditions. Heteroepitaxial growth proceeded via spreading of three-dimensional (3D) islands and two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers at low and high initial saturation levels, respectively. Experiments were carried out as a function of applied force and imaging mode thus enabling determination of growth mechanisms unaltered by imaging artifacts. This approach revealed the significant anisotropic nature of heteroepitaxial growth on calcite in both growth modes and its dependence on supersaturation, intermixing, and substrate topography. The 3D islands not only grew preferentially along the [42-1] direction relative to the [010] direction, resulting in rod-like surface precipitates, but also showed clear preference for growth from the island end rich in obtuse/obtuse kink sites. Pinning to step edges was observed to often reverse this tendency. In the 2D growth mode, the relative velocities of acute and obtuse steps were observed to switch between the first and second atomic layers. This phenomenon stemmed from the significant Cd-Ca intermixing in the first layer, despite bulk thermodynamics predicting the formation of almost pure otavite. Composition effects were also responsible for the inability of 3D islands to grow on 2D layers in cases where both modes were observed to occur simultaneously. Overall, the AFM images highlighted the effects of intermixing on heteroepitaxial growth, particularly how it can induce thickness-dependent growth mechanisms at the nanoscale.

  17. Tourism in Austria: biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and growth issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Asad Saleem; Shah, Syed Asim; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country.

  18. Influence of prenatal and postnatal growth on intellectual functioning in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Ramakrishnan, Usha; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Flores, Rafael; Singkhornard, Jintana; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-05-01

    To assess the relative influence of size at birth, infant growth, and late postnatal growth on intellectual functioning at 9 years of age. A follow-up, cross-sectional study. Three districts in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand. A total of 560 children, or 92% of former participants of a trial of iron and/or zinc supplementation during infancy. Prenatal (size at birth), early infancy (birth to 4 months), late infancy (4 months to 1 year), and late postnatal (1 to 9 years) growth. Multiple-stage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth. Intellectual functioning was measured at 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (Pearson). Analyses included adjustment for maternal, household, and school characteristics. Significant relationships were found between growth and IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, third edition, Thai version), but only up to 1 year of age; overall, growth was not related to the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The strongest and most consistent relationships were with length (birth, early infancy, and late infancy); for weight, only early infancy gain was consistently related to IQ. Head circumference at birth was not collected routinely; head circumference at 4 months (but not head circumference growth thereafter) was related to IQ. Late postnatal growth was not associated with any outcome. Physical growth in early infancy (and, to a lesser extent, physical growth in late infancy and at birth) is associated with IQ at 9 years of age. Early infancy may be a critical window for human development.

  19. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  20. Communication: A difference density picture for the self-consistent field ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Robert M.; Liu, Fang; Martínez, Todd J., E-mail: toddjmartinez@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and the PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    We formulate self-consistent field (SCF) theory in terms of an interaction picture where the working variable is the difference density matrix between the true system and a corresponding superposition of atomic densities. As the difference density matrix directly represents the electronic deformations inherent in chemical bonding, this “difference self-consistent field (dSCF)” picture provides a number of significant conceptual and computational advantages. We show that this allows for a stable and efficient dSCF iterative procedure with wholly single-precision Coulomb and exchange matrix builds. We also show that the dSCF iterative procedure can be performed with aggressive screening of the pair space. These approximations are tested and found to be accurate for systems with up to 1860 atoms and >10 000 basis functions, providing for immediate overall speedups of up to 70% in the heavily optimized TERACHEM SCF implementation.

  1. Communication: A difference density picture for the self-consistent field ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, Robert M.; Liu, Fang; Martínez, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    We formulate self-consistent field (SCF) theory in terms of an interaction picture where the working variable is the difference density matrix between the true system and a corresponding superposition of atomic densities. As the difference density matrix directly represents the electronic deformations inherent in chemical bonding, this “difference self-consistent field (dSCF)” picture provides a number of significant conceptual and computational advantages. We show that this allows for a stable and efficient dSCF iterative procedure with wholly single-precision Coulomb and exchange matrix builds. We also show that the dSCF iterative procedure can be performed with aggressive screening of the pair space. These approximations are tested and found to be accurate for systems with up to 1860 atoms and >10 000 basis functions, providing for immediate overall speedups of up to 70% in the heavily optimized TERACHEM SCF implementation.

  2. Communication: A difference density picture for the self-consistent field ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Robert M.; Liu, Fang; Martínez, Todd J.

    2016-04-01

    We formulate self-consistent field (SCF) theory in terms of an interaction picture where the working variable is the difference density matrix between the true system and a corresponding superposition of atomic densities. As the difference density matrix directly represents the electronic deformations inherent in chemical bonding, this "difference self-consistent field (dSCF)" picture provides a number of significant conceptual and computational advantages. We show that this allows for a stable and efficient dSCF iterative procedure with wholly single-precision Coulomb and exchange matrix builds. We also show that the dSCF iterative procedure can be performed with aggressive screening of the pair space. These approximations are tested and found to be accurate for systems with up to 1860 atoms and >10 000 basis functions, providing for immediate overall speedups of up to 70% in the heavily optimized TeraChem SCF implementation.

  3. Consistency of variables in PCS and JASTRO great area database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Tomohiro; Teshima, Teruki; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether the Patterns of Care Study (PCS) reflects the data for the major areas in Japan, the consistency of variables in the PCS and in the major area database of the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) were compared. Patients with esophageal or uterine cervical cancer were sampled from the PCS and JASTRO databases. From the JASTRO database, 147 patients with esophageal cancer and 95 patients with uterine cervical cancer were selected according to the eligibility criteria for the PCS. From the PCS, 455 esophageal and 432 uterine cervical cancer patients were surveyed. Six items for esophageal cancer and five items for uterine cervical cancer were selected for a comparative analysis of PCS and JASTRO databases. Esophageal cancer: Age (p=.0777), combination of radiation and surgery (p=.2136), and energy of the external beam (p=.6400) were consistent for PCS and JASTRO. However, the dose of the external beam for the non-surgery group showed inconsistency (p=.0467). Uterine cervical cancer: Age (p=.6301) and clinical stage (p=.8555) were consistent for the two sets of data. However, the energy of the external beam (p<.0001), dose rate of brachytherapy (p<.0001), and brachytherapy utilization by clinical stage (p<.0001) showed inconsistencies. It appears possible that the JASTRO major area database could not account for all patients' backgrounds and factors and that both surveys might have an imbalance in the stratification of institutions including differences in equipment and staffing patterns. (author)

  4. Growth mode transition of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrates in the guest/host concentration boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabase, Yuichiro; Nagashima, Kazushige

    2009-11-19

    Clathrate hydrates are known to form a thin film along a guest/host boundary. We present here the first report of tetrahydrofuran (THF) clathrate hydrate formation in a THF/water concentration boundary layer. We found that the THF-water system also forms a hydrate film separating the guest/host phases. The lateral growth rate of the film increases as supercooling increases. The thickness of the film at the growth tip decreases as supercooling and the lateral growth rate increase. These tendencies are consistent with reports of experiments for other hydrates and predictions of heat-transfer models. After film formation and slight melting, two types of growth modes are observed, depending on temperature T. At T = 3.0 degrees C, the film slowly thickens. The thickening rate is much lower than the lateral growth rate, as reported for other hydrates. At T agglomerate of small polycrystalline hydrates forms in each phase. Grain boundaries in the film and pore spaces in the agglomerate act as paths for permeation of each liquid. Timing when continuous nucleation starts is dominantly controlled by the time of initiation of liquid permeation through the film. Digital particle image velocimetry analysis of the agglomerate shows that it expands not by growth at the advancing front but rather by continuous nucleation in the interior. Expansion rates of the agglomerate tend to be higher for the cases of multipermeation paths in the film and the thinner film. We suppose that the growth mode transition to continuous nucleation is caused by the memory effect due to slight melting of the hydrate film.

  5. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-07-21

    A major challenge for the production of ethanol from biomass-derived feedstocks is to develop yeasts that can sustain growth under the variety of inhibitory conditions present in the production process, e.g., high osmolality, high ethanol titers, and/or elevated temperatures (≥ 40 °C). Using adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40 °C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses. Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3 °C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34 °C. Computational analysis of the physical properties of proteins showed that the lethal temperature for yeast is around 49 °C, as a large fraction of the yeast proteins denature above this temperature. Our analysis also indicated that the number of functions involved in controlling the growth rate decreased in the thermotolerant strains compared with the number in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures. In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. Yeast thermotolerance can significantly reduce the production costs of biomass

  6. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model’s prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF. Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain—the heat control unit of a spacecraft—where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  7. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhou, Gan; Feng, Wenquan

    2018-03-29

    The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model's prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS) with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain-the heat control unit of a spacecraft-where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  8. Growth of the (001) face of borax crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Suharso, Suharso

    2010-01-01

    he growth rates of borax crystals from aqueous solutions in the (001) direction at various relative supersaturations were measured using in situ cell optical microscopy method. The result shows that the growth mechanism of the (001) face of borax crystal at temperature of 20 °C is spiral growth mechanism.   Keywords: Growth mechanism, borax.

  9. Selective area growth of GaN rod structures by MOVPE: Dependence on growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shunfeng; Fuendling, Soenke; Wang, Xue; Erenburg, Milena; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Wei, Jiandong; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bergbauer, Werner [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Strassburg, Martin [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Selective area growth of GaN nanorods by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is highly demanding for novel applications in nano-optoelectronic and nanophotonics. Recently, we report the successful selective area growth of GaN nanorods in a continuous-flow mode. In this work, as examples, we show the morphology dependence of GaN rods with {mu}m or sub-{mu}m in diameters on growth conditions. Firstly, we found that the nitridation time is critical for the growth, with an optimum from 90 to 180 seconds. This leads to more homogeneous N-polar GaN rods growth. A higher temperature during GaN rod growth tends to increase the aspect ratio of the GaN rods. This is due to the enhanced surface diffusion of growth species. The V/III ratio is also an important parameter for the GaN rod growth. Its increase causes reduction of the aspect ratio of GaN rods, which could be explained by the relatively lower growth rate on (000-1) N-polar top surface than it on {l_brace}1-100{r_brace} m-planes by supplying more NH{sub 3} (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. The Cross-Cultural Consistency of Marital Communication Associated with Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, W. Kim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared problem-solving behaviors of four samples of couples, sorted by marital happiness/distress and culture (German and Australian). Results showed cultural differences in frequency and functional significance of negative verbal communication, along with cross-culturally consistent marital behaviors associated with marital distress. (Author/TE)

  11. Optimization of Culture Medium for the Growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. as Starter Culture in Fermentation of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, N H; Zakuan, Z; Norhayati, H; MeorHussin, A S; Rukayadi, Y

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract. Maximum growth of Candida sp. (7.63 log CFU mL-1) and Blastobotrys sp. (8.30 log CFU mL-1) were obtained from the fermentation. Optimum culture media for the growth of Candida sp., consist of 10% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract, while for Blastobotrys sp., were 1.94% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract. This study shows that culture medium consists of molasses and yeast extract were able to produce maximum growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp., as a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

  12. Is ecological personality always consistent with low-carbon behavioral intention of urban residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jia; Chen, Hong; Long, Ruyin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of low-carbon economics, researchers have become interested in residential consumption as a potential means for reducing carbon emissions. By analyzing and expanding the fundamental concept of personality, a type of personality, namely ecological personality (EP), was defined and a structural model of EP was constructed based on a five-factor model. The study surveyed 890 urban residents to examine the relationship between EP and low-carbon behavioral intention (LCBI). Ecological personality is a five-dimensional concept comprising eco-neuroticism, eco-agreeableness, eco-openness, eco-extraversion, and eco-conscientiousness. Ecological personality traits were positively correlated with the LCBI. However, a quadrifid graph model showed that the EP is not always consistent with LCBI, and respondents fell into two groups: one group comprised ecological residents with consistent traits (positive EP and high LCBI) and non-ecological residents with consistent traits (negative EP and low LCBI), and their EP was consistent with LCBI; the other group comprised ecological residents with gap traits (positive EP and low LCBI) and non-ecological residents with gap traits (negative EP and high LCBI), and neither showed any consistency between personality and intentions. A policy to guide the conversion of different groups into ecological residents with consistent traits is discussed. - Highlights: • The structural model of ecological personality was constructed. • The relationship between personality and behavioral intention was examined. • Ecological personality and low-carbon behavioral intention donot always match up. • A policy urging residents to be ecological was discussed.

  13. Growth and structure of carbide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, C.M.; Wong, E.W.; Dai, H.; Maynor, B.W.; Burns, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on the growth and structure of carbide nanorods is reviewed. Carbide nanorods have been prepared by reacting carbon nanotubes with volatile transition metal and main group oxides and halides. Using this approach it has been possible to obtain solid carbide nanorods of TiC, SiC, NbC, Fe 3 C, and BC x having diameters between 2 and 30 nm and lengths up to 20 microm. Structural studies of single crystal TiC nanorods obtained through reactions of TiO with carbon nanotubes show that the nanorods grow along both [110] and [111] directions, and that the rods can exhibit either smooth or saw-tooth morphologies. Crystalline SiC nanorods have been produced from reactions of carbon nanotubes with SiO and Si-iodine reactants. The preferred growth direction of these nanorods is [111], although at low reaction temperatures rods with [100] growth axes are also observed. The growth mechanisms leading to these novel nanomaterials have also been addressed. Temperature dependent growth studies of TiC nanorods produced using a Ti-iodine reactant have provided definitive proof for a template or topotactic growth mechanism, and furthermore, have yielded new TiC nanotube materials. Investigations of the growth of SiC nanorods show that in some cases a catalytic mechanism may also be operable. Future research directions and applications of these new carbide nanorod materials are discussed

  14. Approximate self-consistent potentials for density-functional-theory exchange-correlation functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafiero, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    We show that potentials for exchange-correlation functionals within the Kohn-Sham density-functional-theory framework may be written as potentials for simpler functionals multiplied by a factor close to unity, and in a self-consistent field calculation, these effective potentials find the correct self-consistent solutions. This simple theory is demonstrated with self-consistent exchange-only calculations of the atomization energies of some small molecules using the Perdew-Kurth-Zupan-Blaha (PKZB) meta-generalized-gradient-approximation (meta-GGA) exchange functional. The atomization energies obtained with our method agree with or surpass previous meta-GGA calculations performed in a non-self-consistent manner. The results of this work suggest the utility of this simple theory to approximate exchange-correlation potentials corresponding to energy functionals too complicated to generate closed forms for their potentials. We hope that this method will encourage the development of complex functionals which have correct boundary conditions and are free of self-interaction errors without the worry that the functionals are too complex to differentiate to obtain potentials

  15. On conjugacy growth of linear groups

    OpenAIRE

    Breuillard, Emmanuel; de Cornulier, Yves; Lubotzky, Alexander; Meiri, Chen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the conjugacy growth of finitely generated linear groups. We show that finitely generated non-virtually-solvable subgroups of GL_d have uniform exponential conjugacy growth and in fact that the number of distinct polynomials arising as characteristic polynomials of the elements of the ball of radius n for the word metric has exponential growth rate bounded away from 0 in terms of the dimension d only.

  16. Adjoint-consistent formulations of slip models for coupled electroosmotic flow systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garg, Vikram V

    2014-09-27

    Background Models based on the Helmholtz `slip\\' approximation are often used for the simulation of electroosmotic flows. The objectives of this paper are to construct adjoint-consistent formulations of such models, and to develop adjoint-based numerical tools for adaptive mesh refinement and parameter sensitivity analysis. Methods We show that the direct formulation of the `slip\\' model is adjoint inconsistent, and leads to an ill-posed adjoint problem. We propose a modified formulation of the coupled `slip\\' model, which is shown to be well-posed, and therefore automatically adjoint-consistent. Results Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the computation and use of the adjoint solution in two-dimensional microfluidics problems. Conclusions An adjoint-consistent formulation for Helmholtz `slip\\' models of electroosmotic flows has been proposed. This formulation provides adjoint solutions that can be reliably used for mesh refinement and sensitivity analysis.

  17. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liao

    Full Text Available Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS, the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant

  18. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  19. Long-term Root Growth Response to Thinning, Fertilization, and Water Deficit in Plantation Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword-Sayer; Z. Tang

    2004-01-01

    High water deficits limit the new root growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), potentially reducing soil resource availability and stand growth. We evaluated new root growth and stand production in response to thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine over a 6-year period that consisted of 3 years of low water deficit followed by 3 years of high...

  20. Green growth in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balde, K.; Boelens, A.; Brinksma, E.; Edens, B.; Hiethaar, S.; Klein, P.; Schenau, S.

    2011-04-01

    In 2009 the Ministerial Council Meeting of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) committed itself to a green growth strategy. Such a strategy fosters economic growth and development while ensuring that natural resources can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies. It also endorses investment, competition and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities. Green growth provides both a policy strategy for implementing this economic transformation and a monitoring framework with a proposed set of indicators. This report presents an overview of the state of green growth in the Netherlands. It should be regarded as a benchmark for a more thorough and comprehensive assessment of green growth in the future. It is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD in their intermediate report of February 2011. Data relevant to the Dutch situation are presented for twenty of these indicators, illustrating the observed trends. The indicators are grouped in four themes. For the first theme, environmental efficiency of production, on the whole the indicators show increased efficiency. However, indicators such as greenhouse gas intensity, energy efficiency and material intensity show only relative decoupling, which on its own is not enough to ensure green growth. In addition, the increase in environmental efficiency is partly explained by substitution of imports for domestic production, which is not conducive to green growth on a global scale: the efficiency gains in domestic production, for example, are offset by increases in foreign greenhouse gas emissions. Water use and agricultural nutrient surpluses are the only indicators where absolute decoupling has occurred. The second theme contains indicators regarding the natural assets base. This group of indicators provides a mixed picture. Natural gas reserves are decreasing and the overall level of threat to animal

  1. ECONOMIC GROWTH – COSTS AND DEVELOPMENT DISCREPANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    The economic growth shows an ascending tendency of the economic evolution over a long period of time, having favorable social and economic effects. Each economic growth factor acts simultaneous trough three dimensions.

  2. Simulating the initial growth of a deposit from colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, T J; Aarão Reis, F D A

    2014-01-01

    We study the short time properties of a two-dimensional film growth model in which incident particles execute advective-diffusive motion with a vertical step followed by D horizontal steps. The model represents some features of the deposition of anisotropic colloidal particles of the experiment of Yunker et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 035501), in which wandering particles are attracted to particle-rich regions in the deposit. Height profiles changing from rough to columnar structure are observed as D increases from 0 (ballistic deposition) to 8, with striking similarity to the experimental ones. The effective growth exponents match the experimental estimates and the scaling of those exponents on D shows a remarkable effect of the range of the particle-deposit interaction. The nearly ellipsoidal shape of colloidal particles is represented for the calculation of roughness exponents in conditions that parallel the experimental ones, giving a range of estimates that also includes the experimental values. The effective dynamic exponents calculated from the autocorrelation function are shown to be suitable to decide between a true dynamic scaling or transient behavior, particularly because the latter leads to deviations in an exponent relation. These results are consistent with arguments on short time unstable (columnar) growth of Nicoli et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 209601), indicating that critical quenched KPZ dynamics does not explain that colloidal particle deposition problem. (paper)

  3. Pollen extracts and constituent sugars increase growth of a trypanosomatid parasite of bumble bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan C. Palmer-Young

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals produced by plants, including at flowers, function in protection against plant diseases, and have a long history of use against trypanosomatid infection. Floral nectar and pollen, the sole food sources for many species of insect pollinators, contain phytochemicals that have been shown to reduce trypanosomatid infection in bumble and honey bees when fed as isolated compounds. Nectar and pollen, however, consist of phytochemical mixtures, which can have greater antimicrobial activity than do single compounds. This study tested the hypothesis that pollen extracts would inhibit parasite growth. Extracts of six different pollens were tested for direct inhibitory activity against cell cultures of the bumble bee trypanosomatid gut parasite Crithidia bombi. Surprisingly, pollen extracts increased parasite growth rather than inhibiting it. Pollen extracts contained high concentrations of sugars, mainly the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Experimental manipulations of growth media showed that supplemental monosaccharides (glucose and fructose increased maximum cell density, while a common floral phytochemical (caffeic acid with inhibitory activity against other trypanosomatids had only weak inhibitory effects on Crithidia bombi. These results indicate that, although pollen is essential for bees and other pollinators, pollen may promote growth of intestinal parasites that are uninhibited by pollen phytochemicals and, as a result, can benefit from the nutrients that pollen provides.

  4. Nanowire growth from the viewpoint of the thin film polylayer growth theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchiev, Dimo

    2018-03-01

    The theory of polylayer growth of thin solid films is employed for description of the growth kinetics of single-crystal nanowires. Expressions are derived for the dependences of the height h and radius r of a given nanowire on time t, as well as for the h(r) dependence. These dependences are applicable immediately after the nanowire nucleation on the substrate and thus include the period during which the nucleated nanowire changes its shape from that of cap to that of column. The analysis shows that the nanowire cap-to-column shape transition is continuous and makes it possible to kinetically define the nanowire shape-transition radius by means of the nanowire radial and axial growth rates. The obtained h(t), r(t) and h(r) dependences are found to provide a good description of available experimental data for growth of self-nucleated GaN nanowires by the vapor-solid mechanism.

  5. Media Effects on Lettuce Growth in "Pillows" Designed for the VEGGIE Spaceflight Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; McCoy, LaShelle; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    VEGGIE is a prototype vegetable production unit for space designed by Orbital Technologies Corporation that is being developed to fly on the International Space Station. A modular plant rooting system "pillow" is being designed to support plant growth in VEGGIE under microgravity conditions. VEGGIE pillows are small self-contained packets of media with time-release fertilizer that can wick water passively from a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in pillows and the entire root system of a plant is contained as the crop develops, preventing loss into the spacecraft cabin. This study compared five media types and three lettuce cultivars in pillows growing in a VEGGIE analog environment.. Media consisted of a peat-based potting mix (Fafard #2,Conrad Fafard Inc., Agawam, MA), and a calcined clay, (arcillite, 1-2 mm sifted, Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove IL) as well as three different blends of the two, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. Lettuce cultivars tested were 'Sierra', a bi-colored French crisp Batavia lettuce, 'Outredgeous', a red romaine lettuce and 'Flandria', a green butter head variety. Plants were grown for 28 days, harvested, biometric data was obtained, and tissue mineral analysis was performed. For all cultivars, lettuce plants grown in the media blends were more productive than those in the individual media types. All cultivars showed bell-shaped curves in response to increases in arcillite / decreases in Fafard #2 for leaf area, fresh, and dry mass. Plants in 100% Fafard #2 and in 100% arcillite were stunted, but only those in higher levels of Fafard #2 (70% and 100%) had reduced shoot percent moisture, possibly indicating that mechanisms causing stunting differed. Variation in tissue nutrient content are consistent with this, with Mg and Mn highest in plants grown in 100% Fafard and decreasing as the concentration of arcillite increased. Color also varied with media, especially in the 'Sierra' lettuce, with plants grown in increasing levels

  6. [Validity and internal consistency of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in Dental Students from Cartagena, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Angel; Fortich Mesa, Natalia; González Martínez, Farith Damián

    To determine the internal consistency and content validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) in dental students from Cartagena, Colombia. Scale validation study in 886 dental students from Cartagena, Colombia. Factor structure was determined through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Analyses were performed using the Stata v.13.2 for Windows (Statacorp., USA) and Mplus v.7.31 for Windows (Muthén & Muthén, USA) software. Internal consistency was α=.806. The factor structure showed three that accounted for the 56.6% of the variance. CFA revealed: χ 2 =926.036; df=85; RMSEA=.106 (90%CI, .100-.112); CFI=.947; TLI=.934. The MBI showed an adequate internal consistency and a factor structure being consistent with the original proposed structure with a poor fit, which does not reflect adequate content validity in this sample. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Political regime change, economic liberalization and growth accelerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, Richard; De Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether the type of political regime, regime changes, and economic liberalization are related to economic growth accelerations. Our results show that growth accelerations are preceded by economic liberalizations. We also find that growth accelerations are less likely to happen the longer

  8. Loblolly pine seedling growth after inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B.L.; Enebak, S.A.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

    2004-07-01

    The conifer tree species with the greatest economic importance in south eastern United States plantations is Loblolly pine. Plantations require intensive fertilization, pesticide application, and irrigation. In these cases growth-promoting rhizobacteria are useful in pest control. While it was once thought that ozone in the troposphere was limited to urban areas, it is now known that it is transported far from its place of origin. Ozone is known to impact plant growth negatively. There have been no previous studies on whether growth-promoting rhizobacteria can decrease the negative effects of ozone. In this study seedlings of Loblolly pine were inoculated with either Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn or Paenibacillus macerans (Schardinger) Ash. These were exposed to controlled amounts of ozone for 8-12 weeks. All plants showed decreased biomass and increased foliar damage compared to plants that were not exposed to ozone. B. subtilis inoculated plants showed less foliar damage than un-inoculated ones and root dimensions were increased. The use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria is not ready for large-scale commercial application in forestry, but this demonstration of the possible beneficial effects on ozone exposure warrants further investigation. 44 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  10. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  11. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  12. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone excess leads to fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2004-02-01

    Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.

  13. A case of functional growth hormone deficiency and early growth retardation in a child with IFT172 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela K; Kinning, Esther; Iida, Aritoshi; Wang, Zheng; Miyake, Noriko; Ikegawa, Shiro; McNeilly, Jane; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2015-04-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of rare conditions that present through a wide range of manifestations. Given the relative common occurrence of defects of the GH/IGF-I axis in children with short stature and growth retardation, the association between ciliopathies and these defects needs further attention. Our patient is a boy who was born at term and noted to have early growth retardation and weight gain within the first 18 months of life. Biochemical tests demonstrated low IGF-I but a normal peak GH on stimulation and an adequate increase in IGF-I on administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. His growth responded well to rhGH therapy. Subsequently he also developed a retinopathy of his rods and cones, metaphyseal dysplasia, and hypertension with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations of IFT172, thus consistent with a ciliopathy. This is the first reported case of a child with a mutation in IFT172 who presented with growth retardation in early childhood and was initially managed as a case of functional GH deficiency that responded to rhGH therapy. This case highlights the importance of ciliary function in pituitary development and the link between early onset growth failure and ciliopathies.

  14. FACET Emittance Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  15. FACET Emittance Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, Joel

    2011-01-01

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to ∼20 (micro)m long and ∼10 (micro)m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  16. Investigating calcite growth rates using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bo; Stack, Andrew G.; Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lammers, Laura N.; Hu, Yandi

    2018-02-01

    Calcite precipitation plays a significant role in processes such as geological carbon sequestration and toxic metal sequestration and, yet, the rates and mechanisms of calcite growth under close to equilibrium conditions are far from well understood. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used for the first time to measure macroscopic calcite growth rates. Calcite seed crystals were first nucleated and grown on sensors, then growth rates of calcite seed crystals were measured in real-time under close to equilibrium conditions (saturation index, SI = log ({Ca2+}/{CO32-}/Ksp) = 0.01-0.7, where {i} represent ion activities and Ksp = 10-8.48 is the calcite thermodynamic solubility constant). At the end of the experiments, total masses of calcite crystals on sensors measured by QCM-D and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were consistent, validating the QCM-D measurements. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were compared with reported macroscopic growth rates measured with auto-titration, ICP-MS, and microbalance. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were also compared with microscopic growth rates measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with rates predicted by two process-based crystal growth models. The discrepancies in growth rates among AFM measurements and model predictions appear to mainly arise from differences in step densities, and the step velocities were consistent among the AFM measurements as well as with both model predictions. Using the predicted steady-state step velocity and the measured step densities, both models predict well the growth rates measured using QCM-D and AFM. This study provides valuable insights into the effects of reactive site densities on calcite growth rate, which may help design future growth models to predict transient-state step densities.

  17. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  18. New report shows Vietnamese entrepreneurs are growth-oriented ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... The 2014 Vietnam Report, by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), was launched on June 9, 2015 at the National Entrepreneurship Forum of the Vietnamese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI). The report, funded in part by IDRC, is based on the results of a survey of 2,000 individuals and ...

  19. Particle hygroscopicity during atmospheric new particle formation events: implications for the chemical species contributing to particle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hygroscopicity of newly formed particles (diameters range 25–45 nm during two atmospheric new particle formation (NPF events in the German mid-level mountains during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010 field experiment. At the end of the NPF event involving clear particle growth, we measured an unusually high soluble particle fraction of 58.5% at 45 nm particle size. The particle growth rate contributed through sulfuric acid condensation only accounts for around 6.5% of the observed growth rate. Estimations showed that sulfuric acid condensation explained, however, only around 10% of that soluble particle fraction. Therefore, the formation of additional water-soluble matter appears imperative to explain the missing soluble fraction. Although direct evidence is missing, we consider water-soluble organics as candidates for this mechanism. For the case with clear growth process, the particle growth rate was determined by two alternative methods based on tracking the mode diameter of the nucleation mode. The mean particle growth rate obtained from the inter-site data comparison using Lagrangian consideration is 3.8 (± 2.6 nm h−1. During the same period, the growth rate calculated based on one site data is 5.0 nm h−1 using log-normal distribution function method. In light of the fact that considerable uncertainties could be involved in both methods, we consider both estimated growth rates consistent.

  20. Postnatal Growth in a Cohort of Sardinian Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR undergo catch-up growth during infancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the postnatal growth in a cohort of IUGR infants born in a tertiary-level Obstetric University Hospital of Northern Sardinia. An observational retrospective study was conducted on 12 IUGR (group A and 12 control infants (group B by measuring the anthropometric parameters of weight (W, length (L and head circumference (HC from birth to the 3rd postnatal year. At birth, significant differences were found between group A and group B with regard to all the auxological parameters (W, mean 1846.6 versus 3170.8 g, p < 0.0001; HC, 30.1 versus 34.4 cm, p < 0.0001; L, mean 43.4 versus 49.4 cm, p < 0.0001. During the 1st year, 8 of 12 (70% IUGR infants exhibited a significant catch-up growth in the 3 anthropometric parameters and a regular growth until the 3rd year of follow-up. The majority but not all infants born with IUGR in our series showed significant postnatal catch-up growth essentially during the first 12 months of life. An improved knowledge of the causes of IUGR will help to develop measures for its prevention and individualized treatment.

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Leptin-a Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between these polymorphisms and seven growth traits. Six polymorphisms, consisting of 2 SNPs in intron 1 (c.182T > G, c.183G > T and 4 SNPs in exon 2 (c.339C > G, c.345C > T, c.447G > A, c.531C > T, were identified and genotyped in 200 individuals. The c.182T > G and c.183G > T polymorphisms showed complete linkage and were analyzed together. Association analyses revealed that the c.182 + 183TG > GT polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight (BWT and body width (BWH, with the AB (TG/GT genotype showing positive effects on growth traits. Additionally, the SNP c.447G > A was significantly associated with BWT, BWH, overall length (OL, trunk width (TW, and head length (HL, with the GA genotype displaying positive effects on growth traits. The c.531C > T SNP showed a close association between the TT genotype and decreased growth. Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in orange-spotted grouper populations.

  2. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  3. Constitutive modeling of stress-driven grain growth in nanocrystalline metals

    KAUST Repository

    Gürses, Ercan

    2013-02-08

    In this work, we present a variational multiscale model for grain growth in face-centered cubic nanocrystalline (nc) metals. In particular, grain-growth-induced stress softening and the resulting relaxation phenomena are addressed. The behavior of the polycrystal is described by a conventional Taylor-type averaging scheme in which the grains are treated as two-phase composites consisting of a grain interior phase and a grain boundary-affected zone. Furthermore, a grain-growth law that captures the experimentally observed characteristics of the grain coarsening phenomena is proposed. To this end, the grain size is not taken as constant and varies according to the proposed stress-driven growth law. Several parametric studies are conducted to emphasize the influence of the grain-growth rule on the overall macroscopic response. Finally, the model is shown to provide a good description of the experimentally observed grain-growth-induced relaxation in nc-copper. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Marked stimulation of growth and motility of human keratinocytes by hepatocyte growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Yoshikawa, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1991-01-01

    Effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on normal human epidermal keratinocytes cultured under conditions of low Ca2+ (0.1 mM, growth-promoting condition) and physiological Ca2+ (1.8 mM, differentiation-promoting condition) was investigated. In low Ca2+, HGF markedly enhanced the migration of keratinocytes while it suppressed cell growth and DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, HGF enhanced the migration, cell growth, and DNA synthesis of keratinocytes cultured under conditions of physiological Ca2+. The maximal stimulation of DNA synthesis (2.4-fold stimulation) in physiological Ca2+ was seen at 2.5-5 ng/ml HGF and the stimulatory effect of HGF was suppressed by transforming growth factor-beta 1. Analysis of the HGF receptor using 125I-HGF as a ligand showed that human keratinocytes expressed a single class of specific, saturable receptor for HGF in both low and physiological Ca2+ conditions, exhibiting a Kd = 17.3 pM and approximately 690 binding sites/cell under physiological Ca2+. Thus, HGF is a potent factor which enhances growth and migration of normal human keratinocytes under conditions of physiological Ca2+. HGF may play an important role in epidermal tissue repair as it enhances both the migration and growth of keratinocytes

  5. Gender consistency and flexibility: using dynamics to understand the relationship between gender and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Martin, Carol L; Hessler, Eric E; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A

    2012-04-01

    Controversy surrounds questions regarding the influence of being gender consistent (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that are consistent with one's biological sex) versus being gender flexible (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that vary from masculine to feminine as circumstances arise) on children's adjustment outcomes, such as self-esteem, positive emotion, or behavior problems. Whereas evidence supporting the consistency hypothesis is abundant, little support exists for the flexibility hypothesis. To shed new light on the flexibility hypothesis, we explored children's gendered behavior from a dynamical perspective that highlighted variability and flexibility in addition to employing a conventional approach that emphasized stability and consistency. Conventional mean-level analyses supported the consistency hypothesis by revealing that gender atypical behavior was related to greater maladjustment, and dynamical analyses supported the flexibility hypothesis by showing that flexibility of gendered behavior over time was related to positive adjustment. Integrated analyses showed that gender typical behavior was related to the adjustment of children who were behaviorally inflexible, but not for those who were flexible. These results provided a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between gendered behavior and adjustment in young children and illustrated for the first time the feasibility of applying dynamical analyses to the study of gendered behavior.

  6. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  7. Temporal and contextual consistency of leadership in homing pigeon flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D Santos

    Full Text Available Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds.

  8. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  9. The temperature dependence and environmental enhancement mechanism of fatigue crack growth rates of A 351-CF8A cast stainless steel in LWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.H.; Haenninen, H.; Toerroenen, K.; Kemppainen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for A 351-CF8A cast stainless steel were determined over a range of temperatures from 93 degC to 338 degC (200 degF to 640 degF). The waveform was 17 mHz sinusoidal and the load ratio was 0.2. The environment was borated and lithiated water with a dissolved oxygen content of approximately 1 ppb. The results show an easily measurable (factors of 2 to 8) increase in crack growth rates due to the environment. However, these rates are well within the known band of results for low-alloy pressure vessel and low-carbon piping steels in LWR environments. An extensive fractographic investigation shows fatigue fracture surfaces consisting of brittle morphology. This fracture morphology is similar to that of stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels, suggesting that there is a distinctive environmental assistance mechanism resulting in the increased crack growth rates. (author)

  10. The pH profile for acid-induced elongation of coleoptile and epicotyl sections is consistent with the acid-growth theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.; Buckley, G.; Nowbar, S.; Lew, N. M.; Stinemetz, C.; Evans, M. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    The acid-growth theory predicts that a solution with a pH identical to that of the apoplast of auxin-treated tissues (4.5.-5.0) should induce elongation at a rate comparable to that of auxin. Different pH profiles for elongation have been obtained, however, depending on the type of pretreatment between harvest of the sections and the start of the pH-incubations. To determine the acid sensitivity under in vivo conditions, oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile, maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile and pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyl sections were abraded so that exogenous buffers could penetrate the free space, and placed in buffered solutions of pH 3.5-6.5 without any preincubation. The extension, without auxin, was measured over the first 3 h. Experiments conducted in three laboratories produced similar results. For all three species, sections placed in buffer without pretreatment elongated at least threefold faster at pH 5.0 than at 6.0 or 6.5, and the rate elongation at pH 5.0 was comparable to that induced by auxin. Pretreatment of abraded sections with pH-6.5 buffer or distilled water adjusted to pH 6.5 or above gave similar results. We conclude that the pH present in the apoplast of auxin-treated coleoptile and stems is sufficiently low to account for the initial growth response to auxin.

  11. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  12. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  13. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  14. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    effect of a population's age structure on savings rather than assuming a particular direction as Coale-Hoover and Simon do in their models, it was found that a higher proportion of children compete with savings in agriculture but complement savings in industrial areas. This was consistent with the economic value of children in agricultural and nonagricultural regions of less developed countries. The estimated production functions showed that marginal products of labor were considerably higher in agriculture than in nonagriculture. As with other simulation models, the effect of reducing fertility was to accelerate income growth. Reductions in rural fertility were more equitable and raised the overall level of per capita income more than similar efforts directed to urban areas only.

  15. Feast and Famine: regulation of black hole growth in low-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-07-01

    We analyse the observed distribution of Eddington ratios (L/LEdd) as a function of supermassive black hole mass for a large sample of nearby galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We demonstrate that there are two distinct regimes of black hole growth in nearby galaxies. The first is associated with galaxies with significant star formation [M*/starformationrate (SFR) ~ a Hubble time] in their central kiloparsec regions, and is characterized by a broad lognormal distribution of accretion rates peaked at a few per cent of the Eddington limit. In this regime, the Eddington ratio distribution is independent of the mass of the black hole and shows little dependence on the central stellar population of the galaxy. The second regime is associated with galaxies with old central stellar populations (M*/SFR >> a Hubble time), and is characterized by a power-law distribution function of Eddington ratios. In this regime, the time-averaged mass accretion rate on to black holes is proportional to the mass of stars in the galaxy bulge, with a constant of proportionality that depends on the mean stellar age of the stars. This result is once again independent of black hole mass. We show that both the slope of the power law and the decrease in the accretion rate on to black holes in old galaxies are consistent with population synthesis model predictions of the decline in stellar mass loss rates as a function of mean stellar age. Our results lead to a very simple picture of black hole growth in the local Universe. If the supply of cold gas in a galaxy bulge is plentiful, the black hole regulates its own growth at a rate that does not further depend on the properties of the interstellar medium. Once the gas runs out, black hole growth is regulated by the rate at which evolved stars lose their mass.

  16. Marginal Consistency: Upper-Bounding Partition Functions over Commutative Semirings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tomás

    2015-07-01

    Many inference tasks in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence lead to partition functions in which addition and multiplication are abstract binary operations forming a commutative semiring. By generalizing max-sum diffusion (one of convergent message passing algorithms for approximate MAP inference in graphical models), we propose an iterative algorithm to upper bound such partition functions over commutative semirings. The iteration of the algorithm is remarkably simple: change any two factors of the partition function such that their product remains the same and their overlapping marginals become equal. In many commutative semirings, repeating this iteration for different pairs of factors converges to a fixed point when the overlapping marginals of every pair of factors coincide. We call this state marginal consistency. During that, an upper bound on the partition function monotonically decreases. This abstract algorithm unifies several existing algorithms, including max-sum diffusion and basic constraint propagation (or local consistency) algorithms in constraint programming. We further construct a hierarchy of marginal consistencies of increasingly higher levels and show than any such level can be enforced by adding identity factors of higher arity (order). Finally, we discuss instances of the framework for several semirings, including the distributive lattice and the max-sum and sum-product semirings.

  17. Growth and characterizations of semipolar (1122) InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Skuridina, D.; Solopow, S.; Frentrup, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Vogt, P.; Kneissl, M.; Ivaldi, F.; Kret, S.; Szczepańska, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (1122) InN on (1122) GaN templates on m-plane (1010) sapphire substrates. The in-plane relationship of the (1122) InN samples is [1123] InN ‖‖[0001] sapphire and [1100] InN ‖‖[1210] sapphire , replicating the in-plane relationship of the (1122) GaN templates. The surface of the (1122) InN samples and the (1122) GaN templates shows an undulation along [1100] InN,GaN , which is attributed to anisotropic diffusion of indium/gallium atoms on the (1122) surfaces. The growth rate of the (1122) InN layers was 3-4 times lower compared to c-plane (0001) InN. High resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a relaxed interface between the (1122) InN layers and the (1122) GaN templates, consistent with x-ray diffraction results. Basal plane stacking faults were found in the (1122) GaN templates but they were terminated at the InN/(1122) GaN interface due to the presence of misfit dislocations along the entire InN/GaN interface. The misfit dislocations were contributed to the fully relaxation and the tilts of the (1122) InN layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the polarity of the grown (1122) InN sample, indicating an In-polar (1122) InN. The valence band maximum was determined to be at (1.7 ± 0.1) eV for the (1122) InN sample, comparable to In-polar c-plane InN.

  18. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. STEIN, Alison M. BELL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk wh