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Sample records for show elevated rates

  1. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  2. Elevated mutation rate during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Alison; Santoyo, Gustavo; Shafer, Brenda; Strathern, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Mutations accumulate during all stages of growth, but only germ line mutations contribute to evolution. While meiosis contributes to evolution by reassortment of parental alleles, we show here that the process itself is inherently mutagenic. We have previously shown that the DNA synthesis associated with repair of a double-strand break is about 1000-fold less accurate than S-phase synthesis. Since the process of meiosis involves many programmed DSBs, we reasoned that this repair might also be mutagenic. Indeed, in the early 1960's Magni and Von Borstel observed elevated reversion of recessive alleles during meiosis, and found that the revertants were more likely to be associated with a crossover than non-revertants, a process that they called "the meiotic effect." Here we use a forward mutation reporter (CAN1 HIS3) placed at either a meiotic recombination coldspot or hotspot near the MAT locus on Chromosome III. We find that the increased mutation rate at CAN1 (6 to 21 -fold) correlates with the underlying recombination rate at the locus. Importantly, we show that the elevated mutation rate is fully dependent upon Spo11, the protein that introduces the meiosis specific DSBs. To examine associated recombination we selected for random spores with or without a mutation in CAN1. We find that the mutations isolated this way show an increased association with recombination (crossovers, loss of crossover interference and/or increased gene conversion tracts). Polζ appears to contribute about half of the mutations induced during meiosis, but is not the only source of mutations for the meiotic effect. We see no difference in either the spectrum or distribution of mutations between mitosis and meiosis. The correlation of hotspots with elevated mutagenesis provides a mechanism for organisms to control evolution rates in a gene specific manner.

  3. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  4. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  5. Comparison of AltiKa and CryoSat-2 Elevation and Elevation Rates over the Amundsen Sea Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otosaka, I.; Shepherd, A.; Hogg, A.

    2017-12-01

    Altimeters have been successfully used for more than two decades to observe changes in the ice sheet surface and to estimate the contribution of ice sheets to sea level rise. The Satellite for Argos and AltiKa (SARAL) was launched in February 2013 as a joint mission between the French space agency (CNES) and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). While the altimeters previously launched into space are operating at Ku-band (13.6 GHz), the altimeter on board SARAL, AltiKa, is the first instrument to operate at Ka-band (36.8 GHz). The higher frequency of AltiKa is expected to lead to reduced penetration of the radar signal into the snowpack, compared to Ku-band. A comparison of ice sheet elevation measurements recorded at the two frequencies may therefore provide useful information on surface and its scattering properties. In this study, we compare elevation and elevation rates recorded by AltiKa and CryoSat-2 between March 2013 and April 2017 over the Amundsen Sea Sector (ASS), one of the most rapidly changing sectors of West Antarctica. Elevation and elevation rates are computed within 5 km grid cells using a plane fit method, taking into account the contributions of topography and fluctuations in elevation and backscatter. The drifting orbit and imaging modes of CryoSat-2 result in 78,7 % sampling of the study area, whereas AltiKa samples 39,7 % due to its sparser orbit pattern and due to loss of signal in steeply sloping coastal margins. Over the study period, the root mean square difference between elevation and elevation change recorded at Ka-band and Ku-band were 40.3 m and 0.54 m/yr, respectively. While the broad spatial pattern of elevation change is well resolved by both satellites, data gaps along the Getz coastline may be partly responsible for the lower elevation change rate observed at Ka-band. We also compared CryoSat-2 and AltiKa to coincident airborne data from NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB). The mean difference of elevation rate between

  6. High-rate capability of lithium-ion batteries after storing at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Chiang, Pin-Chi Julia

    2007-01-01

    High-rate performances of a lithium-ion battery after storage at elevated temperature are investigated electrochemically by means of three-electrode system. The high-rate capability is decreased significantly after high-temperature storage. A 3 C discharge capacities after room-temperature storage and 60 o C storage are 650 and 20 mAh, respectively. Lithium-ion diffusion in lithium cobalt oxide cathode limits the battery's capacity and the results show that storage temperature changes this diffusion behavior. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that many defects are directly observed in the cathode after storage compared with the fresh cathode; the structural defects block the diffusion within the particles. Electrochemical impedance and polarization curve indicate that mass-transfer (diffusion) dominates the discharge capacity during high-rate discharge

  7. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  8. Socially disadvantaged city districts show a higher incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions with elevated cardiovascular risk factors and worse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Seide, S; Wienbergen, H; Fiehn, E; Stehmeier, J; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R; Pohlabeln, H; Fach, A

    2017-09-22

    The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-morbidity is subject of ongoing scientific investigations. This study was to explore the association between SES in different city-districts of Bremen/Germany and incidence, severity, treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Since 2006 all STEMI-patients from the metropolitan area of Bremen are documented in the Bremen STEMI-registry. Utilizing postal codes of their home address they were assigned to four groups in accordance to the Bremen social deprivation-index (G1: high, G2: intermediate high, G3: intermediate low, G4: low socioeconomic status). Three thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with STEMI admitted between 2006 and 2015 entered analysis. City areas with low SES showed higher adjusted STEMI-incidence-rates (IR-ratio 1.56, G4 vs. G1). This elevation could be observed in both sexes (women IRR 1.63, men IRR 1.54) and was most prominent in inhabitants  3000 U/l, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and severe impairment of LV-function post-STEMI (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Long term follow-up revealed that lower SES was associated with higher major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE)-rates after 5 years: G1 30.8%, G2 35.7%, G3 36.0%, G4 41.1%, p (for trend) = 0.02. This worse prognosis could especially be shown for young STEMI-patients (<50 yrs. of age) 5-yr. mortality-rates(G4 vs. G1) 18.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.03 and 5-year-MACCE-rates (G4 vs. G1) 32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02. This registry-data confirms the negative association of low socioeconomic status and STEMI-incidence, with higher rates of smoking and obesity, more extensive infarctions and worse prognosis for the socio-economically deprived.

  9. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  10. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-11-15

    Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. The results showed that the temporal patterns of soil respiration rates were mainly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content, and a combined soil temperature and soil water content model explained 54-80% of the variation. However, these two factors affected soil respiration differently. Soil temperature positively contributed to soil respiration, but a bidirectional relationship between soil respiration and soil water content was revealed. Higher soil moisture content resulted in higher soil respiration rates at the lowland plantations but led to adverse effects at the mid-elevation plantation. The annual soil respiration rates were estimated as 14.3-20.0 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the lowland plantations and 7.0-12.2 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the mid-elevation plantation. When assembled with the findings of previous studies, the annual soil respiration rates increased with the mean annual temperature and litterfall but decreased with elevation and the mean annual precipitation. A conceptual model of the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of the soil respiration rate was developed. Three determinant factors were proposed: (i) elevation, (ii) stand characteristics, and (iii) soil temperature and soil moisture. The results indicated that changes in temperature and precipitation significantly affect soil respiration. Because of the high variability of soil respiration, more studies and data syntheses are required to accurately predict soil respiration in Taiwanese forests.

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  12. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V.; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Background Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. Results The results showed that the temporal patterns of so...

  13. Elevated Rate of Genome Rearrangements in Radiation-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repar, Jelena; Supek, Fran; Klanjscek, Tin; Warnecke, Tobias; Zahradka, Ksenija; Zahradka, Davor

    2017-04-01

    A number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic species are known for their resistance to ionizing radiation. One of the challenges these species face is a potent environmental source of DNA double-strand breaks, potential drivers of genome structure evolution. Efficient and accurate DNA double-strand break repair systems have been demonstrated in several unrelated radiation-resistant species and are putative adaptations to the DNA damaging environment. Such adaptations are expected to compensate for the genome-destabilizing effect of environmental DNA damage and may be expected to result in a more conserved gene order in radiation-resistant species. However, here we show that rates of genome rearrangements, measured as loss of gene order conservation with time, are higher in radiation-resistant species in multiple, phylogenetically independent groups of bacteria. Comparison of indicators of selection for genome organization between radiation-resistant and phylogenetically matched, nonresistant species argues against tolerance to disruption of genome structure as a strategy for radiation resistance. Interestingly, an important mechanism affecting genome rearrangements in prokaryotes, the symmetrical inversions around the origin of DNA replication, shapes genome structure of both radiation-resistant and nonresistant species. In conclusion, the opposing effects of environmental DNA damage and DNA repair result in elevated rates of genome rearrangements in radiation-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Repar et al.

  14. Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with ‘Chinese Drywall’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Joseph G.; MacIntosh, David L.; Saltzman, Lori E.; Baker, Brian J.; Matheson, Joanna M.; Recht, Joel R.; Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A.; Myatt, Theodore A.; Spengler, John D.; Stewart, James H.; McCarthy, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. 3 , p 2 S: 476 vs. 2 S: 1472 vs. 389 Å/30 d, p < 0.01). The abundance of carbonate and strontium in drywall was also elevated in complaint homes, and appears to be useful objective marker of problematic drywall in homes that meet other screening criteria (e.g., constructed or renovated in 2006–2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with ‘Chinese Drywall’ in 2006–2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air. - Highlights: ► Environmental measurements in homes with and without “Chinese Drywall” ► Homes with “Chinese Drywall” had higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations ► Homes with “Chinese Drywall” had elevated corrosion rates ► Study provides empirical evidence of reported associations

  15. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  16. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. David; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  17. Monitoring Rates of Subsidence and Relative Sea-Level Rise in Low-Elevation Coastal Zones: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornqvist, T. E.; Jankowski, K. L.; Fernandes, A. M.; Keogh, M.; Nienhuis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Low-elevation coastal zones (LECZs) that often host large population centers are particularly vulnerable to accelerating rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Traditionally, tide-gauge records are used to obtain quantitative data on rates of RSLR, given that they are perceived to capture the rise of the sea surface, as well as land subsidence which is often substantial in such settings. We argue here that tide gauges in LECZs often provide ambiguous data because they ultimately measure RSLR with respect to a benchmark that is typically anchored tens of meters deep. This is problematic because the prime target of interest is usually the rate of RSLR with respect to the land surface. We illustrate this problem with newly obtained rod surface elevation table - marker horizon (RSET-MH) data from coastal Louisiana (n = 274) that show that shallow subsidence in the uppermost 5-10 m accounts for 60-85% of total subsidence. Since benchmarks in this region are anchored at 23 m depth on average, tide-gauge records by definition do not capture this important process and thus underestimate RSLR by a considerable amount. We show how RSET-MH data, combined with GPS and satellite altimetry data, enable us to bypass this problem. Rates of RSLR in coastal Louisiana over the past 6-10 years are 12 ± 8 mm/yr, considerably higher than numbers reported in recent studies based on tide-gauge analysis. Subsidence rates, averaged across this region, total about 9 mm/yr. It is likely that the problems with tide-gauge data are not unique to coastal Louisiana, so we suggest that our new approach to RSLR measurements may be useful in LECZs worldwide, with considerable implications for metropolitan areas like New Orleans that are located within such settings.

  18. Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with 'Chinese Drywall'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Joseph G.; MacIntosh, David L. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA (United States); Saltzman, Lori E. [U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baker, Brian J. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Matheson, Joanna M.; Recht, Joel R. [U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Bethesda, MD (United States); Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A.; Myatt, Theodore A. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Spengler, John D.; Stewart, James H. [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA (United States); McCarthy, John F., E-mail: jmcccarthy@eheinc.com [Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., 117 Fourth Avenue, Needham, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. < LOD {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.05), and significantly greater rates of copper sulfide and silver sulfide corrosion compared to non-complaint homes (Cu{sub 2}S: 476 vs. < 32 A/30 d, p < 0.01; Ag{sub 2}S: 1472 vs. 389 A/30 d, p < 0.01). The abundance of carbonate and strontium in drywall was also elevated in complaint homes, and appears to be useful objective marker of problematic drywall in homes that meet other screening criteria (e.g., constructed or renovated in 2006-2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with 'Chinese Drywall' in 2006-2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental measurements in homes with and without 'Chinese Drywall' Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homes with 'Chinese Drywall' had higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homes with 'Chinese Drywall' had elevated corrosion rates Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study provides empirical evidence of reported associations.

  19. Increasing plant use of organic nitrogen with elevation is reflected in nitrogen uptake rates and ecosystem delta15N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Finzi, Adrien

    2011-04-01

    It is hypothesized that decreasing mean annual temperature and rates of nitrogen (N) cycling causes plants to switch from inorganic to organic forms of N as the primary mode of N nutrition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field experiments and collected natural-abundance delta15N signatures of foliage, soils, and ectomycorrhizal sporocarps along a steep elevation-climate gradient in the White Mountains, New Hampshire, USA. Here we show that with increasing elevation organic forms of N became the dominant source of N taken up by hardwood and coniferous tree species based on dual-labeled glycine uptake analysis, an important confirmation of an emerging theory for the biogeochemistry of the N cycle. Variation in natural abundance foliar delta15N with elevation was also consistent with increasing organic N uptake, though a simple, mass balance model demonstrated that the uptake of delta15N depleted inorganic N, rather than fractionation upon transfer of N from mycorrhizal fungi, best explains variations in foliar delta15N with elevation.

  20. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A 10-Day Developmental Voyage: Converging Evidence from Three Studies Showing that Self-Esteem May Be Elevated and Maintained without Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…

  2. Geographic distribution of dementia mortality: elevated mortality rates for black and white Americans by place of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M Maria; Kosheleva, Anna; Wadley, Virginia G; Weiss, Christopher; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that patterns of elevated stroke mortality among those born in the United States Stroke Belt (SB) states also prevailed for mortality related to all-cause dementia or Alzheimer Disease. Cause-specific mortality (contributing cause of death, including underlying cause cases) rates in 2000 for United States-born African Americans and whites aged 65 to 89 years were calculated by linking national mortality records with population data based on race, sex, age, and birth state or state of residence in 2000. Birth in a SB state (NC, SC, GA, TN, AR, MS, or AL) was cross-classified against SB residence at the 2000 Census. Compared with those who were not born in the SB, odds of all-cause dementia mortality were significantly elevated by 29% for African Americans and 19% for whites born in the SB. These patterns prevailed among individuals who no longer lived in the SB at death. Patterns were similar for Alzheimer Disease-related mortality. Some non-SB states were also associated with significant elevations in dementia-related mortality. Dementia mortality rates follow geographic patterns similar to stroke mortality, with elevated rates among those born in the SB. This suggests important roles for geographically patterned childhood exposures in establishing cognitive reserve.

  3. Hot Tensile and Fracture Behavior of 35CrMo Steel at Elevated Temperature and Strain Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbing Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the tensile deformation and fracture behavior of 35CrMo steel during hot processing, uniaxial tensile tests at elevated temperatures and strain rates were performed. Effects of deformation condition on the flow behavior, strain rate sensitivity, microstructure transformation, and fracture characteristic were characterized and discussed. The results indicated that the flow stress was sensitive to the deformation condition, and fracture occurs immediately after the peak stress level is reached, especially when the temperature is low or the strain rate is high. The strain rate sensitivity increases with the deformation temperature, which indicates that formability could improve at high temperatures. Photographs showing both the fracture surfaces and the matrix near the fracture section indicated the ductile nature of the material. However, the fracture mechanisms varied according to the deformation condition, which influences the dynamic recrystallization (DRX condition, and the DRX was accompanied by the formation of voids. For samples deformed at high temperatures or low strain rates, coalescence of numerous voids formed in the recrystallized grains is responsible for fracture, while at high strain rates or low temperatures, the grains rupture mainly by splitting because of cracks formed around the inclusions.

  4. Whole-gene positive selection, elevated synonymous substitution rates, duplication, and indel evolution of the chloroplast clpP1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Erixon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synonymous DNA substitution rates in the plant chloroplast genome are generally relatively slow and lineage dependent. Non-synonymous rates are usually even slower due to purifying selection acting on the genes. Positive selection is expected to speed up non-synonymous substitution rates, whereas synonymous rates are expected to be unaffected. Until recently, positive selection has seldom been observed in chloroplast genes, and large-scale structural rearrangements leading to gene duplications are hitherto supposed to be rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We found high substitution rates in the exons of the plastid clpP1 gene in Oenothera (the Evening Primrose family and three separate lineages in the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae, the Carnation family. Introns have been lost in some of the lineages, but where present, the intron sequences have substitution rates similar to those found in other introns of their genomes. The elevated substitution rates of clpP1 are associated with statistically significant whole-gene positive selection in three branches of the phylogeny. In two of the lineages we found multiple copies of the gene. Neighboring genes present in the duplicated fragments do not show signs of elevated substitution rates or positive selection. Although non-synonymous substitutions account for most of the increase in substitution rates, synonymous rates are also markedly elevated in some lineages. Whereas plant clpP1 genes experiencing negative (purifying selection are characterized by having very conserved lengths, genes under positive selection often have large insertions of more or less repetitive amino acid sequence motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found positive selection of the clpP1 gene in various plant lineages to correlated with repeated duplication of the clpP1 gene and surrounding regions, repetitive amino acid sequences, and increase in synonymous substitution rates. The present study sheds light on the

  5. Complex motion of elevators in piecewise map model combined with circle map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    We study the dynamic behavior in the elevator traffic controlled by capacity when the inflow rate of passengers into elevators varies periodically with time. The dynamics of elevators is described by the piecewise map model combined with the circle map. The motion of the elevators depends on the inflow rate, its period, and the number of elevators. The motion in the piecewise map model combined with the circle map shows a complex behavior different from the motion in the piecewise map model.

  6. Changes in nutrients and decay rate of Ginkgo biloba leaf litter exposed to elevated O3 concentration in urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone (O3 pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer. Here, we hypothesized that O3 exposure at high concentrations would alter the decomposition rate of urban tree litter. In open-top chambers (OTCs, 5-year-old G. biloba saplings were planted to investigate the impact of elevated O3 concentration (120 ppb on changes in nutrient contents and decomposition rate of leaf litters. The results showed that elevated O3 concentration significantly increased K content (6.31 ± 0.29 vs 17.93 ± 0.40, P < 0.01 in leaves of G. biloba, significantly decreased the contents of total phenols (2.82 ± 0.93 vs 1.60 ± 0.44, P < 0.05 and soluble sugars (86.51 ± 19.57 vs 53.76 ± 2.40, P < 0.05, but did not significantly alter the contents of C, N, P, lignin and condensed tannins, compared with that in ambient air. Furthermore, percent mass remaining in litterbags after 150 days under ambient air and elevated O3 concentration was 56.0% and 52.8%, respectively. No significant difference between treatments was observed in mass remaining at any sampling date during decomposition. The losses of the nutrients in leaf litters of G. biloba showed significant seasonal differences regardless of O3 treatment. However, we found that elevated O3 concentration slowed down the leaf litter decomposition only at the early decomposition stage, but slightly accelerated the litter decomposition at the late stage (after 120 days. This study provides our understanding of the ecological processes regulating

  7. Climate Impacts on Soil Carbon Processes along an Elevation Gradient in the Tropical Luquillo Experimental Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfang Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests play an important role in regulating the global climate and the carbon cycle. With the changing temperature and moisture along the elevation gradient, the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Northeastern Puerto Rico provides a natural approach to understand tropical forest ecosystems under climate change. In this study, we conducted a soil translocation experiment along an elevation gradient with decreasing temperature but increasing moisture to study the impacts of climate change on soil organic carbon (SOC and soil respiration. As the results showed, both soil carbon and the respiration rate were impacted by microclimate changes. The soils translocated from low elevation to high elevation showed an increased respiration rate with decreased SOC content at the end of the experiment, which indicated that the increased soil moisture and altered soil microbes might affect respiration rates. The soils translocated from high elevation to low elevation also showed an increased respiration rate with reduced SOC at the end of the experiment, indicating that increased temperature at low elevation enhanced decomposition rates. Temperature and initial soil source quality impacted soil respiration significantly. With the predicted warming climate in the Caribbean, these tropical soils at high elevations are at risk of releasing sequestered carbon into the atmosphere.

  8. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J Adam; McKee, Karen L; Cahoon, Donald R; Cherry, Julia A; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2009-04-14

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO(2) (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr(-1) in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO(2) effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO(2), may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  9. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  10. Global elevational diversity and diversification of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Jetz, Walter

    2018-03-08

    Mountain ranges harbour exceptionally high biodiversity, which is now under threat from rapid environmental change. However, despite decades of effort, the limited availability of data and analytical tools has prevented a robust and truly global characterization of elevational biodiversity gradients and their evolutionary origins. This has hampered a general understanding of the processes involved in the assembly and maintenance of montane communities. Here we show that a worldwide mid-elevation peak in bird richness is driven by wide-ranging species and disappears when we use a subsampling procedure that ensures even species representation in space and facilitates evolutionary interpretation. Instead, richness corrected for range size declines linearly with increasing elevation. We find that the more depauperate assemblages at higher elevations are characterized by higher rates of diversification across all mountain regions, rejecting the idea that lower recent diversification rates are the general cause of less diverse biota. Across all elevations, assemblages on mountains with high rates of past temperature change exhibit more rapid diversification, highlighting the importance of climatic fluctuations in driving the evolutionary dynamics of mountain biodiversity. While different geomorphological and climatic attributes of mountain regions have been pivotal in determining the remarkable richness gradients observed today, our results underscore the role of ongoing and often very recent diversification processes in maintaining the unique and highly adapted biodiversity of higher elevations.

  11. Elevated Extinction Rates as a Trigger for Diversification Rate Shifts: Early Amniotes as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Ruta, Marcello; Müller, Johannes; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Tree shape analyses are frequently used to infer the location of shifts in diversification rate within the Tree of Life. Many studies have supported a causal relationship between shifts and temporally coincident events such as the evolution of “key innovations”. However, the evidence for such relationships is circumstantial. We investigated patterns of diversification during the early evolution of Amniota from the Carboniferous to the Triassic, subjecting a new supertree to analyses of tree balance in order to infer the timing and location of diversification shifts. We investigated how uneven origination and extinction rates drive diversification shifts, and use two case studies (herbivory and an aquatic lifestyle) to examine whether shifts tend to be contemporaneous with evolutionary novelties. Shifts within amniotes tend to occur during periods of elevated extinction, with mass extinctions coinciding with numerous and larger shifts. Diversification shifts occurring in clades that possess evolutionary innovations do not coincide temporally with the appearance of those innovations, but are instead deferred to periods of high extinction rate. We suggest such innovations did not cause increases in the rate of cladogenesis, but allowed clades to survive extinction events. We highlight the importance of examining general patterns of diversification before interpreting specific shifts. PMID:26592209

  12. Effects of soil water content and elevated CO2 concentration on the monoterpene emission rate of Cryptomeria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Amagai, Takashi; Tani, Akira

    2018-04-11

    Monoterpenes emitted from plants contribute to the formation of secondary pollution and affect the climate system. Monoterpene emission rates may be affected by environmental changes such as increasing CO 2 concentration caused by fossil fuel burning and drought stress induced by climate change. We measured monoterpene emissions from Cryptomeria japonica clone saplings grown under different CO 2 concentrations (control: ambient CO 2 level, elevated CO 2 : 1000μmolmol -1 ). The saplings were planted in the ground and we did not artificially control the SWC. The relationship between the monoterpene emissions and naturally varying SWC was investigated. The dominant monoterpene was α-pinene, followed by sabinene. The monoterpene emission rates were exponentially correlated with temperature for all measurements and normalized (35°C) for each measurement day. The daily normalized monoterpene emission rates (E s0.10 ) were positively and linearly correlated with SWC under both control and elevated CO 2 conditions (control: r 2 =0.55, elevated CO 2 : r 2 =0.89). The slope of the regression line of E s0.10 against SWC was significantly higher under elevated CO 2 than under control conditions (ANCOVA: P<0.01), indicating that the effect of CO 2 concentration on monoterpene emission rates differed by soil water status. The monoterpene emission rates estimated by considering temperature and SWC (Improved G93 algorithm) better agreed with the measured monoterpene emission rates, when compared with the emission rates estimated by considering temperature alone (G93 algorithm). Our results demonstrated that the combined effects of SWC and CO 2 concentration are important for controlling the monoterpene emissions from C. japonica clone saplings. If these relationships can be applied to the other coniferous tree species, our results may be useful to improve accuracy of monoterpene emission estimates from the coniferous forests as affected by climate change in the present and

  13. Elevated congenital anomaly rates and incorporated cesium-137 in the Polissia region of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Koerblein, Alfred; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Nataliya; Komov, Oleksandr; Kuznietsov, Illia; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Sosyniuk, Zoriana

    2016-03-01

    Investigations soon after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl in Russian) accident of exposed populations residing elsewhere in Europe led government and international agencies to conclude that exposures to cesium-137 (Cs-137) were not teratogenic. Our observations of elevated population rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) and microcephaly and microphthalmia (M/M) in the Rivne Province in Ukraine, which were among the highest in Europe, prompted this follow-up investigation inclusive of whole-body counts (WBCs) of Cs-137 among ambulatory patients and pregnant women residing in Polissia, the most polluted region in Rivne. Yearly (2000-2012) population rates of NTDs and M/M and WBC patterns of ambulatory patients (2001-2010) and pregnant women (2011-2013) in Polissia and non-Polissia regions of Rivne were analyzed. The NTD and M/M population rates in Rivne remain elevated and are statistically significantly higher in Polissia than in non-Polissia. The WBCs among residents in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than among those from non-Polissia. NTD and M/M rates are highest in the Polissia region of Rivne and are among the highest in Europe. In Polissia, the WBCs of Cs-137 are above officially set permissible upper limits. The results are based on aggregate data of NTDs and M/Ms and average WBC values. Further investigations of causality of the high rates of NTDs and M/Ms are needed and urgent strengthening policies and implementations to reduce exposures to teratogens, in particular radioactive nuclides and alcohol, and consumption of folic acid supplements are indicated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Elevation-dependent cooling caused by volcanic eruptions during last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, L.; Liu, J.; Bradley, R. S.; Yan, M.; Sun, W.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    The amplified warming over the high-elevation regions in recent decades due to the increases of greenhouse gases has attracted lots of attentions, due to the potential severe impacts on mountain hydrological systems and ecosystems and corresponding social and economic influences. Similarly, the model simulations show that the rate of cooling is also amplified with elevation after volcanic eruptions during last millennium, such that high-mountain environments experience larger decreases in temperature than environments at lower elevations. This elevation-dependent cooling (EDC) testifies two important mechanisms, i.e. snow albedo feedback and tropical deep convection mechanism, which also induce the elevation-dependent warming (EDW) found in recent decades due to the increases of greenhouse gases that accelerates the rates of changes in mountain hydrological regimes and ecosystems. It can be concluded that although the influences from natural forcing and anthropogenic forcing on the high-mountain regions are opposite, the mechanisms behind the influences are the same. This finding shows that the temperature change over high-elevation regions is more sensitive to the background climate changes, and needs more attention for adaptations and mitigations due to their bio-diversity and fragile ecosystems.

  15. Precipitation of iron species on the cold side of PWR steam generator and its possible correlation to dose rate elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Bernt; Chen, Jiaxin; Andersson, Petter

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years of service of Ringhals PWR unit 4, operating with Alloy-600MA steam generator tubing materials and a coolant pH of 7.2 (a)300°C, the cold water channel heads experienced continuous dose rate elevation. In the hot parts, however, it remained stable. Similar observations were made in Ringhals unit 2 and 3 after SGR to Alloy 690 and sometimes in other PWRs operated at similarly 'low' pH-regime. Following the introduction of elevated pH regime at Ringhals PWRs the cold side dose rates dropped to the similar levels as on the hot side. The phenomena are analysed in this paper from three different aspects: (1) the general plant observations in dose rate development under different coolant pH regimes; (2) the concentrations of dissolved and soluble iron species at the low and high coolant pH values and (3) the microstructures of the oxide films formed on the cold and hot sides of a steam generator tube pulled from a retired steam generator. Based on the analyses a hypothesis is elaborated that the formation of a thin but highly radioactive layer of iron-rich oxide deposit on the cold side may be responsible for the dose rate elevation and that its formation may be harder at the elevated pH regime. (author)

  16. Upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements: a general population job exposure matrix based on expert ratings and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2016-08-01

    We recently constructed a general population job exposure matrix (JEM), The Shoulder JEM, based on expert ratings. The overall aim of this study was to convert expert-rated job exposures for upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements to measurement scales. The Shoulder JEM covers all Danish occupational titles, divided into 172 job groups. For 36 of these job groups, we obtained technical measurements (inclinometry) of upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements. To validate the expert-rated job exposures against the measured job exposures, we used Spearman rank correlations and the explained variance[Formula: see text] according to linear regression analyses (36 job groups). We used the linear regression equations to convert the expert-rated job exposures for all 172 job groups into predicted measured job exposures. Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess the agreement between the predicted and measured job exposures. The Spearman rank correlations were 0.63 for upper arm elevation and 0.64 for repetitive shoulder movements. The expert-rated job exposures explained 64% and 41% of the variance of the measured job exposures, respectively. The corresponding calibration equations were y=0.5%time+0.16×expert rating and y=27°/s+0.47×expert rating. The mean differences between predicted and measured job exposures were zero due to calibration; the 95% limits of agreement were ±2.9% time for upper arm elevation >90° and ±33°/s for repetitive shoulder movements. The updated Shoulder JEM can be used to present exposure-response relationships on measurement scales. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Response of tundra ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. [Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, W.C.; Grulke, N.E.

    1988-12-31

    Our past research shows that arctic tussock tundra responds to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with marked increases in net ecosystem carbon flux and photosynthetic rates. However, at ambient temperatures and nutrient availabilities, homeostatic adjustments result in net ecosystem flux rates dropping to those found a contemporary CO{sub 2} levels within three years. Evidence for ecosystem-level acclimation in the first season of elevated CO{sub 2} exposure was found in 1987. Photosynthetic rates of Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant species, adjusts to elevated CO{sub 2} within three weeks. Past research also indicates other changes potentially important to ecosystem structure and function. Elevated CO{sub 2} treatment apparently delays senescence and increases the period of positive photosynthetic activity. Recent results from the 1987 field season verify the results obtained in the 1983--1986 field seasons: Elevated CO{sub 2} resulted in increased ecosystem-level flux rates. Regressions fitted to the seasonal flux rates indicate an apparent 10 d extension of positive CO{sub 2} uptake reflecting a delay of the onset of plant dormancy. This delay in senescence could increase the frost sensitivity of the system. Major end points proposed for this research include the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and the interaction of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with elevated soil temperature and increased nutrient availability on: (1) Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (2) Net photosynthetic rates; (3) Patterns and resource controls on homeostatic adjustment in the above processes to elevated CO{sub 2}; (4) Plant-nutrient status, litter quality, and forage quality; (5) Soil-nutrient status; (6) Plant-growth pattern and shoot demography.

  18. Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Venn

    Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.

  19. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Increased odds and predictive rates of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and observed sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, Victor A; Arce Rentería, Miguel; Maiman, Moshe; Slugh, Mitch; Gazzola, Deana M; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Barr, William B

    2017-07-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a self-report instrument, previously shown to differentiate patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). At present, the odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in PNES patients, as well as the diagnostic predictive value of such scale elevations, remain largely unexplored. This can be of clinical utility, particularly when a diagnosis is uncertain. After looking at mean group differences, we applied contingency table derived odds ratios to a sample of ES (n=92) and PNES (n=77) patients from a video EEG (vEEG) monitoring unit. We also looked at the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), as well as the false discovery rate (FDR) and false omission rate (FOR) for scales found to have increased odds of elevation in PNES patients. This was completed for the overall sample, as well as the sample stratified by sex. The odds of elevations related to somatic concerns, negative mood, and suicidal ideation in the PNES sample ranged from 2 to 5 times more likely. Female PNES patients had 3-6 times greater odds of such scale elevations, while male PNES patients had odds of 5-15 times more likely. PPV rates ranged from 53.66% to 84.62%, while NPV rates ranged from 47.52% to 90.91%. FDR across scales ranged from 15.38% to 50%, while the FOR ranged from 9.09% to 52.47%. Consistent with prior research, PNES patients have greater odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations, particularly related to somatic concerns and mood disturbance. Female PNES patients endorsed greater emotional distress, including endorsement of suicide related items. Elevations of these scales could aid in differentiating PNES from ES patients, although caution is warranted due to the possibility of both false positives and the incorrect omissions of PNES cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? A cohort study based on iron-ore mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models were used to generate smoothed estimates of standardized mortality ratios and adjusted rate ratios, both models by cumulative exposure time in outdoor work. The adjusted rate ratio between employment classified as outdoor work ≥25 years and outdoor work 0-4 years was 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.42). The subgroup underground work ≥15 years deviated most in occurrence of cerebrovascular disease mortality compared with the external reference population: SMR (0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.85)). Employment in outdoor environments was associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality. In contrast, work in tempered underground employment was associated with a protecting effect.

  2. The altitudinal temperature lapse rates applied to high elevation rockfalls studies in the Western European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrelli, Guido; Fratianni, Simona; Zampollo, Arianna; Turconi, Laura; Chiarle, Marta

    2018-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important aspects of mountain climates. The relationships between air temperature and rockfalls at high-elevation sites are very important to know, but are also very difficult to study. In relation to this, a reliable method to estimate air temperatures at high-elevation sites is to apply the altitudinal temperature lapse rates (ATLR). The aims of this work are to quantify the values and the variability of the hourly ATLR and to apply this to estimated temperatures at high-elevation sites for rockfalls studies. To calculate ATLR prior the rockfalls, we used data acquired from two automatic weather stations that are located at an elevation above 2500 m. The sensors/instruments of these two stations are reliable because subjected to an accurate control and calibration once for year and the raw data have passed two automatic quality controls. Our study has yielded the following main results: (i) hourly ATLR increases slightly with increasing altitude, (ii) it is possible to estimate temperature at high-elevation sites with a good level of accuracy using ATLR, and (iii) temperature plays an important role on slope failures that occur at high-elevation sites and its importance is much more evident if the values oscillate around 0 °C with an amplitude of ±5 °C during the previous time-period. For these studies, it is not enough to improve the knowledge on air temperature, but it is necessary to develop an integrated knowledge of the thermal conditions of different materials involved in these processes (rock, debris, ice, water). Moreover, this integrated knowledge must be acquired by means of sensors and acquisition chains with known metrological traceability and uncertainty of measurements.

  3. Limited Investigation of the Effects of Elevator Rate Limiting and Stick Dynamics on Longitudinal Pilot Induced Oscillations (HAVE GRIP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of the HAVE GRIP flight test program. This program performed a limited investigation of the effects of stick dynamics and elevator rate limiting on longitudinal pilot induced oscillations (PIOs...

  4. Chromatin decondensed by acetylation shows an elevated radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nackerdien, Z.; Michie, J.; Boehm, L.

    1989-01-01

    V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed to 5 mM n-sodium butyrate were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays and cell survival was determined by the cell colony assay. In a separate set of experiments the acetylated chromatin obtained from these cells was irradiated and the change of molecular weight of the DNA was evaluated by alkaline sucrose density centrifugation. At a survival level of 10(-2) to 10(-4) cells exposed to butyrate were found to be 1.3-1.4 times more radiosensitive than control cells. Exposure of isolated chromatin to 100 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation generated 0.9 +/- 0.03 single-strand breaks (ssb) per 10 Gy per 10(8) Da and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ssb/10 Gy/10(8) Da for control and acetylated chromatin, respectively. The elevated radiation sensitivity of chromatin relaxed by acetylation is in good agreement with previous results on chromatin expanded by histone H1 depletion. Packing and accessibility of DNA in chromatin appear to be major factors which influence the radiation sensitivity. The intrinsic radiation sensitivity of chromatin in various packing states is discussed in light of the variation of radiation sensitivity of whole cells in the cell cycle which incorporates repair

  5. Rates and causes of accidents for general aviation aircraft operating in a mountainous and high elevation terrain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Marisa; Stolzer, Alan; Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-10-01

    Flying over mountainous and/or high elevation terrain is challenging due to rapidly changeable visibility, gusty/rotor winds and downdrafts and the necessity of terrain avoidance. Herein, general aviation accident rates and mishap cause/factors were determined (2001-2014) for a geographical region characterized by such terrain. Accidents in single piston engine-powered aircraft for states west of the US continental divide characterized by mountainous terrain and/or high elevation (MEHET) were identified from the NTSB database. MEHET-related-mishaps were defined as satisfying any one, or more, criteria (controlled flight into terrain/obstacles (CFIT), downdrafts, mountain obscuration, wind-shear, gusting winds, whiteout, instrument meteorological conditions; density altitude, dust-devil) cited as factors/causal in the NTSB report. Statistics employed Poisson distribution and contingency tables. Although the MEHET-related accident rate declined (pairplanes and flying under IFR to assure terrain clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Firing probability and mean firing rates of human muscle vasoconstrictor neurones are elevated during chronic asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Cynthia; Burton, Danielle; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B

    2010-01-01

    in the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with an increase in firing probability and mean firing rate, and an increase in multiple within-burst firing. Here we characterize the firing properties of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who...... are chronically asphyxic. We tested the hypothesis that this elevated chemical drive would shift the firing pattern from that seen in healthy subjects to that seen in OSAS. The mean firing probability (52%) and mean firing rate (0.92 Hz) of 17 muscle vasoconstrictor neurones recorded in COPD were comparable...

  7. Elevated resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-04-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is known to be associated with reduced survival but inconsistencies remain, including lack of significance in most studies of healthy women, lack of independence from systolic blood pressure (SBP) in some, and the suggestion that RHR is merely functioning as a marker of physical inactivity or other comorbidities. We aimed to clarify these inconsistencies.

  8. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-12

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world's high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  9. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM), Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE dataset current as of 2011. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - Flood Insurance Rate...

  10. Prolonged Elevated Heart Rate and 90-Day Survival in Acutely Ill Patients: Data From the MIMIC-III Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Veit; Johnson, Alistair E W; Kunz, Lauren M; Vargas, Jose D; Rosing, Douglas R

    2018-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the association of prolonged elevated heart rate (peHR) with survival in acutely ill patients. We used a large observational intensive care unit (ICU) database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III [MIMIC-III]), where frequent heart rate measurements were available. The peHR was defined as a heart rate >100 beats/min in 11 of 12 consecutive hours. The outcome was survival status at 90 days. We collected heart rates, disease severity (simplified acute physiology scores [SAPS II]), comorbidities (Charlson scores), and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis information in 31 513 patients from the MIMIC-III ICU database. Propensity score (PS) methods followed by inverse probability weighting based on the PS was used to balance the 2 groups (the presence/absence of peHR). Multivariable weighted logistic regression was used to assess for association of peHR with the outcome survival at 90 days adjusting for additional covariates. The mean age was 64 years, and the most frequent main disease category was circulatory disease (41%). The mean SAPS II score was 35, and the mean Charlson comorbidity score was 2.3. Overall survival of the cohort at 90 days was 82%. Adjusted logistic regression showed a significantly increased risk of death within 90 days in patients with an episode of peHR ( P < .001; odds ratio for death 1.79; confidence interval, 1.69-1.88). This finding was independent of median heart rate. We found a significant association of peHR with decreased survival in a large and heterogenous cohort of ICU patients.

  11. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrova, Yuri E.; Buard, Jerome; Jeffreys, Alec J.; Nesterov, Valeri N.; Krouchinsky, Nicolay G.; Ostapenko, Vladislav A.; Vergnaud, Gilles; Giraudeau, Fabienne

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation

  12. Void nucleation at elevated temperatures under cascade-damage irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A.A.; Woo, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects on void nucleation of fluctuations respectively due to the randomness of point-defect migratory jumps, the random generation of free point defects in discrete packages, and the fluctuating rate of vacancy emission from voids are considered. It was found that effects of the cascade-induced fluctuations are significant only at sufficiently high total sink strength. At lower sink strengths and elevated temperatures, the fluctuation in the rate of vacancy emission is the dominant factor. Application of the present theory to the void nucleation in annealed pure copper neutron-irradiated at elevated temperatures with doses of 10 -4 -10 -2 NRT dpa showed reasonable agreement between theory and experiment. This application also predicts correctly the temporal development of large-scale spatial heterogeneous microstructure during the void nucleation stage. Comparison between calculated and experimental void nucleation rates in neutron-irradiated molybdenum at temperatures where vacancy emission from voids is negligible showed reasonable agreement as well. It was clearly demonstrated that the athermal shrinkage of relatively large voids experimentally observable in molybdenum at such temperatures may be easily explained in the framework of the present theory

  13. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1......BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  14. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective....... Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  15. Global existence of solutions to a tear film model with locally elevated evaporation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Ji, Hangjie; Liu, Jian-Guo; Witelski, Thomas P.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by a model proposed by Peng et al. (2014) for break-up of tear films on human eyes, we study the dynamics of a generalized thin film model. The governing equations form a fourth-order coupled system of nonlinear parabolic PDEs for the film thickness and salt concentration subject to non-conservative effects representing evaporation. We analytically prove the global existence of solutions to this model with mobility exponents in several different ranges and present numerical simulations that are in agreement with the analytic results. We also numerically capture other interesting dynamics of the model, including finite-time rupture-shock phenomenon due to the instabilities caused by locally elevated evaporation rates, convergence to equilibrium and infinite-time thinning.

  16. Photosynthesis and metabolite responses of Isatis indigotica Fortune to elevated [CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Hongying Li; Yuzheng Zong; Frank Yonghong Li; Yuanhuai Han; Xingyu Hao

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is affecting global crop productivity, food quality, and security. However, few studies have addressed the mechanism by which elevated CO2 may affect the growth of medicinal plants. Isatis indigotica Fortune is a widely used Chinese medicinal herb with multiple pharmacological properties. To investigate the physiological mechanism of I. indigotica response to elevated [CO2], plants were grown at either ambient [CO2] (385μmol mol?1) or elevated [CO2] (590μmol mol?1) in an open-top chamber (OTC) experimental facility in North China. A significant reduction in transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) and a large increase in water-use efficiency contributed to an increase in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under elevated [CO2] 76 days after sowing. Leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was decreased, so that more energy was used in effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSI ) under elevated [CO2]. High ΦPSI , meaning high electron transfer efficiency, also increased Pn. The [CO2]-induced increase in photosynthesis significantly increased biomass by 36.8%. Amounts of metabolic compounds involved in sucrose metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, and other processes in leaves were reduced under elevated [CO2]. These results showed that the fertilization effect of elevated [CO2] is conducive to increasing dry weight but not secondary metabolism in I. indigotica.

  17. Minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Techa River population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrova, Yuri E. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk; Ploshchanskaya, Olga G. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, Chelyabinsk 454076 (Russian Federation); Department of Radiobiology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454021 (Russian Federation); Kozionova, Olga S. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, Chelyabinsk 454076 (Russian Federation); Department of Radiobiology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454021 (Russian Federation); Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, Chelyabinsk 454076 (Russian Federation); Department of Radiobiology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454021 (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-01

    Germline mutation at eight minisatellite loci has been studied among the irradiated families from the Techa River population and non-exposed families from the rural area of the Chelyabinsk and Kurgan Oblasts. The groups were matched by ethnicity, parental age, occupation and smoking habit. A statistically significant 1.7-fold increase in mutation rate was found in the germline of irradiated fathers, whereas maternal germline mutation rate in the exposed families was not elevated. Most of the minisatellite loci showed an elevated paternal mutation rate in the exposed group, indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Techa River population. These data suggest that the elevated minisatellite mutation rate can be attributed to radioactive exposure. The spectra of paternal mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable.

  18. Minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Techa River population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrova, Yuri E.; Ploshchanskaya, Olga G.; Kozionova, Olga S.; Akleyev, Alexander V.

    2006-01-01

    Germline mutation at eight minisatellite loci has been studied among the irradiated families from the Techa River population and non-exposed families from the rural area of the Chelyabinsk and Kurgan Oblasts. The groups were matched by ethnicity, parental age, occupation and smoking habit. A statistically significant 1.7-fold increase in mutation rate was found in the germline of irradiated fathers, whereas maternal germline mutation rate in the exposed families was not elevated. Most of the minisatellite loci showed an elevated paternal mutation rate in the exposed group, indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Techa River population. These data suggest that the elevated minisatellite mutation rate can be attributed to radioactive exposure. The spectra of paternal mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable

  19. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  20. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Machine-roomless elevator, SPACEL{sub TM}; Machine roomless elevator SPACEL{sub TM} `Supesuseru{sub TM}`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A machine-roomless elevator, SPACEL{sub TM} requiring no machine room, which operates at a rated speed of 45 and 60 m/min, was put on sale in August 1998 with arrangement for passenger use, residential use and bed use. Another elevator operating at a rated speed of 90 and 105 m/min whose travel distance was extended to 75 m was added to the product series and put on sale in February 1999. The control equipment having been installed in a machine room conventionally was modified to a thickness of 100 mm by adopting an inverter device of thin design and densely mounted substrates. The control equipment was installed on the uppermost floor. The winch is a compact and thin type gearless winch incorporating a permanent magnet synchronizing motor, which was installed at the top of the hoistway. These arrangements have realized a machine-roomless elevator. Further system efficiency improvement has achieved energy conservation of about 10% as compared to the conventional rope type and about 80% as compared to the hydraulic type elevators. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Elevated tropospheric CO2 and O3 may not alter initial wood decomposition rate or wood-decaying fungal community composition of Northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel Ebanyenle; Andrew J. Burton; Andrew J. Storer; Dana L. Richter; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on the wood-decaying basidiomycete fungal community and wood decomposition rates at the Aspen Free-Air CO2 and O3 Enrichment (Aspen FACE) project. Mass loss rates were determined after one year of log decomposition on the soil...

  3. Elevated standard metabolic rate in a freshwater shrimp (Palaeomonetes paludosus) exposed to trace element-rich coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, C.L. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    1998-12-01

    A transplant experiment was conducted to determine whether standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a freshwater shrimp (Palaeomonetes paludosus) would be affected by exposure to trace element-enriched coal combustion waste (coal ash). Shrimp were transplanted into replicate cages in a coal ash-polluted site and a reference site for 8 months. The coal ash-polluted site was characterized by elevated sediment concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Se compared to sediments in the reference site. After 8 months in the study sites, shrimp in the polluted site appeared to have accumulated As, Cd and Se from the habitat, but there were on differences in survival between the study sites. However, mean SMR of shrimp (measured as O{sub 2} consumption at rest) held in the polluted site was 51% higher than mean SMR of shrimp held in the reference site. The elevation in SMR indicates that the energetic costs of maintenance are greater for shrimp chronically exposed to the coal-ash polluted enviorment than shrimp in the reference site. It is likely, therefore, that other physiological or behavioral processes may be modified in the pollution-exposed individuals to compensate for the increased energy demands for maintenance. Recent studies have reported similar elevations in SMR in an amphibian and a reptile chronically exposed to coal ash. Analogous physiological responses in such taxonomically diverse animals (a crustacean, an amphibian, and a reptile) indicate that elevated SMR may be a general response by many types of organisms exposed to the mixture of trace elements characteristic of coal ash. The relationships among pollution-induced elevations in maintenance expenditures, long-term health of individuals, and population-level parameters require further attention. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. [Effects of elevated O3 on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release of Quercus mongolica in city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-li; Xu, Sheng; Fu, Wei; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Ping, Qin

    2016-02-01

    The leaf litters of 10-year-old Quercus mongolica were put in nylon bags and exposed to elevated 03 level (120 nmol . mol-1) with the control of 40 nmol . mol-1 in open top chambers (OTCs) for 150 days to test the effect of high O3 on the litter decomposition. The results showed that no significant difference was observed in residual mass between elevated O3 treatment and the control. Elevated 03 inhibited the release of C and K during the decomposition, the residual rate of K under elevated O3 treatment (23.9%) was significantly higher than that of the control (17.1%) after 150-day decomposition. Compared with the control, N mineralization and lignin degradation in elevated O3 treatment were inhibited during early period of decomposition (0-60 d), but were promoted in later period (90-150 d). The changes of lignin/N showed no significant difference between elevated O3 treatment and the control during the decomposition. Elevated O3 generally promoted the release of P in leaf litter of Q. mongolica during the decomposition. C/P ratio was higher under elevated 03 than that under control. Significant positive correlation was shown between residual dry mass of leaf litters and the residual rate of C, N, K, C/N ratio during decomposition. Elevated 03 might play an important role in the nutrient cycle of forest ecosystem in high-O3 pollution area.

  5. Snowmelt in a High Latitude Mountain Catchment: Effect of Vegetation Cover and Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R. L.; Ellis, C. R.; Hedstrom, N. R.; Janowicz, R.; Granger, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The energetics and mass balance of snowpacks in the premelt and melt period were compared from three elevation bands in a high latitude mountain catchment, Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon. Elevation is strongly correlated with vegetation cover and in this case the three elevation bands (low, middle, high) correspond to mature spruce forest, dense shrub tundra and sparse tundra (alpine). Measurements of radiation, ground heat flux, snow depth, snowfall, air temperature, wind speed were made on a half-hourly basis at the three elevations for a 10 year period. Sondes provided vertical gradients of air temperature, humidity, wind speed and air pressure. Snow depth and density surveys were conducted monthly. Comparisons of wind speed, air temperature and humidity at three elevations show that the expected elevational gradients in the free atmosphere were slightly enhanced just above the surface canopies, but that the climate at the snow surface was further influenced by complex canopy effects. Premelt snow accumulation was strongly affected by intercepted snow in the forest and blowing snow sublimation in the sparse tundra but not by the small elevational gradients in snowfall. As a result the maximum premelt SWE was found in the mid-elevation shrub tundra and was roughly double that of the sparse tundra or forest. Minimum variability of SWE was observed in the forest and shrub tundra (CV=0.25) while in the sparse tundra variability doubled (CV=0.5). Snowmelt was influenced by differences in premelt accumulation as well as differences in the net energy fluxes to snow. Elevation had a strong effect on the initiation of melt with the forest melt starting on average 16 days before the shrub tundra and 19 days before the sparse tundra. Mean melt rates showed a maximum in middle elevations and increased from 860 kJ/day in the forest to 1460 kJ/day in the sparse tundra and 2730 kJ/day in the shrub tundra. The forest canopy reduced melt while the shrub canopy enhanced it

  6. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G. [Edinburgh Univ., Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Grayston, S. J. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Plant-Soil Interaction Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G.; Grayston, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other \\'blue carbon\\' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  9. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other ‘blue carbon’ habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  10. BATS RECOVERING FROM WHITE-NOSE SYNDROME ELEVATE METABOLIC RATE DURING WING HEALING IN SPRING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhofer, Melissa B; Johnson, Joseph S; Field, Kenneth A; Lumadue, Shayne S; Kurta, Allen; Kath, Joseph A; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2018-04-04

      Host responses to infection with novel pathogens are costly and require trade-offs among physiologic systems. One such pathogen is the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) and has led to mass mortality of hibernating bats in eastern North America. Although infection with Pd does not always result in death, we hypothesized that bats that survive infection suffer significant consequences that negatively impact the ability of females to reproduce. To understand the physiologic consequences of surviving infection with Pd, we assessed differences in wing damage, mass-specific resting metabolic rate, and reproductive rate between little brown myotis ( Myotis lucifugus) that survived a winter in captivity after inoculation with Pd (WNS survivors) and comparable, uninfected bats. Survivors of WNS had significantly more damaged wing tissue and displayed elevated mass-specific metabolic rates compared with Pd-uninfected bats after emergence from hibernation. The WNS survivors and Pd-uninfected bats did not significantly differ in their reproductive capacity, at least in captivity. However, our metabolic data demonstrated greater energetic costs during spring in WNS survivors compared with uninfected bats, which may have led to other consequences for postpartum fitness. We suggest that, after surviving the energetic constraints of winter, temperate hibernating bats infected with Pd faced a second energetic bottleneck after emerging from hibernation.

  11. An experimental investigation of the rate of hydrogen absorption in zirconium-2.5 wt percent niobium from steam/hydrogen mixtures at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langman, V.J.

    1984-08-01

    The test specifications for an experimental program to study the rate of hydrogen absorption in zirconium-2.5 weight percent niobium pressure tube material from steam/hydrogen mixtures at elevated temperatures are discussed

  12. Medicare Readmission Rates Showed Meaningful Decline in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — From 2007 through 2011, the national 30-day, all-cause, hospital readmission rate averaged 19 percent. During calendar year 2012, the readmission rate averaged 18.4...

  13. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  14. Extremely elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Etiology at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Yousuf; Javed Akhter; Khalid Al-Khairy; Mohammed A. Al-Saadan; Salih Bin-Salih

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the etiology of extremely elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in adolescents and adults at a tertiary care center. This retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using the Westergren method of determining ESR in adolescents and adults aged >/=12 years. The patients included inpatients and outpatients with medical, surgical, and gynecological problems. During a period from June 2007 to October 2008, consecutive, non-repetitive patients with ESR >/=100 mm/hour were evaluated for possible etiology by checking the electronic and paper data file of each patient. During the study period, out of the 44,366 ESR tests carried out at this center, 1864 (4.2%) had an ESR >/=100 mm/hour belonging to 567 patients. Out of 508 patients fulfilling the study criteria, the main associated causes included: infections (38.6%), autoimmune diseases (15.9%), malignancy (15.4%), miscellaneous causes (10.2%), ischemic tissue injury or trauma (8.7%), and renal diseases (8.4%). Ten common individual causes included: rheumatoid arthritis (7.3%), osteomyelitis (6.9%), tuberculosis (5.5%), trauma (5.3%), lymphoma and sepsis of unknown origin (5.1%) each, urinary tract infection (4.7%), septic arthritis (3.1%), abscesses (2.8%), and pregnancy (2.2%). Fourteen (2.4%) patients had no known cause. Most of the patients with extreme ESR elevation have an underlying cause and a focused evaluation of such patients needs to be carried out to reach a diagnosis.

  15. Is moral elevation an approach-oriented emotion?

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two studies were designed to test whether moral elevation should be conceptualized as an approach-oriented emotion. The studies examined the relationship between moral elevation and the behavioral activation and inhibition systems. Study 1 (N?=?80) showed that individual differences in moral elevation were associated with individual differences in behavioral activation but not inhibition. Study 2 (N?=?78) showed that an elevation-inducing video promoted equally high levels of approac...

  16. Use of adenosine triphosphate to audit reprocessing of flexible endoscopes with an elevator mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Erik; Mahmood, Rizwan; Naik, Amar; Sargon, Peter; Shastri, Nikhil; Venu, Mukund; Parada, Jorge P; Gupta, Neil

    2018-05-21

    There have been reported outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections linked to endoscopes with elevator mechanisms. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing has been used as a marker for bioburden and monitoring manual cleaning for flexible endoscopes with and without an elevator mechanism. The objective of this study was to determine whether routine ATP testing could identify areas of improvement in cleaning of endoscopes with an elevator mechanism. ATP testing after manual cleaning of TJF-Q180V duodenoscopes and GF-UCT180 linear echoendoscopes (Olympus America Inc, Center Valley, PA) was implemented. Samples were tested from the distal end, the elevator mechanism, and water flushed through the lumen of the biopsy channel. Data were recorded and compared by time point, test point, and reprocessing technician. Overall failure rate was 6.99% (295 out of 4,219). The highest percentage of failed ATP tests (17.05%) was reported in the first quarter of routine testing, with an overall decrease in rates over time. The elevator mechanism and working channel lumen had higher failure rates than the distal end. Quality of manual cleaning between reprocessing technicians showed variation. ATP testing is effective in identifying residual organic material and improving quality of manual cleaning of endoscopes with an elevator mechanism. Cleaning efficacy is influenced by reprocessing technicians and location tested on the endoscope. Close attention to the working channel and elevator mechanism during manual cleaning is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of a two-pool model to soil carbon dynamics under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Xia, Jianyang; Osenberg, Craig W; Luo, Yiqi; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase plant productivity and affect soil microbial communities, with possible consequences for the turnover rate of soil carbon (C) pools and feedbacks to the atmosphere. In a previous analysis (Van Groenigen et al., 2014), we used experimental data to inform a one-pool model and showed that elevated CO2 increases the decomposition rate of soil organic C, negating the storage potential of soil. However, a two-pool soil model can potentially explain patterns of soil C dynamics without invoking effects of CO2 on decomposition rates. To address this issue, we refit our data to a two-pool soil C model. We found that CO2 enrichment increases decomposition rates of both fast and slow C pools. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased the carbon use efficiency of soil microbes (CUE), thereby further reducing soil C storage. These findings are consistent with numerous empirical studies and corroborate the results from our previous analysis. To facilitate understanding of C dynamics, we suggest that empirical and theoretical studies incorporate multiple soil C pools with potentially variable decomposition rates. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  20. Machine-roomless elevator, SPACEL[sub TM]. Machine roomless elevator SPACEL[sub TM] 'Supesuseru[sub TM]'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-03-01

    A machine-roomless elevator, SPACEL[sub TM] requiring no machine room, which operates at a rated speed of 45 and 60 m/min, was put on sale in August 1998 with arrangement for passenger use, residential use and bed use. Another elevator operating at a rated speed of 90 and 105 m/min whose travel distance was extended to 75 m was added to the product series and put on sale in February 1999. The control equipment having been installed in a machine room conventionally was modified to a thickness of 100 mm by adopting an inverter device of thin design and densely mounted substrates. The control equipment was installed on the uppermost floor. The winch is a compact and thin type gearless winch incorporating a permanent magnet synchronizing motor, which was installed at the top of the hoistway. These arrangements have realized a machine-roomless elevator. Further system efficiency improvement has achieved energy conservation of about 10% as compared to the conventional rope type and about 80% as compared to the hydraulic type elevators. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Effect of stopover on motion of two competing elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    We study the dynamic motion of two competing elevators when elevators stop over at some floors. We present the dynamic model of elevators to take into account the stopover effect. The dynamics of the elevator traffic system is described by a pair of deterministic nonlinear maps. The motion of two elevators is determined by the five parameters: the numbers of stopovers at two elevators, the fraction of passengers choosing the first elevator, the fraction of passengers choosing the second elevator, and the inflow rate. The dynamics of two elevators depends highly on these parameters. The motion of two elevators displays a complex behavior by a neck-and-neck race between two elevators. We explore the dependence of elevator motion on the fractions of two kinds of passengers, the numbers of stopover floors, and the inflow rate.

  2. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  3. Context-Aware Elevator Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Thomas; Bauer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Research on context-aware systems is usually user-centric and thus focussed on the context of a specific user to serve his or her needs in an optimized way. In this paper, we want to apply core concepts developed in research on context-awareness in a system-centric way, namely to elevator systems. We show with three different examples that the performance of an elevator system can be significantly improved if the elevator control has access to contextual knowledge. The first example demons...

  4. Envisat-derived elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet, and a comparison with ICESat results in the accumulation area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Meister, Rakia

    2015-01-01

    We show, for the first time over the Greenland ice sheet, that an along track method for deriving rates of elevationchange can successfully be applied to Envisat radar altimetry data (2002–2010). The results provide improved resolution and coverage compared to previous results obtained from cross......-over methods. Also, we find that temporal changes in the elevation change rate can be derived from Envisat data, and show clearexamples of this by generating five-year running means for selected areas of the Greenland ice sheet. For a period between 2003 and 2009, the elevation of the ice sheetswas measured...

  5. Update to Millstone 3 elevated pH tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, C.A.; Perock, J.D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hudson, M.J.B.; King, R.W.; Macklin, S. [Northeast Utilities, Hartford, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In view of the potential radiological benefits of elevated coolant pH operation, Northwest Utilities (NU), in support of an EPRI-Westinghouse program, agreed to operate the Millstone 3 plant at the start of its second fuel cycle as a demonstration of the effect of elevated coolant pH on out-of-core radiation fields. Operating with an elevated pH is defined as operating with an average lithium concentration of 3.35 ppm, until reaching an end of cycle pH of 7.2 or 7.4. The plant operated during its second and third cycles with an elevated coolant pH. The end of cycle pH during the second cycle was 7.4, and 7.2 during the third cycle. (During the first cycle, operation was with a coordinated pH of 7.0). Evaluation of the dose rate trends in Millstone 3 after two cycles of elevated coolant pH operation concluded that an elevated coolant pH resulted in a 15 percent lower component dose rate compared to other plants that operated with coordinated pH 6.9. However, due to a possible increase in fuel clad corrosion, operation during cycle 4 was restricted to pH 6.9 coordinated chemistry, with the exception of the last two months during which the pH increased to 7.35. At the end of cycle 4 (EOC4), there was a greater increase in component and crud trap dose rates than expected. This paper reviews the radiological trends in the plant and discusses the potential causes for the increase in the dose rates at EOC4.

  6. Impact of Phosphorus Levels and Seed Rates on Growth and Yield of Late Sown Maize on High Elevation in Swat, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Khan, A. A.; Khattak, I.; Naveed, S.

    2015-01-01

    After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is required by the plants relatively in large quantity and is the second most important crop nutrient that increases productivity of maize (Zea mays L.). An experiment on effect of different P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ levels and seed rates on growth and yield of late sown maize cv. Baber on high elevation during kharif season, was conducted at Farmer Field School, Swat, Pakistan during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Sowing was done one month late (July 15) than the optimum time of sowing. Optimum time of sowing on high elevation in Swat, Pakistan starts from May 15 to June 15. Four levels of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/(0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and four seed rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha/sup -1/) were used. A subplot size of 3m x 4.5m was used. Each subplot was consisted of six rows having 75 cm row-to-row distance with row length of 3 m. Sowing of 40 kg seed ha/sup -1/ treated with 75kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ gave optimum cob length (19 cm), plant height (179.19 cm), 1000 grain weight (192.83 g) and grain yield (2712 kg ha/sup -1/). While maximum grain cob/sup -1/(375 ) was given by 30 kg seed ha/sup -1/ treated with 75 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. On the basis of the above results, among the tested seed rate 40 kg ha/sup -1/ treated with 75 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is recommended for late sowing on high elevation under the agro-ecological conditions of Swat valley. (author)

  7. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  8. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? : a cohort study based on iron-ore mining

    OpenAIRE

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. METHODS: This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models wer...

  9. Impact of needle age on the response of respiration in Scots pine to long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, T.; Ryyppo, A.; Kellomaki, S.; Wang, K-Y.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of needle age, elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on needle respiration in Scots pine was studied during a four-year period. Results showed that respiration rates and specific leaf area decreased in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration relative to ambient conditions, but increased in elevated temperature and when elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperature were combined. Starch and soluble sugar concentrations for a given needle age increased in elevated carbon dioxide, but decreased slightly under combined elevated temperature and elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Respiration rate and specific leaf area were highest in current year needles in all treatment modes. All treatment modes enhanced the difference in respiration between current year and older needles relative to ambient conditions. Carbohydrate concentration or specific leaf area remained unchanged in response to any treatment. Under ambient conditions the temperature coefficient of respiration increased slightly in elevated carbon dioxide regardless of age, however, there was significant decline at elevated temperature as well as when both carbon dioxide concentration and temperature were elevated, indicating acclimation of respiration to temperature. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Anesthesia Preoperative Clinic Referral for Elevated Hba1c Reduces Complication Rate in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Peter J.; Nolan, Jenea; Olsen, Amy C.; Breakwell, Susan; Topp, Richard; Pagel, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia preoperative clinic (APC) referral for elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduces complication rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Patients and Methods: Patients (n = 203) with and without DM were chosen from 1,237 patients undergoing TJA during 2006 - 12. Patients evaluated in the APC had surgery in 2006 - 8 regardless of HbA1c (uncon...

  11. Size Distribution and Rate of Dust Generated During Grain Elevator Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust generated during grain handling is an air pollutant that produces safety and health hazards. This study was conducted to characterize the particle size distribution (PSD) of dust generated during handling of wheat and shelled corn in the research elevator of the USDA Grain Marketing and Product...

  12. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  13. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  14. Reducing elevator energy use: A comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.; Merrigan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two different procedures for reducing elevator energy use were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. In the first procedure, feedback about the amount of energy consumed by the elevators each week was posted on each elevator door. Later, signs advocating the use of stairs to save energy and improve health were posted next to the feedback signs. In the second procedure, the time required to travel between floors was increased by adding a delay to the elevator door closing mechanisms. Results indicated that neither feedback alone nor feedback plus educational signs reduced the amount of energy consumed by the elevators. However, use of the door delay reduced consumption by one-third in all elevators. A second experiment replicated the effect of the door delay on energy consumption and, in addition, demonstrated that the door delay also produced a reduction in the number of persons using the elevator. The second experiment also showed that, following an initial period during which a full delay was in effect, a gradual reduction of the delay interval resulted in continued energy conservation. Reduced convenience as a general strategy for energy conservation is discussed. PMID:16795648

  15. Effect of strain rate and stress triaxiality on tensile behavior of Titanium alloy Ti-10-2-3 at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh, E-mail: ravindranadh@dmrl.drdo.in; Madhu, Vemuri

    2016-06-14

    In this study, Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) has been employed to investigate the dynamic tensile flow behavior of Ti-10-2-3 alloy at high strain rates and elevated temperatures. The combined effect of stress triaxiality, strain rate and temperature and on the tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated. Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive and fracture models were developed based on high strain rate tensile data. A modified Johnson–Cook model was established and proved to have high accuracy. A comparative assessment has been done to confirm the accuracy of modified J–C model based on finite element method (FEM). The improved model provides better description on the influence of equivalent plastic strain rate and temperature on the plastic flow. The simulation results proved to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-07

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants' respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo.

  17. Elevate Anterior/Apical: 12-Month Data Showing Safety and Efficacy in Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanford, Edward J.; Moore, Robert D.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; Courtieu, Christophe; Lukban, James C.; Bataller, Eduardo; Liedl, Bernhard; Sutherland, Suzette E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the Elevate Anterior/Apical transvaginal mesh procedure in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair at 12-months follow-up. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, multinational study enrolled 142 patients experiencing anterior vaginal

  18. Lead Time to Appointment and No-Show Rates for New and Follow-up Patients in an Ambulatory Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewek, Rupali; Mirea, Lucia; Adelson, P David

    High rates of no-shows in outpatient clinics are problematic for revenue and for quality of patient care. Longer lead time to appointment has variably been implicated as a risk factor for no-shows, but the evidence within pediatric clinics is inconclusive. The goal of this study was to estimate no-show rates and test for association between appointment lead time and no-show rates for new and follow-up patients. Analyses included 534 new and 1920 follow-up patients from pulmonology and gastroenterology clinics at a freestanding children's hospital. The overall rate of no-shows was lower for visits scheduled within 0 to 30 days compared with 30 days or more (23% compared with 47%, P < .0001). Patient type significantly modified the association of appointment lead time; the rate of no-shows was higher (30%) among new patients compared with (21%) follow-up patients with appointments scheduled within 30 days (P = .004). For appointments scheduled 30 or more days' lead time, no-show rates were statistically similar for new patients (46%) and follow-up patients (0.48%). Time to appointment is a risk factor associated with no-shows, and further study is needed to identify and implement effective approaches to reduce appointment lead time, especially for new patients in pediatric subspecialties.

  19. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg -1 is 0.25 0 C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 0 C was 4.5 W kg -1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of

  20. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2007-08-21

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg{sup -1} is 0.25 {sup 0}C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 {sup 0}C was 4.5 W kg{sup -1} in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the

  1. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-21

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg(-1) is 0.25 degrees C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 degrees C was 4.5 W kg(-1) in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 in a semi-natural grassland: Root dynamics, decomposition and soil C balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindhoej, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how elevated atmospheric CO 2 affects a semi-natural grassland, with emphasis on root growth, decomposition and the subsequent long-term effects on soil C balances. Parts of a semi-natural grassland in Central Sweden were enclosed in open-top chambers and exposed to ambient and elevated levels of CO 2 (+350 μmol mol -1 ) from 1995 to 2000, while chamberless rings were used for controls. Root dynamics were observed with minirhizotrons while root biomass and production were studied with soil cores and ingrowth cores. Roots collected from ingrowth cores were incubated under controlled conditions for 160 days to measure root decomposition rates. Treatment-induced differences in microclimate, C input and root decomposability were entered into the ICBM soil C balance model for 30-year projections of soil C balances for the three treatments. Elevated CO 2 chambers had higher biomass production both above and below ground compared to ambient, however the root response increased over the years while the shoot response decreased. Plants grown under elevated CO 2 had greater water-use efficiency compared to ambient, which was shown in higher soil moisture and greater biomass production during slightly dry years. Elevated CO 2 chambers showed higher root appearance rates in spring and higher disappearance rates during autumn and winter. Roots from plants grown under elevated CO 2 decomposed more rapidly. The decreased input and the drier conditions in the ambient chambers were projected to lead to a 1.7% decrease in soil C over 30 years. Under elevated CO 2 , however, the increased input compensated for the higher root decomposability and moister soil conditions and lead only to a projected 1.3% decrease in soil C. This work shows that six years of elevated CO 2 exposure had extensive effects on this semi-natural grassland. The CO 2 response of the grassland was dependent on weather conditions and production increased most when under slight water stress

  3. Elevation and cholera: an epidemiological spatial analysis of the cholera epidemic in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque Fernandez Miguel A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In highly populated African urban areas where access to clean water is a challenge, water source contamination is one of the most cited risk factors in a cholera epidemic. During the rainy season, where there is either no sewage disposal or working sewer system, runoff of rains follows the slopes and gets into the lower parts of towns where shallow wells could easily become contaminated by excretes. In cholera endemic areas, spatial information about topographical elevation could help to guide preventive interventions. This study aims to analyze the association between topographic elevation and the distribution of cholera cases in Harare during the cholera epidemic in 2008 and 2009. Methods We developed an ecological study using secondary data. First, we described attack rates by suburb and then calculated rate ratios using whole Harare as reference. We illustrated the average elevation and cholera cases by suburbs using geographical information. Finally, we estimated a generalized linear mixed model (under the assumption of a Poisson distribution with an Empirical Bayesian approach to model the relation between the risk of cholera and the elevation in meters in Harare. We used a random intercept to allow for spatial correlation of neighboring suburbs. Results This study identifies a spatial pattern of the distribution of cholera cases in the Harare epidemic, characterized by a lower cholera risk in the highest elevation suburbs of Harare. The generalized linear mixed model showed that for each 100 meters of increase in the topographical elevation, the cholera risk was 30% lower with a rate ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval=0.66-0.76. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the risk reduction with an overall estimate of the rate ratio between 20% and 40%. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering topographical elevation as a geographical and environmental risk factor in order to plan cholera preventive

  4. Functional role of long-lived flowers in preventing pollen limitation in a high elevation outcrossing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Mary T K; Pacheco, Diego Andrés; Dudley, Leah S

    2017-11-01

    Low pollinator visitation in harsh environments may lead to pollen limitation which can threaten population persistence. Consequently, avoidance of pollen limitation is expected in outcrossing species subjected to habitually low pollinator service. The elevational decline in visitation rates on many high mountains provides an outstanding opportunity for addressing this question. According to a recent meta-analysis, levels of pollen limitation in alpine and lowland species do not differ. If parallel trends are manifested among populations of alpine species with wide elevational ranges, how do their uppermost populations contend with lower visitation? We investigated visitation rates and pollen limitation in high Andean Rhodolirium montanum . We test the hypothesis that lower visitation rates at high elevations are compensated for by the possession of long-lived flowers. Visitation rates decreased markedly over elevation as temperature decreased. Pollen limitation was absent at the low elevation site but did occur at the high elevation site. While initiation of stigmatic pollen deposition at high elevations was not delayed, rates of pollen arrival were lower, and cessation of pollination, as reflected by realized flower longevity, occurred later in the flower lifespan. Comparison of the elevational visitation decline and levels of pollen limitation indicates that flower longevity partially compensates for the lower visitation rates at high elevation. The functional role of flower longevity, however, was strongly masked by qualitative pollen limitation arising from higher abortion levels attributable to transference of genetically low-quality pollen in large clones. Stronger clonal growth at high elevations could counterbalance the negative fitness consequences of residual pollen limitation due to low visitation rates and/or difficult establishment under colder conditions. Visitation rates on the lower part of the elevational range greatly exceeded community rates

  5. Land elevation and cancer mortality in u.s. Cities and counties using median elevations derived from geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of variables that are correlated with land elevation. Land elevation, and in particular, its surrogate variables such as natural background radiation, can be studied in relation to cancer rates. The present ecological study focuses on three such variables correlated with land elevation: natural background radiation (NBR), oxygen concentration (OC), and barometric pressure (BP). In addition, the study uses a novel approach for determining median land elevation values from which the surrogated variables are estimated. Inverse correlations were observed for NBR while direct correlations were found for OC and BP suggesting the presence of a protective effect with all three variables. Further study is indicated to either verify or refute these findings.

  6. Quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry at elevated counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Joestl, K.; Schroeder, P.; Lauster, R.; Hausch, E.

    1999-01-01

    For quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry the decrease of coincidence efficiency with counting rate should be made negligible to avoid a virtual increase of relative peak areas of coincident isomeric transitions with counting rate. To that aim, a separate amplifier and discriminator has been used for each of the eight segments of the active shield of a new well-type Compton suppression spectrometer, together with an optimized, minimum dead-time design of the anticoincidence logic circuitry. Chance coincidence losses in the Compton suppression spectrometer are corrected instrumentally by comparing the chance coincidence rate to the counting rate of the germanium detector in a pulse-counting Busy circuit (G.P. Westphal, J. Rad. Chem. 179 (1994) 55) which is combined with the spectrometer's LFC counting loss correction system. The normally not observable chance coincidence rate is reconstructed from the rates of germanium detector and scintillation detector in an auxiliary coincidence unit, after the destruction of true coincidence by delaying one of the coincidence partners. Quantitative system response has been tested in two-source measurements with a fixed reference source of 60 Co of 14 kc/s, and various samples of 137 Cs, up to aggregate counting rates of 180 kc/s for the well-type detector, and more than 1400 kc/s for the BGO shield. In these measurements, the net peak areas of the 1173.3 keV line of 60 Co remained constant at typical values of 37 000 with and 95 000 without Compton suppression, with maximum deviations from the average of less than 1.5%

  7. Small-scale topography modulates elevational α-, β- and γ-diversity of Andean leaf beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Armijos, Diego Marín; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W; Peters, Marcell K

    2018-03-09

    Elevational diversity gradients are typically studied without considering the complex small-scale topography of large mountains, which generates habitats of strongly different environmental conditions within the same elevational zones. Here we analyzed the importance of small-scale topography for elevational diversity patterns of hyperdiverse tropical leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We compared patterns of elevational diversity and species composition of beetles in two types of forests (on mountain ridges and in valleys) and analyzed whether differences in the rate of species turnover among forest habitats lead to shifts in patterns of elevational diversity when scaling up from the local study site to the elevational belt level. We sampled beetle assemblages at 36 sites in the Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador, which were equally distributed over two forest habitats and three elevational levels. DNA barcoding and Poisson tree processes modelling were used to delimitate putative species. On average, local leaf beetle diversity showed a clear hump-shaped pattern. However, only diversity in forests on mountain ridges peaked at mid-elevation, while beetle diversity in valleys was similarly high at low- and mid-elevation and only declined at highest elevations. A higher turnover of species assemblages at lower than at mid-elevations caused a shift from a hump-shaped diversity pattern found at the local level to a low-elevation plateau pattern (with similar species numbers at low and mid-elevation) at the elevational belt level. Our study reveals an important role of small-scale topography and spatial scale for the inference on gradients of elevational species diversity.

  8. An elevator for cobalt-60 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zaimin; Liang Donghu

    1990-07-01

    The elevator used for cobalt-60 source is a key device in the irradiation industry. It plays an important role in the safety and control of irradiation operation as well as the utilization rate of radiation source. From 1983 to 1986, Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering undertook designing of various size irradiation projects for different uses. Since then a kind of cobalt-60 source elevator suited for the irradiator of wet-source-storage has been chosen. It is reliable in the operation and complete in the function. An automatic control circuit brings the systems of cobalt-60 source elevator into an interlock system which ensures the irradiation operation safety. Besides introducing the structural features and performance of this elevator, the conditions of safety interlocking in raising or lowering the cobalt-60 source is also discussed. The discussion is from the safety viewpoint of operating an irradiator and irradiation technology

  9. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse H.; Von Scholten, Bernt J.; Hansen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media.......7, p = 0.017) models. Cardiac adipose tissue (p = 0.033) was associated with baseline coronary artery calcium (model 1) and interleukin-8 (models 1-3, all p type 2 diabetes patients without coronary artery disease, high cardiac adipose tissue levels were associated...

  10. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  11. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON, walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN, or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE or ramp (RAM. Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05. Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05; however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05. After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05. The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05. In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  12. Elevated CO{sub 2} and ozone reduce nitrogen acquisition by Pinus halepensis from its mycorrhizal symbiont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoeviita, M.M. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Oulu (Finland); Thiec, D. Le [Univ. Henri Poincare-Nancy, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dizengremel, P. [Unite Ecophysiologie Forestiere-Lab. de Pollution Atmospherique, INRA-Centre de Recherches Forestieres, Champenoux (France)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and 200 nmol mol{sup -1} ozone on photosynthesis in Pinus halepensis seedlings and on N translocation from its mycorrhizal symbiont, Paxillus involutus, were studied under nutrient-poor conditions. After 79 days of exposure, ozone reduced and elevated CO{sub 2} increased net assimilation rate. However, the effect was dependent on daily accumulated exposure. No statistically significant differences in total plant mass accumulation were observed, although ozone-treated plants tended to be smaller. Changes in atmospheric gas concentrations induced changes in allocation of resources: under elevated ozone, shoots showed high priority over roots and had significantly elevated N concentrations. As a result of different shoot N concentration and net carbon assimilation rates, photosynthetic N use efficiency was significantly increased under elevated CO{sub 2} and decreased under ozone. The differences in photosynthesis were mirrored in the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the pine seedlings. However, exposure to CO{sub 2} and ozone both reduced the symbiosis-mediated N uptake. The results suggest an increased carbon cost of symbiosis-mediated N uptake under elevated CO{sub 2} while under ozone, plant N acquisition is preferentially shifted towards increased root uptake. (au)

  13. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  14. PRES- and orthostatic-induced heart-rate changes as markers of labile hypertension : magnitude and reliability measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Harald; Furedy, John J.; Elbert, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Split-half and test-retest reliabilities of heart-rate responses to a baroreceptor manipulation and an orthostatic manoeuver were compared between subjects with either normal or elevated blood-pressure. Ten subjects showing elevated resting blood-pressure and 11 normotensive subjects participated in two experimental sessions, each including heart-rate recordings during baroreceptor manipulation and orthostatic challenge. Carotid baroreceptors were manipulated by applying the baroreceptor-spec...

  15. Functional measures show improvements after a home exercise program following supervised balance training in older adults with elevated fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisher, Kristen; Mann, Kimberly; VanDyke, Sarah; Johansson, Charity; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2018-03-05

    Supervised balance training shows immediate benefit for older adults at fall risk. The long-term effectiveness of such training can be enhanced by implementing a safe and simple home exercise program (HEP). We investigated the effects of a12-week unsupervised HEP following supervised clinic-based balance training on functional mobility, balance, fall risk, and gait. Six older adults with an elevated fall risk obtained an HEP and comprised the HEP group (HEPG) and five older adults who were not given an HEP comprised the no HEP group (NoHEPG). The HEP consisted of three static balance exercises: feet-together, single-leg stance, and tandem. Each exercise was to be performed twice for 30-60 s, once per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Participants were educated on proper form, safety, and progression of exercises. Pre- and post-HEP testing included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessments, Activities-Balance Confidence, Late-Life Functional Disability Instrument and instrumented assessments of balance and gait (Limits of Stability, modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, Gait). A healthy control group (HCG; n = 11) was also tested. For most of the measures, the HEPG improved to the level of HCG. Though task-specific improvements like BBS and SPPB components were seen, the results did not carry over to more dynamic assessments. Results provide proof of concept that a simple HEP can be independently implemented and effective for sustaining and/or improving balance in older adults at elevated fall-risk after they have undergone a clinic-based balance intervention.

  16. A Person Stands on a Balance in an Elevator: What Happens When the Elevator Starts to Fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrián Corona

    2018-01-01

    Physics textbook authors commonly introduce the concept of weightlessness (apparent or real) through a "thought experiment" in which a person weighs herself or himself in an elevator. When the elevator falls freely, the spring balance should show zero weight. There is an unresolved controversy about how this "zero reading"…

  17. Remote measurement of canopy reflectance shows the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the structure and functioning of soybeans in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S.; Dermody, O.; Delucia, E.

    2006-12-01

    By altering physiological processes and modifying canopy structure, elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 directly and indirectly change the productivity of agroecosystems. Remote sensing of canopy reflectance can be used to monitor physiological and structural changes in an ecosystem over a growing season. To examine effects of changing tropospheric chemistry on water content, chlorophyll content, and changes in leaf area index (LAI), Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology was used to expose large plots of soybean (Glycine max) to elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated O3 (1.5 x ambient), and combined elevated CO2 and O3. The following indices were calculated from weekly measurements of reflectance: water index (WI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), chlorophyll index, near-infrared/ red (NIR/red), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). NIR/red and LAI were strongly correlated throughout the growth season; however NDVI and LAI were highly correlated only up to LAI of 3. Exposure to elevated CO2 accelerated early-season canopy development and delayed late-season senescence. Growth in elevated O3 had the opposite effect. Additionally, elevated CO2 compensated for negative effects of O3 when the canopy was exposed to both gases simultaneously. Reflectance indices revealed several physiological and structural responses of this agroecosystem to tropospheric change, and ultimately that elevated CO2 and O3 significantly affected this system's productivity and period for carbon gain.

  18. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  19. Solution hardening and strain hardening at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocks, U.F.

    1982-10-01

    Solutes can significantly increase the rate of strain hardening; as a consequence, the saturation stress, at which strain hardening tends to cease for a given temperature and strain rate, is increased more than the yield stress: this is the major effect of solutes on strength at elevated temperatures, especially in the regime where dynamic strain-aging occurs. It is shown that local solute mobility can affect both the rate of dynamic recovery and the dislocation/dislocation interaction strength. The latter effect leads to multiplicative solution strengthening. It is explained by a new model based on repeated dislocation unlocking, in a high-temperature limit, which also rationalizes the stress dependence of static and dynamic strain-aging, and may help explain the plateau of the yield stress at elevated temperatures. 15 figures

  20. Elevated Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits in Young Children with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elyse; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Freeman, Jennifer; Wellen, Brianna; Garcia, Abbe; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Franklin, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity. Participants (N = 127) were children ages 5-8 years enrolled in the pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study for young children (POTS Jr.). Results indicated that the SRS showed elevated autistic traits in the sample and was associated with OCD severity whereas the SCQ did not indicate heightened ASD symptoms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Graft shrinkage and survival rate of implants after sinus floor elevation using a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in silica gel matrix: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, Marc; Abi Najm, Semaan; Bischof, Mvark; Nedir, Rabah; Carrel, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the vertical shrinkage percentage of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in silica gel used for maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and (2) to determine the survival rate of the implants 1 year after placement in the healed grafted sinuses. Eleven maxillary sinuses were augmented in eight patients with NanoBone. After a healing period averaging 14.42 months, 19 implants were placed and followed up with clinical and radiographic evaluation. Panoramic radiographs were taken immediately after SFE and at 12 months after grafting. Measurements of changes in height were made by a computerized measuring technique using an image editing software. The mean graft height shrinkage percentage at 12 months after surgery was 8.84% (±5.32). One implant was lost before loading. All the 18 remaining osseointegrated implants received the prosthetic rehabilitation and were controlled after 3 months of functional loading. The implant survival rate at the 1-year interval was 94.74%. A 100% NanoBone alloplastic graft used in lateral SFE procedures presented limited height shrinkage. Implants placed in these grafted sinuses showed survival rates similar to those found in published data. These results should be interpreted cautiously considering the study's reduced sample size.

  2. Does low stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity enhance growth at elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Carlisle, Eli; McKay, John K; Bloom, Arnold J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if low stomatal conductance (g) increases growth, nitrate (NO3 (-)) assimilation, and nitrogen (N) utilization at elevated CO2 concentration. Four Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) near isogenic lines (NILs) differing in g were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 concentration under low and high NO3 (-) supply as the sole source of N. Although g varied by 32% among NILs at elevated CO2, leaf intercellular CO2 concentration varied by only 4% and genotype had no effect on shoot NO3 (-) concentration in any treatment. Low-g NILs showed the greatest CO2 growth increase under N limitation but had the lowest CO2 growth enhancement under N-sufficient conditions. NILs with the highest and lowest g had similar rates of shoot NO3 (-) assimilation following N deprivation at elevated CO2 concentration. After 5 d of N deprivation, the lowest g NIL had 27% lower maximum carboxylation rate and 23% lower photosynthetic electron transport compared with the highest g NIL. These results suggest that increased growth of low-g NILs under N limitation most likely resulted from more conservative N investment in photosynthetic biochemistry rather than from low g. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Which plant trait explains the variations in relative growth rate and its response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes derived from a variety of habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Riichi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-03-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) enhances plant growth, but this enhancement varies considerably. It is still uncertain which plant traits are quantitatively related to the variation in plant growth. To identify the traits responsible, we developed a growth analysis model that included primary parameters associated with morphology, nitrogen (N) use, and leaf and root activities. We analysed the vegetative growth of 44 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. grown at ambient and elevated [CO2] (800 μmol mol(-1)). The 44 ecotypes were selected such that they were derived from various altitudes and latitudes. Relative growth rate (RGR; growth rate per unit plant mass) and its response to [CO2] varied by 1.5- and 1.7-fold among ecotypes, respectively. The variation in RGR at both [CO2]s was mainly explained by the variation in leaf N productivity (LNP; growth rate per leaf N),which was strongly related to photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). The variation in the response of RGR to [CO2] was also explained by the variation in the response of LNP to [CO2]. Genomic analyses indicated that there was no phylogenetic constraint on inter-ecotype variation in the CO2 response of RGR or LNP. We conclude that the significant variation in plant growth and its response to [CO2] among ecotypes reflects the variation in N use for photosynthesis among ecotypes, and that the response of PNUE to CO2 is an important target for predicting and/or breeding plants that have high growth rates at elevated [CO2].

  4. Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet at High Elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas; Akins; Csatho; Fahnestock; Gogineni; Kim; Sonntag

    2000-07-21

    Comparison of ice discharge from higher elevation areas of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet with total snow accumulation gives estimates of ice thickening rates over the past few decades. On average, the region has been in balance, but with thickening of 21 centimeters per year in the southwest and thinning of 30 centimeters per year in the southeast. The north of the ice sheet shows less variability, with average thickening of 2 centimeters per year in the northeast and thinning of about 5 centimeters per year in the northwest. These results agree well with those from repeated altimeter surveys, except in the extreme south, where we find substantially higher rates of both thickening and thinning.

  5. Adrenergic blockade does not abolish elevated glucose turnover during bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, D.M.; Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Infusions of adrenergic antagonists were used to investigate the role of catecholamines in infection-induced elevations of glucose kinetics. Infection was produced in conscious catheterized rats by repeated subcutaneous injections of live Escherichia coli over 24 h. Glucose kinetics were measured by the constant intravenous infusion of [6- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]glucose. Compared with noninfected rats, infected animals were hyperthermic and showed increased rates of glucose appearance, clearance, and recycling as well as mild hyperlacticacidemia. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were increased by 50-70% in the infected rats, but there were no differences in plasma glucagon, corticosterone, and insulin levels. Adrenergic blockade was produced by primed constant infusion of both propranolol (β-blocker) and phentolamine (α-blocker). A 2-h administration of adrenergic antagonists did not attenuate the elevated glucose kinetics or plasma lactate concentration in the infected rats, although it abolished the hyperthermia. In a second experiment, animals were infused with propranolol and phentolamine beginning 1 h before the first injection of E. coli and throughout the course of infection. Continuous adrenergic blockade failed to attenuate infection-induced elevations in glucose kinetics and plasma lactate. These results indicate that the adrenergic system does not mediate the elevated glucose metabolism observed in this mild model of infection

  6. Myocarditis with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes misdiagnosed as an ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Seth H; Crandall, Mark A; Jaffe, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocarditis can mimic ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Quickly determining the correct diagnosis is critical given the "time is muscle" implication with a STEMI and the potential adverse effects associated with use of fibrinolytic therapy. A 46-year-old man presented to a rural emergency department with chest pain, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) read as showing 0.1 mV of ST-segment elevation in leads III and aVF. His initial cardiac troponin T was 0.44 ng/mL. He received fibrinolytic therapy for presumed STEMI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was later performed and showed epicardial delayed enhancement consistent with myocarditis. Upon further questioning, he acknowledged 3 days of stuttering chest discomfort and a recent upper respiratory infection, as well as similar chest pain in his wife. A systematic evaluation is essential for acute chest pain, including a focused history, identification of cardiac risk factors, and ECG interpretation. A history of recent viral illness, absence of cardiac risk factors, or ECG findings inconsistent with a single anatomic lesion would suggest a potential alternate diagnosis to STEMI. This case emphasizes the importance of a focused history in the initial evaluation of chest pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, P; Hutcheon, M; Broder, I; Mintz, S

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age, duration of employment, or extent of smoking. PMID:7138793

  8. Effects of drilling parameters in numerical simulation to the bone temperature elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbar, Mohd Faizal Ali; Malik, Mukhtar; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2018-04-01

    Drilling into the bone can produce significant amount of heat which can cause bone necrosis. Understanding the drilling parameters influence to the heat generation is necessary to prevent thermal necrosis to the bone. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters on bone temperature elevation. Drilling simulations of various combinations of drill bit diameter, rotational speed and feed rate were performed using finite element software DEFORM-3D. Full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were utilised to examine the effect of drilling parameters and their interaction influence on the bone temperature. The maximum bone temperature elevation of 58% was demonstrated within the range in this study. Feed rate was found to be the main parameter to influence the bone temperature elevation during the drilling process followed by drill diameter and rotational speed. The interaction between drill bit diameter and feed rate was found to be significantly influence the bone temperature. It is discovered that the use of low rotational speed, small drill bit diameter and high feed rate are able to minimize the elevation of bone temperature for safer surgical operations.

  9. USGS Elevation Availability (NED) Overlay Map Service from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Elevation Availability service from The National Map (TNM) shows the best available resolution of downloadable elevation data, and is updated approximately...

  10. Influence of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment and Cooling Rates on the Microstructural Development and Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Hypereutectic Al-18Si-4Cu-3Ni Piston Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jea-Hee; Cho, Young-Hee; Jung, Jae-Gil; Lee, Jung-Moo [Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The influence of ultrasonic melt treatment (UST) combined with a change in cooling rates on the microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of a hypereutectic Al-18Si-4Cu-3Ni piston alloy was investigated. Microstructural observation confirmed that UST effectively refined the sizes of primary Si and intermetallic compounds (e.g. ε-Al{sub 3}Ni) while promoting their homogeneous distribution. Besides the refinement of the constituent phases, the size of the dendrite arm spacing (DAS), which was hardly affected by UST, significantly deceased with increasing cooling rates. The refinement of the solidification structure in the alloy achieved through both UST and increased cooling rates resulted in an improvement in tensile properties, ultimate tensile strength and elongation in particular, after T5 heat treatment followed by overaging at 350 ℃. However, the elevated temperature yield strength of the alloy was not associated with the refinement, but was rather correlated with the 3-D interconnectivity, morphology and volume fraction of the primary Si.

  11. Radio frequency-induced temperature elevations in the human head considering small anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Ueberbacher, R.; Samaras, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable a detailed numerical radio frequency (RF) dosimetry and the computations of RF-induced temperature elevations, high-resolution (0.1 mm) numerical models of the human eye, the inner ear organs and the pineal gland were developed and inserted into a commercially available head model. As radiation sources, generic models of handsets at 400, 900 and 1850 MHz operating in close proximity to the head were considered. The results, obtained by finite-difference time domain-based computations, showed a highly heterogeneous specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution and SAR-peaks inside the inner ear structures; however, the corresponding RF-induced temperature elevations were well below 0.1 deg. C, when considering typical output power values of hand-held devices. In case of frontal exposure, with the radiation sources ∼2.5 cm in front of the closed eye, maximum temperature elevations in the eye in the range of ∼0.2-0.6 deg. C were found for typical device output powers. A reduction in tissue perfusion mainly affected the maximum RF-induced temperature elevation of tissues deep inside the head. Similarly, worst-case considerations regarding pulsed irradiation affected temperature elevations in deep tissue significantly more than in superficial tissues. (authors)

  12. Dynamics in two-elevator traffic system with real-time information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Takashi, E-mail: wadokeioru@yahoo.co.jp

    2013-12-17

    We study the dynamics of traffic system with two elevators using a elevator choice scenario. The two-elevator traffic system with real-time information is similar to the two-route vehicular traffic system. The dynamics of two-elevator traffic system is described by the two-dimensional nonlinear map. An elevator runs a neck-and-neck race with another elevator. The motion of two elevators displays such a complex behavior as quasi-periodic one. The return map of two-dimensional map shows a piecewise map.

  13. Reconstructing surface elevation changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (1993-2013) and analysis of Zachariae Isstrom, northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle

    Previous studies investigating the velocity and elevation change records of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) revealed rapid and complex changes. It is therefore imperative to determine changes with both high spatial and temporal resolutions. By fusing multiple laser altimetry data sets, the Surface Elevation Reconstruction and Change (SERAC) program is capable of reconstructing surface elevation changes with high spatial and temporal resolution over the entire GrIS. The input data include observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission (2003-2009) as well as data collected by NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) (1993-2013) and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) (2007-2012) airborne laser altimetry systems. This study extends the record of surface elevation changes over the GrIS by adding 2012 and 2013 laser altimetry data to the previous 1993-2011 record. Extending the record leads to a new, more accurate and detailed altimetry record for 1993-2013. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are fused with laser altimetry data over Zachariae Isstrom, northeast Greenland to analyze surface elevation changes and associated thinning rates during 1978-2014. Little to no elevation change occurred over Zachariae Isstrom from 1978-1999, however, from 1999-2014 elevation changes near the calving front became increasingly negative and accelerated. Calving front position showed steady retreat and grounding line position has been retreating towards the interior of the ice sheet at an increasing rate from 2010-2014 when compared to the 1996-2010 period. The measured elevation changes near the calving front have brought a large portion of the glacier close to the height of flotation. If the current thinning trend continues this portion of the glacier will reach flotation within the next 2-5 years allowing for further retreat and increased vulnerability to retreat for sections of

  14. Insights into intraspecific wood density variation and its relationship to growth, height and elevation in a treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, A

    2018-05-01

    The wood economics spectrum provides a general framework for interspecific trait-trait coordination across wide environmental gradients. Whether global patterns are mirrored within species constitutes a poorly explored subject. In this study, I first determined whether wood density co-varies together with elevation, tree growth and height at the within-species level. Second, I determined the variation of wood density in different stem parts (trunk, branch and twigs). In situ trunk sapwood, trunk heartwood, branch and twig densities, in addition to stem growth rates and tree height were determined in adult trees of Nothofagus pumilio at four elevations in five locations spanning 18° of latitude. Mixed effects models were fitted to test relationships among variables. The variation in wood density reported in this study was narrow (ca. 0.4-0.6 g cm -3 ) relative to global density variation (ca. 0.3-1.0 g cm -3 ). There was no significant relationship between stem growth rates and wood density. Furthermore, the elevation gradient did not alter the wood density of any stem part. Trunk sapwood density was negatively related to tree height. Twig density was higher than branch and trunk densities. Trunk heartwood density was always significantly higher than sapwood density. Negative across-species trends found in the growth-wood density relationship may not emerge as the aggregate of parallel intraspecific patterns. Actually, trees with contrasting growth rates show similar wood density values. Tree height, which is tightly related to elevation, showed a negative relationship with sapwood density. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Predictors of backrest elevation in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Bryant, Sandra; Ashtiani, Brooke

    2003-04-01

    Low backrest and supine positions are associated with increased mortality and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Data are not available across ICU settings about the level of backrest position used and its relationship to enteral feeding and hemodynamic status. The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the level of backrest elevation and position and identify factors associated with and predict positioning in a medical, surgical and neuroscience intensive care unit. Data were collected randomly in each unit over a 6-week period, resulting in 506 observations for170 patients. Backrest elevation was determined by electronic bed read-out or bed frame elevation gauge. BP, HR and enteral feeding status were retrieved from the medical record. Results showed that mean backrest elevation was 19.2 degrees and 70% of subjects were supine. No difference in backrest elevation among units was found. Significant correlations between backrest elevation and systolic BP (r=0.15, P=0.006); and backrest and diastolic BP (r=0.13, P=0.02) were found. There was no difference in backrest elevation between patients being fed and not being fed. Differences in backrest elevation for intubated versus nonintubated patients approached significance (P=0.07) with intubated patients at lower backrest elevations. In summary, use of higher backrest elevations (>30 degrees ) is minimal, is not related to feeding and minimally related to hemodynamic status. Strategies to meet published recommendations for backrest elevation (30-45 degrees ) must include repeated feedback about nurse's use of backrest elevation and estimates of elevation.

  16. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  17. Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts across species and elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an

  18. Reliability and validity of a smartphone pulse rate application for the assessment of resting and elevated pulse rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katy; Graff, Megan; Hedt, Corbin; Simmons, James

    2016-08-01

    Purpose/hypothesis: This study was designed to investigate the test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the standard error of measurement (SEm) of a pulse rate assessment application (Azumio®'s Instant Heart Rate) on both Android® and iOS® (iphone operating system) smartphones as compared to a FT7 Polar® Heart Rate monitor. Number of subjects: 111. Resting (sitting) pulse rate was assessed twice and then the participants were asked to complete a 1-min standing step test and then immediately re-assessed. The smartphone assessors were blinded to their measurements. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC 2,1] and 95% confidence interval) for the three tools at rest (time 1/time 2): iOS® (0.76 [0.67-0.83]); Polar® (0.84 [0.78-0.89]); and Android® (0.82 [0.75-0.88]). Concurrent validity at rest time 2 (ICC 2,1) with the Polar® device: IOS® (0.92 [0.88-0.94]) and Android® (0.95 [0.92-0.96]). Concurrent validity post-exercise (time 3) (ICC) with the Polar® device: iOS® (0.90 [0.86-0.93]) and Android® (0.94 [0.91-0.96]). The SEm values for the three devices at rest: iOS® (5.77 beats per minute [BPM]), Polar® (4.56 BPM) and Android® (4.96 BPM). The Android®, iOS®, and Polar® devices showed acceptable test-retest reliability at rest and post-exercise. Both the smartphone platforms demonstrated concurrent validity with the Polar® at rest and post-exercise. The Azumio® Instant Heart Rate application when used by either platform appears to be a reliable and valid tool to assess pulse rate in healthy individuals.

  19. Lignification in beech grown at elevated CO2 concentrations: interaction with nutrient availability and leaf maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, L; Forstreuter, M.; Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, K.; Murray, M. B.; Polle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results of a study undertaken to investigate contradictory observations reported in the literature to the effect that growth in elevated carbon dioxide affects ontogeny, are discussed. Results of this study showed that seedlings grown at elevated carbon dioxide had nitrogen concentrations of about 15 per cent lower than seedlings grown in ambient carbon dioxide. Elevated carbon dioxide caused increased growth and biomass production in trees with a medium to high nutrient supply, but had no effect on growth of trees with a low nutrient supply rate. Because elevated carbon dioxide enhanced seedling growth in the high nutrient supply treatments, the total amount of lignin produced per seedling was higher in these treatments. Overall, the results suggest that carbon dioxide availability does not directly affect lignin concentrations, but affects them indirectly through the effects on or an interaction with nitrogen supply and growth. In seedlings, elevated carbon dioxide reduced lignin concentration on a dry mass basis, indicating diminished wood quality in a carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere. 51 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Operation of a hydraulic elevator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, G.A.; Li, Yu.V.; Bezuglov, N.N.

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the hydraulic elevator system in the im. 50-letiya Oktyabr'skoi Revolutsii mine in the Karaganda basin. The system removes water and coal from the sump of a skip mine shaft. Water influx rate per day to the sump does not exceed 120 m/sup 3/, weight of coal falling from the skip is about 5,000 kg per day. The sump, 85 m deep, is closed by a screen. The elevator system consists of two pumps (one is used as a reserve pump) with a capacity of 300 m/sup 3/h. When water level exceeds the maximum permissive limit the pump is activated by an automatic control system. The coal and water mixture pumped from the sump bottom is directed to a screen which separates coal from water. Coal is fed to a coal hopper and water is pumped to a water tank. The hydraulic elevator has a capacity of 80 m/sup 3/ of mixture per hour. The slurry is tranported by a pipe of 175 mm diameter. Specifications of the pumps and pipelines are given. A scheme of the hydraulic elevator system is also shown. Economic aspects of hydraulic elevator use for removal of water and coal from deep sumps of skip shafts in the Karaganda basin also are discussed.

  1. Transgenic tobacco plants with improved cyanobacterial Rubisco expression but no extra assembly factors grow at near wild-type rates if provided with elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhialini, Alessandro; Lin, Myat T; Andralojc, P John; Hanson, Maureen R; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-01-01

    Introducing a carbon-concentrating mechanism and a faster Rubisco enzyme from cyanobacteria into higher plant chloroplasts may improve photosynthetic performance by increasing the rate of CO2 fixation while decreasing losses caused by photorespiration. We previously demonstrated that tobacco plants grow photoautotrophically using Rubisco from Synechococcus elongatus, although the plants exhibited considerably slower growth than wild-type and required supplementary CO2 . Because of concerns that vascular plant assembly factors may not be adequate for assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco, prior transgenic plants included the cyanobacterial chaperone RbcX or the carboxysomal protein CcmM35. Here we show that neither RbcX nor CcmM35 is needed for assembly of active cyanobacterial Rubisco. Furthermore, by altering the gene regulatory sequences on the Rubisco transgenes, cyanobacterial Rubisco expression was enhanced and the transgenic plants grew at near wild-type growth rates, although still requiring elevated CO2 . We performed detailed kinetic characterization of the enzymes produced with and without the RbcX and CcmM35 cyanobacterial proteins. These transgenic plants exhibit photosynthetic characteristics that confirm the predicted benefits of introduction of non-native forms of Rubisco with higher carboxylation rate constants in vascular plants and the potential nitrogen-use efficiency that may be achieved provided that adequate CO2 is available near the enzyme. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. "Ultra"-Fast Fracture Strength of Advanced Structural Ceramic Materials Studied at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate determination of inert strength is important in reliable life prediction of structural ceramic components. At ambient temperature, the inert strength of a brittle material is typically regarded as free of the effects of slow crack growth due to stress corrosion. Therefore, the inert strength can be determined either by eliminating active species, especially moisture, with an appropriate inert medium, or by using a very high test rate. However, at elevated temperatures, the concept or definition of the inert strength of brittle ceramic materials is not clear, since temperature itself is a degrading environment, resulting in strength degradation through slow crack growth and/or creep. Since the mechanism to control strength is rate-dependent viscous flow, the only conceivable way to determine the inert strength at elevated temperatures is to utilize a very fast test rate that either minimizes the time for or eliminates slow crack growth. Few experimental studies have measured the elevated-temperature, inert (or "ultra"-fast fracture) strength of advanced ceramics. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, an experimental study was initiated to better understand the "ultra"-fast fracture strength behavior of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures. Fourteen advanced ceramics - one alumina, eleven silicon nitrides, and two silicon carbides - have been tested using constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing in flexure with a series of stress rates including the "ultra"-fast stress rate of 33 000 MPa/sec with digitally controlled test frames. The results for these 14 advanced ceramics indicate that, notwithstanding possible changes in flaw populations as well as flaw configurations because of elevated temperatures, the strength at 33 000 MPa/sec approached the room-temperature strength or reached a higher value than that determined at the conventional test rate of 30 MPa/sec. On the basis of the experimental data, it can be stated that the elevated

  3. Elevator-related injuries to children in the United States, 1990 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory K; Huisingh, Carrie; Smith, Gary A

    2007-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of elevator-related injuries among children in the United States from 1990 to 2004. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Reported cases were used to project national estimates. An estimated 29 030 elevator-related injuries occurred among children in the United States during 1990 to 2004. The mean age was 8.1 years (SD, 6.1 years), with 53.3% of injuries among boys. The overall injury rate was 2.5 injuries per 100,000 population. The injury rate for children aged 0-4 years was 4.2 per 100,000 population, and for children aged 5-19 years the injury rate was 1.9 per 100,000 population. The most frequent cause of injury was the elevator door closing on a body part, the most frequently injured body region was the upper extremity, and soft-tissue injuries were the most frequent type of injury. Children should be closely supervised on or near elevators to reduce the risk of injury.

  4. Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator dynamics are presented. In order to capture the effect of the elevator moving along the tether, the elevator dynamics are included as a separate body in both models. One model treats the elevator's motion dynamically, where propulsive and friction forces are applied to the elevator body. The second model treats the elevator's motion kinematically, where the distance along the tether is determined by adjusting the lengths of tether on either side of the elevator. The tether model is used to determine optimal configurations for the space elevator. A modal analysis of two different configurations is presented which show that the fundamental mode of oscillation is a pendular one around the anchor point with a period on the order of 160 h for the in-plane motion, and 24 h for the out-of-plane motion. Numerical simulation results of the effects of the elevator moving along the cable are presented for different travel velocities and different elevator masses.

  5. Amorphisation during elevated temperature implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Elliman, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Transition state theory is employed to predict the rates of amorphous zone recrystallization by direct thermal and radiation mediated thermal annealing processes. These rates are functions of zone radius and are employed to describe the competition between amorphous zone generation and annealing during elevated temperature heavy ion implantation of, particularly, Si and the accumulation of amorphousness with increasing ion fluence. This analysis predicts a change from monotonic to sigmoidal to biexponential accumulation functions with increasing annealing rate or substrate temperature in agreement with experiments. A logarithmic dependence of ion flux density upon substrate temperature for the achievement of defined fractional amorphisation is predicted and is also in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  6. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  7. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1985-12-31

    Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

  8. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the elevated temperature tensile flow behavior of service-exposed 2.25Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish Shastry, C.; Parameswaran, P.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Mannan, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The elevated temperature tensile flow behavior of service-exposed 2.25Cr-1Mo steel has been critically examined with respect to strain rate sensitivity (m) and apparent activation energy (Q) for tensile deformation. The predominant role of forest dislocations in determining the relative flow response at true plastic strains greater than 0.01 is inferred from the profile of 'm' against flow stress. The variation of 'm' with temperature and strain is discussed based on the kinetics of dislocation generation and recovery. The decrease in Q with the increase in strain rate or temperature is attributed to the increase in recovery processes like dislocation annihilation and subcell/subgrain formation. This suggestion has been supported by transmission electron microscopy

  9. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  10. An investigation of the calcification response of the scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata to elevated pCO2 and the effects of nutrients, zooxanthellae and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, M.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nutrients and pCO2 on zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate colonies of the temperate scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata (Ellis and Solander, 1786) were investigated at two different temperatures (16 °C and 24 °C). Corals exposed to elevated pCO2 tended to have lower relative calcification rates, as estimated from changes in buoyant weights. Experimental nutrient enrichments had no significant effect nor did there appear to be any interaction between pCO2 and nutrients. Elevated pCO2 appeared to have a similar effect on coral calcification whether zooxanthellae were present or absent at 16 °C. However, at 24 °C, the interpretation of the results is complicated by a significant interaction between gender and pCO2 for spawning corals. At 16 °C, gamete release was not observed, and no gender differences in calcification rates were observed - female and male corals showed similar reductions in calcification rates in response to elevated CO2 (15% and 19% respectively). Corals grown at 24 °C spawned repeatedly and male and female corals exhibited two different growth rate patterns - female corals grown at 24 °C and exposed to CO2 had calcification rates 39% lower than females grown at ambient CO2, while males showed a non-significant decline of 5% under elevated CO2. The increased sensitivity of females to elevated pCO2 may reflect a greater investment of energy in reproduction (egg production) relative to males (sperm production). These results suggest that both gender and spawning are important factors in determining the sensitivity of corals to ocean acidification, and considering these factors in future research may be critical to predicting how the population structures of marine calcifiers will change in response to ocean acidification.

  11. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  12. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  13. Rate constant for the H˙ + H2O → ˙OH + H2 reaction at elevated temperatures measured by pulse radiolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Y; Yamashita, S; Lertnaisat, P; Sanguanmith, S; Meesungnoen, J; Jay-Gerin, J-P; Katsumura, Y

    2017-11-22

    Maintaining the structural integrity of materials in nuclear power plants is an essential issue associated with safe operation. Hydrogen (H 2 ) addition or injection to coolants is a powerful technique that has been widely applied such that the reducing conditions in the coolant water avoid corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Because the radiation-induced reaction of ˙OH + H 2 → H˙ + H 2 O plays a crucial role in these systems, the rate constant has been measured at operation temperatures of the reactors (285-300 °C) by pulse radiolysis, generating sufficient data for analysis. The reverse reaction H˙ + H 2 O → ˙OH + H 2 is negligibly slow at ambient temperature; however, it accelerates considerably quickly at elevated temperatures. Although the reverse reaction reduces the effectiveness of H 2 addition, reliable rate constants have not yet been measured. In this study, the rate constants have been determined in a temperature range of 250-350 °C by pulse radiolysis in an aqueous I - solution.

  14. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Ito, Koichi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 deg. C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg -1 , which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 deg. C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 deg. C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 deg. C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min.

  15. Climate change (elevated CO{sub 2}, elevated temperature and moderate drought) triggers the antioxidant enzymes' response of grapevine cv. Tempranillo, avoiding oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Parra, C.; Aguirreolea, J.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Irigoyen, J.J.; Morales, F. (Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Seccion Biologia Vegetal (Unidad Asociada al CSIC, EEAD, Zaragoza e ICVV, Logrono), Facultades de Ciencias y Farmacia, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain))

    2012-07-01

    Photosynthetic carbon fixation (A{sub N}) and photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) are affected by different environmental stress factors, such as those associated with climate change. Under stress conditions, it can be generated an electron excess that cannot be consumed, which can react with O{sub 2}, producing reactive oxygen species. This work was aimed to evaluate the influence of climate change (elevated CO{sub 2}, elevated temperature and moderate drought) on the antioxidant status of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cv. Tempranillo leaves, from veraison to ripeness. The lowest ratios between electrons generated (ETR) and consumed (A{sub N} + respiration + photorespiration) were observed in plants treated with elevated CO{sub 2} and elevated temperature. In partially irrigated plants under current ambient conditions, electrons not consumed seemed to be diverted to alternative ways. Oxidative damage to chlorophylls and carotenoids was not observed. However, these plants had increases in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, an indication of lipid peroxidation. These increases matched well with an early rise of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6). Enzymatic activities were maintained high until ripeness. In conclusion, plants grown under current ambient conditions and moderate drought were less efficient to cope with oxidative damage than well-irrigated plants, and more interestingly, plants grown under moderate drought but treated with elevated CO{sub 2} and elevated temperature were not affected by oxidative damage, mainly because of higher rates of electrons consumed in photosynthetic carbon fixation. (Author)

  16. Elevated serum estradiol levels in artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer cycles negatively impact ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rani; Jindal, Sangita; Feil, Heather; Buyuk, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels during artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates (OP/LB). A historical cohort study was conducted in an academic setting in order to correlate peak and average estradiol levels with ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates for all autologous artificial frozen embryo transfer cycles performed from 1/2011 to 12/2014. Average and peak E 2 levels from 110 autologous artificial FET cycles from 95 patients were analyzed. Average E 2 levels were significantly lower in cycles resulting in OP/LB compared to those that did not (234.1 ± 16.6 pg/ml vs. 315 ± 24.8 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.04). Although peak E 2 levels were not significantly different between cycles resulting in OP/LB compared with those that did not (366.9 ± 27.7 pg/ml vs. 459.1 ± 32.3 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.19), correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) downward trend in OP/LB rates with increasing peak E 2 levels. This study suggests that elevated E 2 levels in artificial autologous FET cycles are associated with lower OP/LB rates. Estradiol levels should be monitored during artificial FET cycles.

  17. The relationship between specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in anatomically based human body models for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Oizumi, Takuya; Hanatani, Ryuto; Chan, Kwok Hung; Wiart, Joe

    2013-02-21

    According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the upper boundary frequency, over which the whole-body-averaged SAR is deemed to be the basic restriction, has been reduced from 6 to 3 GHz, because radio-wave energy is absorbed around the body surface when the frequency is increased. However, no quantitative discussion has been provided to support this description especially from the standpoint of temperature elevation. It is of interest to investigate the maximum temperature elevation in addition to the core temperature even for a whole-body exposure. In the present study, using anatomically based human models, we computed the SAR and the temperature elevation for a plane-wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, taking into account the thermoregulatory response. As the primary result, we found that the ratio of the core temperature elevation to the whole-body-averaged SAR is almost frequency independent for frequencies below a few gigahertz; the ratio decreases above this frequency. At frequencies higher than a few gigahertz, core temperature elevation for the same whole-body averaged SAR becomes lower due to heat convection from the skin to air. This lower core temperature elevation is attributable to skin temperature elevation caused by the power absorption around the body surface. Then, core temperature elevation even for whole-body averaged SAR of 4 W kg(-1) with the duration of 1 h was at most 0.8 °C, which is smaller than a threshold considered in the safety guidelines/standard. Further, the peak 10 g averaged SAR is correlated with the maximum body temperature elevations without extremities and pinna over the frequencies considered. These findings

  18. Temporal dynamics of abiotic and biotic factors on leaf litter of three plant species in relation to decomposition rate along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Relationships between abiotic (soil temperature and number of freeze-thaw cycles or biotic factors (chemical elements, microbial biomass, extracellular enzymes, and decomposer communities in litter and litter decomposition rates were investigated over two years in subalpine forests close to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Litterbags with senescent birch, fir, and spruce leaves were placed on the forest floor at 2,704 m, 3,023 m, 3,298 m, and 3,582 m elevation. Results showed that the decomposition rate positively correlated with soil mean temperature during the plant growing season, and with the number of soil freeze-thaw cycles during the winter. Concentrations of soluble nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K had positive effects but C:N and lignin:N ratios had negative effects on the decomposition rate (k, especially during the winter. Meanwhile, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, N (MBN, and P (MBP were positively correlated with k values during the first growing season. These biotic factors accounted for 60.0% and 56.4% of the variation in decomposition rate during the winter and the growing season in the first year, respectively. Specifically, litter chemistry (C, N, P, K, lignin, C:N and lignin:N ratio independently explained 29.6% and 13.3%, and the microbe-related factors (MBC, MBN, MBP, bacterial and fungal biomass, sucrase and ACP activity explained 22.9% and 34.9% during the first winter and the first growing season, respectively. We conclude that frequent freeze-thaw cycles and litter chemical properties determine the winter decomposition while microbe-related factors play more important roles in determining decomposition in the subsequent growing season.

  19. Cardiac Troponin Elevation Predicts Mortality in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Snipelisky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. While patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT have high cardiovascular event rates, preoperative risk stratification may not necessarily predict those susceptible patients. Troponin T (TnT may help predict patients at risk for cardiovascular complications. Methods. Consecutive patients undergoing OLT at Mayo Clinic in Florida between 1998 and 2010 who had TnT obtained within 10 days following surgery were included. Three groups were compared based on TnT level: (1 normal (TnT ≤0.01 ng/mL, (2 intermediate (TnT 0.02–0.11 ng/mL, and (3 elevated (TnT >0.11 ng/mL. Overall and cardiovascular mortality was assessed. Results. Of the 78 patients included, there was no difference in age, gender, severity of liver disease, and echocardiographic findings. Patients in the normal and intermediate TnT groups had a lower overall mortality rate (14.3% and 0%, resp. when compared with those with elevated TnT (50%; P=0.001. Patients in the elevated TnT group had a cardiovascular mortality rate of 37.5% compared with 1.4% in the other groups combined (P<0.01. The elevated TnT group had a much higher mortality rate when compared with those in the intermediate group (P<0.0001. Conclusion. TnT may accurately help risk stratify patients in the early postoperative setting to better predict cardiovascular complications.

  20. Response of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growth, development and consumption of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2 (double-ambient vs. ambient) in open-top chambers were examined. Significant decreases in protein, total amino acid, water and nitrogen content and increases in free fatty acid were observed in cotton bolls. Changes in quality of cotton bolls affected the growth, development and food utilization of H. armigera. Significantly longer larval development duration in three successive generations and lower pupal weight of the second and third generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower fecundity was also found in successive three generations of H. armigera fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The consumption per larva occurred significant increase in successive three generations and frass per larva were also significantly increased during the second and third generations under elevated CO2. Significantly lower relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and significant higher relative consumption rate in successive three generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower potential female fecundity, larval numbers and population consumption were found in the second and third generations of cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The integrative effect of higher larval mortality rate and lower adult fecundity resulted in significant decreases in potential population consumption in the latter two generations. The results show that elevated CO2 adversely affects cotton bolls quality, which indicates the potential population dynamics and potential population consumption of cotton bollworm will alleviate the harm to the plants in the future rising CO2 atmosphere.

  1. Experimental prototype of an electric elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiceanu, M.; Epure, S.; Ciuta, S.

    2016-08-01

    The main objective is to achieve an elevator prototype powered by a three-phase voltage system via a bidirectional static power converter ac-ac with regenerating capability. In order to diminish the power size of the electric motor up to 1/3 of rated power, the elevator contains two carriages of the same weight, one serving as the payload, and the other as counterweight. Before proper operation of the static power converter, the capacitor must be charged at rated voltage via a precharge circuit. At the moment of stabilizing the DC voltage at nominal value, the AC-AC power converter can operates in the proper limits. The functions of the control structure are: the load control task, speed and torque controls. System includes transducers for current measuring, voltage sensors and encoder. As reserve power sources the hybrid battery-photovoltaic panels are used. The control voltage is modulated by implementing four types of pulse width modulations: sinusoidal, with reduced commutation, third order harmonic insertion, and the space vector modulation. Therefore, the prototype could operates with an increased efficiency, in spite of the existing ones. The experimental results confirm the well design of the chosen solution. The control solution assures bidirectional power flow control, precharge control, and load control and it is implemented on a digital signal processor. The elevator capacity is between 300-450 kg, and it is driven by using a 1.5 kW three-phase asynchronous machine.

  2. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vapaavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO 2 and/or O 3 on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO 2 increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O 3 also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO 2 + O 3 ) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO 2 may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O 3 will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO 2 enhances and elevated O 3 decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth

  3. Elevational characteristics of the archaeal community in full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants at a 3,660-meter elevational scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Xue; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Due to the important roles of archaea in wastewater treatment processes, archaeal communities have been studied extensively in various anaerobic reactors, but the knowledge of archaeal communities in full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) remains quite poor. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was for the first time employed to investigate archaeal communities from 20 full-scale activated sludge WWTPs distributed at a 3,660-meter elevational scale in China. Results showed that archaeal communities from WWTPs were dominated by Methanosarcinales (84.6%). A core archaeal population (94.5%) composed of Methanosaeta, Methanosarcina, Methanogenium and Methanobrevibacter was shared among WWTPs. The elevational pattern of archaeal communities was observed in WWTPs, with an elevational threshold associated with archaeal community richness and structures at approximately 1,500 meters above sea level (masl). A declining trend in community richness with increasing elevation was observed at higher elevations, whereas no trend was presented at lower elevations. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the archaeal community richness at higher elevations was associated with more environmental variables than that at lower elevations. Redundancy analysis indicated that wastewater variables were the dominant contributors to the variation of community structures at higher elevations, followed by operational variables and elevation.

  4. Elevated CO2 Reduced Floret Death in Wheat Under Warmer Average Temperatures and Terminal Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias de Oliveira, Eduardo; Palta, Jairo A.; Bramley, Helen; Stefanova, Katia; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs. free-tillering). The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3°C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3°C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables. PMID:26635837

  5. Elevated CO2 reduced floret death in wheat under warmer average temperatures and terminal drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eDias de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs free-tillering. The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3 C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3 C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables.

  6. Influence of Antenna Characteristics on Elevation Dependence of Building Penetration Loss for High Elevation Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kvicera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building penetration loss models presented in our previous paper [1] were valid for various scenarios, propagation conditions, frequency bands and hemispherical receiving antenna pointing towards zenith. These models had a significantly rising trend of penetration loss with increasing elevation angle of the link in common. In this paper we show that when working with non-isotropic terminal antennas, this trend relates primarily to the elevation trend of the corresponding reference level dependent on the receiving antenna radiation pattern. This is demonstrated by the results of single-input multiple-output (SIMO measurement trials performed at L-band in an office building and a brick building in the city of Prague. Further, based on the detailed analysis, a method to modify the elevation trend of a particular penetration loss model for different receiving antenna radiation patterns is derived and experimentally validated.

  7. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  8. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  9. Elevated temperature ductility of types 304 and 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steel types 304 and 316 are known for their high ductility and toughness. However, the present study shows that certain combinations of strain rate and test temperature can result in a significant loss in elevated-temperature ductility. Such a phenomenon is referred to as ductility minimum. The strain rate, below which ductility loss is initiated, decreases with decrease in test temperature. Besides strain rate and temperature, the ductility minimum was also affected by nitrogen content and thermal aging conditions. Thermal aging at 649 0 C was observed to eliminate the ductility minimum at 649 0 C in both types 304 and 316 stainless steel. Such an aging treatment resulted in a higher ductility than the unaged value. Aging at 593 0 C still resulted in some loss in ductility. Current results suggest that ductility-minimum conditions for stainless steel should be considered in design, thermal aging data analysis, and while studying the effects of chemical composition

  10. Elevated admission microalbuminuria predicts poor myocardial blood flow and 6-month mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Wei; Wang, Yong Liang; Li, Hong Wei

    2012-04-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is considered a major risk factor predisposing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by MA have been well described. However, data regarding admission MA and coronary and myocardial flow are scant. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of admission MA on coronary blood flow and prognosis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI. Did elevated admission microalbuminuria predict poor myocardial blood flow and 6-month mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention? A total of 247 patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI within 12 hours after symptom onset were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to admission urinary albumin extraction rate (UAER): (1) an MA group (UAER 20-200 µg/min), and (2) a normoalbuminuria (NA) group (UAER < 20 µg/min). Microalbuminuria was observed in 108 patients. Univariate analyses showed statistical differences between the NA and MA groups in serum creatine level, plasma glucose level, and peak creatine kinase level on presentation. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grades (TFGs) 0-2 in the MA group were more frequent (9.4% vs 21.2%, P < 0.05) than in the NA group, and corrected TIMI frame count was higher (23.9 ± 18.5 vs 29.8 ± 23.5, P < 0.05). Admission MA was an independent predictor of poor myocardial perfusion (adjusted relative risk: 3.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.99-6.78) and a higher rate of 6-month mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI (adjusted relative risk: 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-3.39). Admission MA levels are associated with impaired myocardial flow and poor prognosis in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  12. P Elevator: An Innovatively Designed Elevator for Extraction of Third Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Xiao, Shui Sheng; Ajmera, Deepal Haresh

    2015-01-01

    To modify the conventional straight elevator with a unique and innovative design in respect to approach and accessibility during extraction for patients with abrasions around corners of the mouth and with thick buccal mucosa, without causing overstretching of angles of the mouth. The shank of the straight elevator in the shape of a 'U' was modified, giving it a shape similar to 'P' in the English alphabet hence it is named the P Elevator. The P elevator utilises a 'U' shaped bend in the shank of the conventional straight elevator making space for the buccal soft tissues and the angle of the mouth, to accommodate properly in the 'U' shank. The application of this elevator in the successful removal of third molars is described. Two hundred patients underwent extraction of third molars with the P elevator including 166 patients with disimpaction of all third molars, 23 patients with abrasion around the angle of the mouth, and 11 patients with thick buccal mucosa. Satisfactory results were obtained in all the cases with no postoperative complications. The P elevator permits prudent, meticulous, innovative and proficient extraction of third molars in patients with thick buccal mucosa and abrasions around the angle of the mouth, without overstretching the corners of the mouth. We introduce novel applications of the P elevator in third molar extraction that provide substantial advantages over a conventional straight elevator.

  13. Elevated indoor radon levels and elevated incidence of lung cancer in Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio: Cause or coincidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafton, H.E.; West, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Columbus, and Franklin County, Ohio, have been identified as having elevated residential radon levels. Research by the Columbus Health Department, the Ohio Department of Health, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has shown that average screening measurements for the county range from 63% to 73% above 148 Bq m -3 , 23% to 27% above 370 Bq m -3 , and 1% above 1850 Bq m -3 , for both males and females, respectively. The observed cancer rate per 100,000 persons for the period 1979-1986 for the City of Columbus was 62.8 and for the State of Ohio, 49.3, for the bronchi, lungs, and trachea. The reliability of residential radon data, the effect of smoking, mobility of residents, and other confounding factors are referenced. We suggest that while current evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a causal or coincidental relationship between elevated radon levels and higher-than-average rates of lung cancer, the measurement data suggest that Franklin County, Ohio, is an appropriate site for such research

  14. A Person Stands on a Balance in an Elevator: What Happens When the Elevator Starts to Fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluković, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrián Corona

    2018-03-01

    Physics textbook authors commonly introduce the concept of weightlessness (apparent or real) through a "thought experiment" in which a person weighs herself or himself in an elevator. When the elevator falls freely, the spring balance should show zero weight. There is an unresolved controversy about how this "zero reading" comes about. Drawings in some books, the first of which appeared in a book of Perelman 80 years ago, show that the person continues to be in contact with the balance. It means that "zero weight" arises as a consequence of "the fact" that the falling person and balance, although in contact, don't press on each other. Drawings in other books, among them those elaborated by NASA, represent the person and the balance launched upward and floating separately in midair. Using a homemade "falling box" with attached video camera, we did initial experiments for a very simplified but basically similar situation. The results that we obtained suggest that, in a free-falling elevator, a real balance would hardly launch a person upward.

  15. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Ito, Koichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu [Research Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@graduate.chiba-u.jp

    2010-04-21

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 deg. C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg{sup -1}, which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 deg. C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 deg. C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 deg. C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min.

  16. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vapaavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F

    2008-10-01

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO(2) and/or O(3) on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO(2) increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O(3) also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO(2)+O(3)) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO(2) may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O(3) will likely have a negative impact.

  17. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Two Scleractinian Corals: Porites cylindrica (Dana, 1846 and Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Siang Hii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of elevated pCO2 on Porites cylindrica and Galaxea fascicularis. The corals responded differently under elevated pCO2. Zooxanthellae cell density, cell mitotic index, and photosynthesis rate of P. cylindrica decreased drastically under the elevated pCO2. At the end of the experiment, P. cylindrica suffered from a declining calcium carbonate precipitation rate. G. fascicularis increased its respiration rate and expelled 71% of its symbiotic zooxanthellae algae under elevated pCO2. Photosynthetic pigments in the remaining zooxanthellae algae increased from 1.85 to 11.5 times to sustain its photosynthetic outputs. At the end of the experiment, G. fascicularis managed to increase the rate of its calcium carbonate precipitation. Increase pCO2 in the atmosphere may affect species diversity of coral reefs.

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  19. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanchao Meng

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2] and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol(-1, and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5-9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs and transpiration rate (Tr decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax and light saturation points (LSP were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China.

  20. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-09-11

    Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p elevated 2.4% (p elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  1. Sequential Gaussian co-simulation of rate decline parameters of longwall gob gas ventholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Gob gas ventholes (GGVs) are used to control methane inflows into a longwall mining operation by capturing the gas within the overlying fractured strata before it enters the work environment. Using geostatistical co-simulation techniques, this paper maps the parameters of their rate decline behaviors across the study area, a longwall mine in the Northern Appalachian basin. Geostatistical gas-in-place (GIP) simulations were performed, using data from 64 exploration boreholes, and GIP data were mapped within the fractured zone of the study area. In addition, methane flowrates monitored from 10 GGVs were analyzed using decline curve analyses (DCA) techniques to determine parameters of decline rates. Surface elevation showed the most influence on methane production from GGVs and thus was used to investigate its relation with DCA parameters using correlation techniques on normal-scored data. Geostatistical analysis was pursued using sequential Gaussian co-simulation with surface elevation as the secondary variable and with DCA parameters as the primary variables. The primary DCA variables were effective percentage decline rate, rate at production start, rate at the beginning of forecast period, and production end duration. Co-simulation results were presented to visualize decline parameters at an area-wide scale. Wells located at lower elevations, i.e., at the bottom of valleys, tend to perform better in terms of their rate declines compared to those at higher elevations. These results were used to calculate drainage radii of GGVs using GIP realizations. The calculated drainage radii are close to ones predicted by pressure transient tests.

  2. Elevated Serum IgG4 Defines Specific Clinical Phenotype of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Feng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore the correlation of serum IgG4 (sIgG4 with clinical manifestations or therapeutic response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. Consecutive 136 RA patients were recruited and followed up at regular interval. SIgG4 was detected by immunonephelometry. Serial synovial tissue sections from 46 RA patients were stained immunohistochemically for IgG4. Results. Forty-six percent of 136 RA patients had elevated sIgG4. Patients with elevated sIgG4 had higher sIgG4/sIgG ratio, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies than those with normal sIgG4 (all P<0.05. Among 45 patients who received methotrexate and leflunomide therapy, 50% (9/18 of patients with elevated sIgG4 and 85% (23/27 of patients with normal sIgG4 reached therapeutic target (disease activity score of 28 joints < 3.2 at 6-month visit (χ2=6.508, P=0.011. IgG4-positive plasma cell count correlated positively with sIgG4, total synovitis score, and CD3-, CD20-, and CD38-positive cell counts (all P<0.05. Conclusions. Our results showed that elevated sIgG4 in RA is common and disproportional to total IgG and RA with elevated sIgG4 may be a specific clinical phenotype with higher disease activity, higher level of autoantibodies, and poor response to methotrexate and leflunomide therapy.

  3. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  4. Correlation of Admission Heart Rate With Angiographic and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Right Coronary Artery ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: HORIZONS-AMI (The Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidou, Ioanna; McAndrew, Thomas; Redfors, Björn; Embacher, Monica; Dizon, José M; Mehran, Roxana; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-07-19

    Bradycardia on presentation is frequently observed in patients with right coronary artery ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, but it is largely unknown whether it predicts poor angiographic or clinical outcomes in that patient population. We sought to determine the prognostic implications of admission heart rate (AHR) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and a right coronary artery culprit lesion. We analyzed 1460 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and a right coronary artery culprit lesion enrolled in the randomized HORIZONS-AMI (Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients presenting with high-grade atrioventricular block were excluded. Outcomes were examined according to AHR range (AHR 100 beats per minute). Angiographic analysis showed no significant association between AHR and lesion location or complexity. On multivariate analysis, admission bradycardia (AHR ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and a right coronary artery culprit lesion undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, admission bradycardia was not associated with increased mortality or major adverse cardiac events at 1 year. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00433966. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Early observed transient prostate-specific antigen elevations on a pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and fractionated MRI guided High Dose Rate brachytherapy boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K; Godette, Denise J; Stall, Bronwyn R; Coleman, C Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Ménard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter; Susil, Robert C; Citrin, Deborah E; Ning, Holly; Miller, Robert W; Ullman, Karen; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears

    2006-01-01

    To report early observation of transient PSA elevations on this pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Eleven patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk localized prostate cancer received MRI guided HDR brachytherapy (10.5 Gy each fraction) before and after a course of external beam radiotherapy (46 Gy). Two patients continued on hormones during follow-up and were censored for this analysis. Four patients discontinued hormone therapy after RT. Five patients did not receive hormones. PSA bounce is defined as a rise in PSA values with a subsequent fall below the nadir value or to below 20% of the maximum PSA level. Six previously published definitions of biochemical failure to distinguish true failure from were tested: definition 1, rise >0.2 ng/mL; definition 2, rise >0.4 ng/mL; definition 3, rise >35% of previous value; definition 4, ASTRO defined guidelines, definition 5 nadir + 2 ng/ml, and definition 6, nadir + 3 ng/ml. Median follow-up was 24 months (range 18–36 mo). During follow-up, the incidence of transient PSA elevation was: 55% for definition 1, 44% for definition 2, 55% for definition 3, 33% for definition 4, 11% for definition 5, and 11% for definition 6. We observed a substantial incidence of transient elevations in PSA following combined external beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Such elevations seem to be self-limited and should not trigger initiation of salvage therapies. No definition of failure was completely predictive

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui

    2015-03-01

    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  7. Inferred effects of cloud deposition on forest floor nutrient cycling and microbial properties along a short elevation gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, M.; Bradley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Higher cloud cover significantly decreases forest floor pH, decrease exchangeable cations, modifies mineral-N speciation and increases physiological stress within microbial communities. - Cloud water deposition often increases with elevation, and it is widely accepted that this cloud water increases acid loading to upland forest ecosystems. A study was undertaken in south-eastern Quebec to determine if a 250 m elevation gradient (i.e. 420-665 m), along a uniform sugar-maple stand on the slope of Mount Orford, corresponded to a pH gradient in the forest floor and to predictable changes in soil nutrient availability and microbial properties. Precipitation data from a nearby study, and a photographic survey, provided presumptive evidence that this elevation gradient corresponded to a strong gradient in cloud water deposition. Forest floor temperature did not differ significantly across elevations. Forest floor moisture content was significantly higher, whereas pH and exchangeable Ca and Mg were significantly lower, at the higher elevations. Average seasonal net nitrification rates, determined by long-term laboratory incubations, did not differ significantly across elevations, whereas average seasonal net ammonification rates were significantly higher at higher elevations. Basal respiration rates and microbial biomass did not differ significantly across elevations, but metabolic quotient was significantly higher at higher elevations indicating possible environmental stress on forest floor microbial communities due to cloud water deposition. Anaerobic N mineralisation rates were significantly higher at higher elevations suggesting that N-limited microbial communities frequently exposed to cloud cover can be important short-term sinks for atmospheric N, thereby contributing to increase the active-N fraction of forest floors. We conclude that, where no significant changes in vegetation or temperature occur, elevation gradients can still be used to understand the spatial

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improve growth, nitrogen uptake, and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat grown under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiancan; Song, Fengbin; Liu, Shengqun; Liu, Fulai

    2016-02-01

    Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on plant growth, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and partitioning was investigated in Triticum aestivum L. plants grown under elevated CO2 in a pot experiment. Wheat plants inoculated or not inoculated with the AM fungus were grown in two glasshouse cells with different CO2 concentrations (400 and 700 ppm) for 10 weeks. A (15)N isotope labeling technique was used to trace plant N uptake. Results showed that elevated CO2 increased AM fungal colonization. Under CO2 elevation, AM plants had higher C concentration and higher plant biomass than the non-AM plants. CO2 elevation did not affect C and N partitioning in plant organs, while AM symbiosis increased C and N allocation into the roots. In addition, plant C and N accumulation, (15)N recovery rate, and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly higher in AM plants than in non-AM controls under CO2 enrichment. It is concluded that AM symbiosis favors C and N partitioning in roots, increases C accumulation and N uptake, and leads to greater NUE in wheat plants grown at elevated CO2.

  9. The tensile behavior of GH3535 superalloy at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, F.F.; Zhou, B.M.; Huang, H.F.; Leng, B.; Lu, Y.L. [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Dong, J.S. [Superalloy Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Li, Z.J., E-mail: lizhijun@sinap.ac.cn [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhou, X.T. [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2016-10-01

    The tensile behavior of GH3535 alloy has been investigated at strain rates of 8.33 × 10{sup −5}/s{sup −1}–8.33 × 10{sup −3}/s{sup −1}, in the temperature range of 25–800 °C. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength was decreased with increasing temperature and increased with rising strain rate, whereas the yield strength kept almost a constant value at the temperature range from 550 to 800 °C in all strain rates test. The formation of M{sub 12}C carbides at the grain boundary during the tension process played an important role in increasing the yield strength of the alloy at elevated temperatures. But inhomogeneous deformation at 650 °C resulted in the minimum ductility of the alloy. Additionally, various types of serrations were noticed on the stress-strain curves for the alloy tested in the temperature range of 500–800 °C. Normal Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect and positive strain rate sensitivity were observed in this alloy. Type A and A + B serrations were presented to stress-strain curves at temperatures below 650 °C, whereas type C serration was noticed when the temperature rose above 650 °C. The analysis suggested that the interactions between substitutional solutes migration and mobile dislocations were the main reason for the serrated flow behavior in this alloy. - Highlights: • The tensile behavior of GH3535 alloy at elevated temperature was studied. • The yield strength anomaly was observed in the temperature range from 550 to 800 °C. • The formation of M{sub 12}C improves the grain boundary strength to a certain extent. • Inhomogeneous deformation at 650 °C results in the ductility loss of the alloy. • The interaction between solute atoms and dislocations results in the PLC effect.

  10. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  11. Severe Hyperthyroidism Presenting with Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute myocardial infarction is life-threatening. A cardiac troponin rise accompanied by typical symptoms, ST elevation or depression is diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction. Here, we report an unusual case of a female who was admitted with chest pain. However, she did not present with a typical profile of an acute myocardial infarction patient. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old Han nationality female presented with chest pain. The electrocardiogram (ECG revealed arched ST segment elevations and troponin was elevated. However, the coronary angiography showed a normal coronary arterial system. Thyroid function tests showed that this patient had severe hyperthyroidism. Conclusion. Our case highlights the possibility that hyperthyroidism may cause a large area of myocardium injury and ECG ST segment elevation. We suggest routine thyroid function testing in patients with chest pain.

  12. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness at Elevated Temperatures With Application to the New Generation of Titanium Aluminide Alloys. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan; Shukla, Arun (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new generation of titanium aluminide alloy, named Gamma-Met PX, has been developed with better rolling and post-rolling characteristics. I'revious work on this alloy has shown the material to have higher strengths at room and elevated temperatures when compared with other gamma titanium aluminides. In particular, this new alloy has shown increased ductility at elevated temperatures under both quasi-static and high strain rate uniaxial compressive loading. However, its high strain rate tensile ductility at room and elevated temperatures is limited to approx. 1%. In the present chapter, results of a study to investigate the effects of loading rate and test temperature on the dynamic fracture initiation toughness in Gamma-Met PX are presented. Modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used along with high-speed photography to determine the crack initiation time. Three-point bend dynamic fracture experiments were conducted at impact speeds of approx. 1 m/s and tests temperatures of up-to 1200 C. The results show that thc dynamic fracture initiation toughness decreases with increasing test temperatures beyond 600 C. Furthermore, thc effect of long time high temperature air exposure on the fracture toughness was investigated. The dynamic fracture initiation toughness was found to decrease with increasing exposure time. The reasons behind this drop are analyzed and discussed.

  13. Elevational diversity and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea community in meadow soils on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kang; Kong, Weidong; Khan, Ajmal; Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Guangxia; Muhanmmad, Said; Zhang, Xianzhou; Dong, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    Unraveling elevational diversity patterns of plants and animals has long been attracting scientific interests. However, whether soil microorganisms exhibit similar elevational patterns remains largely less explored, especially for functional microbial communities, such as ammonia oxidizers. Here, we investigated the diversity and distribution pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in meadow soils along an elevation gradient from 4400 m to the grassline at 5100 m on the Tibetan Plateau using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequencing methods by targeting amoA gene. Increasing elevations led to lower soil temperature and pH, but higher nutrients and water content. The results showed that AOA diversity and evenness monotonically increased with elevation, while richness was relatively stable. The increase of diversity and evenness was attributed to the growth inhibition of warm-adapted AOA phylotypes by lower temperature and the growth facilitation of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes by richer nutrients at higher elevations. Low temperature thus played an important role in the AOA growth and niche separation. The AOA community variation was explained by the combined effect of all soil properties (32.6%), and 8.1% of the total variation was individually explained by soil pH. The total AOA abundance decreased, whereas soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) increased with increasing elevations. Soil PNR positively correlated with the abundance of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes. Our findings suggest that low temperature plays an important role in AOA elevational diversity pattern and niche separation, rising the negative effects of warming on AOA diversity and soil nitrification process in the Tibetan region.

  14. Greater antioxidant and respiratory metabolism in field-grown soybean exposed to elevated O3 under both ambient and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Kelly M; Xu, Fangxiu; Richter, Katherine T; McGrath, Justin M; Markelz, R J Cody; Ort, Donald R; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant metabolism is responsive to environmental conditions, and is proposed to be a key component of ozone (O(3)) tolerance in plants. Tropospheric O(3) concentration ([O(3)]) has doubled since the Industrial Revolution and will increase further if precursor emissions rise as expected over this century. Additionally, atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) is increasing at an unprecedented rate and will surpass 550 ppm by 2050. This study investigated the molecular, biochemical and physiological changes in soybean exposed to elevated [O(3) ] in a background of ambient [CO(2)] and elevated [CO(2)] in the field. Previously, it has been difficult to demonstrate any link between antioxidant defences and O(3) stress under field conditions. However, this study used principle components analysis to separate variability in [O(3)] from variability in other environmental conditions (temperature, light and relative humidity). Subsequent analysis of covariance determined that soybean antioxidant metabolism increased with increasing [O(3)], in both ambient and elevated [CO(2)]. The transcriptional response was dampened at elevated [CO(2)], consistent with lower stomatal conductance and lower O(3) flux into leaves. Energetically expensive increases in antioxidant metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis at elevated [O(3)] were associated with greater transcript levels of enzymes involved in respiratory metabolism. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  16. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  17. Brassinosteroid signaling-dependent root responses to prolonged elevated ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sara; Montiel-Jorda, Alvaro; Cayrel, Anne; Huguet, Stéphanie; Roux, Christine Paysant-Le; Ljung, Karin; Vert, Grégory

    2017-08-21

    Due to their sessile nature, plants have to cope with and adjust to their fluctuating environment. Temperature elevation stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis aerial parts. This process is mediated by increased biosynthesis of the growth-promoting hormone auxin. How plant roots respond to elevated ambient temperature is however still elusive. Here we present strong evidence that temperature elevation impinges on brassinosteroid hormone signaling to alter root growth. We show that elevated temperature leads to increased root elongation, independently of auxin or factors known to drive temperature-mediated shoot growth. We further demonstrate that brassinosteroid signaling regulates root responses to elevated ambient temperature. Increased growth temperature specifically impacts on the level of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 to downregulate brassinosteroid signaling and mediate root elongation. Our results establish that BRI1 integrates temperature and brassinosteroid signaling to regulate root growth upon long-term changes in environmental conditions associated with global warming.Moderate heat stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis shoots in an auxin-dependent manner. Here, Martins et al. show that elevated ambient temperature modifies root growth by reducing the BRI1 brassinosteroid-receptor protein level and downregulating brassinosteroid signaling.

  18. Effects of emitter junction and passive base region on low dose rate effect in bipolar devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershenkov, V.S.; Cherepko, S.V.; Maslov, V.B.; Belyakov, V.V.; Sogoyan, A.V.; Ulimov, N.; Emelianov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Low dose rate effect in bipolar devices consists in the increase of peripheral surface recombination current with dose rate decrease. This is due to the more rapid positive oxide charge and interface trap density build-up as the dose rate becomes lower. High dose rate elevated temperature irradiation is proposed for simulation if the low dose rate effect. In the present we tried to separate the effect of radiation-induced charge in the thick passivation oxide over the emitter junction and passive base regions of npn bipolar transistor. Its goal is to improve bipolar device design for use in space environments and nuclear installations. Three experiments were made during this work. 1. Experiment on radiation-induced charge neutralization (RICN) effect under elevated temperature was performed to show transistor degradation dependence on emitter-base bias. 2. High dose rate elevated and room temperature irradiation of bipolar transistors were performed to separate effects of emitter-junction and passive base regions. 3. Pre- and post- irradiation hydrogen ambient storage was used to investigate its effect on radiation-induced charge build-up over the passive base region. All experiments were performed with npn and pnp transistors. (authors)

  19. Thermodynamics of a stochastic twin elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Van den Broeck, Christian; Esposito, Massimiliano; Lindenberg, Katja

    2011-11-01

    We study the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a single particle with two available energy levels, in contact with a classical (Maxwell-Boltzmann) or quantum (Bose-Einstein) heat bath. The particle can undergo transitions between the levels via thermal activation or deactivation. The energy levels are alternately raised at a given rate regardless of occupation by the particle, maintaining a fixed energy gap equal to ε between them. We explicitly calculate the work, heat, and entropy production rates. The efficiency in both the classical and the quantum case goes to a limit between 100 and 50% that depends on the relative rates of particle transitions and level elevation. In the classical problem we explicitly find the large deviation functions for heat, work, and internal energy.

  20. Elevated nitrogen allows the weak invasive plant Galinsoga quadriradiata to become more vigorous with respect to inter-specific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yang, Ying-Bo; Zhu, Zhi-Hong

    2018-02-16

    Elevated nitrogen associated with global change is believed to promote the invasion of many vigorous exotic plants. However, it is unclear how a weak exotic plant will respond to elevated nitrogen in the future. In this study, the competitive outcome of a weak invasive plant (Galinsoga quadriradiata) and two non-invasive plants was detected. The plants were subjected to 3 types of culture (mixed, monoculture or one-plant), 2 levels of nitrogen (ambient or elevated at a rate of 2 g m -2 yr -1 ) and 2 levels of light (65% shade or full sunlight). The results showed that elevated nitrogen significantly promoted the growth of both the weak invader and the non-invasive plants in one-plant pots; however, growth promotion was not observed for the non-invasive species in the mixed culture pots. The presence of G. quadriradiata significantly inhibited the growth of the non-invasive plants, and a decreased negative species interaction was detected as a result of elevated nitrogen. Our results suggest that competitive interactions between G. quadriradiata and the non-invasive plants were altered by elevated nitrogen. It provides exceptional evidence that an initially weak invasive plant can become an aggressive invader through elevated nitrogen deposition.

  1. Not So Giants: Mice Lacking Both Somatostatin and Cortistatin Have High GH Levels but Show No Changes in Growth Rate or IGF-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Arévalo, S; Córdoba-Chacón, J; Pozo-Salas, A I; L-López, F; de Lecea, L; Gahete, M D; Castaño, J P; Luque, R M

    2015-06-01

    Somatostatin (SST) and cortistatin (CORT) are two highly related neuropeptides involved in the regulation of various endocrine secretions. In particular, SST and CORT are two primary negative regulators of GH secretion. Consequently, single SST or CORT knockout mice exhibit elevated GH levels; however, this does not lead to increased IGF-1 levels or somatic growth. This apparent lack of correspondence has been suggested to result from compensatory mechanisms between both peptides. To test this hypothesis, in this study we explored, for the first time, the consequences of simultaneously deleting endogenous SST and CORT by generating a double SST/CORT knockout mouse model and exploring its endocrine and metabolic phenotype. Our results demonstrate that simultaneous deletion of SST and CORT induced a drastic elevation of endogenous GH levels, which, surprisingly, did not lead to changes in growth rate or IGF-1 levels, suggesting the existence of additional factors/systems that, in the absence of endogenous SST and CORT, could counteract GH actions. Notably, elevation in circulating GH levels were not accompanied by changes in pituitary GH expression or by alterations in the expression of its main regulators (GHRH and ghrelin) or their receptors (GHRH receptor, GHS receptor, or SST/CORT receptors) at the hypothalamic or pituitary level. However, although double-SST/CORT knockout male mice exhibited normal glucose and insulin levels, they had improved insulin sensitivity compared with the control mice. Therefore, these results suggest the existence of an intricate interplay among the known (SST/CORT), and likely unknown, inhibitory components of the GH/IGF-1 axis to regulate somatic growth and glucose/insulin homeostasis.

  2. Effect of elevated temperature on the compressive strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on results of tests, partial replacement of cement with 10 % PSMS is recommended for use in concrete production and resistance to elevated temperature. The studies show that at this replacement, the concrete compressive strength is not adversely affected when the elevated temperature reaches 500°C. Keywords: ...

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and its function under elevated atmospheric O3: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D

    2017-07-01

    We quantitatively evaluated the effects of elevated O 3 on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formation and on AM role in promoting plant growth in regard to several moderating variables (O 3 levels, O 3 exposure duration, plant types, AM fungi family, and additional stress) by means of meta-analysis of published data. The analysis consisted of 117 trials representing 20 peer-reviewed articles and 16 unpublished trials. Relative to non-mycorrhizal controls, AM inoculation did not significantly alter plant growth (shoot biomass, root biomass, total biomass and plant height) when O 3 concentration was less than 80 ppb, but at concentrations above 80 ppb symbiosis was associated with increases of 68% in shoot biomass and 131% in root biomass. AM effects on plant growth were affected by the duration of O 3 exposure but did not differ much with AM fungi taxa or plant type. AM symbiosis has also led to higher yields under O 3 stress, relative to the non-mycorrhizal plants, and the AM effects have been more pronounced as O 3 concentration increases. As with biomass, AM effects on yield have been affected by the duration of O 3 exposure, with the greatest increase (100%) occurring at 61-90 d. AM-induced promotion of yield differed with fungal species but not with plant type or other abiotic stress. Colonization of roots by AM fungi has been negatively affected by elevated O 3 compared to ambient O 3 ; total mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR), arbuscular MCR, vesicular MCR and hyphal coil MCR declined as O 3 levels rose. AM colonization rates were affected by duration of O 3 exposure, plant type, AM fungal taxa and other concurrent stresses in most cases. The analysis showed that AM inoculation has the potential to ameliorate detrimental effects of elevated O 3 on plant growth and productivity, despite colonization rates being negatively affected by elevated O 3 . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of prescribed burning on marsh-elevation change and the risk of wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Grace, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Marsh-elevation change is the net effect of biophysical processes controlling inputs versus losses of soil volume. In many marshes, accumulation of organic matter is an important contributor to soil volume and vertical land building. In this study, we examined how prescribed burning, a common marsh-management practice, may affect elevation dynamics in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge, Texas by altering organic-matter accumulation. Experimental plots were established in a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens, a grass found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic marshes. Experimental plots were subjected to burning and nutrient-addition treatments and monitored for 3.5 years (April 2005 – November 2008). Half of the plots were burned once in 2006; half of the plots were fertilized seasonally with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Before and after the burns, seasonal measurements were made of soil physicochemistry, vegetation structure, standing and fallen plant biomass, aboveground and belowground production, decomposition, and accretion and elevation change (measured with Surface Elevation Tables (SET)). Movements in different soil strata (surface, root zone, subroot zone) were evaluated to identify which processes were contributing to elevation change. Because several hurricanes occurred during the study period, we also assessed how these storms affected elevation change rates. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1. The main drivers of elevation change were accretion on the marsh surface and subsurface movement below the root zone, but the relative influence of these processes varied temporally. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike (September 2008), the main driver was subsurface movement; after the hurricane, both accretion and subsurface movement were important. 2. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike, rates of elevation gain and accretion above a marker horizon were higher in burned plots compared to nonburned plots, whereas

  5. Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jon D; Tognetti, Roberto; Paris, Piero

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of shifts in rainfall patterns as atmospheric [CO2] increases could impact the growth of fast growing trees such as Populus spp. and Salix spp. and the interaction between elevated CO2 and water stress in these species is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the responses to elevated CO2 and water stress in these two species, and to determine if elevated CO2 mitigated drought stress effects. Gas exchange, water potential components, whole plant transpiration and growth response to soil drying and recovery were assessed in hybrid poplar (clone 53-246) and willow (Salix sagitta) rooted cuttings growing in either ambient (350 &mgr;mol mol-1) or elevated (700 &mgr;mol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Predawn water potential decreased with increasing water stress while midday water potentials remained unchanged (isohydric response). Turgor potentials at both predawn and midday increased in elevated [CO2], indicative of osmotic adjustment. Gas exchange was reduced by water stress while elevated [CO2] increased photosynthetic rates, reduced leaf conductance and nearly doubled instantaneous transpiration efficiency in both species. Dark respiration decreased in elevated [CO2] and water stress reduced Rd in the trees growing in ambient [CO2]. Willow had 56% lower whole plant hydraulic conductivity than poplar, and showed a 14% increase in elevated [CO2] while poplar was unresponsive. The physiological responses exhibited by poplar and willow to elevated [CO2] and water stress, singly, suggest that these species respond like other tree species. The interaction of [CO2] and water stress suggests that elevated [CO2] did mitigate the effects of water stress in willow, but not in poplar.

  6. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  8. Elevated tropospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations impair organic pollutant removal from grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Fuxun; Eisenhauer, Nico; Jousset, Alexandre; Butenschoen, Olaf; Ji, Rong; Guo, Hongyan

    2018-04-03

    The concentrations of tropospheric CO 2 and O 3 have been rising due to human activities. These rising concentrations may have strong impacts on soil functions as changes in plant physiology may lead to altered plant-soil interactions. Here, the effects of eCO 2 and eO 3 on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants in grassland soil were studied. Both elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations decreased PAH removal with lowest removal rates at elevated CO 2 and elevated O 3 concentrations. This effect was linked to a shift in soil microbial community structure by structural equation modeling. Elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations reduced the abundance of gram-positive bacteria, which were tightly linked to soil enzyme production and PAH degradation. Although plant diversity did not buffer CO 2 and O 3 effects, certain soil microbial communities and functions were affected by plant communities, indicating the potential for longer-term phytoremediation approaches. Results of this study show that elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations may compromise the ability of soils to degrade organic pollutants. On the other hand, the present study also indicates that the targeted assembly of plant communities may be a promising tool to shape soil microbial communities for the degradation of organic pollutants in a changing world.

  9. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available The molecular bases of Alzheimer's disease (AD remain unclear. We used a lipidomic approach to identify lipid abnormalities in the brains of subjects with AD (N = 37 compared to age-matched controls (N = 17. The analyses revealed statistically detectable elevations in levels of non-esterified monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and mead acid (20:3n-9 in mid-frontal cortex, temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD patients. Further studies showed that brain mRNAs encoding for isoforms of the rate-limiting enzyme in MUFAs biosynthesis, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1, SCD-5a and SCD-5b, were elevated in subjects with AD. The monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ('desaturation index'--displayed a strong negative correlation with measures of cognition: the Mini Mental State Examination test (r = -0.80; P = 0.0001 and the Boston Naming test (r = -0.57; P = 0.0071. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for the lipogenic enzyme SCD in AD.

  10. Is guava phenolic metabolism influenced by elevated atmospheric CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Rezende, Fernanda; Pereira de Souza, Amanda; Silveira Buckeridge, Marcos; Maria Furlan, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato were distributed into four open-top chambers: two with ambient CO(2) (∼390 ppm) and two with elevated CO(2) (∼780 ppm). Monthly, five individuals of each chamber were collected, separated into root, stem and leaves and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Chemical parameters were analyzed to investigate how guava invests the surplus carbon. For all classes of phenolic compounds analyzed only tannins showed significant increase in plants at elevated CO(2) after 90 days. There was no significant difference in dry biomass, but the leaves showed high accumulation of starch under elevated CO(2). Results suggest that elevated CO(2) seems to be favorable to seedlings of P. guajava, due to accumulation of starch and tannins, the latter being an important anti-herbivore substance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High basal metabolic rate does not elevate oxidative stress during reproduction in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Książek, Aneta; Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested as a physiological cost of reproduction. However, previous studies reported ambiguous results, with some even showing a reduction of oxidative damage during reproduction. We tested whether the link between reproduction and OS is mediated by basal metabolic rate (BMR), which has been hypothesized to affect both the rate of radical oxygen species production and antioxidative capacity. We studied the effect of reproduction on OS in females of laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) BMR, previously shown to differ with respect to parental investment. Non-reproducing L-BMR females showed higher oxidative damage to lipids (quantified as the level of malondialdehyde in internal organ tissues) and DNA (quantified as the level of 8-oxodG in blood serum) than H-BMR females. Reproduction did not affect oxidative damage to lipids in either line; however, it reduced damage to DNA in L-BMR females. Reproduction increased catalase activity in liver (significantly stronger in L-BMR females) and decreased it in kidneys. We conclude that the effect of reproduction on OS depends on the initial variation in BMR and varies between studied internal organs and markers of OS.

  12. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate.

  13. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth and water usage of tomato seedlings under different ammonium/nitrate ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of agricultural C3 vegetable crops,and therefore results in an increase in crop yield.However,little is known about the combined effect of elevated CO2 and N species on plant growth and development.Two growth-chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effects of NH4+/NO3- ratio and elevated CO2 concentration on the physiological development and water use of tomato seedlings.Tomato was grown for 45 d in containers with nutrient solutions varying in NH4+/NO3- ratios and CO2 concentrations in growth chambers.Results showed that plant height,stem thickness,total dry weight,dry weight of the leaves,stems and roots,G value (total plant dry weight/seedling days),chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate,leaf-level and whole plant-level water use efficiency and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings were increased with increasing proportion of NO3- in nutrient solutions in the elevated CO2 treatment.Plant biomass,plant height,stem thickness and photosynthetic rate were 67%,22%,24% and 55% higher at elevated CO2 concentration than at ambient CO2 concentration,depending on the values of NH4+/NO3- ratio.These results indicated that elevating CO2 concentration did not mitigate the adverse effects of 100% NH4+-N (in nutrient solution) on the tomato seedlings.At both CO2 levels,NH4+/NO3- ratios of nutrient solutions strongly influenced almost every measure of plant performance,and nitrate-fed plants attained a greater biomass production,as compared to ammonium-fed plants.These phenomena seem to be related to the coordinated regulation of photosynthetic rate and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings.

  14. Anesthesia Preoperative Clinic Referral for Elevated Hba1c Reduces Complication Rate in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Peter J; Nolan, Jenea; Olsen, Amy C; Breakwell, Susan; Topp, Richard; Pagel, Paul S

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia preoperative clinic (APC) referral for elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduces complication rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Patients (n = 203) with and without DM were chosen from 1,237 patients undergoing TJA during 2006 - 12. Patients evaluated in the APC had surgery in 2006 - 8 regardless of HbA1c (uncontrolled). Those evaluated between in subsequent two-year intervals were referred to primary care for HbA1c ≥ 10% and ≥ 8%, respectively, to improve DM control before surgery. Complications and mortality were quantified postoperatively and at three, six, and twelve months. Length of stay (LOS) and patients requiring a prolonged LOS (> 5 days) were recorded. Patients (197 men, 6 women) underwent 71, 131, and 1 total hip, knee, and shoulder replacements, respectively. Patients undergoing TJA with uncontrolled HbA1c and those with HbA1c patients without DM. An increase in complication rate was observed in DM patients with uncontrolled HbA1c versus patients without DM (P patients with preoperative HbA1c that was uncontrolled or ≥ 10% required prolonged LOS versus those without DM (P diabetics undergoing TJA.

  15. Acetone photophysics at 282 nm excitation at elevated pressure and temperature. II: Fluorescence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; Raju, Mandhapati; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2017-07-01

    This is the second in a series of two papers that presents an updated fluorescence model and compares with the new experimental data reported in the first paper, as well as the available literature data, to extend the range of acetone photophysics to elevated pressure and temperature conditions. This work elucidates the complete acetone photophysical model in terms of each and every competing radiative and non-radiative rate. The acetone fluorescence model is then thoroughly examined and optimized based on disparity with recently conducted elevated pressure and temperature photophysical calibration experiments. The current work offers insight into the competition between non-radiative and vibrational energy decay rates at elevated temperature and pressure and proposes a global optimization of model parameters from the photophysical model developed by Thurber (Acetone Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Temperature and Multiparameter Imaging in Gaseous Flows. PhD thesis, Stanford University Mechanical Engineering Department, 1999). The collisional constants of proportionality, which govern vibrational relaxation, are shown to be temperature dependent at elevated pressures. A new oxygen quenching rate is proposed which takes into account collisions with oxygen as well as the oxygen-assisted intersystem crossing component. Additionally, global trends in ketone photophysics are presented and discussed.

  16. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  17. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  18. Is an elevated submaximal heart rate associated with psychomotor slowness in young elite soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Visscher, Chris; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Nederhof, E.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find early markers for overreaching that are applicable in sport practice. In a group of elite soccer players aged 1518, the stressrecovery balance and reaction times before and after exercise were assessed. Overreaching was indicated by an elevated submaximal

  19. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, annual ring structure and photosynthesis in Larix kaempferi seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazaki, K.; Ishida, S.; Kawagishi, T.; Fukatsu, E.; Funada, R.; Maruyama, Y.; Kitao, M.; Tobita, H.; Koike, T.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and two nutrient regimes on stem growth rate, annual ring structure and temporal variations in photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of Japanese larch were evaluated. When compared with ambient carbon dioxide, elevated carbon dioxide reduced stem height and increased stem basal diameter, but had no significant effect on ring width or the number of tracheids per radial file. No obvious difference was observed in cell wall thickness or the relative area of cell wall between seedlings grown in ambient or elevated carbon dioxide. Net assimilation rate increased in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide, however, the increase in whole-crown photosynthetic rate was minimal due to the smaller needle area and acclimation of the photosynthetic characteristics of the needles to the growth in carbon dioxide concentration. Conclusion: elevated carbon dioxide concentration did not appear to significantly affect the capacity of stems of Japanese larch seedlings for carbon fixation for use in cell wall synthesis, although there was evidence of change in the temporal pattern of stem growth and stem thickening. 52 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  20. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  1. Thermal barriers constrain microbial elevational range size via climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne

    2017-08-01

    Range size is invariably limited and understanding range size variation is an important objective in ecology. However, microbial range size across geographical gradients remains understudied, especially on mountainsides. Here, the patterns of range size of stream microbes (i.e., bacteria and diatoms) and macroorganisms (i.e., macroinvertebrates) along elevational gradients in Asia and Europe were examined. In bacteria, elevational range size showed non-significant phylogenetic signals. In all taxa, there was a positive relationship between niche breadth and species elevational range size, driven by local environmental and climatic variables. No taxa followed the elevational Rapoport's rule. Climate variability explained the most variation in microbial mean elevational range size, whereas local environmental variables were more important for macroinvertebrates. Seasonal and annual climate variation showed negative effects, while daily climate variation had positive effects on community mean elevational range size for all taxa. The negative correlation between range size and species richness suggests that understanding the drivers of range is key for revealing the processes underlying diversity. The results advance the understanding of microbial species thermal barriers by revealing the importance of seasonal and diurnal climate variation, and highlight that aquatic and terrestrial biota may differ in their response to short- and long-term climate variability. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Elevated temperature drives kelp microbiome dysbiosis, while elevated carbon dioxide induces water microbiome disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah J Minich

    Full Text Available Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors. In the water microbiome, each condition caused an increase in a distinct microbial order, whereas the kelp microbiome exhibited a reduction in the dominant kelp-associated order, Alteromondales. The water column microbiomes were most disrupted by elevated pCO2, with a 7.3 fold increase in Rhizobiales. The kelp microbiome was most influenced by elevated temperature and elevated temperature in combination with elevated pCO2. Kelp growth was negatively associated with elevated temperature, and the kelp microbiome showed a 5.3 fold increase Flavobacteriales and a 2.2 fold increase alginate degrading enzymes and sulfated polysaccharides. In contrast, kelp growth was positively associated with the combination of high temperature and high pCO2 'future conditions', with a 12.5 fold increase in Planctomycetales and 4.8 fold increase in Rhodobacteriales. Therefore, the water and kelp microbiomes acted as distinct communities, where the kelp was stabilizing the microbiome under changing pCO2 conditions, but lost control at high temperature. Under future conditions, a new equilibrium between the kelp and the microbiome was potentially reached, where the kelp grew rapidly and the commensal microbes responded to an increase in mucus production.

  3. Lack of photosynthetic or stomatal regulation after 9 years of elevated [CO2] and 4 years of soil warming in two conifer species at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Kathrin; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Hagedorn, Frank; Schaub, Marcus; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Alpine treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries. Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] and warming on CO2 and H2 O gas exchange may help predict responses of treelines to global change. We measured needle gas exchange of Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata DC trees after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (575 µmol mol(-1) ) and 4 years of soil warming (+4 °C) and analysed δ(13) C and δ(18) O values of needles and tree rings. Tree needles under elevated [CO2 ] showed neither nitrogen limitation nor end-product inhibition, and no down-regulation of maximal photosynthetic rate (Amax ) was found. Both tree species showed increased net photosynthetic rates (An ) under elevated [CO2 ] (L. decidua: +39%; P. mugo: +35%). Stomatal conductance (gH2O ) was insensitive to changes in [CO2 ], thus transpiration rates remained unchanged and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) increased due to higher An . Soil warming affected neither An nor gH2O . Unresponsiveness of gH2O to [CO2 ] and warming was confirmed by δ(18) O needle and tree ring values. Consequently, under sufficient water supply, elevated [CO2 ] induced sustained enhancement in An and lead to increased C inputs into this ecosystem, while soil warming hardly affected gas exchange of L. decidua and P. mugo at the alpine treeline. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. IN-VITRO PREDEGRADATION AT ELEVATED-TEMPERATURES OF POLY(LACTIDE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERGSMA, JE; ROZEMA, FR; BOS, RRM; BOERING, G; JOZIASSE, CAP; PENNINGS, AJ

    1995-01-01

    In this study in vitro predegradation at elevated temperatures, used to obtain an increased degradation rate, was investigated. The in vitro degradation was followed by mass loss, molecular weight loss and changes in thermal properties. Two biodegradable polymers, the homopolymer PLLA and a

  5. Is an elevated submaximal heart rate associated with psychomotor slowness in young elite soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; E. Nederhof; C. Visscher; S.L. Schmikli; Michel S. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to find early markers for overreaching that are applicable in sport practice. In a group of elite soccer players aged 15–18, the stress–recovery balance and reaction times before and after exercise were assessed. Overreaching was indicated by an elevated

  6. Response of lake chemistry to changes in atmospheric deposition and climate in three high-elevation wilderness areas of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in precipitation chemistry and hydrologic and climatic data were examined as drivers of long-term changes in the chemical composition of high-elevation lakes in three wilderness areas in Colorado during 1985-2008. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation decreased at a rate of -0.15 to -0.55 μeq/l/year at 10 high-elevation National Atmospheric Deposition Program stations in the state during 1987-2008 reflecting regional reductions in SO2 emissions. In lakes where sulfate is primarily derived from atmospheric inputs, sulfate concentrations also decreased although the rates generally were less, ranging from -0.12 to -0.27 μeq/l/year. The similarity in timing and sulfur isotopic data support the hypothesis that decreases in atmospheric deposition are driving the response of high-elevation lakes in some areas of the state. By contrast, in lakes where sulfate is derived primarily from watershed weathering sources, sulfate concentrations showed sharp increases during 1985-2008. Analysis of long-term climate records indicates that annual air temperatures have increased between 0.45 and 0.93°C per decade throughout most mountainous areas of Colorado, suggesting climate as a factor. Isotopic data reveal that sulfate in these lakes is largely derived from pyrite, which may indicate climate warming is preferentially affecting the rate of pyrite weathering.

  7. Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Justin M.; Karnosky, David F.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Early spring leaf out is important to the success of deciduous trees competing for light and space in dense forest plantation canopies. In this study, we investigated spring leaf flush and how long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]) and elevated ozone concentration ([O 3 ]) altered leaf area index development in a closed Populus tremuloides (aspen) canopy. This work was done at the Aspen FACE experiment where aspen clones have been grown since 1997 in conditions simulating the [CO 2 ] and [O 3 ] predicted for ∼2050. The responses of two clones were compared during the first month of spring leaf out when CO 2 fumigation had begun, but O 3 fumigation had not. Trees in elevated [CO 2 ] plots showed a stimulation of leaf area index (36%), while trees in elevated [O 3 ] plots had lower leaf area index (-20%). While individual leaf area was not significantly affected by elevated [CO 2 ], the photosynthetic operating efficiency of aspen leaves was significantly improved (51%). There were no significant differences in the way that the two aspen clones responded to elevated [CO 2 ]; however, the two clones responded differently to long-term growth at elevated [O 3 ]. The O 3 -sensitive clone, 42E, had reduced individual leaf area when grown at elevated [O 3 ] (-32%), while the tolerant clone, 216, had larger mature leaf area at elevated [O 3 ] (46%). These results indicate a clear difference between the two clones in their long-term response to elevated [O 3 ], which could affect competition between the clones, and result in altered genotypic composition in future atmospheric conditions. - Spring leaf flush is stimulated by elevated [CO 2 ] and suppressed by elevated [O 3 ] in aspen (Populus tremuloides).

  8. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumsey, J.M.; Duara, R.; Grady, C.; Rapoport, J.L.; Margolin, R.A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Cutler, N.R.

    1985-05-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions.

  9. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumsey, J.M.; Duara, R.; Grady, C.; Rapoport, J.L.; Margolin, R.A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Cutler, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions

  10. Does elevated CO2 ameliorate the impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Craigon, Jim; Black, Colin R.; Colls, Jeremy J.; Landon, Geoff

    2001-04-01

    This study examined the impact of season-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3), individually and in combination, on leaf chlorophyll content and gas exchange characteristics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje). Plants grown in open-top chambers were exposed to three CO2 (ambient, 550 and 680 µmol mol-1) and two O3 treatments (ambient and elevated; 25 and 65 nmol mol-1, 8 h day-1 means, respectively) between crop emergence and maturity; plants were also grown in unchambered field plots. Non-destructive measurements of chlorophyll content and visible foliar injury were made for all treatments at 2-week intervals between 43 and 95 days after emergence. Gas exchange measurements were made for all except the intermediate 550 µmol mol-1 CO2 treatment. Season-long exposure to elevated O3 under ambient CO2 reduced chlorophyll content and induced extensive visible foliar damage, but had little effect on net assimilation rate or stomatal conductance. Elevated CO2 had no significant effect on chlorophyll content, but greatly reduced the damaging impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and visible foliar damage. Light-saturated assimilation rates for leaves grown under elevated CO2 were consistently lower when measured under either elevated or ambient CO2 than in equivalent leaves grown under ambient CO2. Analysis of CO2 response curves revealed that CO2-saturated assimilation rate, maximum rates of carboxylation and electron transport and respiration decreased with time. CO2-saturated assimilation rate was reduced by elevated O3 during the early stages of the season, while respiration was significantly greater under elevated CO2 as the crop approached maturity. The physiological origins of these responses and their implications for the performance of potato in a changing climate are discussed.

  11. Global patterns of protection of elevational gradients in mountain ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Monahan, William B; Merenlender, Adina M

    2018-05-21

    Protected areas (PAs) that span elevational gradients enhance protection for taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. We quantified the global protection of elevational gradients by analyzing the elevational distributions of 44,155 PAs in 1,010 mountain ranges using the highest resolution digital elevation models available. We show that, on average, mountain ranges in Africa and Asia have the lowest elevational protection, ranges in Europe and South America have intermediate elevational protection, and ranges in North America and Oceania have the highest elevational protection. We use the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target 11 to assess the proportion of elevational gradients meeting the 17% suggested minimum target and examine how different protection categories contribute to elevational protection. When considering only strict PAs [International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories I-IV, n = 24,706], nearly 40% of ranges do not contain any PAs, roughly half fail to meet the 17% target at any elevation, and ∼75% fail to meet the target throughout ≥50% of the elevational gradient. Observed elevational protection is well below optimal, and frequently below a null model of elevational protection. Including less stringent PAs (IUCN categories V-VI and nondesignated PAs, n = 19,449) significantly enhances elevational protection for most continents, but several highly biodiverse ranges require new or expanded PAs to increase elevational protection. Ensuring conservation outcomes for PAs with lower IUCN designations as well as strategically placing PAs to better represent and connect elevational gradients will enhance ecological representation and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Elevated stress hormone diminishes the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A Gabriell; Leary, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Mate selection can be stressful; time spent searching for mates can increase predation risk and/or decrease food consumption, resulting in elevated stress hormone levels. Both high predation risk and low food availability are often associated with increased variation in mate choice by females, but it is not clear whether stress hormone levels contribute to such variation in female behavior. We examined how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea. Specifically, we assessed whether CORT administration affects female preferences for call rate - an acoustic feature that is typically under directional selection via mate choice by females in most anurans and other species that communicate using acoustic signals. Using a dual speaker playback paradigm, we show that females that were administered higher doses of CORT were less likely to choose male advertisement calls broadcast at high rates. Neither CORT dose nor level was related to the latency of female phonotactic responses, suggesting that elevated CORT does not influence the motivation to mate. Results were also not related to circulating sex steroids (i.e., progesterone, androgens or estradiol) that have traditionally been the focus of studies examining the hormonal basis for variation in female mate choice. Our results thus indicate that elevated CORT levels decrease the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevators or stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  14. Competitive interactions between native and invasive exotic plant species are altered under elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2011-03-01

    We hypothesized that the greater competitive ability of invasive exotic plants relative to native plants would increase under elevated CO(2) because they typically have traits that confer the ability for fast growth when resources are not limiting and thus are likely to be more responsive to elevated CO(2). A series of competition experiments under ambient and elevated CO(2) glasshouse conditions were conducted to determine an index of relative competition intensity for 14 native-invasive exotic species-pairs. Traits including specific leaf area, leaf mass ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and root weight ratio were measured. Competitive rankings within species-pairs were not affected by CO(2) concentration: invasive exotic species were more competitive in 9 of the 14 species-pairs and native species were more competitive in the remaining 5 species-pairs, regardless of CO(2) concentration. However, there was a significant interaction between plant type and CO(2) treatment due to reduced competitive response of native species under elevated compared with ambient CO(2) conditions. Native species had significantly lower specific leaf area and leaf area ratio under elevated compared with ambient CO(2). We also compared traits of more-competitive with less-competitive species, regardless of plant type, under both CO(2) treatments. More-competitive species had smaller leaf weight ratio and leaf area ratio, and larger relative growth rate and net assimilation rate under both ambient and elevated CO(2) conditions. These results suggest that growth and allocation traits can be useful predictors of the outcome of competitive interactions under both ambient and elevated CO(2) conditions. Under predicted future atmospheric CO(2) conditions, competitive rankings among species may not change substantially, but the relative success of invasive exotic species may be increased. Thus, under future atmospheric CO(2) conditions, the ecological and

  15. Snowmelt response to simulated warming across a large elevation gradient, southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Musselman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a warmer climate, the fraction of annual meltwater produced at high melt rates in mountainous areas is projected to decline due to a contraction of the snow-cover season, causing melt to occur earlier and under lower energy conditions. How snowmelt rates, including extreme events relevant to flood risk, may respond to a range of warming over a mountain front is poorly known. We present a model sensitivity study of snowmelt response to warming across a 3600 m elevation gradient in the southern Sierra Nevada, USA. A snow model was run for three distinct years and verified against extensive ground observations. To simulate the impact of climate warming on meltwater production, measured meteorological conditions were modified by +1 to +6 °C. The total annual snow water volume exhibited linear reductions (−10 % °C−1 consistent with previous studies. However, the sensitivity of snowmelt rates to successive degrees of warming varied nonlinearly with elevation. Middle elevations and years with more snowfall were prone to the largest reductions in snowmelt rates, with lesser changes simulated at higher elevations. Importantly, simulated warming causes extreme daily snowmelt (99th percentiles to increase in spatial extent and intensity, and shift from spring to winter. The results offer insight into the sensitivity of mountain snow water resources and how the rate and timing of water availability may change in a warmer climate. The identification of future climate conditions that may increase extreme melt events is needed to address the climate resilience of regional flood control systems.

  16. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  17. Comparison of a pneumatic conveyor and bucket elevator on an energy and economic basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, T.M.; Southwell, P.H. (Agricultural and Energy Engineering Ltd., Moorefield, ON (Canada)); Vigneault, C. (Agricultural Canada Research Station, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, PQ (Canada))

    1991-07-01

    Tests were performed at a commercial feed mill which was replacing an existing pneumatic conveyor with a bucket elevator, in order to compare the performance of the two types of conveyor on an energy and cost basis. The conveyors were used to transport ground corn from a hammermill at an average grinding rate of 8.5 tonnes/h. At the same conveying rate of ground product, the pneumatic conveyor required a power of 27.5 kW and an energy of 4.77 kWh/tonne while the bucket elevator required a power of 4.7 kW and an energy of 0.88 kWh/tonne. The financial costs of conveying energy were $8,350/y for the pneumatic system and $1,540/y for the bucket elevator, excluding peak demand charges for electricity. The tests therefore demonstrated that a bucket elevator is far more efficient than a pneumatic conveyor and should be considered in the design of new feed mills. For existing mills, a bucket elevator should be considered if there are problems with the pneumatic system already in place or if the capacity of the mill needs to be increased. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. The relationship between gross and net erosion of beryllium at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.P.; Jepu, I.; Nishijima, D.; Safi, E.; Bukonte, L.; Lasa, A.; Nordlund, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Surface temperature is a critical variable governing plasma–material interactions. PISCES-B injects controllable amounts of Be impurities into the plasma to balance, or exceed, the erosion rate of beryllium from samples in un-seeded plasma exposures. At low temperature, an order of magnitude more beryllium, than the beryllium mass loss measured in un-seeded discharges, needs to be seeded into the plasma to achieve no mass loss from a sample. At elevated temperature, no mass loss is achieved when the beryllium-seeding rate equals the mass loss rate in un-seeded discharges. Molecular dynamics simulations show that below 500 K, Be adatoms have difficulty surmounting the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier at the edge of a terrace. Above this temperature, an Arrhenius behavior is observed with an activation energy of 0.32 eV. Qualitatively, this indicates that at low surface temperature the deposited atoms may be more easily re-eroded, accounting for the increased seeding needed to balance the erosion

  19. Termini of human chromosomes display elevated rates of mitotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornforth, M N; Eberle, R L

    2001-01-01

    The strand-specific in situ hybridization technique of CO-FISH was used to probe telomeres of human mitotic cells in order to determine the spontaneous frequency of crossover. This approach allowed the detection of recombinational crossovers occurring anywhere along the length of individual chromosomes, including reciprocal events taking place between sister chromatids. Although the process of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is the most prominent type of recombination in somatic mammalian cells, our results show that SCEs accounted for less than a third of the recombinational events revealed by CO-FISH. It is concluded that chromosomal regions near the termini of chromosome arms undergo extraordinarily high rates of spontaneous recombination, producing terminal crossovers whose small size precludes detection by standard cytogenetic methods. That similar results were observed for transformed epithelial cells, as well as primary fibroblasts, suggests that the phenomenon is a common characteristic of human cells. These findings are noteworthy because, although telomeric and subtelomeric DNA is known to be preferentially involved in certain types of recombination, the tips of somatic mammalian chromosomes have not previously been identified as preferred sites for crossover. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of limitations imposed on CO-FISH for its proposed use in directional hybridization mapping.

  20. Soil respiration in northern forests exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregitzer, Kurt; Loya, Wendy; Kubiske, Mark; Zak, Donald

    2006-06-01

    The aspen free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment (FACTS II-FACE) study in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA, is designed to understand the mechanisms by which young northern deciduous forest ecosystems respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) in a replicated, factorial, field experiment. Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon (C) in these ecosystems, and the objective of this study was to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments as these fast-growing stands of pure aspen and birch + aspen approached maximum leaf area. Rates of soil respiration were typically lowest in the elevated O3 treatment. Elevated CO2 significantly stimulated soil respiration (8-26%) compared to the control treatment in both community types over all three growing seasons. In years 6-7 of the experiment, the greatest rates of soil respiration occurred in the interaction treatment (CO2 + O3), and rates of soil respiration were 15-25% greater in this treatment than in the elevated CO2 treatment, depending on year and community type. Two of the treatments, elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + O3, were fumigated with 13C-depleted CO2, and in these two treatments we used standard isotope mixing models to understand the proportions of new and old C in soil respiration. During the peak of the growing season, C fixed since the initiation of the experiment in 1998 (new C) accounted for 60-80% of total soil respiration. The isotope measurements independently confirmed that more new C was respired from the interaction treatment compared to the elevated CO2 treatment. A period of low soil moisture late in the 2003 growing season resulted in soil respiration with an isotopic signature 4-6 per thousand enriched in 13C compared to sample dates when the percentage soil moisture was higher. In 2004, an extended period of low soil moisture during August and early September, punctuated by a significant rainfall event, resulted in soil

  1. ST Elevations and Elevated Cardiac Enzymes Not Always a STEMI: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, Juan; Deliz-Guzmán, Claudia; Andino-Colón, César; Claudio-Hernández, Héctor; Lugo-Amador, Nannette

    2016-01-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department (ED). Besides a careful history and physical exam; electrocardiogram, laboratory tests and imaging studies are widely available diagnostic tests that are used for patient assessment. When ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes are present the most likely diagnosis are ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or myocarditis. In this case report we present two low risk patients for major adverse cardiac event with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes and how a careful risk assessment and detailed electrocardiogram evaluation could help differentiating between these two diagnoses.

  2. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  3. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  4. Maintenance of C sinks sustains enhanced C assimilation during long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] in Mojave Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Ebbets, Allison L; Evans, R Dave; Tissue, David T; Nogués, Salvador; van Gestel, Natasja; Payton, Paxton; Ebbert, Volker; Adams, Williams W; Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D

    2011-10-01

    During the first few years of elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility, photosynthetic downregulation was observed in desert shrubs grown under elevated [CO(2)], especially under relatively wet environmental conditions. Nonetheless, those plants maintained increased A (sat) (photosynthetic performance at saturating light and treatment [CO(2)]) under wet conditions, but to a much lesser extent under dry conditions. To determine if plants continued to downregulate during long-term exposure to elevated [CO(2)], responses of photosynthesis to elevated [CO(2)] were examined in two dominant Mojave Desert shrubs, the evergreen Larrea tridentata and the drought-deciduous Ambrosia dumosa, during the eighth full growing season of elevated [CO(2)] treatment at the NDFF. A comprehensive suite of physiological processes were collected. Furthermore, we used C labeling of air to assess carbon allocation and partitioning as measures of C sink activity. Results show that elevated [CO(2)] enhanced photosynthetic performance and plant water status in Larrea, especially during periods of environmental stress, but not in Ambrosia. δ(13)C analyses indicate that Larrea under elevated [CO(2)] allocated a greater proportion of newly assimilated C to C sinks than Ambrosia. Maintenance by Larrea of C sinks during the dry season partially explained the reduced [CO(2)] effect on leaf carbohydrate content during summer, which in turn lessened carbohydrate build-up and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. δ(13)C results also showed that in a year when plant growth reached the highest rates in 5 years, 4% (Larrea) and 7% (Ambrosia) of C in newly emerging organs were remobilized from C that was assimilated and stored for at least 2 years prior to the current study. Thus, after 8 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO(2)], both desert perennials maintained their photosynthetic capacities under elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that C storage, remobilization

  5. Association of elevated blood pressure with low distress and good quality of life: results from the nationwide representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, Angela; Meyer, Thomas; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Quality of life is often impaired in patients with known hypertension, but it is less or not at all reduced in people unaware of their elevated blood pressure. Some studies have even shown less self-rated distress in adults with elevated blood pressure. In this substudy of the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS), we addressed the question whether, also in adolescents, hypertensive blood pressure is linked to levels of distress and quality of life. Study participants aged 11 to 17 years (N = 7688) received standardized measurements of blood pressure, quality of life (using the Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire), and distress (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Elevated blood pressure was twice as frequent as expected, with 10.7% (n = 825) above published age-, sex- and height-adjusted 95th percentiles. Hypertensive participants were more likely to be obese and to report on adverse health behaviors, but they showed better academic success than did normotensive participants. Elevated blood pressure was significantly and positively associated with higher self- and parent-rated quality of life (for both, p ≤ .006), less hyperactivity (for both, p parent-rated emotional (p pressure to better well-being and low distress can partly be explained by the absence of confounding physical comorbidity and the unawareness of being hypertensive. It also corresponds to earlier research suggesting a bidirectional relationship with repressed emotions leading to elevated blood pressure and, furthermore, elevated blood pressure serving as a potential stress buffer.

  6. Elevational distribution and extinction risk in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L White

    Full Text Available Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures - notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species' current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data.

  7. Characterization of women with elevated antimüllerian hormone levels (AMH): correlation of AMH with polycystic ovarian syndrome phenotypes and assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Khanimov, Moisey; Malter, Henry E; Grazi, Richard V; Leader, Ben

    2014-07-01

    Serum Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are elevated in polycystic ovarian syndrome and have been shown to be useful in its diagnosis. However, the clinical significance of extremely high AMH levels is understudied. We aimed to characterize a population of women with elevated AMH (>5 ng/mL). This was a retrospective cohort study of 134 women presenting to our fertility clinic for infertility evaluation and treatment who were found to have random serum AMH over 5 ng/mL. Women were divided into 3 groups according to AMH: 5-10 ng/mL, >10-14 ng/mL, and >14 ng/mL. Endocrine characteristics, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes, fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates were compared between groups. AMH ranged between 5 to 48 ng/mL. Greater than 97% of women with ultrahigh AMH (>10 ng/mL) had PCOS. In addition, women with AMH >10 ng/mL had greater prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology and oligoamenorrhea than women with AMH 5-10 ng/mL. Moreover, serum AMH correlated positively with luteinizing hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Furthermore, AMH showed strong predictive ability for the presence of amenorrhea (area under the curve, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.92; P 10 ng/mL showed higher rates of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and clinical pregnancy rates compared with women with AMH 5-10 ng/mL. These data characterize a population of women with elevated AMH levels, demonstrating that the vast majority of women with AMH >10 ng/mL have PCOS. Increased AMH levels correlated with PCOS severity and are associated with greater ovarian stimulation and higher clinical pregnancy rates following assisted reproductive technology. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations for four growing seasons' exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU YuMei; HAN ShiJie; ZHANG HaiSen; XIN LiHua; ZHENG JunQiang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous species-Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis were exposed to 700,500μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2(approx.350 μmol·mol-1)for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was measurd during the second, third and fourth growing seasons' exposure to elevated CO2.The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. Koraiensis was stimulated and that of P. Sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend between the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. Sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. However, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. Koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. Koraiensis and P. Sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  9. Risk Factors for Elevated Preoperative Alkaline Phosphatase in Patients with Refractory Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Linping; Sun, Xiaoliang; Ji, Haoyang; Lu, Yao

    2017-12-01

    Elevated preoperative levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism are correlated with postoperative hypocalcemia and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of preoperative ALP in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. From April 2012 to December 2015, 220 patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing total parathyroidectomy without autotransplantation were reviewed. A total of 164 patients presented with elevated preoperative ALP. Univariate analysis showed that patients with elevated ALP were significantly younger. The elevated ALP group had significantly higher levels of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH), lower preoperative serum calcium, higher preoperative phosphorus, lower postoperative hypocalcemia, and a longer hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated preoperative PTH was a significant independent risk factor for elevated preoperative ALP (P = 0.000), and its value of 1624 pg/mL was the optimal cutoff point. Factors predictive of elevated preoperative ALP in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism include preoperative PTH. Earlier surgery, aggressive calcium supplementation, and more careful or aggressive postoperative care for high-risk patients are needed.

  10. Response of archaeal communities in the rhizosphere of maize and soybean to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaea are important to the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but it remains uncertain how rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO(2] will influence the structure and function of soil archaeal communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured abundances of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA and amoA genes, phylogenies of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes, concentrations of KCl-extractable soil ammonium and nitrite, and potential ammonia oxidation rates in rhizosphere soil samples from maize and soybean exposed to ambient (∼385 ppm and elevated (550 ppm [CO(2] in a replicated and field-based study. There was no influence of elevated [CO(2] on copy numbers of archaeal or bacterial 16S rRNA or amoA genes, archaeal community composition, KCl-extractable soil ammonium or nitrite, or potential ammonia oxidation rates for samples from maize, a model C(4 plant. Phylogenetic evidence indicated decreased relative abundance of crenarchaeal sequences in the rhizosphere of soybean, a model leguminous-C(3 plant, at elevated [CO(2], whereas quantitative PCR data indicated no changes in the absolute abundance of archaea. There were no changes in potential ammonia oxidation rates at elevated [CO(2] for soybean. Ammonia oxidation rates were lower in the rhizosphere of maize than soybean, likely because of lower soil pH and/or abundance of archaea. KCl-extractable ammonium and nitrite concentrations were lower at elevated than ambient [CO(2] for soybean. CONCLUSION: Plant-driven shifts in soil biogeochemical processes in response to elevated [CO(2] affected archaeal community composition, but not copy numbers of archaeal genes, in the rhizosphere of soybean. The lack of a treatment effect for maize is consistent with the fact that the photosynthesis and productivity of maize are not stimulated by elevated [CO(2] in the absence of drought.

  11. Creep of Posidonia Shale at Elevated Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacki, E.; Herrmann, J.; Wirth, R.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    The economic production of gas and oil from shales requires repeated hydraulic fracturing operations to stimulate these tight reservoir rocks. Besides simple depletion, the often observed decay of production rate with time may arise from creep-induced fracture closure. We examined experimentally the creep behavior of an immature carbonate-rich Posidonia shale, subjected to constant stress conditions at temperatures between 50 and 200 °C and confining pressures of 50-200 MPa, simulating elevated in situ depth conditions. Samples showed transient creep in the semibrittle regime with high deformation rates at high differential stress, high temperature and low confinement. Strain was mainly accommodated by deformation of the weak organic matter and phyllosilicates and by pore space reduction. The primary decelerating creep phase observed at relatively low stress can be described by an empirical power law relation between strain and time, where the fitted parameters vary with temperature, pressure and stress. Our results suggest that healing of hydraulic fractures at low stresses by creep-induced proppant embedment is unlikely within a creep period of several years. At higher differential stress, as may be expected in situ at contact areas due to stress concentrations, the shale showed secondary creep, followed by tertiary creep until failure. In this regime, microcrack propagation and coalescence may be assisted by stress corrosion. Secondary creep rates were also described by a power law, predicting faster fracture closure rates than for primary creep, likely contributing to production rate decline. Comparison of our data with published primary creep data on other shales suggests that the long-term creep behavior of shales can be correlated with their brittleness estimated from composition. Low creep strain is supported by a high fraction of strong minerals that can build up a load-bearing framework.

  12. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is realized without getting exact numbers of each calling floor's waiting passengers. Specifically, energy-saving oriented multi-objective scheduling price is proposed, RO uncertain peak scheduling model is built to minimize the price. Because RO uncertain model could not be solved directly, RO uncertain model is transformed to RO certain model by elevator scheduling robust counterparts. Because solution space of elevator scheduling is enormous, to solve RO certain model in short time, ant colony solving algorithm for elevator scheduling is proposed. Based on the algorithm, optimal scheduling solutions are found quickly, and group elevators are scheduled according to the solutions. Simulation results show the method could improve scheduling performances effectively in peak pattern. Group elevators' efficient operation is realized by the RO scheduling method.

  13. The effects of prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on the growth, yield and dry matter partitioning of field-sown meadow fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Hakala

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Field-sown meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis, cv. Kalevi stands were exposed to elevated temperatures (+3°C and elevated CO2, (700 ppm levels in two experiments conducted in 1992-1993 (experiment 1 and in 1994-1995 (experiment 2. Total aboveground yield was, on average, 38% higher at elevated than at ambient temperatures. At ambient temperatures elevated CO2 increased the number of tillers by 63% in 1992, 24% in 1993, 90% in 1994 and 14% in 1995. At elevated temperatures, the increase in tiller number in elevated CO2 was seen only in the first growing seasons after sowing. The total yield in a growing season was about 10% higher in elevated CO2 in experiment 1. In experiment 2 the yield was more than 20% higher in elevated CO2 at elevated temperatures, whereas at ambient temperatures the rise in CO2 level had no effect on the yield; the root biomass, however, increased by more than 30%. In elevated CO2 at ambient temperatures the root biomass also increased in experiment I, but at elevated temperatures there was no consistent change. The soluble carbohydrate content of above-ground biomass was 5-48% higher in elevated CO2 at most of the measuring times during the growing season, but the nitrogen content did not show a clear decrease. The reasons for the lack of a marked increase in biomass in elevated CO2 despite a 40-60% increase in photosynthesis are discussed.

  14. High rate of adaptation of mammalian proteins that interact with Plasmodium and related parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Natalie; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, along with their Piroplasm relatives, have caused malaria-like illnesses in terrestrial mammals for millions of years. Several Plasmodium-protective alleles have recently evolved in human populations, but little is known about host adaptation to blood parasites over deeper evolutionary timescales. In this work, we analyze mammalian adaptation in ~500 Plasmodium- or Piroplasm- interacting proteins (PPIPs) manually curated from the scientific literature. We show that (i) PPIPs are enriched for both immune functions and pleiotropy with other pathogens, and (ii) the rate of adaptation across mammals is significantly elevated in PPIPs, compared to carefully matched control proteins. PPIPs with high pathogen pleiotropy show the strongest signatures of adaptation, but this pattern is fully explained by their immune enrichment. Several pieces of evidence suggest that blood parasites specifically have imposed selection on PPIPs. First, even non-immune PPIPs that lack interactions with other pathogens have adapted at twice the rate of matched controls. Second, PPIP adaptation is linked to high expression in the liver, a critical organ in the parasite life cycle. Finally, our detailed investigation of alpha-spectrin, a major red blood cell membrane protein, shows that domains with particularly high rates of adaptation are those known to interact specifically with P. falciparum. Overall, we show that host proteins that interact with Plasmodium and Piroplasm parasites have experienced elevated rates of adaptation across mammals, and provide evidence that some of this adaptation has likely been driven by blood parasites. PMID:28957326

  15. A new approach to estimate ice dynamic rates using satellite observations in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kallenberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance changes of the Antarctic ice sheet are of significant interest due to its sensitivity to climatic changes and its contribution to changes in global sea level. While regional climate models successfully estimate mass input due to snowfall, it remains difficult to estimate the amount of mass loss due to ice dynamic processes. It has often been assumed that changes in ice dynamic rates only need to be considered when assessing long-term ice sheet mass balance; however, 2 decades of satellite altimetry observations reveal that the Antarctic ice sheet changes unexpectedly and much more dynamically than previously expected. Despite available estimates on ice dynamic rates obtained from radar altimetry, information about ice sheet changes due to changes in the ice dynamics are still limited, especially in East Antarctica. Without understanding ice dynamic rates, it is not possible to properly assess changes in ice sheet mass balance and surface elevation or to develop ice sheet models. In this study we investigate the possibility of estimating ice sheet changes due to ice dynamic rates by removing modelled rates of surface mass balance, firn compaction, and bedrock uplift from satellite altimetry and gravity observations. With similar rates of ice discharge acquired from two different satellite missions we show that it is possible to obtain an approximation of the rate of change due to ice dynamics by combining altimetry and gravity observations. Thus, surface elevation changes due to surface mass balance, firn compaction, and ice dynamic rates can be modelled and correlated with observed elevation changes from satellite altimetry.

  16. Association of elevated serum cardiac troponin-I level and complications in acute heart failurecases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Akhter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute heart failure is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Available published data has suggested that patients of acute heart failure with elevated level of serum cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I have more adverse outcomes than that of acute heart failure with normal cTn-I level. Elevated level of serum cTn-I is a potential risk factor for acute heart failure. This study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College and National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD during the period from January 2010 to December 2010. In this study, 100 patients with acute heart failure were enrolled. Out of 100 cases, 50 had elevated serum cTn-I (cTn-I ³ 1.0 ng/ml and 50 had normal serum cTn-I (cTn-I < 1.0 ng/ml. The adverse outcome of the two groups were recorded and compared. Patients with high and normal serum cTn-I had mean age of 52.40 ± 8.10 years and 54.64 ± 7.26 years respectively while male and female cases were equally distributed. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (lower ejection fraction was significantly (p<0.05 higher among cases with elevated cTn-I level compared to those with normal level. The rate of renal failure (raised serum creatinine, impaired liver functions (raised ALT and AST and abnormal serum electrolytes were significantly higher among the patients with elevated cTn-I compared to those with normal level. The study showed that elevated serum cTn-I level was a good biomarker to indicate adverse complications in acute heart failure cases. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(2: 32-34

  17. A Small Decrease in Rubisco Content by Individual Suppression of RBCS Genes Leads to Improvement of Photosynthesis and Greater Biomass Production in Rice Under Conditions of Elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2017-03-01

    Rubisco limits photosynthesis at low CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), but does not limit it at elevated [CO2]. This means that the amount of Rubisco is excessive for photosynthesis at elevated [CO2]. Therefore, we examined whether a small decrease in Rubisco content by individual suppression of the RBCS multigene family leads to increases in photosynthesis and biomass production at elevated [CO2] in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previous studies indicated that the individual suppression of RBCS decreased Rubisco content in rice by 10-25%. Three lines of BC2F2 progeny were selected from transgenic plants with individual suppression of OsRBCS2, 3 and 5. Rubisco content in the selected lines was 71-90% that of wild-type plants. These three transgenic lines showed lower rates of CO2 assimilation at low [CO2] (28 Pa) but higher rates of CO2 assimilation at elevated [CO2] (120 Pa). Similarly, the biomass production and relative growth rate (RGR) of the two lines were also smaller at low [CO2] but greater than that of wild-type plants at elevated [CO2]. This greater RGR was caused by the higher net assimilation rate (NAR). When the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for the NAR was estimated by dividing the NAR by whole-plant leaf N content, the NUE for NAR at elevated [CO2] was higher in these two lines. Thus, a small decrease in Rubisco content leads to improvements of photosynthesis and greater biomass production in rice under conditions of elevated CO2. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Greenland Ice Sheet: High-Elevation Balance and Peripheral Thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabill; Abdalati; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    2000-07-21

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over northern Greenland in 1994 and 1999 have been coupled with previously reported data from southern Greenland to analyze the recent mass-balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Above 2000 meters elevation, the ice sheet is in balance on average but has some regions of local thickening or thinning. Thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year close to the coast. Interpolation of our results between flight lines indicates a net loss of about 51 cubic kilometers of ice per year from the entire ice sheet, sufficient to raise sea level by 0.13 millimeter per year-approximately 7% of the observed rise.

  19. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  20. Elevated plasma level of pentraxin-3 predicts in-hospital and 30-day clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Li, Yuanmin; Wen, Jing; Li, Weiming; Xu, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    This investigation explored the short-term prognostic value of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) levels in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We measured plasma levels of PTX3 and other biomarkers in 525 PCI-treated NSTEMI patients (mean age, 57.7 years; 328 males). The associations of PTX3 levels with cardiac events and cardiac deaths occurring within 30 days of discharge were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Renal function, diabetes prevalence, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and ejection fraction differed significantly in the high PTX3 (≥3.0 ng/ml, n = 107) and low PTX3 (<3.0 ng/ml, n = 418) groups (all p < 0.05). Plasma PTX3 levels were correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in NSTEMI patients (all p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed in-hospital and 30-day cardiac events and deaths were higher in the high PTX3 group (both p < 0.01). Elevated PTX3 was an independent predictor of 30-day cardiac events (95% CI 1.09-1.68; p = 0.006) and mortality (95% CI 1.18-2.15; p = 0.002). An elevated plasma level of PTX3 predicts 30-day cardiac events and mortality in PCI-treated NSTEMI patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluation and improvement of air quality in school public elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-05-01

    Public elevators are an essential requirement in modern high-rise buildings. However, the confined, crowded interior of an elevator provides an ideal breeding ground for all manners of biological aerosols. Consequently, when using an elevator at a university in Taiwan as the research target, this study performs an experimental investigation into the effectiveness of hand-sprayed gaseous chlorine dioxide as a disinfection agent. The air quality before and after disinfection is evaluated by measuring the bioaerosol concentrations of bacteria and fungi, respectively. The average background levels of bacteria and fungi before disinfection are found to be 635.7 ± 469.6 and 1296.8 ± 966.6 colony-forming unit (CFU)/m(3), respectively. Following disinfection, the bacteria and fungi concentrations reduced by an average of 35 and 25 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results showed that the residual bacteria and fungi concentration levels were determined primarily by the number of individuals within the elevator and the elapsed time following disinfection. In general, the present results show that given a maximum of five individuals within the elevator, a disinfection schedule of once every 40 min is sufficient to reduce the bioaerosol concentrations of bacteria and fungi to the levels specified by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  2. An elevator for locked drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R.S.; Abbasov, E.M.; Ismailov, A.A.; Mamedov, Yu.S.; Safarov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed, which includes a body with a door. To reduce the probability of gas shows in a well with high speed lowering and lifting of the column of locked drilling pipes through providing the possibility of feeding a drilling mud in this case into the mine, the elevator is equipped with a pneumatic cylinder with a two way hollow rod, on one face of which a sealing element is mounted for sealing the drilling pipe and on the other, an adapter for feeding the drilling mud. The rod is linked with the sleeve of the pneumatic cylinder, which is rigidly linked with the body with the capability of axial movement without rotation.

  3. Cokriging surface elevation and seismic refraction data for bedrock topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Davis, R.K.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of seismic refraction data collected at a proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility showed a strong correlation between surface and bedrock topography. By combining seismically determined bedrock elevation data with surface elevation data using cokriging, we were able to significantly improve our map of bedrock topography without collecting additional seismic data

  4. The Encoding of Sound Source Elevation in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapeau, Régis; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2018-03-28

    Spatial hearing is a crucial capacity of the auditory system. While the encoding of horizontal sound direction has been extensively studied, very little is known about the representation of vertical sound direction in the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution fMRI, we measured voxelwise sound elevation tuning curves in human auditory cortex and show that sound elevation is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions. We changed the ear shape of participants (male and female) with silicone molds for several days. This manipulation reduced or abolished the ability to discriminate sound elevation and flattened cortical tuning curves. Tuning curves recovered their original shape as participants adapted to the modified ears and regained elevation perception over time. These findings suggest that the elevation tuning observed in low-level auditory cortex did not arise from the physical features of the stimuli but is contingent on experience with spectral cues and covaries with the change in perception. One explanation for this observation may be that the tuning in low-level auditory cortex underlies the subjective perception of sound elevation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study addresses two fundamental questions about the brain representation of sensory stimuli: how the vertical spatial axis of auditory space is represented in the auditory cortex and whether low-level sensory cortex represents physical stimulus features or subjective perceptual attributes. Using high-resolution fMRI, we show that vertical sound direction is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions. In addition, we demonstrate that the shape of these tuning functions is contingent on experience with spectral cues and covaries with the change in perception, which may indicate that the

  5. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  6. Strain rate dependence of twinning at 450 Degree-Sign C and its effect on microstructure of an extruded magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q., E-mail: qma@cavs.msstate.edu [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Li, B.; Oppedal, A.L.; Whittington, W.R.; Horstemeyer, S.J.; Marin, E.B.; Wang, P.T. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Horstemeyer, M.F. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Deformation twinning in magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures has received relatively little attention because it is generally deemed that dislocation slip dominates plastic deformation. In this work, twinning at 450 Degree-Sign C in an extruded Mg-Al-Mn magnesium alloy (AM30) was studied by interrupted compression tests at various strain rates within a practical range for lab-scale extrusion (<1.0 s{sup -1}). Microstructure and texture evolution were examined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) at different strain levels. The results show that sporadic twins started to appear at strain rate of 0.1 s{sup -1}, whereas profuse twinning was activated at strain rates of 0.5 and 0.8 s{sup -1}. The deformation twins quickly lost original morphology because of dynamic recrystallization. These results show that deformation twinning has a significant effect on microstructural and texture evolution of wrought Mg alloys at elevated temperatures within practical strain rate range.

  7. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  8. Troponin T elevation after permanent pacemaker implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueying; Yu, Ziqing; Bai, Jin; Hu, Shulan; Wang, Wei; Qin, Shengmei; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Zhe; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study is to study the incidence, significance, and factors associated with cardiac troponin T (CTNT) elevation after pacemaker implantation. Three hundred seventy-four patients (104 single-chamber pacemakers or ICD, 243 dual-chamber pacemakers, and 27 cardiac resynchronization therapy/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator) who had normal levels of CTNT at baseline and underwent implantation of a permanent pacemaker system were included in this study. Serum levels of CTNT were measured at baseline, 6 and 24 h after the implantation procedure. The median of CTNT levels increased from 0.012 ng/mL at baseline to 0.032 and 0.019 ng/mL at 6 and 24 h after the procedure, respectively (all p 0.09 ng/mL). After 1-year follow-up, the incidence of complications including dislodgement of the lead, pocket infection, pneumothorax, hemothorax, and vein thrombus and cardiac outcomes including hospitalization of heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and cardiovascular mortality was not significantly different between the normal and elevated CTNT groups at 6 h after the procedure. By logistic regression analysis, gender, N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) at baseline, left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and fluoroscopy time were independently associated with CTNT elevation after adjusted for age, pacemaker types, right ventricle lead location (RVA or RVOT), heart function, and left ventricular end systolic dimension. Pacemaker implantation was found to be accompanied with CTNT elevation in 55.6% of the patients at 6 h after the procedure, and its kinetics were fast, which might not be related to the complications and adverse cardiac outcomes within 1 year of follow-up. Moreover, gender, NT-pro-BNP at baseline, LVEF, eGFR, and fluoroscopy time were found to be independent predictors of CTNT elevation.

  9. DNA damage in Populus tremuloides clones exposed to elevated O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Helen H.; Percy, Kevin E.; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of elevated concentrations of atmospheric tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) on DNA damage in five trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones growing in a free-air enrichment experiment in the presence and absence of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were examined. Growing season mean hourly O 3 concentrations were 36.3 and 47.3 ppb for ambient and elevated O 3 plots, respectively. The 4th highest daily maximum 8-h ambient and elevated O 3 concentrations were 79 and 89 ppb, respectively. Elevated CO 2 averaged 524 ppm (+150 ppm) over the growing season. Exposure to O 3 and CO 2 in combination with O 3 increased DNA damage levels above background as measured by the comet assay. Ozone-tolerant clones 271 and 8L showed the highest levels of DNA damage under elevated O 3 compared with ambient air; whereas less tolerant clone 216 and sensitive clones 42E and 259 had comparably lower levels of DNA damage with no significant differences between elevated O 3 and ambient air. Clone 8L was demonstrated to have the highest level of excision DNA repair. In addition, clone 271 had the highest level of oxidative damage as measured by lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that variation in cellular responses to DNA damage between aspen clones may contribute to O 3 tolerance or sensitivity. - Ozone tolerant clones and sensitive Populus tremuloides clones show differences in DNA damage and repair.

  10. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  11. Elevated serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in fibromyalgia syndrome patients correlate with body mass index, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Haynes, Wanda L; Michalek, Joel E; Russell, I Jon

    2013-05-01

    The levels of several inflammatory cytokines are abnormal in many patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and may play a role in its pathogenesis. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with the disease activity in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, but its role in FMS is unknown. We undertook this study to determine whether high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) is elevated in FMS and whether its levels relate to key biologic or clinical measures. One hundred and five patients with FMS (1990 ACR criteria) and 61 healthy normal controls (HNC) at a ratio of 2:1 were recruited. The serum concentrations of hsCRP, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The hsCRP levels were marginally higher in FMS than in HNC (p = 0.06) and its abnormality rate (>1.5 SD above the HNC mean) was significantly higher in FMS (25 %) compared with HNC (6.8 %) (p = 0.03). Serum IL-8 levels, IL-6 levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in FMS did not differ from those in HNC. Body mass index (BMI), ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels correlated with hsCRP levels in FMS. No associations were found between hsCRP and age, gender, ethnicity, or other clinical measures. Serum CRP levels were higher in FMS and significantly correlated with BMI, ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to the symptoms in some FMS patients, particularly those who are obese. Weight loss and therapies directed against inflammation may be useful in the management of FMS patients with elevated hsCRP.

  12. Elevated potassium levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Nicolaisen, Sia K; Hasvold, Pål

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on the true burden of hyperkalemia (HK) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a real-world setting are scarce. Methods: The incidence rate of HK [first blood test with an elevated blood potassium level level >5.0 mmol/L] in primary or hospital care was assessed...

  13. High speed elevator s rise high rise building; Chokoso biru wo kakenoboru elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-20

    The world`s fastest (750 m/min) elevators are operating in Yokohama Landmark Tower. This paper describes how engineers solved the technological problems to realize the high-speed elevator. Buildings in Japan have become higher and higher. At the present, this Tower is the highest in Japan (296 m, 70 stories). The Ministry of Construction is going to start a research team to study construction of buildings of the order of 1,000 m high. An important issue for a skyscraper is how to reduce the elevator space adapting to the increase of the number of inhabitants in the building. The basic solution is to increase the elevator speed and to plan the best elevator moving line. The 120 kW AC motor direct-driven winding machine that withstands the superhigh-speed suspending load was developed. Vibrations from the motor and the mechanical system are minimized and the touch-down tolerances for the elevator cage are controlled to {plus_minus}15 mm. The safety devices of the elevator include the emergency stopper of special ceramic material and the hydraulic shock absorber with the optimum reduction characteristic. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Response of needle dark respiration of Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentra-tions for four growing seasons’ exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on needle dark respiration of two coniferous spe- cies—Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestriformis on the Changbai Mountain was investigated using open-top chambers. P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis were exposed to 700, 500 μmol·mol-1 CO2 and ambient CO2 (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) for four growing seasons. Needle dark respiration was meas- ured during the second, third and fourth growing seasons’ exposure to elevated CO2. The results showed that needle dark respiration rate increased for P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis grown at elevated CO2 concentrations during the second growing season, could be attributed to the change of carbohydrate and/or nitrogen content of needles. Needle dark respiration of P. koraiensis was stimu- lated and that of P. sylvestriformis was inhibited by elevated CO2 concentrations during the third growing season. Different response of the two tree species to elevated CO2 mainly resulted from the difference in the growth rate. Elevated CO2 concentrations inhibited needle dark respiration of both P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis during the fourth growing season. There was consistent trend be- tween the short-term effect and the long-term effect of elevated CO2 on needle dark respiration in P. sylvestriformis during the third growing season by changing measurement CO2 concentrations. How- ever, the short-term effect was different from the long-term effect for P. koraiensis. Response of dark respiration of P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations was related to the treatment time of CO2 and the stage of growth and development of plant. The change of dark respiration for the two tree species was determined by the direct effect of CO2 and long-term acclimation. The prediction of the long-term response of needle dark respiration to elevated CO2 concentration based on the short-term response is in dispute.

  15. Elevated Corticosterone Levels and Changes in Amphibian Behavior Are Associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd Infection and Bd Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin R Gabor

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the role hormones play in mediating clinical changes associated with infection by the parasite Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Glucocorticoid (GC hormones such as corticosteroids (CORT regulate homeostasis and likely play a key role in response to infection in amphibians. We explore the relationship between CORT release rates and Bd infection in tadpoles of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricians, using a non-invasive water-borne hormone collection method across seven populations. We further examined whether tadpoles of A. muletensis infected with a hypervirulent lineage of Bd, BdGPL, had greater CORT release rates than those infected with a hypovirulent lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we examined the relationship between righting reflex and CORT release rates in infected metamorphic toads of A. obstetricans. We found an interaction between elevation and Bd infection status confirming that altitude is associated with the overall severity of infection. In tandem, increasing elevation was associated with increasing CORT release rates. Tadpoles infected with the hypervirulent BdGPL had significantly higher CORT release rates than tadpoles infected with BdCAPE showing that more aggressive infections lead to increased CORT release rates. Infected metamorphs with higher CORT levels had an impaired righting reflex, our defined experimental endpoint. These results provide evidence that CORT is associated with an amphibian's vulnerability to Bd infection, and that CORT is also affected by the aggressiveness of infection by Bd. Together these results indicate that CORT is a viable biomarker of amphibian stress.

  16. Systematic literature review shows that appetite rating does not predict energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Guy M; Owen, Lauren J; Till, Sophie; Cheng, Yanying; Grant, Vicky A; Harden, Charlotte J; Corfe, Bernard M

    2017-11-02

    Ratings of appetite are commonly used to assess appetite modification following an intervention. Subjectively rated appetite is a widely employed proxy measure for energy intake (EI), measurement of which requires greater time and resources. However, the validity of appetite as a reliable predictor of EI has not yet been reviewed systematically. This literature search identified studies that quantified both appetite ratings and EI. Outcomes were predefined as: (1) agreement between self-reported appetite scores and EI; (2) no agreement between self-reported appetitescores and EI. The presence of direct statistical comparison between the endpoints, intervention type and study population were also recorded. 462 papers were included in this review. Appetite scores failed to correspond with EI in 51.3% of the total studies. Only 6% of all studies evaluated here reported a direct statistical comparison between appetite scores and EI. χ 2 analysis demonstrated that any relationship between EI and appetite was independent of study type stratification by age, gender or sample size. The very substantive corpus reviewed allows us to conclude that self-reported appetite ratings of appetite do not reliably predict EI. Caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions based from self-reported appetite scores in relation to prospective EI.

  17. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 on xerophytic shrubs in re-vegetated sandy dunes at smaller spatial and temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huang; Zhishan, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The below-ground CO2 concentration in some crusted soils or flooded fields is usually ten or hundred times larger than the normal levels. Recently, a large number of studies have focused on elevated CO2 in the atmosphere; however, only few have examined the influence of elevated root zone CO2 on plant growth and vegetation succession. In the present study, a closed-air CO2 enrichment (CACE) system was designed to simulate elevated CO2 concentrations in the root zones. The physio-ecological characteristics of two typical xerophytic shrubs C. korshinskii and A. ordosica in re-vegetated desert areas were investigated at different soil CO2 concentrations from March 2011 to October 2013. Results showed that plant growth, phenophase, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency for the two xerophytic shrubs were all increased at first and then decreased with increasing soil CO2 concentrations, and the optimal soil CO2 concentration thresholds for C. korshinskii and A. ordosica were 0.554 and 0.317%, respectively. And A. ordosica was more tolerate to root zone CO2 variation when compared with C. korshinskii, possible reasons and vegetation succession were also discussed.

  18. Elevated false recognition in patients with frontal lobe damage is neither a general nor a unitary phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaellie, Mieke; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Keane, Margaret M; Alexander, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    This study examined verbal recognition memory in amnesic patients with frontal lesions (AF), nonamnesic patients with frontal lesions (NAF), and amnesic patients with medial temporal lesions (MT). To examine susceptibility to false alarms, the number of studied words drawn from various categories was varied. The AF and MT groups demonstrated reduced hits and increased false alarms. False alarms were especially elevated when item-specific recollection was strongest in control participants. The NAF group performed indistinguishably from control participants, but several patients showed excessive false alarms in the context of normal hit rates. These patients exhibited impaired monitoring and verification processes. The findings demonstrate that elevated false recognition is not characteristic of all frontal patients and may result from more than 1 underlying mechanism. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  19. Flow stress, subgrain size, and subgrain stability at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherby, O.D.; Klundt, R.H.; Miller, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Well defined subgrain boundaries dominate the microstructural changes occurring during plastic flow of polycrystalline metals at elevated temperature. The quantitative influence of subgrain size on elevated-temperature plastic flow is considered. Based on the results of tests under constant-stress and constant-structure conditions, and equation is developed which predicts the creep rate as a function of subgrain size, stress, diffusion coefficient, and elastic modulus. In general, the subgrain size is a unique function of the current modulus-compensated flow stress, but if fine subgrains can be introduced and stabilized, large increases in creep strength may result. The applicability of the phenomenological relation developed to the behavior of dispersion-strengthened materials (where the second-phase particles may predetermine the effective subgrain size) is discussed. When subgrain effects are included, it is shown that the creep rate is less dependent on stacking fault energy than has been previously thought

  20. [Effects of silicon supply on diurnal variations of physiological properties at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Lou, Yun-sheng; Meng, Yan; Wang, Wei-qing; Cui, He-yang

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) supply on diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B. (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B (elevated by 20%, E), and four Si supply levels, i.e. Sio (control, 0 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si, (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 . hm2), Si3 (slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results showed that, compared with ambient UV-B radiation, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) , intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3%, 5.5%, 10.4%, 20.3% and 6.3%, respectively, in the treatment without Si supply (Si, level), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8%-5.5%, 0.7%-4.8%, 4.0%-8.7%, 7.4%-20.2% and 0.7%-5.9% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1, Si2 and Si3 levels) , respectively. Namely, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters, but silicon supply could obviously mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, compared with control (Si0 level), silicon supply increased Pn, Ci, gs and WUE by 16.9%-28.0%, 3.5%-14.3%, 16.8% - 38.7% and 29.0% - 51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9% - 10.8% in the treatments with Si supply (Si1 , Si2 and Si3 levels). That is, silicon supply could mitigate the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation through significantly increasingnP., CigsgK and WUE, but decreasing T,. However, the difference existed in ameliorating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among the treatments of silicon supply, with the sequence of Si3>Si2>1i >Si0. This study suggested that fertilizing slag was

  1. Falsely elevated troponin: rare occurrence or future problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Troponins are known to be released in response to cardiac damage and therefore are the biomarkers of choice for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, improving outcome in patients presenting with chest pain. However, false results can occur due to interference from other substances in the blood. Case: A 52-year-old male with a past medical history of alcohol abuse, hypertension, and coronary artery bypass graft at age 34 with normal stress test 2 years before presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of 1 day of non-exertional chest pain with radiation to the neck and left arm. His troponin was elevated to 5 ng/mL in two samples drawn 12 h apart, with normal CK-MB. Renal function was normal. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed normal sinus rhythm with no ST elevations or depressions. He underwent cardiac catheterization which showed no obstructive lesions. Five years later, he returned to the ED with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Troponin was elevated and showed no signs of downtrend on repeat every 6 h. ECG was unchanged from 5 years before. He was discharged with a follow-up cardiac computed tomography (CT. Troponin was measured on the day of his scan and remained elevated; he was asymptomatic. Cardiac CT showed unremarkable coronaries and bypass grafts. Given persistently positive troponin in the setting of minimal to no symptoms, he was thought to have falsely elevated troponins. Centrifugation and 2:1 dilution of the sample resulted in the same general value, respectively. Rheumatoid factor and heterophile antibodies were negative. When his blood sample was sent to a different hospital utilizing a three-site immunoassay method, the value was found zero. Discussion: Cardiac troponins (cTn are structural proteins unique to the heart, not expressed outside of cardiac tissue and have high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial damage. Therefore, it is the test of choice for the diagnosis of

  2. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  3. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Moral identity and the experience of moral elevation in response to acts of uncommon goodness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Karl; McFerran, Brent; Laven, Marjorie

    2011-04-01

    Four studies using survey and experimental designs examined whether people whose moral identity is highly self-defining are more susceptible to experiencing a state of moral elevation after being exposed to acts of uncommon moral goodness. Moral elevation consists of a suite of responses that motivate prosocial action tendencies. Study 1 showed that people higher (vs. lower) in moral identity centrality reported experiencing more intense elevating emotions, had more positive views of humanity, and were more desirous of becoming a better person after reading about an act of uncommon goodness than about a merely positive situation or an act of common benevolence. Study 2 showed that those high in moral identity centrality were more likely to recall acts of moral goodness and experience moral elevation in response to such events more strongly. These experiences were positively related to self-reported prosocial behavior. Study 3 showed a direct effect on behavior using manipulated, rather than measured, moral identity centrality. Study 4 replicated the effect of moral identity on the states of elevation as well as on self-reported physical sensations and showed that the elevation mediates the relationship between moral identity, witnessing uncommon goodness, and prosocial behavior.

  5. Cerebral Pulsatility Index Is Elevated in Patients with Elevated Right Atrial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Shouri; Schlick, Konrad H; Padrick, Matthew M; Rinsky, Brenda; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jones, Heather; Mayer, Stephan A; Lyden, Patrick D

    2018-01-01

    Extracerebral venous congestion can precipitate intracranial hypertension due to obstruction of cerebral blood outflow. Conditions that increase right atrial pressure, such as hypervolemia, are thought to increase resistance to jugular venous outflow and contribute to cerebro-venous congestion. Cerebral pulsatility index (CPI) is considered a surrogate marker of distal cerebrovascular resistance and is elevated with intracranial hypertension. Thus, we sought to test the hypothesis that elevated right atrial pressure is associated with increased CPI compared to normal right atrial pressure. We retrospectively reviewed 61 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated CPI from transcranial Doppler studies and correlated these with echocardiographic measures of right atrial pressure. CPIs were compared from patients with elevated and normal right atrial pressure. There was a significant difference between CPI obtained from all patients with elevated right atrial pressure compared to those with normal right atrial pressure (P right and left hemispheric CPI from patients with both elevated and normal right atrial pressure. Patients with elevated right atrial pressure had significantly higher CPI compared to patients with normal right atrial pressure. These findings suggest that cerebro-venous congestion due to impaired jugular venous outflow may increase distal cerebrovascular resistance as measured by CPI. Since elevated CPI is associated with poor outcome in numerous neurological conditions, future studies are needed to elucidate the significance of these results in other populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  7. Sediment mobility and bedload transport rates in a high-elevation glacier-fed stream (Saldur river, Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnese, A.; Mao, L.; Comiti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of bedload transport in high-gradient streams is necessary to evaluate and mitigate flood hazards and to understand morphological processes taking place in the whole river network. Bedload transport in steep channels is particularly difficult to predict due to the complex and varying types of flow resistance, the very coarse and heterogeneous sediments, and the activity and connections of sediment sources at the basin scale. Yet, bedload measurements in these environments are still relatively scarce, and long-term monitoring programs are highly valuable to explore spatial and temporal variability of bedload processes. Even fewer are investigations conducted in high-elevation glaciarized basins, despite their relevance in many regions worldwide. The poster will present bedload transport measurements in a newly established (spring 2011) monitoring station in the Saldur basin (Eastern Italian Alps), which presents a 3.3 km2 glacier in its upper part. At 2100 m a.s.l. (20 km2 drainage area), a pressure transducer measures flow stage and bedload transport is monitored continuously by means of a hydrophone (a cylindrical steel pipe with microphones registering particle collisions) and by 4 fixed antennas for tracing clasts equipped with PITs (Passive Integrated Transponders). At the same location bedload samples are collected by using both a "Bunte" bedload trap and a "Helley-Smith" sampler at 5 positions along a 5 m wide cross-section. Bedload was measured from June to August 2011 during daily discharge fluctuations due to snow- and ice- melt flows. Samples were taken at a large range of discharges (1.1 to 4.6 m3 s-1) and bedload rates (0.01 to 700 g s-1 m-1). As expected, samples taken using the two samplers are not directly comparable even if taken virtually at the same time and at the same location across the section. Results indicate that the grain size of the transported material increases with the shear stress acting on the channel bed and with the

  8. The Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Ammonium Enrichment on the Physiological Performances of Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Woo; Chung, Ik Kyo

    2018-04-01

    Environmental challenges such as ocean acidification and eutrophication influence the physiology of kelp species. We investigated their interactive effects on Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) under two pH conditions [Low, 7.50; High (control), 8.10] and three NH4 +concentrations (Low, 4; Medium, 60; High, 120 μM). The degree of variation of pH values in the culture medium and inhibition rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution by acetazolamide were affected by pH treatments. Relative growth rates, carbon, nitrogen, and the C:N ratio in tissue samples were influenced by higher concentrations of NH4 + . Rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution were enhanced under elevated CO2 or NH4 +conditions, independently, but these two factors did not show an interactive effect. However, rates of NH4 +uptake were influenced by the interactive effect of increased CO2 under elevated NH4 +treatment. Although ocean acidification and eutrophication states had an impact on physiological performance, chlorophyll fluorescence was not affected by those conditions. Our results indicated that the physiological reactions by this alga were influenced to some extent by a rise in the levels of CO2 and NH4 + . Therefore, we expect that the biomass accumulation of S. japonica may well increase under future scenarios of ocean acidification and eutrophication.

  9. Elevated environmental temperature and methamphetamine neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Amphetamines have been of considerable research interest for the last several decades. More recent work has renewed interest in the role of ambient temperature in both the toxicity and neurotoxicity of these drugs. We have determined that the striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity observed in the mouse is linked in some fashion to both body and environmental temperature. Most studies of d-methamphetamine (d-METH) neurotoxicity are conducted at standard laboratory ambient temperatures (e.g., ∼21-22 deg. C) and utilizing a repeated dosage regimen (e.g., three to four injections spaced 2 h apart). A lowering of the ambient temperature provides neuro protection, while an elevation increases neurotoxicity. d-METH causes long-term depletions of triatal dopamine (DA) that are accompanied by other changes that are indicative of nerve terminal degeneration. These include argyrophilia, as detected by silver degeneration stains, and an elevation in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of reactive gliosis in response to injury, as well as a long-term decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels. here we show that increasing the ambient temperature during and for some time following dosing increases the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Mice (female 57BL6/J) given a single dosage of d-METH (20 mg/kg s.c.) and maintained at the usual laboratory ambient temperature show minimal striatal damage (an ∼15% depletion of DA and an ∼ 86% increase in GFAP). substantial striatal damage (e.g., an ∼70% depletion of DA and an ∼200% elevation in GFAP) was induced by this regimen if mice were maintained at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h following dosing. An increase in neurotoxicity was also apparent in mice kept at an elevated temperature for only 5 or 9 h, but keeping animals at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h was the most effective in increasing the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Our data show how a relatively minor change in ambient temperature can have a major impact on the degree of

  10. Elevated IgG4 serum levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Axelle; Reynaud, Quitterie; Durupt, Stéphane; Chapuis-Cellier, Colette; Nové-Josserand, Raphaële; Durieu, Isabelle; Lega, Jean Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 elevation has been associated with several pathological conditions other than IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In cystic fibrosis (CF), an elevation of specific IgG4 has been associated with colonization and infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IgG4 elevation may be a marker of chronic infection or inflammatory stimulation. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of elevated IgG4 levels in CF and its correlation with the major clinical and microbiological features found in CF patients. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a large cohort of adult CF patients attending the CF center of Lyon University Hospital. An elevated IgG4 level was defined as being above the cut-off value of 135 mg/dL. One hundred and sixty-five CF patients were analyzed. An IgG4 elevation was detected in 43 patients (26%). Compared with the control group (≤ 135 mg/dL), high IgG4 patients exhibited a greater prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and higher IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgE levels. No significant differences were observed in terms of pulmonary function, colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or the annual rate of bronchial exacerbations. An elevated IgG4 serum level was frequently detected in adult CF patients and did not appear to be associated with poor lung function. We suggest that IgG4 elevation is a marker of the activation of tolerance. Its clinical significance remains to be demonstrated.

  11. Scattering calculation and image reconstruction using elevation-focused beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David P; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    Pressure scattered by cylindrical and spherical objects with elevation-focused illumination and reception has been analytically calculated, and corresponding cross sections have been reconstructed with a two-dimensional algorithm. Elevation focusing was used to elucidate constraints on quantitative imaging of three-dimensional objects with two-dimensional algorithms. Focused illumination and reception are represented by angular spectra of plane waves that were efficiently computed using a Fourier interpolation method to maintain the same angles for all temporal frequencies. Reconstructions were formed using an eigenfunction method with multiple frequencies, phase compensation, and iteration. The results show that the scattered pressure reduces to a two-dimensional expression, and two-dimensional algorithms are applicable when the region of a three-dimensional object within an elevation-focused beam is approximately constant in elevation. The results also show that energy scattered out of the reception aperture by objects contained within the focused beam can result in the reconstructed values of attenuation slope being greater than true values at the boundary of the object. Reconstructed sound speed images, however, appear to be relatively unaffected by the loss in scattered energy. The broad conclusion that can be drawn from these results is that two-dimensional reconstructions require compensation to account for uncaptured three-dimensional scattering.

  12. A material model for aluminium sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Bolt, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to accurately simulate the deep drawing or stretching of aluminum sheet at elevated temperatures, a model is required that incorporates the temperature and strain-rate dependency of the material. In this paper two models are compared: a phenomenological material model in which the

  13. Investigating Elevated Concentrations of Hydrogen in the LAX region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rund, P.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The growing interest in hydrogen (H2) fuel cell vehicles has created a need to study the atmospheric H2 budget. While there is resounding agreement that hydrogen would escape into the atmosphere due to fuel transport/storage processes, there is disagreement over the amount that would be leaked in a hydrogen fuel economy. Leakage rate estimates range from 2% to 10% for total hydrogen production and transport. A hydrogen based energy infrastructure seems a viable clean alternative to oil because, theoretically, the only waste products are H2O and heat. However, hydrogen leads to the formation of water vapor, polar stratospheric clouds, and a decrease in stratospheric temperatures, which contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Whole air samples (WAS) collected aboard the NASA Sherpa C-23 during the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) showed elevated concentrations of hydrogen near LAX (950 ± 110 ppbv) compared to global average concentrations of 560 ± 20 ppbv. Trace gas analysis along with wind trajectories obtained with the NOAA HySPLIT models indicate that the source of elevated mixing ratios was leakage from H2 fuel stations in the surrounding areas. Correlation and ratio analyses eliminate the potential for common photochemical sources of H2 in the LAX area. This project could elucidate new and potential factors that contribute to the global atmospheric hydrogen budget.

  14. Does a decade of elevated [CO2] affect a desert perennial plant community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newingham, Beth A; Vanier, Cheryl H; Kelly, Lauren J; Charlet, Therese N; Smith, Stanley D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on plant community structure is crucial to predicting ecosystem responses to global change. Early predictions suggested that productivity in deserts would increase via enhanced water-use efficiency under elevated [CO2], but the response of intact arid plant communities to elevated [CO2 ] is largely unknown. We measured changes in perennial plant community characteristics (cover, species richness and diversity) after 10 yr of elevated [CO2] exposure in an intact Mojave Desert community at the Nevada Desert Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Facility. Contrary to expectations, total cover, species richness, and diversity were not affected by elevated [CO2]. Over the course of the experiment, elevated [CO2] had no effect on changes in cover of the evergreen C3 shrub, Larrea tridentata; alleviated decreases in cover of the C4 bunchgrass, Pleuraphis rigida; and slightly reduced the cover of C3 drought-deciduous shrubs. Thus, we generally found no effect of elevated [CO2] on plant communities in this arid ecosystem. Extended drought, slow plant growth rates, and highly episodic germination and recruitment of new individuals explain the lack of strong perennial plant community shifts after a decade of elevated [CO2]. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Elevation dynamics in a restored versus a submerging salt marsh in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Hill, Troy D.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) poses the threat of salt marsh submergence, especially in marshes that are relatively low-lying. At the same time, restoration efforts are producing new low-lying marshes, many of which are thriving and avoiding submergence. To understand the causes of these different fates, we studied two Long Island Sound marshes: one that is experiencing submergence and mudflat expansion, and one that is undergoing successful restoration. We examined sedimentation using a variety of methods, each of which captures different time periods and different aspects of marsh elevation change: surface-elevation tables, marker horizons, sediment cores, and sediment traps. We also studied marsh hydrology, productivity, respiration, nutrient content, and suspended sediment. We found that, despite the expansion of mudflat in the submerging marsh, the areas that remain vegetated have been gaining elevation at roughly the rate of SLR over the last 10 years. However, this elevation gain was only possible thanks to an increase in belowground volume, which may be a temporary response to waterlogging. In addition, accretion rates in the first half of the twentieth century were much lower than current rates, so century-scale accretion in the submerging marsh was lower than SLR. In contrast, at the restored marsh, accretion rates are now averaging about 10 mm yr−1 (several times the rate of SLR), much higher than before restoration. The main cause of the different trajectories at the two marshes appeared to be the availability of suspended sediment, which was much higher in the restored marsh. We considered and rejected alternative hypotheses, including differences in tidal flooding, plant productivity, and nutrient loading. In the submerging marsh, suspended and deposited sediment had relatively high organic content, which may be a useful indicator of sediment starvation.

  16. Development of Simulator for High-Speed Elevator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hyung Min; Kim, Sung Jun; Sul, Seung Ki; Seok, Ki Riong [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kwon, Tae Seok [Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Ki Su [Konkuk University, Seoul(Korea); Shim, Young Seok [Inha University, incheon(Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes the dynamic load simulator for high-speed elevator system, which can emulate 3-mass system as well as equivalent 1-mass system 1-mass system. In order to implement the equivalent inertia of entire elevator system, the conventional simulators have generally utilized the mechanical inertia(flywheel) with large radius, which makes the entire system large and heavy. In addition, the mechanical inertia should be replaced each time in order to test another elevator system. In this paper, the dynamic load simulation methods using electrical inertia are presented so that the volume and weight of simulator system are greatly reduced and the adjustment of inertia value can be achieved easily by software. Experimental results show the feasibility of this simulator system. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. [Distribution characteristics of heavy metals along an elevation gradient of montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jia-rong; Nie, Ming; Zou, Qin; Hu, Shao-chang; Chen, Jia-kuan

    2011-12-01

    In the present paper, the concentrations of fourteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Cr, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, Cd and As) were determined by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy along an elevation gradient of montane forest. The results show that the elevation gradient had significant effects on the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, V, Pb and As. And the concentrations of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Se and Cd were not significantly affected by the elevation gradient. Because the studying area is red soil, the elevation gradient had significant effects on the concentrations of Fe, Al and Ti which are characteristic heavy metals of red soil, suggesting that the red soil at different elevations has different intensities of weathering desilication and bioaccumulation. Other heavy metals have different relationships with the elevation gradient, such as the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Cd were high at relatively high elevation and Pb and As were high at relatively low elevation. These results suggest that the different elevations of montane forest soils were polluted by differently types of heavy metals.

  18. Canopy profiles of photosynthetic parameters under elevated CO2 and N fertilization in a poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Tulva, Ingmar; Eensalu, Eve; Perez, Marta; De Angelis, Paolo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe; Kull, Olevi

    2005-01-01

    A poplar plantation has been exposed to an elevated CO 2 concentration for 5 years using the free air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) technique. Even after such a long period of exposure, leaves of Populus x euramericana have not shown clear signs of photosynthetic acclimation. Only at the end of the growing season for shade leaves was a decrease of maximum velocity of carboxylation (V cmax ) observed. Maximum electron transport rate (J max ) was increased by FACE treatment in July. Assimilation rates at CO 2 partial pressure of 400 (A 400 ) and 600 (A 600 ) μmol mol -1 were not significantly different under FACE treatment. Most notably FACE significantly decreased stomatal conductance (g s ) both on upper and lower canopy leaves. N fertilization increased N content in the leaves on mass basis (N m ) and specific leaf area (SLA) in both CO 2 treatments but did not influence the photosynthetic parameters. These data show that in poplar plantations the long-term effects of elevated CO 2 on photosynthesis do not differ considerably from the short-term ones even with N deposition. - Photosynthetic acclimation occurred only marginally

  19. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginovskiy, V.I.; Medinger, N.V.; Rasskazov, V.A.; Solonitsyn, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, spring loaded cams and a shut-off ring. To increase the reliability of the elevator by eliminating the possibility of spontaneous shifting of the shut-off ring, the latter is equipped with handles hinged to it and is made with evolvent grooves. The cams are equipped with rollers installed in the evolvent grooves of the shut off ring, where the body is made with grooves for the handles.

  20. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on some morphological and physiological characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goldani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is the most important resource for crop growth. In order to investigate the effect of elevated CO2 concentration on morphological and physiological characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L. an experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions. The experiment was factorial based on randomized complete block design with six treatments and three replications. Different CO2 concentrations (including 360, 520 and 750 ppm on monoculture and mixture of two species were investigated. The results indicated that plant height, node number, internode and stem dry weight had significant differences in the CO2 concentrations. Elevated CO2 concentration caused increasing plant height, node number, internode and stem dry weight in sesame and monoculture was better than mixtures, but in the amaranthus, elevated CO2 concentration resulted is decreasing plant height, node number, and internode and stem dry weight. Number and length of branches and their dry weight had significant different in CO2 concentrations. So, effect of elevated CO2 concentration was positive for sesame and negative for amaranthus. In amaranthus, monoculture was more successful than mixture. In the sesame, yield was included number and weight capsule and in the amaranthus was included total seed weight, that both had significant affected. Elevated CO2 concentration had positive effect on yield of sesame and negative effect on yield of amaranthus. In the sesame, monoculture was more successful. The effect of elevated CO2 concentration was significant on transpiration and photosynthesis rates. In the sesame, elevated CO2 concentration increased transpiration and photosynthesis rates and decreased them in the amaranthus. In the sesame, shoot total length and root dry weight was significantly different in CO2 concentrations and increased by elevated CO2 concentration, but in the amaranthus, decreased by elevated CO2 concentration

  1. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelnikov, V. [Gosgortechnadzor, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sukhorukov, V. [Intron Plus, Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  2. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotelnikov, V.; Sukhorukov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  3. Structural changes of manganese spinel at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guohua; Iijima, Yukiko; Azuma, Hideto [Nishi Battery Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Kanagawa 243-0021 Atsugi (Japan); Kudo, Yoshihiro [Technical Support Center, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Kanagawa 243-0021 Atsugi (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    A chemical synthesis route to Cr-doped and undoped Mn spinel was developed for the purpose of detailed structural analysis for elucidating the relationship between storage performance and structural changes at elevated temperatures. We identified a two-phase segregation in the lithium compositional range of 0.6elevated temperatures was observed for electrochemical cells. These two phases also coexist in Cr-doped spinel in the lithium compositional range of 0.4elevated temperatures. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis revealed that the Cr-doped samples showed less change in the local structure after storage than the undoped spinel samples. These results suggest that the Cr-doped spinel has higher structural stability at elevated temperatures than the undoped spinel.

  4. A lateral approach for sinus elevation using PRGF technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Prado, Roberto; Orive, Gorka

    2009-10-01

    A lateral approach for sinus elevation using plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) technology is described. The long-term survival of dental implants installed following a two-stage procedure after sinus elevation using this procedure is reported, using implant loss as the outcome variable. A retrospective cohort study design was used. Eighteen patients received 43 implants (BTI implants, Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain) with sinus floor elevation. All patients presented a residual bone height of class D (1-3 mm). Implants were installed using a low-speed drilling procedure (50 rpm) without irrigation. Finally, the histological and histomorphometric evaluation of eight samples from PRGF grafted sinus involved in the study was carried out 5-6 months posttreatment. The overall survival rate of dental implants was 100%. The mean follow-up period for all implants was 33 +/- 7 months ranging from 24 to 44 months. In addition, the histomorphometrical evaluation of the samples evidenced a 25.24 +/- 4.62% of vital newly formed bone, 50.31 +/- 15.56% of soft connective tissue, and the remaining 24.46 +/- 12.79% of bovine anorganic bone. Based on these results, this new approach for sinus elevation and implant installation using PRGF technology can be considered safe, simple, effective, and predictable.

  5. Exercise induced ST elevation and residual myocardial ischemia in previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of stress induced ST elevation on infarcted area in 65 patients with previous myocardial infarction (single vessel disease) who had stress thallium scan. Stress induced ST changes on infarcted area were compared with quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia (thallium ischemic score; TIS) and extent of myocardial infarction (defect score; DS) derived from circumferential profile analysis. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month from the onset (n = 36), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and extent of abnormal LV wall motion were not significantly different between patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 26) and those with stress induced ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 10), while, in patients with previous myocardial infarction in more than 3 month (n = 29), patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) showed left ventricular dyskinesis more frequently than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 14). In addition, the former showed significantly higher DS and significantly lower TIS than the latter. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month, patients with ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) with prominent upright T wave (n = 15) had transient thallium defect in infarcted area in 73 % and they had significantly higher LVEF and TIS than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 11). These results indicated that ST elevation in infarcted area reflect different significance according to the recovery of injured myocardium and stress induced ST elevation with prominent upright T wave in infarcted area reflect residual myocardial ischemia in less than 3 month from the onset of myocardial infarction. (author)

  6. Elevated Subclinical Double-Stranded DNA Antibodies and Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J.; Prince, Lisa K.; Baker, Thomas P.; Papadopoulos, Patricia; Edison, Jess; Abbott, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Elevated anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody and C-reactive protein are associated with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN). Progression of quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody in patients with PLN has not been compared with that in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN before diagnosis. The temporal relationship between anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein elevation has also not been evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (established in 1985) study compared longitudinal prediagnostic quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein levels in 23 patients with biopsy-proven PLN (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1993–2009) with levels in 21 controls with SLE but without LN matched for patient age, sex, race, and age of serum sample. The oldest (median, 2601 days; 25%, 1245 days, 75%, 3075 days), the second to last (368; 212, 635 days), and the last (180; 135, 477 days) serum sample before diagnosis were analyzed. Results More patients with PLN had an elevated anti-dsDNA antibody level than did the matched controls at any point (78% versus 5%; P4 years (33% versus 0%; P=0.04) before diagnosis. A rate of increase >1 IU/ml per year (70% versus 0%; P<0.001) was most specific for PLN. The anti-dsDNA antibody levels increased before C-reactive protein did in most patients with an antecedent elevation (92% versus 8%; P<0.001). Conclusions Elevated anti-dsDNA antibody usually precedes both clinical and subclinical evidence of proliferative LN, which suggests direct pathogenicity. Absolute anti-dsDNA antibody level and rate of increase could better establish risk of future PLN in patients with SLE. PMID:23833315

  7. Using Satellites to Investigate the Sensitivity of Longwave Downward Radiation to Water Vapor at High Elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Miller, James R.; Landry, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many studies suggest that high-elevation regions may be among the most sensitive to future climate change. However, in situ observations in these often remote locations are too sparse to determine the feedbacks responsible for enhanced warming rates. One of these feedbacks is associated with the sensitivity of longwave downward radiation (LDR) to changes in water vapor, with the sensitivity being particularly large in many high-elevation regions where the average water vapor is often low. We show that satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) can be used to expand the current ground-based observational database and that the monthly averaged clear-sky satellite estimates of humidity and LDR are in good agreement with the well-instrumented Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies ground-based site in the southwestern Colorado Rocky Mountains. The relationship between MODIS-retrieved precipitable water vapor and surface specific humidity across the contiguous United States was found to be similar to that previously found for the Alps. More important, we show that satellites capture the nonlinear relationship between LDR and water vapor and confirm that LDR is especially sensitive to changes in water vapor at high elevations in several midlatitude mountain ranges. Because the global population depends on adequate fresh water, much of which has its source in high mountains, it is critically important to understand how climate will change there. We demonstrate that satellites can be used to investigate these feedbacks in high-elevation regions where the coverage of surface-based observations is insufficient to do so.

  8. National Elevation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  9. A double-reprocessing high-level disinfection protocol does not eliminate positive cultures from the elevators of duodenoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Douglas K; Sieber, Marnie; Lehman, Glen A; Webb, Douglas; Schmitt, Bryan; Kressel, Amy Beth; Bang, Ji Young; Easler, Jeffery; McHenry, Lee; El-Hajj, Ihab; Fogel, Evan; Watkins, James; Sherman, Stuart

    2017-12-13

    Background and study aim  Duodenoscopes have been the source of serious infection, despite correct performance of high-level disinfection (HLD). This study aimed to observe the impact of performing HLD twice on the rate of positive cultures from duodenoscope elevators. Methods  We performed double HLD (DHLD; i. e. complete manual cleaning followed by automated reprocessing, with the entire process repeated) and then randomly cultured the elevators of our duodenoscopes on about 30 % of occasions. Results  DHLD was associated with positive elevator cultures for any microorganism in 9.4 % of cases, with a 0.8 % rate of known pathogens (627 cultures) between May 2015 and February 2016. After February 2016, and in association with changing the precleaning fluid, as well as use of a new FDA-recommended cleaning brush, the rate of positive cultures for any microorganism after DHLD was 4.8 % and 0.2 % for known pathogens (420 cultures). In a third phase, characterized by a change in personnel performing DHLD and retirement of a duodenoscope with a high rate of positive cultures, the rate of positive cultures for any microorganism was 4.9 % (783 cultures) and the rate of positive culture for known pathogens was 0.3 %. To our knowledge, no duodenoscope transmission of infection occurred during the study interval. Conclusions  DHLD resulted in a low rate of positive cultures for known pathogens and for organisms of low pathogenic potential, but did not eliminate these, from duodenoscope elevators. Additional improvements in HLD protocols and/or duodenoscope design are needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A dynamic balance between magma supply and eruption rate at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic balance between magma supply and vent output at Kilauea volcano is used to estimate both the volume of magma stored within Kilauea volcano and its magma supply rate. Throughout most of 1991 a linear decline in volume flux from the Kupaianaha vent on Kilauea's east rift zone was associated with a parabolic variation in the elevation of Kilauea's summit as vent output initially exceeded then lagged behind the magma supply to the volcano. The correspondence between summit elevation and tilt established with over 30 years of data provided daily estimates of summit elevation in terms of summit tilt. The minimum in the parabolic variation in summit tilt and elevation (or zero elevation change) occurs when the magma supply to the reservoir from below the volcano equals the magma output from the reservoir to the surface, so that the magma supply rate is given by vent flux on that day. The measurements of vent flux and tilt establish that the magma supply rate to Kilauea volcano on June 19, 1991, was 217,000 ?? 10,000 m3/d (or 0.079 ?? 0.004 km3/yr). This is close to the average eruptive rate of 0.08 km3/yr between 1958 and 1984. In addition, the predictable response of summit elevation and tilt to each east rift zone eruption near Puu Oo since 1983 shows that summit deformation is also a measure of magma reservoir pressure. Given this, the correlation between the elevation of the Puu Oo lava lake (4 km uprift of Kupaianaha and 18 km from the summit) and summit tilt provides an estimate for magma pressure changes corresponding to summit tilt changes. The ratio of the change in volume to the change in reservoir pressure (dV/dP) during vent activity may be determined by dividing the ratio of volume erupted to change in summit tilt (dV/dtilt) by the ratio of pressure change to change in summit tilt (dP/dtilt). This measure of dV/dP, when combined with laboratory measurements of the bulk modulus of tholeitic melt, provides an estimate of 240 ?? 50 km3 for the volume

  11. Potential host number in cuckoo bees (Psithyrus subgen. increases toward higher elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nicolas Pradervand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In severe and variable conditions, specialized resource selection strategies should be less frequent because extinction risks increase for species that depend on a single and unstable resource. Psithyrus (Bombus subgenus Psithyrus are bumblebee parasites that usurp Bombus nests and display inter‐specific variation in the number of hosts they parasitize. Using a phylogenetic comparative framework, we show that Psithyrus species at higher elevations display a higher number of hosts species compared with species restricted to lower elevations. Species inhabiting high elevations also cover a larger temperature range, suggesting that species able to occur in colder conditions may benefit from recruitment from populations occurring in warmer conditions. Our results provide evidence for an ‘altitudinal niche breadth hypothesis’ in parasitic species, showing a decrease in the parasites’ specialization along the elevational gradient, and also suggesting that Rapoport’s rule might apply to Psithyrus. 

  12. Review of Research Shows, Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates with IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... did seem to increase pregnancy success rates at IVF clinics with baseline pregnancy rates that were lower than 32 percent. This review, funded in part by NCCAM, was published online in the journal Human Reproduction Update. The review analyzed 16 randomized controlled clinical ...

  13. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of a rapidly solidified A1-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.

    1992-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened Al alloys based on the Al-Fe-V-Si quartenary system have recently been developed using rapid solidification techniques. Rapid solidification techniques which resulted in the above mentioned alloys have also been used to manufacture another commercial alloy, FVS 1212, with 37 volume % of dispersoid. The alloy has shown excellent resistance to coarsening at high temperatures and to creep deformation. Elevated temperature exposure of FVS 1212, for times up to 100 hours, resulted in a significant loss in room temperature mechanical properties only beyond 500 degrees C while 1000 hours at 425 degrees C did not result in any degradation of mechanical but no detailed study of the tensile behavior of FVS 1212 at slow strain rates and elevated temperatures has been reported to date. This paper reports that the present study was undertaken to investigate the tensile behavior of FVS 1212 from room temperature to 400 degrees C at strain rates of 6.56 x 10 - 5/sec and 6.56 x 10 -6 /sec. The study focussed on dynamic strain aging effects and strain hardening behavior, while the effect of strain rate on the flow behavior at elevated temperatures was also evaluated

  14. Role of myocardial ischemia on exercise-induced ST elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kouhei; Haze, Kazuo; Fukami, Ken-ichi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1986-01-01

    Exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) has been recognized to be related to left ventricular (LV) asynergy, however it is also recognized that myocardial ischemia can induce ST elevation. In this study, factors which determine the extent of ST elevation, with special reference to myocardial ischemia, was re-evaluated using quantitative analysis of stress myocardial scintigraphy (S-SG). Among 65 patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction and documented single vessel disease of left anterior descending artery (LAD), 19 patients who had exercise-induced ST elevation (ΔST ≥ 2.0 mm) had more abnormal Q waves (p < 0.01), lower LV ejection fraction (EF) (p < 0.01), more severe LV asynergy (p < 0.05) and less incidence of post-MI angina pectoris (AP) (p < 0.01), compared to those with ΔST < 2.0 mm, indicating that ST elevation is primarily related to LV asynergy. Correlation studies among clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic parameters show that ΔST was significantly related to a size of MI represented by Tl score or relative defect Tl activity and number of abnormal Q waves (No.Q), the magnitude of work load expressed by changes in double product (ΔDP) and intervals between the onset and exercise test, as well as myocardial ischemia expressed by the extent of redistribution (%RD) in S-SG. Among 23 patients with post-MI AP, ΔST significantly correlated with %RD (r = 0.47), indicating that myocardial ischemia can be a mechanism of exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous MI. Furtheremore, among those with ST elevation, concave-type ST elevation was more related to myocardial ischemia compared to convex-type ST elevation as expressed by the incidence of post-MI AP and/or significant redistribution. (J.P.N.)

  15. Variations in dark respiration and mitochondrial numbers within needles of Pinus radiata grown in ambient or elevated CO2 partial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, K. L.; Anderson, O. R.; Tissue, D. T.; Turnbull, M. H.; Whitehead, D.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment involving comparison of within-leaf variations in cell size, mitochondrial numbers and dark respiration in the most recently expanded tip, the mid-section and the base of needles of Pinus radiata grown for four years at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure, is described. Results showed variation in mitochondrial numbers and respiration along the length of the needle, with the highest number of mitochondria per unit cytoplasm and the highest rate of respiration per unit leaf area at the base of the needle. Elevated carbon dioxide pressure caused the number of mitochondria per unit cytoplasm to double regardless of location (tip, basal or mid sections). Under these conditions, greatest mitochondrial density was observed at the tip. The mean size of mitochondria was not affected by either growth at elevated carbon dioxide pressure or by position on the needle. Respiration per unit leaf area at elevated carbon dioxide pressure was highest at the tip of needles, decreasing towards the middle and basal sections. The observed data supports the hypothesis that the highest number of mitochondria per unit area of cytoplasm occurs at the base of the needle, but does not support the hypothesis that the lowest rate of respiration also occurs at the base. It is suggested that the relationship that determines the association between structure and function in these needles is more complex than previously thought. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Climate change and plant distribution: local models predict high-elevation persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randin, Christophe F.; Engler, Robin; Normand, Signe

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems will likely be affected by global warming during the 21st century, with substantial biodiversity loss predicted by species distribution models (SDMs). Depending on the geographic extent, elevation range, and spatial resolution of data used in making these models, different rates...

  17. Interactive effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on coral physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, A. G.; Cai, W.; Warner, M.; Melman, T.; Schoepf, V.; Baumann, J.; Matsui, Y.; Pettay, D. T.; Hoadley, K.; Xu, H.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Hu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Increases in ocean acidification and temperature threaten coral reefs globally. However, the interactive effect of both lower pH and higher temperature on coral physiology and growth are poorly understood. Here, we present preliminary findings from a replicated controlled experiment where four species of corals (Acorpora millepora, Pocillopora damicornis, Montipora monasteriata, Turbinaria reniformis) were reared under the following six treatments for three weeks: 1) 400ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 2) 400ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 3) 650ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 4) 650ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 5) 800ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 6) 800ppm CO2 and elevated temperature. Initial findings of photophysiological health (Fv/Fm), calcification rates (as measured by both buoyant weight and the total alkalinity methods), and energy reserves will be presented.

  18. Characterization of the rat exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze with Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Julián; Bosco, Geraldine G; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C

    2010-11-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an animal model of anxiety used to study the effect of different drugs on the behavior of the animal. It consists of a plus-shaped maze with two open and two closed arms elevated 50cm from the floor. The standard measures used to characterize exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze are the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms. In this work, we use Markov chains to characterize the exploratory behavior of the rat in the elevated plus-maze under three different conditions: normal and under the effects of anxiogenic and anxiolytic drugs. The spatial structure of the elevated plus-maze is divided into squares, which are associated with states of a Markov chain. By counting the frequencies of transitions between states during 5-min sessions in the elevated plus-maze, we constructed stochastic matrices for the three conditions studied. The stochastic matrices show specific patterns, which correspond to the observed behaviors of the rat under the three different conditions. For the control group, the stochastic matrix shows a clear preference for places in the closed arms. This preference is enhanced for the anxiogenic group. For the anxiolytic group, the stochastic matrix shows a pattern similar to a random walk. Our results suggest that Markov chains can be used together with the standard measures to characterize the rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Operation experience with elevated ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankova, Katerina; Kysela, Jan; Malac, Miroslav; Petrecky, Igor; Svarc, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The 10 VVER units in the Czech and Slovak Republics are all in very good water chemistry and radiation condition, yet questions have arisen regarding the optimization of cycle chemistry and improved operation in these units. To address these issues, a comprehensive experimental program for different water chemistries of the primary circuit was carried out at the Rez Nuclear Research Institute, Czech Republic, with the goal of judging the influence of various water chemistries on radiation build-up. Four types of water chemistries were compared: standard VVER water chemistry (in common use), direct hydrogen dosing without ammonia, standard VVER water chemistry with elevated ammonia levels, and zinc dosing to standard VVER water chemistry. The test results showed that the types of water chemistry other than the common one have benefits for the operation of the nuclear power plant (NPP) primary circuit. Operation experience with elevated ammonia at NPP Dukovany Units 3 and 4 is presented which validates the experimental results, demonstrating improved corrosion product volume activity. (orig.)

  20. CO2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula paperifera Mash seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species’ potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and CO2 elevation. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26oC and 37oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn at both measurement temperatures, and Pn at 37oC was higher than that at 26oC under elevated CO2. Stomatal conductance (gs was lower at 37oC than at 26oC, while transpiration rate (E was higher at 37oC than that at 26oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE at both 26oC and 37oC, but WUE was markedly enhanced at 37oC under elevated CO2. The effect of temperature on maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax, PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax and triose phosphate utilization (TPU varied with CO2, and the Vcmax and Jmax were significantly higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. However, there were no significant interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on TPU. The actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (DF/ Fm’, total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (JT and the partitioning of JT to carboxylation (Jc were higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 significantly suppressed the partitioning of JT to oxygenation (Jo/JT. The data suggest that the CO2 elevation and progressive warming greatly enhanced photosynthesis in white birch seedlings in an interactive fashion.

  1. Response of seedlings of different tree species to elevated C02 in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; JILan-zhu; WANGMiao; LIQiu-rong

    2003-01-01

    Eco-physiological responses of seedlings of eight species, Pinus koraiensis, Picea koraiensis, Lanx olgensis,Populus ussuriensis, Betula platyphylla, Tilia amurensis, Traxinus mandshurica and Acer mono from broadleaved/Korean pine forest, to elevated CO2 were studied by using open-top chambers under natural sunlight in Changbai Mountain, China in two growing seasons (1998-1999). Two concentrations of CO2 were designed: elevated CO2 (700 pmol· mol-1) and ambient CO2 (400μmol· mol-1). The study results showed that the height growth of the tree seedlings grown at elevated CO2 increased by about 10%-40% compared to those grown at ambient CO2. And the water using efficiency of seedlings also followed the same tendency. However, the responses of seedlings in transpiration and chlorophyll content to elevated CO2 varied with tree species.The broad-leaf tree species were more sensitive to the elevated CO2than conifer tree species. All seedlings showed a photo-synthetic acclimation to Iong-term elevated CO2.

  2. Localities With Elevated Radiation Background in the High Karst Zone of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, R.; Andjelic, T.; Zekic, R.; Antovic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed to find localities in Montenegro with an elevated terrestrial gamma background was conducted during the period 2008-2009. For this purpose, 138 localities which have geological formations known to contain minerals with potentially high concentrations of U, Th and K, were selected throughout the country for a dosimetric survey. There are four distinctive geotectonic units in Montenegro: the Adriatic-Ionian Zone (JZ), the Budva-Cukali Zone (BZ), the High Karst Zone (VK), and the Durmitor Tectonic Unit (DTJ). The central and southern parts of Montenegro belong to the VK zone, whose geological structure is predominated by Mesozoic carbonate sediments, with occurrences of red and white bauxite formations, Triassic volcanic rocks, Paleogene flysch sediments and Quaternary sediments. In total, 38 localities belonging to the VK zone were selected for field investigations of terrestrial radiation. Knowing from earlier investigations that in Montenegro the average absorbed dose-rate in the air, 1 m above the ground, is 55 nGy/h, it was arbitrarily adopted that only localities with absorbed doses at least 50 % above this average value would be considered as having a relatively elevated radiation background. Field measurements have shown that 12 of the surveyed localities in the VK zone have such elevated dose values, five of them being with the highest dose rates in Montenegro. Among these five sites, the highest dose rate (192 nGy/h) was found at a locality which lies on andesite volcanic rock, while the other four localities (131 - 149 nGy/h) lie on bauxite deposits. Compared to the other areas in the world known to have a high natural radiation background, all of these localities in Montenegro have a moderately elevated radiation level. From the 12 localities with a relatively elevated radiation background, soil samples have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 226Ra and 137Cs

  3. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, Debjani; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback. (letter)

  4. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    each. Minor data gaps are introduced by particular environmental conditions (e.g. strong winds, fog) and external power failure, and a random forest-based approach has been successfully implemented to impute missing values. Visual inspection revealed that ET rates on study sites below the forest belt (3500 m a.s.l.) in magnitude and diurnal variation. Diurnal ET variation on the lower elevated research plots followed the course of the sun, with maximum values in the early afternoon and minimum values during sunrise and sunset. Maximum evapotranspirative net water loss occurred on the selected grassland sites, followed by maize, coffee, and minimum values on savanna. The study sites located above the forest belt, however, showed maximum ET rates coinciding with sunrise, whilst ET remained almost constantly low during the remaining hours of sunlight. We tentatively suggest that tree density regulates net water loss on the lower elevated research plots, while water scarcity is of subordinate importance. As for the high-lying sites, maximum ET rates directly after sunrise indicate an immediate sublimation of ice accumulated in the soil during night and subsequently attenuated water loss as a result of limited water availability. However, further analysis steps need to be performed in order to draw more reliable conclusions on the observed ET patterns.

  5. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  6. 3D Fractal reconstruction of terrain profile data based on digital elevation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.M.; Chen, C.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) often makes it difficult for terrain reconstruction and data storage due to the failure in acquisition of details with higher resolution. If original terrain of DEM can be simulated, resulting in geographical details can be represented precisely while reducing the data size, then an effective reconstruction scheme is essential. This paper adopts two sets of real-world 3D terrain profile data to proceed data reducing, i.e. data sampling randomly, then reconstruct them through 3D fractal reconstruction. Meanwhile, the quantitative and qualitative difference generated from different reduction rates were evaluated statistically. The research results show that, if 3D fractal interpolation method is applied to DEM reconstruction, the higher reduction rate can be obtained for DEM of larger data size with respect to that of smaller data size under the assumption that the entire terrain structure is still maintained.

  7. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  8. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Enrichments (DIC and DOC) on the Photosynthesis and Calcification Rates of Two Calcifying Green Algae from a Caribbean Reef Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Friedrich W; Schubert, Nadine; Diele, Karen; Teichberg, Mirta; Wild, Christian; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are affected by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) concentrations due to ocean acidification (OA) and coastal eutrophication. These two stressors can occur simultaneously, particularly in near-shore reef environments with increasing anthropogenic pressure. However, experimental studies on how elevated DIC and DOC interact are scarce and fundamental to understanding potential synergistic effects and foreseeing future changes in coral reef function. Using an open mesocosm experiment, the present study investigated the impact of elevated DIC (pHNBS: 8.2 and 7.8; pCO2: 377 and 1076 μatm) and DOC (added as 833 μmol L-1 of glucose) on calcification and photosynthesis rates of two common calcifying green algae, Halimeda incrassata and Udotea flabellum, in a shallow reef environment. Our results revealed that under elevated DIC, algal photosynthesis decreased similarly for both species, but calcification was more affected in H. incrassata, which also showed carbonate dissolution rates. Elevated DOC reduced photosynthesis and calcification rates in H. incrassata, while in U. flabellum photosynthesis was unaffected and thalus calcification was severely impaired. The combined treatment showed an antagonistic effect of elevated DIC and DOC on the photosynthesis and calcification rates of H. incrassata, and an additive effect in U. flabellum. We conclude that the dominant sand dweller H. incrassata is more negatively affected by both DIC and DOC enrichments, but that their impact could be mitigated when they occur simultaneously. In contrast, U. flabellum can be less affected in coastal eutrophic waters by elevated DIC, but its contribution to reef carbonate sediment production could be further reduced. Accordingly, while the capacity of environmental eutrophication to exacerbate the impact of OA on algal-derived carbonate sand production seems to be species-specific, significant reductions can be expected under future

  9. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Enrichments (DIC and DOC on the Photosynthesis and Calcification Rates of Two Calcifying Green Algae from a Caribbean Reef Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W Meyer

    Full Text Available Coral reefs worldwide are affected by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and organic carbon (DOC concentrations due to ocean acidification (OA and coastal eutrophication. These two stressors can occur simultaneously, particularly in near-shore reef environments with increasing anthropogenic pressure. However, experimental studies on how elevated DIC and DOC interact are scarce and fundamental to understanding potential synergistic effects and foreseeing future changes in coral reef function. Using an open mesocosm experiment, the present study investigated the impact of elevated DIC (pHNBS: 8.2 and 7.8; pCO2: 377 and 1076 μatm and DOC (added as 833 μmol L-1 of glucose on calcification and photosynthesis rates of two common calcifying green algae, Halimeda incrassata and Udotea flabellum, in a shallow reef environment. Our results revealed that under elevated DIC, algal photosynthesis decreased similarly for both species, but calcification was more affected in H. incrassata, which also showed carbonate dissolution rates. Elevated DOC reduced photosynthesis and calcification rates in H. incrassata, while in U. flabellum photosynthesis was unaffected and thalus calcification was severely impaired. The combined treatment showed an antagonistic effect of elevated DIC and DOC on the photosynthesis and calcification rates of H. incrassata, and an additive effect in U. flabellum. We conclude that the dominant sand dweller H. incrassata is more negatively affected by both DIC and DOC enrichments, but that their impact could be mitigated when they occur simultaneously. In contrast, U. flabellum can be less affected in coastal eutrophic waters by elevated DIC, but its contribution to reef carbonate sediment production could be further reduced. Accordingly, while the capacity of environmental eutrophication to exacerbate the impact of OA on algal-derived carbonate sand production seems to be species-specific, significant reductions can be expected

  10. Low cycle fatigue strength of some austenitic stainless steels at room temperature and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 304, 316, and 316L stainless steels were tested from room temperature to 650 0 C using two kinds of bending test specimens. Particularly, Type 304 was tested at several cyclic rates and 550 0 and 650 0 C, and the effect of cyclic rate on its fatigue strength was investigated. Test results are summarized as follows: (1) The bending fatigue strength at room temperature test shows good agreement with the axial fatigue one, (2) Manson--Coffin's fatigue equation can be applied to the results, (3) the ratio of crack initiation to failure life becomes larger at higher stress level, and (4) the relation between crack propagation life and total strain range or elastic strain range are linear in log-log scale. This relation also agrees with the equations which were derived from some crack propagation laws. It was also observed at the elevated temperature test: (1) The reduction of fatigue strength is not noticeable below 500 0 C, but it is noted at higher temperature. (2) The cycle rate does not affect on fatigue strength in faster cyclic rate than 20 cpm and below 100,000 cycles life range. (3) Type 316 stainless steel shows better fatigue property than type 304 and 316L stainless steels. 30 figures

  11. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  12. Earth elevation map production and high resolution sensing camera imaging analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiubin; Jin, Guang; Jiang, Li; Dai, Lu; Xu, Kai

    2010-11-01

    The Earth's digital elevation which impacts space camera imaging has prepared and imaging has analysed. Based on matching error that TDI CCD integral series request of the speed of image motion, statistical experimental methods-Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the distribution histogram of Earth's elevation in image motion compensated model which includes satellite attitude changes, orbital angular rate changes, latitude, longitude and the orbital inclination changes. And then, elevation information of the earth's surface from SRTM is read. Earth elevation map which produced for aerospace electronic cameras is compressed and spliced. It can get elevation data from flash according to the shooting point of latitude and longitude. If elevation data between two data, the ways of searching data uses linear interpolation. Linear interpolation can better meet the rugged mountains and hills changing requests. At last, the deviant framework and camera controller are used to test the character of deviant angle errors, TDI CCD camera simulation system with the material point corresponding to imaging point model is used to analyze the imaging's MTF and mutual correlation similarity measure, simulation system use adding cumulation which TDI CCD imaging exceeded the corresponding pixel horizontal and vertical offset to simulate camera imaging when stability of satellite attitude changes. This process is practicality. It can effectively control the camera memory space, and meet a very good precision TDI CCD camera in the request matches the speed of image motion and imaging.

  13. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  14. Varied growth response of cogongrass ecotypes to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L. P. Beauv] is an invasive C4 perennial grass which is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world and is a major problem in the Southeast US. Five cogongrass ecotypes (Florida, Hybrid, Louisiana, Mobile, and North Alabama collected across the Southeast and a red-tip ornamental variety were container grown for six months in open top chambers under ambient and elevated (ambient plus 200 ppm atmospheric CO2. Elevated CO2 increased average dry weight (13% which is typical for grasses. Elevated CO2 increased height growth and both nitrogen and water use efficiencies, but lowered tissue nitrogen concentration; again, these are typical plant responses to elevated CO2. The hybrid ecotype tended to exhibit the greatest growth (followed by Louisiana, North Alabama, and Florida ecotypes while the red-tip and Mobile ecotypes were smallest. Interactions of CO2 with ecotype generally showed that the hybrid, Louisiana, Florida, and/or North Alabama ecotypes showed a positive response to CO2 while the Mobile and red-tip ecotypes did not. Cogongrass is a problematic invasive weed in the southeastern U.S. and some ecotypes may become more so as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise.

  15. Mixed species flock, nest height, and elevation partially explain avian haemoparasite prevalence in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D González

    Full Text Available The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of the Contributing Factors Affecting Specialty Care No-Show Rates at Brooke Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    PHYSICAL THERAPY ,TMC 53 9 14.52% AUDIOLOGY,BAMC 133 22 14.19% OPHTH PEDS,BAMC 28 4 12.50% OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ,BAMC 135 18 11.76% ALLERGY CLINIC,BAMC...for physical therapy and have a total of 4 appointments set up with that clinic. For this study, only the first referral was counted and not the follow...Nephrology. Some of the other low no-show rate clinics were: Pain Management (1.27%), Endocrinology (1.52%), General Surgery (1.83%), Rheumatology (1.89

  17. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  18. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  19. Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Southon, John; Baer, Paul; Harte, John

    2004-12-01

    Dead wood biomass can be a substantial fraction of stored carbon in forest ecosystems, and coarse woody debris (CWD) decay rates may be sensitive to climate warming. We used an elevation gradient in Colorado Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to examine climate and species effects on dead wood biomass, and on CWD decay rate. Using a new radiocarbon approach, we determined that the turnover time of lodgepole pine CWD (340+/-130 years) was roughly half as long in a site with 2.5-3 degrees C warmer air temperature, as that of pine (630+/-400 years) or Engelmann spruce CWD (800+/-960 and 650+/-410 years) in cooler sites. Across all sites and both species, CWD age ranged from 2 to 600 years, and turnover time was 580+/-180 years. Total standing and fallen dead wood biomass ranged from 4.7+/-0.2 to 54+/-1 Mg ha(-1), and from 2.8 to 60% of aboveground live tree biomass. Dead wood biomass increased 75 kg ha(-1) per meter gain in elevation and decreased 13 Mg ha(-1) for every degree C increase in mean air temperature. Differences in biomass and decay rates along the elevation gradient suggest that climate warming will lead to a loss of dead wood carbon from subalpine forest.

  20. Horizontal vibration suppression method suitable for super-high-speed elevators; Chokosoku elevator ni tekishita kago yokoshindo yokusei hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kagomiya, K.; Kurosawa, T.; Konya, M> ; Ando, T. [Hitachi Building System Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Horizontal vibrations of elevator cars mainly occur because a car swings as roller guides installed at corners of a car frame move on a winding guide rail at high speeds. Rider comfort in high speed elevators is worsened by these vibrations. Conventional active dampers suppressing horizontal vibrations using ac servo motors make cars heavier so driving power becomes larger, and they are not easily applied to existing elevators. An active damping control method suited to super-high-speed elevators is which can solve these problems. The method suppresses vibrations by generating only enough magnetic force needed to suppress them only when vibrations of the car franc are produced. The vibrations are detected using acceleration detectors and magnets installed on left and right sides of the car frame. A computer simulator was made to analyze phenomena of car vibrations and to verify effects of the proposed magnetic damping controller. It was found that the vibrations generated on the cabin floor were remarkably large when left and right sides at the upper and lower parts of the car frame were swung by sine waves with the same phase. The vibrations bad two resonant modes. Results obtained with the computer simulator and a full scale running simulator showed that the acceleration on the cabin floor, even at the resonant frequencies, could be reduced by the magnetic damping control to around 0.1m/s{sup 2} which would provide a comfortable ride. 10 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Ratchetting behavior of type 304 stainless steel at room and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, M.; Krempl, E.

    1988-01-01

    The zero-to-tension ratchetting behavior was investigated under uniaxial loading at room temperature and at 550, 600 and 650/degree/ C. In History I the maximum stress level of ratchetting was equal to the stress reached in a tensile test at one percent strain. For History II the maximum stress level was established as the stress reached after a 2100 s relaxation at one percent strain. Significant ratchetting was observed for History I at room temperature but not at the elevated temperatures. The accumulated ratchet strain increases with decreasing stress rate. Independent of the stress rates used insignificant ratchet strain was observed at room temperature for History II. This observation is explained in the context of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress by the exhaustion of the viscous contribution to the stress during relaxation. The viscous part of the stress is the driving force for the ratchetting in History I. Strain aging is presumably responsible for the lack of short-time inelastic deformation resulting in a nearly rate-independent behavior at the elevated temperatures. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Quality between mechanical compression on reducible stretcher versus manual compression on standard stretcher in small elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Han; Hong, Ki Jeong; Sang Do, Shin; Kim, Chu Hyun; Song, Sung Wook; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ro, Young Sun; Ahn, Ki Ok; Jang, Dayea Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during vertical transport in small elevators using standard stretcher for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest can raise concerns with diminishing quality. Mechanical CPR on a reducible stretcher (RS-CPR) that can be shortened in the length was tested to compare the CPR quality with manual CPR on a standard stretcher (SS-CPR). A randomized crossover manikin simulation was designed. Three teams of emergency medical technicians were recruited to perform serial CPR simulations using two different protocols (RS-CPR and SS-CPR) according to a randomization; the first 6 minutes of manual CPR at the scene was identical for both scenarios and two different protocols during vertical transport in a small elevator followed on a basis of cross-over assignment. The LUCAS-2 Chest Compression System (Zolife AB, Lund, Sweden) was used for RS-CPR. CPR quality was measured using a resuscitation manikin (Resusci Anne QCPR, Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) in terms of no flow fraction, compression depth, and rate (median and IQR). A total of 42 simulations were analyzed. CPR quality did not differ significantly at the scene. No flow fraction (%) was significantly lower when the stretcher was moving in RS-CPR then SS-CPR (36.0 (33.8-38.7) vs 44.0 (36.8-54.4), P< .01). RS-CPR showed significantly better quality than SS-CPR; 93.2 (50.6-95.6) vs 14.8 (0-20.8) for adequate depth (P< 0.01), and 97.5 (96.6-98.2) vs 68.9(43.4-78.5) for adequate rate (P< .01). Mechanical CPR on a reducible stretcher during vertical transport showed significant improvement in CPR quality in terms of no-flow fraction, compression depth, and rate compared with manual CPR on a standard stretcher. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomarkers Prognostic for Elevated Intracranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Orthopedic injury (n=20) iii) Exclusion of patients with polytrauma . It has been reported that serum ceruloplasmin (as well as copper) levels...inclusion of polytrauma patients in our results. We therefore identified the TBI patients with isolated head trauma, and compared the recorded...ceruloplasmin values between those with elevated ICP and those without. Figure 13 shows that when the patients with polytrauma were excluded from the

  4. Basal metabolic rate and risk-taking behaviour in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2009-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) constitutes the minimal metabolic rate in the zone of thermo-neutrality, where heat production is not elevated for temperature regulation. BMR thus constitutes the minimum metabolic rate that is required for maintenance. Interspecific variation in BMR in birds is correlated with food habits, climate, habitat, flight activity, torpor, altitude, and migration, although the selective forces involved in the evolution of these presumed adaptations are not always obvious. I suggest that BMR constitutes the minimum level required for maintenance, and that variation in this minimum level reflects the fitness costs and benefits in terms of ability to respond to selective agents like predators, implying that an elevated level of BMR is a cost of wariness towards predators. This hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between BMR and measures of risk taking such as flight initiation distance (FID) of individuals approached by a potential predator. Consistent with this suggestion, I show in a comparative analysis of 76 bird species that species with higher BMR for their body mass have longer FID when approached by a potential predator. This effect was independent of potentially confounding variables and similarity among species due to common phylogenetic descent. These results imply that BMR is positively related to risk-taking behaviour, and that predation constitutes a neglected factor in the evolution of BMR.

  5. Fuel retention under elevated wall temperature in KSTAR with a carbon wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B.; Hong, S. H.

    2018-03-01

    The fuel retention during KSTAR discharges with elevated wall temperature (150 °C) has been studied by using the method of global particle balance. The results show that the elevated wall temperature could reduce the dynamic retention via implantation and absorption, especially for the short pulse shots with large injected fuel particles. There is no signature changing of long-term retention, which related to co-deposition, under elevated wall temperature. For soft-landing shots (normal shots), the exhausted fuel particles during discharges is larger with elevated wall temperature than without, but the exhausted particles after discharges within 90 s looks similar. The outgassing particles because of disruption could be exhausted within 15 s.

  6. Probability function of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated waves of ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wave breaking on the probability function of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by wave breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original wave elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density function zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of wave breaking on the probability density function of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density function, a phenomenon also observed in wind wave tank experiments.

  7. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  8. Elevated alanine aminotransferase independently predicts new onset of depression in employees undergoing health screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, S; Toker, S; Armon, G; Melamed, S; Berliner, S; Shapira, I; Halpern, Z; Santo, E; Shibolet, O

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation. Similarly, patients with depression exhibit insulin resistance and increased inflammatory markers. However, no study has shown a clear association between elevated ALT and the development of depression. The aim of the study was to test whether elevated ALT, a surrogate marker for NAFLD, predicts the development of depression. The present prospective cohort study investigated 12 180 employed adults referred for health examinations that included fasting blood tests and anthropometric measurements between 2003 and 2010. Exclusion criteria were: baseline minor/major depression, excessive alcohol consumption and other causes for ALT elevation. Depression was evaluated by the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) score. The final cohort included 5984 subjects [69.4% men, aged 45.0 (s.d. = 10.24) years]. The incidence rate of minor and major depression was 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Elevated ALT was a significant independent predictor for the occurrence of minor [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.92] and major (OR 3.132, 95% CI 1.81-5.40) depression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education level, serum levels of lipids, glucose, smoking and physical activity. Adding subjective health and affective state parameters (sleep disturbances, self-rated health, anxiety and burnout) as potential mediators only slightly ameliorated the association. Persistently elevated ALT was associated with the greatest risk for minor or major depression as compared with elevation only at baseline or follow-up (p for trend depressive symptoms, thus suggesting that NAFLD may represent an independent modifiable risk factor for depression.

  9. Is elevated CO2 in space really harmful to growth and development? A case study of Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Lunar Palace-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanghui; Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Wang, Minjuan; Shao, Lingzhi; Yu, Juan; Liu, Hong

    2018-05-01

    CO2 concentration [CO2] level in artificial ecosystems such as greenhouse agriculture and space farming can easily exceed 1000 μmol mol-1 (or ppm). In order to understand how the growth and development in crop plants may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if crop leaves in the closed artificial ecosystem have a fully developed photosynthetic apparatus, and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to elevated CO2 concentration. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of photosynthetic characteristics, leaf water status and antioxidant capacity of Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), which is a sedge-like plant with 1-2 cm small sweet tubers in length, under elevated CO2 concentrations in an artificial closed ecosystem. The results showed that Chufa plants cultivated in the elevated CO2 environment from the seedling stage to the maturity stage were characterized by more appropriate chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. The photosynthetic rate of Chufa plants in the 1000 and 3000 ppm treatments was no significant difference with that in 500 ppm CO2 condition both at seedling stage and rapid growth stage. All the treatments had a high relative water content (RWC) about 60% at the maturity stage. However, there was no significant difference in membrane stability index (MSI) at the rapid growth stage. The antioxidase enzymes activities experienced a rise and a drop and reached the peak at the rapid growth stage. Elevated CO2, especially more than 1000 ppm conditions, may accelerant Chufa plants aging process.

  10. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  11. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must meet the requirements of ANSI A 17.1 ...

  12. Mapping the perceptual structure of rectangles through goodness-of-fit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Guidi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to investigate the internal structure of a rectangular frame to test Arnheim's (1974 Art and Visual Perception, 1988 The Power of the Center) proposals about its 'structural skeleton'. Observers made subjective ratings of how well a small probe circle fit within a rectangle at different interior positions. In experiment 1, ratings of 77 locations were highest in the center, decreased with distance from the center, greatly elevated along vertical and horizontal symmetry axes, and somewhat elevated along the local symmetry axes. A linear regression model with six symmetry-related factors accounted for 95% of the variance. In experiment 2 we measured perceived fit along local symmetry axes versus global diagonals near the corners to determine which factor was relevant. 2AFC probabilities were elevated only along the local symmetry axes and were higher when the probe was closer to the vertex. In experiment 3 we examined the effect of dividing a rectangular frame into two rectangular 'subframes' using an additional line. The results show that the primary determinant of good fit is the position of the target circle within the local subframes. In general, the results are consistent with Arnheim's proposals about the internal structure of a rectangular frame, but an alternative interpretation is offered in terms of the Gestalt concept of figural goodness.

  13. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on competition between the mosquitoes Aedes albopictus and Ae. triseriatus via changes in litter quality and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Baldwin, A H; Sullivan, J; Leisnham, P T

    2013-05-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter aquatic communities via changes in allochthonous litter inputs. We tested effects of atmospheric CO2 on the invasive Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and native Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) via changes in competition for microbial food or resource inhibition/toxicity. Quercus alba L. litter was produced under elevated (879 ppm) and ambient (388 ppm) atmospheric CO2. Saplings grown at elevated CO2 produced greater litter biomass, which decayed faster and leached more tannins than saplings at ambient CO2. Competition was tested by raising larvae in different species and density combinations provisioned with elevated- or ambient-CO2 litter. Species-specific performance to water conditions was tested by providing single-species larval cohorts with increasing amounts of elevated- or ambient-CO2 litter, or increasing concentrations of tannic acid. Larval densities affected some fitness parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. triseriatus, but elevated-CO2 litter did not modify the effects of competition on population growth rates or any fitness parameters. Population growth rates and survival of each species generally were affected negatively by increasing amounts of both elevated- and ambient-CO2 litter from 0.252 to 2.016 g/liter, and tannic acid concentrations above 100 mg/liter were entirely lethal to both species. Aedes albopictus had consistently higher population growth rates than Ae. triseriatus. These results suggest that changes to litter production and chemistry from elevated CO2 are unlikely to affect the competitive outcome between Ae. albopictus and Ae. triseriatus, but that moderate increases in litter production increase population growth rates of both species until a threshold is exceeded that results in resource inhibition and toxicity.

  14. Growth hormone replacement does not elevate albuminuria in GH-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; Dullaart, RPF

    2002-01-01

    Minor elevations in urinary albumin excretion rate (Ualb.V) are likely to be associated with renal function loss and increased cardiovascular risk. Since urinary albumin excretion is affected by the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, we evaluated the effect of 6 months GH

  15. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Global Warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the Last 50 Years Based on a Generalised Temperature Zone - Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanqiang; Fang, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the primary factors influencing the climate and ecosystem, and examining its change and fluctuation could elucidate the formation of novel climate patterns and trends. In this study, we constructed a generalised temperature zone elevation model (GTEM) to assess the trends of climate change and temporal-spatial differences in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) using the annual and monthly mean temperatures from 1961–2010 at 144 meteorological stations in and near the TP. The results showed the following: (1) The TP has undergone robust warming over the study period, and the warming rate was 0.318°C/decade. The warming has accelerated during recent decades, especially in the last 20 years, and the warming has been most significant in the winter months, followed by the spring, autumn and summer seasons. (2) Spatially, the zones that became significantly smaller were the temperature zones of −6°C and −4°C, and these have decreased 499.44 and 454.26 thousand sq km from 1961 to 2010 at average rates of 25.1% and 11.7%, respectively, over every 5-year interval. These quickly shrinking zones were located in the northwestern and central TP. (3) The elevation dependency of climate warming existed in the TP during 1961–2010, but this tendency has gradually been weakening due to more rapid warming at lower elevations than in the middle and upper elevations of the TP during 1991–2010. The higher regions and some low altitude valleys of the TP were the most significantly warming regions under the same categorizing criteria. Experimental evidence shows that the GTEM is an effective method to analyse climate changes in high altitude mountainous regions. PMID:23565182

  16. Examining job tenure and lost-time claim rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-year period, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Breslin, F Curtis; Shen, Min; Smith, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    We sought to examine the association between job tenure and lost-time claim rates over a 10-year period in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from workers' compensation records and labour force survey data from 1999 to 2008. Claim rates were calculated for gender, age, industry, occupation, year and job tenure group. A multivariate analysis and examination of effect modification were performed. Differences in injury event and source of injury were also examined by job tenure. Lost-time claim rates were significantly higher for workers with shorter job tenure, regardless of other factors. Claim rates for new workers differed by gender, age and industry, but remained relatively constant at an elevated rate over the observed time period. This study is the first to examine lost-time claim rates by job tenure over a time period during which overall claim rates generally declined. Claim rates did not show a convergence by job tenure. Findings highlight that new workers are still at elevated risk, and suggest the need for improved training, reducing exposures among new workers, promoting permanent employment, and monitoring work injury trends and risk factors.

  17. Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, P.; Birch, K.; Jensen, B.M.; Kuehl, C.

    1986-01-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125 I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate setting

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on photosynthesis, dark res-piration and RuBPcase activity of three species seedlings in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two-year-old seedlings of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus sylvestriformis and Fraxinus mandshurica were treated in open-top chambers with elevated CO2 concentrations (700 μL·L-1, 500 μL·L-1) and ambient CO2 concentrations (350 μL·L-1) in Changbai Mountain from June to Sept. in 1999 and 2001. The net photosynthetic rate, dark respiration rate, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxlase (RuBPcase) activity, and chlorophyll content were analyzed. The results indicated the RuBPcase activity of the three species seedlings increased at elevated CO2 concentrations. The elevated CO2 concentrations stimulated the net photosynthetic rates of three tree species except P. sylvestriformis grown under 500 μL·L-1 CO2 concentration. The dark respiration rates of P. koraiensis and P. sylvestriformis increased under concentration of 700 μL·L-1 CO2, but that of F. mandshurica decreased under both concentrations 700 μL·L-1 and 500 μL·L-1 CO2. The seedlings of F. mandshurica decreased in chlorophyll contents at elevat-ed CO2 concentrations.

  19. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  20. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  1. Landform elevation suggests ecohydrologic footprints in subsurface geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Heffernan, J. B.; Martin, J. B.; Murray, A.; Osborne, T.; Cohen, M. J.; Kobziar, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    Many landscapes exhibit patterns in their arrangement of biota, or in their surface geomorphology as a result of biotic activity. Examples occur around the globe and include northern peatlands, Sahelian savannas, and shallow marine reefs. Such self-organized patterning is strongly suggestive of coupled, reciprocal feedbacks (i.e. locally positive, and distally negative) among biota and their environment. Much research on patterned landscapes has concerned emergent biogeomorphologic surfaces such as those found in peatlands, or the influence of biota on soil formation or transport. Our research concerns ecohydrologic feedbacks hypothesized to produce patterned occurrence of depressions in a subtropical limestone karst landscape. Our findings show strong evidence of self-organized patterning, in the form of overdispersed dissolution basins. Distributions of randomized bedrock elevation measurements on the landscape are bimodal, with means clustered about either higher- or lower-elevation modes. Measurements on the thin mantle of soil overlying this landscape, however, display reduced bimodality and mode separation. These observations indicate abiotic processes in diametric opposition to the biogenic forces which may be responsible for generating landscape pattern. Correlograms show higher spatial autocorrelation among soil measurements compared to bedrock measurements, and measurements of soil-layer thickness show high negative correlation with bedrock elevation. Our results are consistent with predictions of direct ecohydrologic feedbacks that would produce patterned "footprints" directly on bedrock, and of abiotic processes operating to obfuscate this pattern. The study suggests new steps to identify biogeochemical mechanisms for landscape patterning: an "ecological drill" by which plant communities modify geology.

  2. Elevations in core and muscle temperature impairs repeated sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drust, B.; Rasmussen, P.; Mohr, Magni

    2005-01-01

    on a cycle ergometer in normal (approximately 20 degrees C, control) and hot (40 degrees C, hyperthermia) environments. RESULTS: Completion of the intermittent protocol in the heat elevated core and muscle temperatures (39.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C; 40.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C), heart rate (178 +/- 11 beats min(-1...... metabolic fatigue agents and we, therefore, suggest that it may relate to the influence of high core temperature on the function of the central nervous system.......)), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (18 +/- 1) and noradrenaline (38.9 +/- 13.2 micromol l(-1)) (all P

  3. Catchment power and the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to the outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Sklar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of water, sediment, and solutes by catchments is influenced by the distribution of source elevations and their travel distances to the outlet. For example, elevation affects the magnitude and phase of precipitation, as well as the climatic factors that govern rock weathering, which influence the production rate and initial particle size of sediments. Travel distance, in turn, affects the timing of flood peaks at the outlet and the degree of sediment size reduction by wear, which affects particle size distributions at the outlet. The distributions of elevation and travel distance have been studied extensively but separately, as the hypsometric curve and width function. Yet a catchment can be considered as a collection of points, each with paired values of elevation and travel distance. For every point, the ratio of elevation to travel distance defines the mean slope for transport of mass to the outlet. Recognizing that mean slope is proportional to the average rate of loss of potential energy by water and sediment during transport to the outlet, we use the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to define two new metrics for catchment geometry: "source-area power", and the corresponding catchment-wide integral "catchment power". We explore patterns in source-area and catchment power across three study catchments spanning a range of relief and drainage area. We then develop an empirical algorithm for generating synthetic source-area power distributions, which can be parameterized with data from natural catchments. This new way of quantifying the three-dimensional geometry of catchments can be used to explore the effects of topography on the distribution on fluxes of water, sediment, isotopes, and other landscape products passing through catchment outlets, and may provide a fresh perspective on problems of both practical and theoretical interest.

  4. PWR primary system chemistry: Experience with elevated pH at Millstone Point Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, C.A.; McAtee, K.R.; Roesmer, J.

    1990-08-01

    The maintenance of an elevated pH of the hot reactor coolant in several plants for a fraction of their respective fuel cycles confirmed earlier laboratory findings that an elevated pH (>6.9 at temperature) resulted in reduced component radiation fields. In view of the potential radiological benefits of elevated coolant pH operation, Northeast Utilities (NU) in support of an EPRI- Westinghouse program, agreed to operate the Millstone 3 plants as a demonstration of elevated coolant pH during operation with extended fuel cycles. This report represents the data and describes the effects of operation of the Millstone 3 cycle 2 core at an elevated hot coolant pH of 7.0--7.5 on Zircaloy cladding corrosion, and on the buildup of core crud and excore radiation fields. The following preliminary conclusion were made based on an evaluation of the data obtained after one cycle of Millstone 3 elevated coolant pH operation. Although some of the measured zirconium dioxide thicknesses are greater than expected, the data does not indicate a significant lithium effect on the corrosion rate of the fuel cladding because of the relatively high variability of thickness measurements on rods of similar duty. There was no observable effect of the higher pH operation on any of the other fuel assembly components. Changes in core crude deposit thickness, chemical and radiochemical composition and apparent residence time were noted. These changes are consistent with the expected effects of a more dissolving coolant on activity and crud transport in a primary circuit. The overall radiation exposure rate trends from cycle 1 to cycle 2 indicated a favorable effect of the higher pH operation. 17 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Helicopter blades running elevation measurement using omnidirectional vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengtao CAI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omnidirectional dynamic space parameters of high-speed rotating helicopter blades are precise 3D vector description of the blades. In particular, the elevation difference is directly related to the aerodynamic performance and maneuverability of the helicopter. The state of the art detection techniques based on optics and common vision have several drawbacks, such as high demands on devices but poor extensibility, limited measurement range and fixed measurement position. In this paper, a novel approach of helicopter blades running elevation measurement is proposed based on omnidirectional vision. With the advantages of panoramic visual imaging integration, 360° field of view and rotation in-variance, high-resolution images of all rotating blades positions are obtained at one time. By studying the non-linear calibration and calculation model of omnidirectional vision system, aiming at solving the problem of inaccurate visual space mapping model, the omnidirectional and full-scale measurement of the elevation difference are finalized. Experiments are carried out on our multifunctional simulation blades test system and the practical blades test tower, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the proposed method can considerably reduce the complexity of measurement. Keywords: Full-scale measurement, Helicopter blades elevation, Non-linear calibration, Omnidirectional vision, Unified sphere model

  6. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung

    2016-11-01

    The venerid clam ( Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  7. Microplastics have a more profound impact than elevated temperatures on the predatory performance, digestion and energy metabolism of an Amazonian cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Jin, Shi-Rong; Chen, Zai-Zhong; Gao, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Han-Peng; Xu, Zhe

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge on the impacts of microplastics (MPs) pollution on freshwater environments and biota remains limited. Meanwhile, freshwater ecosystems have been threatened by elevated temperatures caused by climate change. To date, no information exists on how MPs-especially under elevated temperature conditions-affect predatory performance, digestive processes and metabolic pathways in freshwater organisms. Here, we examined MPs, elevated temperature and their combined effects on juveniles (0+ group) of an Amazonian cichlid, the discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus). For 30 days, fish were exposed to ambient or elevated temperatures (i.e., 28 or 31 °C) in the absence or presence of MPs (i.e., 0 or 200 μg/L). The following metrics were quantified: MPs accumulation; predatory performance; and biomarkers involved in neurotransmission, digestion and energy production. The results showed that survival rate and body length were not affected by MPs, elevated temperatures or their combination. Elevated temperatures resulted in an increase in MP concentrations in fish bodies. Exposure to MPs decreased the post-exposure predatory performance (PEPP) at ambient temperatures but not at elevated temperatures. Elevated temperatures, however, had no effect on the PEPP but antagonistically interacted with MPs, leading to similar predatory performances under present and future conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was only affected by MPs and decreased in the presence of MPs, indicating adverse effects in nervous and neuromuscular function and, thus, potentially in predatory performance. Trypsin activity was only influenced by MPs and decreased during exposure to MPs. Elevated temperatures or MPs alone increased the amylase activity but interacted antagonistically. Lipase activity was not influenced by either of the two stressors. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was affected by MPs or elevated temperatures alone and decreased with both stressors

  8. Effects of fully open-air [CO2] elevation on leaf photosynthesis and ultrastructure of Isatis indigotica fort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xingyu; Li, Ping; Feng, Yongxiang; Han, Xue; Gao, Ji; Lin, Erda; Han, Yuanhuai

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine relies heavily on herbs, yet there is no information on how these herb plants would respond to climate change. In order to gain insight into such response, we studied the effect of elevated [CO2] on Isatis indigotica Fort, one of the most popular Chinese herb plants. The changes in leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure and biomass yield in response to elevated [CO2] (550±19 µmol mol(-1)) were determined at the Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Photosynthetic ability of I. indigotica was improved under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (P N), water use efficiency (WUE) and maximum rate of electron transport (J max) of upper most fully-expended leaves, but not stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration ratio (Tr) and maximum velocity of carboxylation (V c,max). Elevated [CO2] significantly increased leaf intrinsic efficiency of PSII (Fv'/Fm') and quantum yield of PSII(ΦPS II ), but decreased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and did not affect leaf proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP) and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). The structural chloroplast membrane, grana layer and stroma thylakoid membranes were intact under elevated [CO2], though more starch grains were accumulated within the chloroplasts than that of under ambient [CO2]. While the yield of I. indigotica was higher due to the improved photosynthesis under elevated [CO2], the content of adenosine, one of the functional ingredients in indigowoad root was not affected.

  9. Topobathymetric elevation model development using a new methodology: Coastal National Elevation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Tyler, Dean; Gesch, Dean B.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John

    2016-01-01

    During the coming decades, coastlines will respond to widely predicted sea-level rise, storm surge, and coastalinundation flooding from disastrous events. Because physical processes in coastal environments are controlled by the geomorphology of over-the-land topography and underwater bathymetry, many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require detailed knowledge of the near-shore topography and bathymetry. In this paper, an updated methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) Applications Project is presented for developing coastal topobathymetric elevation models (TBDEMs) from multiple topographic data sources with adjacent intertidal topobathymetric and offshore bathymetric sources to generate seamlessly integrated TBDEMs. This repeatable, updatable, and logically consistent methodology assimilates topographic data (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) into a seamless coastal elevation model. Within the overarching framework, vertical datum transformations are standardized in a workflow that interweaves spatially consistent interpolation (gridding) techniques with a land/water boundary mask delineation approach. Output gridded raster TBDEMs are stacked into a file storage system of mosaic datasets within an Esri ArcGIS geodatabase for efficient updating while maintaining current and updated spatially referenced metadata. Topobathymetric data provide a required seamless elevation product for several science application studies, such as shoreline delineation, coastal inundation mapping, sediment-transport, sea-level rise, storm surge models, and tsunami impact assessment. These detailed coastal elevation data are critical to depict regions prone to climate change impacts and are essential to planners and managers responsible for mitigating the associated risks and costs to both human communities and ecosystems. The CoNED methodology approach has been used to construct integrated TBDEM models

  10. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  11. Lab and Field Warming Similarly Advance Germination Date and Limit Germination Rate for High and Low Elevation Provenances of Two Widespread Subalpine Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara M. Kueppers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting upslope shifts in subalpine tree ranges with warming requires understanding how future forest populations will be affected by climate change, as these are the seed sources for new tree line and alpine populations. Early life history stages are particularly sensitive to climate and are also influenced by genetic variation among populations. We tested the climate sensitivity of germination and initial development for two widely distributed subalpine conifers, using controlled-environment growth chambers with one temperature regime from subalpine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and one 5 °C warmer, and two soil moisture levels. We tracked germination rate and timing, rate of seedling development, and seedling morphology for two seed provenances separated by ~300 m elevation. Warming advanced germination timing and initial seedling development by a total of ~2 weeks, advances comparable to mean differences between provenances. Advances were similar for both provenances and species; however, warming reduced the overall germination rate, as did low soil moisture, only for Picea engelmannii. A three-year field warming and watering experiment planted with the same species and provenances yielded responses qualitatively consistent with the lab trials. Together these experiments indicate that in a warmer, drier climate, P. engelmannii germination, and thus regeneration, could decline, which could lead to declining subalpine forest populations, while Pinus flexilis forest populations could remain robust as a seed source for upslope range shifts.

  12. Fatigue crack propagation under elastic plastic medium at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Yuuki, R.; Sakon, T.; Sunamoto, D.; Tokimasa, K.; Makino, Y.; Kitagawa, M; Shingai, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to establish the testing method to obtain compatible data on the low cycle fatigue crack propagation at elevated temperature, and to investigate the parameter controlling the crack propagation rate. In the present study, the preliminary experiments have been carried out on low cycle fatigue crack propagation behaviour in type 304 stainless steel in air at 550 0 C, using two types of specimen with a through thickness notch. Both strain controlled and stress controlled fatigue tests have been done under a fully reversed strain or stress cycling. The data obtained are correlated with some fracture mechanics parameters and are discussed with the appropriate parameter for evaluating the low cycle fatigue crack propagation behaviour at elevated temperature. (author)

  13. Biochar addition induced the same plant responses as elevated CO2 in mine spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaling; Drigo, Barbara; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Menke, Carl; Zhang, Manyun; Xu, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is one of the major constrain factors for biochar in improving plant growth, the same for elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Hence, we hypothesized that (1) biochar would induce the same plant responses as elevated CO 2 under N-poor conditions; (2) elevated CO 2 would decrease the potential of biochar application in improving plant growth. To test these hypotheses, we assessed the effects of pinewood biochar, produced at three pyrolytic temperatures (650, 750 and 850 °C), on C and N allocation at the whole-plant level of three plant species (Austrostipa ramossissima, Dichelachne micrantha and Isolepis nodosa) grown in the N poor mine spoil under both ambient (400 μL L -1 ) and elevated (700 μL L -1 ) CO 2 concentrations. Our data showed that biochar addition (1) significantly decreased leaf total N and δ 15 N (P < 0.05); (2) decreased leaf total N and δ 15 N more pronouncedly than those of root; and (3) showed more pronounced effects on improving plant biomass under ambient CO 2 than under elevated CO 2 concentration. Hence, it remained a strong possibility that biochar addition induced the same plant physiological responses as elevated CO 2 in the N-deficient mine spoil. As expected, elevated CO 2 decreased the ability of biochar addition in improving plant growth.

  14. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Does growth under elevated CO{sub 2} moderate photoacclimation in rice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbart, S.; Murchie, E.H.; Lake, J.A. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Bioscience, Sutton Bonington (United Kingdom); Bird, S. [Univ. of York. Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Dept. of Biology, York (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    Acclimation of plant photosynthesis to light irradiance (photoacclimation) involves adjustments in levels of pigments and proteins and larger scale changes in leaf morphology. To investigate the impact of rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} on crop physiology, we hypothesize that elevated CO{sub 2} interacts with photoacclimation in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice was grown under high light (HL: 700 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), low light (LL: 200 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), ambient CO{sub 2} (400 {mu}l l{sup -1}) and elevated CO{sub 2} (1000 {mu}l l{sup -1}). Leaf six was measured throughout. Obscuring meristem tissue during development did not alter leaf thickness indicating that mature leaves are responsible for sensing light during photoacclimation. Elevated CO{sub 2} raised growth chamber photosynthesis and increased tiller formation at both light levels, while it increased leaf length under LL but not under HL. Elevated CO{sub 2} always resulted in increased leaf growth rate and tiller production. Changes in leaf thickness, leaf area, Rubisco content, stem and leaf starch, sucrose and fructose content were all dominated by irradiance and unaffected by CO{sub 2}. However, stomata responded differently; they were significantly smaller in LL grown plants compared to HL but this effect was significantly suppressed under elevated CO{sub 2}. Stomatal density was lower under LL, but this required elevated CO{sub 2} and the magnitude was adaxial or abaxial surface-dependent. We conclude that photoacclimation in rice involves a systemic signal. Furthermore, extra carbohydrate produced under elevated CO{sub 2} is utilized in enhancing leaf and tiller growth and does not enhance or inhibit any feature of photoacclimation with the exception of stomatal morphology. (Author)

  16. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  17. Changing climate response in near-treeline bristlecone pine with elevation and aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, Matthew W; Hughes, Malcolm K; Larson, Evan R; Bunn, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    In the White Mountains of California, eight bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) tree-ring width chronologies were developed from trees at upper treeline and just below upper treeline along North- and South-facing elevational transects from treeline to ∼90 m below. There is evidence for a climate-response threshold between approximately 60–80 vertical m below treeline, above which trees have shown a positive growth-response to temperature and below which they do not. Chronologies from 80 m or more below treeline show a change in climate response and do not correlate strongly with temperature-sensitive chronologies developed from trees growing at upper treeline. Rather, they more closely resemble lower elevation precipitation-sensitive chronologies. At the highest sites, trees on South-facing slopes grow faster than trees on North-facing slopes. High growth rates in the treeline South-facing trees have declined since the mid-1990s. This suggests the possibility that the climate-response of the highest South-facing trees may have changed and that temperature may no longer be the main limiting factor for growth on the South aspect. These results indicate that increasing warmth may lead to a divergence between tree growth and temperature at previously temperature-limited sites. (letter)

  18. Effects of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Sha; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Gai, Lingtong; Zhang, Changsheng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 and drought are key consequences of climate change and affect soil processes and plant growth. This study investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on the microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of Bothriochloa ischaemum and

  19. Plastic responses to elevated temperature in low and high elevation populations of three grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-01-01

    Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate.

  20. Decomposition of Metrosideros polymorpha leaf litter along elevational gradients in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Douglas R. Turner; Peter M. Vitousek

    2000-01-01

    We examined interactions between temperature, soil development, and decomposition on three elevational gradients, the upper and lower ends of each being situated on a common lava flow or ash deposit. We used the reciprocal transplant technique to estimate decomposition rates of Metrosideros polymorpha leaf litter during a three-year period at warm...

  1. Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) air temperature are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the daily data of near-surface air temperature ( T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the daily, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry air conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the

  2. MATERNAL HEMOLYSIS, ELEVATED LIVER-ENZYMES AND LOW PLATELETS SYNDROME - SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN THE NEWBORN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EELTINK, CM; VANLINGEN, RA; AARNOUDSE, JG; DERKS, JB; OKKEN, A

    To evaluate the effects of maternal haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome on the fetus and neonate we retrospectively investigated the outcome of 87 pregnancies. All women showed thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and haemolysis. None of them died. Nine infants

  3. Metal-silicon reaction rates - The effects of capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence is presented showing that the presence of the commonly used anti-reflection coating material Ta2O5 on the free surface of contact metallization can either suppress or enhance, depending on the system, the interaction that takes place at elevated temperatures between the metallization and the underlying Si. The cap layer is shown to suppress both the generation and annihilation of vacancies at the free surface of the metal which are necessary to support metal-Si interactons. Evidence is also presented indicating that the mechanical condition of the free metal surface has a significant effect on the metal-silicon reaction rate.

  4. Distinct soil bacterial communities along a small-scale elevational gradient in alpine tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong eShen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The elevational diversity pattern for microorganisms has received great attention recently but is still understudied, and phylogenetic relatedness is rarely studied for microbial elevational distributions. Using a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique, we examined the biodiversity patterns for soil bacterial communities of tundra ecosystem along 2000–2500 m elevations on Changbai Mountain in China. Bacterial taxonomic richness displayed a linear decreasing trend with increasing elevation. Phylogenetic diversity and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD exhibited a unimodal pattern with elevation. Bacterial communities were more phylogenetically clustered than expected by chance at all elevations based on the standardized effect size of MNTD metric. The bacterial communities differed dramatically among elevations, and the community composition was significantly correlated with soil total carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and dissolved organic carbon. Multiple ordinary least squares regression analysis showed that the observed biodiversity patterns strongly correlated with soil total carbon and C:N ratio. Taken together, this is the first time that a significant bacterial diversity pattern has been observed across a small-scale elevational gradient. Our results indicated that soil carbon and nitrogen contents were the critical environmental factors affecting bacterial elevational distribution in Changbai Mountain tundra. This suggested that ecological niche-based environmental filtering processes related to soil carbon and nitrogen contents could play a dominant role in structuring bacterial communities along the elevational gradient.

  5. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCING OF PROJECT DISCRIPTIONS OF ELEVATOR ON PARAMETERS OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of basic elements of band bucket elevators is their drive. For determination of power drive it is necessary to conduct calculations on standard by methods, in what it is needed to expend enough time. One of project parameters is productivity of elevator. It is necessary to build parametric dependence of power drive of elevator on its design capacity that takes into account a type and descriptions of load, lifting height, standard sizes and parameters of buckets and tapes. Methodology. Using the method of hauling calculation of band buckets elevators, the parametric dependences of power drive of high-speed elevators are built with deep and shallow buckets from their productivity at fixed type of load and height of getting up. Findings. It is set on the basis of the built parametric dependences that the change function of a size of elevator power from design capacity (at fixed to the lifting height, load type, rate of tape movement is piecewise and droningly increasing. The intervals of project values of productivity, which provide the permanent size of elevator power drive are certain in a general view. As the example of application of the recived results the construction process of power drive dependence from design capacity of elevator of shotblasting room, which is intended for transporting of the metallic shot using for consolidating of carriage springs, is considered. For concrete type of load and lifting height of such elevator graphic dependence of power drive on productivity was built. Originality. Parametric dependences of elevator power drive on its design capacity were first built, which take into account a type and physical and mechanical descriptions of load, lifting height, standard sizes and parameters of buckets and tapes. Practical value. The use of the built dependences enables in relation to rapid determination of approximate value of power drive of vertical high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on the

  6. An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; McGoldrick, Adrian; Davenport, Colin; Kelleher, Grainne; Byrne, Brendan; Tormey, William; Smith, Diarmuid; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-09-01

    Horse-racing jockeys are a group of weight-restricted athletes, who have been suggested as undertaking rapid and extreme weight cycling practices in order to comply with stipulated body-mass standards. The aim of this study was to examine bone mass, turnover and endocrine function in jockeys and to compare this group with age, gender and body mass index matched controls. Twenty male professional jockeys and 20 healthy male controls participated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and early morning fasting blood and urine samples were used to measure bone mass, turnover and a hormonal profile. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in jockeys (1.143 ± 0.05 vs. 1.27 ± 0.06 g cm(-3), p professional jockeys have an elevated rate of bone loss and reduced bone mass that appears to be associated with disrupted hormonal activity. It is likely that this may have occurred in response to the chronic weight cycling habitually experienced by this group.

  7. Relationship between Cardiometabolic Parameters and Elevated Resting and Effort Heart Rate in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Fernanda da; Burgos, Miria Suzana; Silva, Priscila Tatiana da; Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Welser, Letícia; Sehn, Ana Paula; Horta, Jorge André; Mello, Elza Daniel de; Reuter, Cézane Priscila

    2017-09-01

    Little has been studied on heart rate and its relationship with metabolic disorders. To identify possible association between heart rate (HR) and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated 2.098 subjects, aged between 7 and 17 years. The variables evaluated were: HR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), double-product (DP), myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2), lipids, glucose and uric acid levels, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The values of HR at rest and effort were divided into quartiles. The association between continuous values of HR and cardiometabolic indicators was tested by linear regression. LDL cholesterol presented a significantly higher mean (p = 0.003) in schoolchildren with resting HR greater or equal to 91 bpm, compared to students with less than 75 bpm. Compared with the quartiles of effort HR, SBP, DBP, glucose and uric acid presented high values when HR was greater or equal than 185 bpm. SBP, glucose and HDL cholesterol demonstrated a significant association with resting HR. Uric acid was observed as a predictor of increased effort HR. Schoolchildren with a higher resting HR have higher mean of LDL cholesterol. For effort HR, there was an increase in blood pressure, glucose and uric acid levels. Uric acid has been shown to be a predictor of elevated effort HR. Pouco se tem estudado sobre frequência cardíaca e suas relações com alterações metabólicas. Verificar se existe associação entre frequência cardíaca e disfunções metabólicas em crianças e adolescentes. Estudo transversal com 2.098 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos. As variáveis avaliadas foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e de pulso (PP), duplo-produto (DP), consumo de oxigênio pelo miocárdio (mVO2), perfil lipídico e glicêmico, níveis de ácido úrico, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência da cintura

  8. Grasshopper community response to climatic change: variation along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufio, César R; McGuire, Chris R; Bowers, M Deane; Guralnick, Robert P

    2010-09-23

    The impacts of climate change on phenological responses of species and communities are well-documented; however, many such studies are correlational and so less effective at assessing the causal links between changes in climate and changes in phenology. Using grasshopper communities found along an elevational gradient, we present an ideal system along the Front Range of Colorado USA that provides a mechanistic link between climate and phenology. This study utilizes past (1959-1960) and present (2006-2008) surveys of grasshopper communities and daily temperature records to quantify the relationship between amount and timing of warming across years and elevations, and grasshopper timing to adulthood. Grasshopper communities were surveyed at four sites, Chautauqua Mesa (1752 m), A1 (2195 m), B1 (2591 m), and C1 (3048 m), located in prairie, lower montane, upper montane, and subalpine life zones, respectively. Changes to earlier first appearance of adults depended on the degree to which a site warmed. The lowest site showed little warming and little phenological advancement. The next highest site (A1) warmed a small, but significant, amount and grasshopper species there showed inconsistent phenological advancements. The two highest sites warmed the most, and at these sites grasshoppers showed significant phenological advancements. At these sites, late-developing species showed the greatest advancements, a pattern that correlated with an increase in rate of late-season warming. The number of growing degree days (GDDs) associated with the time to adulthood for a species was unchanged across the past and present surveys, suggesting that phenological advancement depended on when a set number of GDDs is reached during a season. Our analyses provide clear evidence that variation in amount and timing of warming over the growing season explains the vast majority of phenological variation in this system. Our results move past simple correlation and provide a stronger process

  9. Grasshopper community response to climatic change: variation along an elevational gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César R Nufio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on phenological responses of species and communities are well-documented; however, many such studies are correlational and so less effective at assessing the causal links between changes in climate and changes in phenology. Using grasshopper communities found along an elevational gradient, we present an ideal system along the Front Range of Colorado USA that provides a mechanistic link between climate and phenology.This study utilizes past (1959-1960 and present (2006-2008 surveys of grasshopper communities and daily temperature records to quantify the relationship between amount and timing of warming across years and elevations, and grasshopper timing to adulthood. Grasshopper communities were surveyed at four sites, Chautauqua Mesa (1752 m, A1 (2195 m, B1 (2591 m, and C1 (3048 m, located in prairie, lower montane, upper montane, and subalpine life zones, respectively. Changes to earlier first appearance of adults depended on the degree to which a site warmed. The lowest site showed little warming and little phenological advancement. The next highest site (A1 warmed a small, but significant, amount and grasshopper species there showed inconsistent phenological advancements. The two highest sites warmed the most, and at these sites grasshoppers showed significant phenological advancements. At these sites, late-developing species showed the greatest advancements, a pattern that correlated with an increase in rate of late-season warming. The number of growing degree days (GDDs associated with the time to adulthood for a species was unchanged across the past and present surveys, suggesting that phenological advancement depended on when a set number of GDDs is reached during a season.Our analyses provide clear evidence that variation in amount and timing of warming over the growing season explains the vast majority of phenological variation in this system. Our results move past simple correlation and provide a stronger

  10. History of Elevators and Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiki

    The history of traction drive elevators in Japan is described. The electrical technologies such as the microprocessor car control and the VVVF motor control made remarkable progress leading to higher reliability and energy savings. Then, the various machine-room-less elevators have been developed and the space saving technology, such as the shuttle and the double-deck elevators become important, too. The elevators used for evacuation in case of emergencies are also discussed.

  11. Michelson-Morley in Einstein's elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Fred; Pierce, Ayal

    2010-02-01

    Experiments are proposed in which a Michelson-Morley interferometer is placed in Einstein's thought experiments where elevators are subjected to varied accelerated fields. Unbeknownst to the observers inside the elevators, they are placed in different circumstances: on the surface of the Earth, in free fall, in space distant from any mass, and inside a rotating space station. By use of not one, but two objects, the observer will be challenged to determine the nature and shape of the accelerated field, if any, inside the elevator. It will be demonstrated that the nature of the accelerated field can be determined easily from inside the elevator by the motion of the two objects released by the observer. It will also be shown that, for the elevator on the space station which is generating an ``artificial gravity'' field by rotation, Michelson-Morley would have the same null result as on Earth. However, the Michelson-Morley experiment is adapted so that in addition to the two horizontal arms of the interferometer (parallel to the floor of the elevator) a vertical arm is added perpendicular to the floor facing towards the ceiling. Such a vertical arm added to the Michelson-Morley experiment adds a new dimension to examining each accelerated field, including gravity. )

  12. Development of strand burner for solid propellant burning rate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A; Mamat, R; Ali, W K Wan

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that a strand burner is an apparatus that provides burning rate measurements of a solid propellant at an elevated pressure in order to obtain the burning characteristics of a propellant. This paper describes the facilities developed by author that was used in his studies. The burning rate characteristics of solid propellant have be evaluated over five different chamber pressures ranging from 1 atm to 31 atm using a strand burner. The strand burner has a mounting stand that allows the propellant strand to be mounted vertically. The strand was ignited electrically using hot wire, and the burning time was recorded by electronic timer. Wire technique was used to measure the burning rate. Preliminary results from these techniques are presented. This study shows that the strand burner can be used on propellant strands to obtain accurate low pressure burning rate data

  13. Enhanced growth, yield and physiological characteristics of rice under elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzar, A.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan; Said, Mohd Nizam Mohd; Doni, Febri; Zaidan, Mohd Waznul Adly Mohd; Fathurahman, Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is rapidly increasing in the atmosphere. It is an essential element for photosynthesis which attracts attention among scientists on how plants will perform in the rising CO2 level. Rice as one of the most important staple food in the world has been studied on the growth responses under elevated CO2. The present research was carried out to determine the growth and physiology of rice in elevated CO2 condition. This research was carried out using complete randomized design with elevated (800 ppm) and ambient CO2. Results showed that growth parameters such as plant height, tillers and number of leaves per plant were increased by elevated CO2. The positive changes in plant physiology when exposed to high CO2 concentration includes significant change (p<0.05) in yield parameters such as panicle number, grain number per panicle, biomass and 1000 grain weight under the elevated CO2 of 800 ppm.

  14. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to increased whole-plant isoprene emission in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Niinemets, Ülo; Hüve, Katja; Rasulov, Bahtijor; Noe, Steffen M

    2013-05-01

    Effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on plant isoprene emissions are controversial. Relying on leaf-scale measurements, most models simulating isoprene emissions in future higher [CO2] atmospheres suggest reduced emission fluxes. However, combined effects of elevated [CO2] on leaf area growth, net assimilation and isoprene emission rates have rarely been studied on the canopy scale, but stimulation of leaf area growth may largely compensate for possible [CO2] inhibition reported at the leaf scale. This study tests the hypothesis that stimulated leaf area growth leads to increased canopy isoprene emission rates. We studied the dynamics of canopy growth, and net assimilation and isoprene emission rates in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) grown under 380 and 780 μmol mol(-1) [CO2]. A theoretical framework based on the Chapman-Richards function to model canopy growth and numerically compare the growth dynamics among ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2]-grown plants was developed. Plants grown under elevated [CO2] had higher C : N ratio, and greater total leaf area, and canopy net assimilation and isoprene emission rates. During ontogeny, these key canopy characteristics developed faster and stabilized earlier under elevated [CO2]. However, on a leaf area basis, foliage physiological traits remained in a transient state over the whole experiment. These results demonstrate that canopy-scale dynamics importantly complements the leaf-scale processes, and that isoprene emissions may actually increase under higher [CO2] as a result of enhanced leaf area production. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Down-regulation of tissue N:P ratios in terrestrial plants by elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Luo, Yiqi; Elser, James; Wang, Ying-ping; Loladze, Irakli; Zhang, Quanfa; Dennis, Sam

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations generally alter element stoichiometry in plants. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the elevated CO2 impact on plant nitrogen: phosphorus (N:P) ratios and the underlying mechanism has not been conducted. We synthesized the results from 112 previously published studies using meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of elevated CO2 on the N:P ratio of terrestrial plants and to explore the underlying mechanism based on plant growth and soil P dynamics. Our results show that terrestrial plants grown under elevated CO2 had lower N:P ratios in both above- and belowground biomass across different ecosystem types. The response ratio for plant N:P was negatively correlated with the response ratio for plant growth in croplands and grasslands, and showed a stronger relationship for P than for N. In addition, the CO2-induced down-regulation of plant N:P was accompanied by 19.3% and 4.2% increases in soil phosphatase activity and labile P, respectively, and a 10.1% decrease in total soil P. Our results show that down-regulation of plant N:P under elevated CO2 corresponds with accelerated soil P cycling. These findings should be useful for better understanding of terrestrial plant stoichiometry in response to elevated CO2 and of the underlying mechanisms affecting nutrient dynamics under climate change.

  16. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluations of Lightweight Aggregate Geopolymer Concrete before and after Exposed to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Omar A; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of a lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) synthesized by the alkali-activation of a fly ash source (FA) before and after being exposed to elevated temperatures, ranging from 100 to 800 °C. The results show that the LWAGC unexposed to the elevated temperatures possesses a good strength-to-weight ratio compared with other LWAGCs available in the published literature. The unexposed LWAGC also shows an excellent strength development versus aging times, up to 365 days. For the exposed LWAGC to the elevated temperatures of 100 to 800 °C, the results illustrate that the concretes gain compressive strength after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Afterward, the strength of the LWAGC started to deteriorate and decrease after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 400 °C, and up to 800 °C. Based on the mechanical strength results of the exposed LWAGCs to elevated temperatures of 100 °C to 800 °C, the relationship between the exposure temperature and the obtained residual compressive strength is statistically analyzed and achieved. In addition, the microstructure investigation of the unexposed LWAGC shows a good bonding between aggregate and mortar at the interface transition zone (ITZ). However, this bonding is subjected to deterioration as the LWAGC is exposed to elevated temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C by increasing the microcrack content and swelling of the unreacted silicates.

  17. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  18. Simulation on spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft for a high-rise building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft of a high-rise building is influenced by many driving facts. We simulate smoke spreading in the elevator shaft, stair room, and pre-chamber with and without different supplied pressurized air. The simulation shows that smoke moves very fast in the elevator shaft. When a 12 floor high-rise building is in fire, smoke can fill up the elevator shaft in less than 1.5 min after a fire started, temperature in the elevator shaft can be higher than 187°C in 5 min, and the concentration of CO can also reach a high level. The elevator shaft has a very low visibility in less than about 100 s.

  19. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  20. Elevated temperature and CO2 concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO 2 concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO 2 concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO 2 concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO 2 levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO 2 and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO 2 and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO 2 concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  1. PLC VVVF Elevator Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yujian; Gui, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce the PLC VVVF elevator and its control system. The thesis can be divided into three parts. The first part is about the overview of the lift: the kinds of the lift and the structure of the lift, it shows the knowledge about the components and the operating systems of the lift. The second part is about the PLC control system, it’s about the operations of the lift from the introduction about the hardware and software of the PLC control system. And the thi...

  2. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  3. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  4. Prognostic implications of stress hyperglycemia in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. Prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Núñez, Julio; Blasco, M Luisa; Miñana, Gema; Martínez-Maicas, Helena; Carbonell, Nieves; Palau, Patricia; Bodí, Vicente; Sanchis, Juan

    2011-03-01

    In patients with acute myocardial infarction, elevation of plasma glucose levels is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between stress hyperglycemia and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). We analyzed 834 consecutive patients admitted for STEMI to the Coronary Care Unit of our center. Association between admission glucose and mortality was assessed with Cox regression analysis. Discriminative accuracy of the multivariate model was assessed by Harrell's C statistic. Eighty-nine (10.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Optimal threshold glycemia level of 140mg/dl on admission to predict mortality was obtained by ROC curves. Those who presented glucose ≥140mg/dl showed higher rates of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias (28% vs. 18%, P=.001), complicative bundle branch block (5% vs. 2%, P=.005), new atrioventricular block (9% vs. 5%, P=.05) and in-hospital mortality (15% vs. 5%, PStress hyperglycemia on admission is a predictor of mortality and arrhythmias in patients with STEMI and could be used in the stratification of risk in these patients. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual swing-up elevator well drilling apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, H.; Vorarittinapa, T.

    1984-09-18

    A well drilling apparatus includes a first swing-up elevator platform on which the mast structure is pivotally mounted. After the mast structure has been raised to its erect position, the first elevator platform is elevated to carry the mast structure to a high operational level. A second swing-up elevator platform is provided to carry the drawworks to the same high level at which the two elevator platforms are coupled together to form the working floor. All of the raising and elevating operations can be accomplished with power supplied by the drawworks. The elevator platforms may be lowered after the drilling operation has been accomplished without interfering with any control valve structures that have been placed on the wellhead while the structure was at its raised operational level; the swing-up elevator platforms swing down in opposite directions over any such valve structure.

  6. Steady flow rate to a partially penetrating well with seepage face in an unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz-Koohenjani, Siavash; Samani, Nozar; Kompani-Zare, Mazda

    2011-06-01

    The flow rate to fully screened, partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer is numerically simulated using MODFLOW 2000, taking into account the flow from the seepage face and decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer towards the well. A simple three-step method is developed to find the top of the seepage face and hence the seepage-face length. The method is verified by comparing it with the results of previous predictive methods. The results show that the component of flow through the seepage face can supply a major portion of the total pumping rate. Variations in flow rate as a function of the penetration degree, elevation of the water level in the well and the distance to the far constant head boundary are investigated and expressed in terms of dimensionless curves and equations. These curves and equations can be used to design the degree of penetration for which the allowable steady pumping rate is attained for a given elevation of water level in the well. The designed degree of penetration or flow rate will assure the sustainability of the aquifer storage, and can be used as a management criterion for issuing drilling well permits by groundwater protection authorities.

  7. Elevated cardiac troponin I predicts cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li'na; Cao Yanfei; Qiu Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Whether elevated cTnI is associated with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in patients with hypertension (HT) without left ventricular(LV) systolic dysfunction is not clear. Method: We measured cTnI serum level in 170 patients with essential HT without LV systolic dysfunction (LVEF 55%),renal failure,and prior cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases. Besides, control group of 40 normal presons was established and following up (45±38)months. Results: Level of cTnI was elevated (≥0.04 ng/ml) in 15 (8.8%) of the 170 patients and in 0 (0%) of the 40 normal controls. The rate of diabetes mellitus(DM), the cardiothoracic ratio, serum NT-proBNP value, and LV mass index were significantly higher in patients with than without elevated cTnI (DM, 9/15 versus 25/155, P 2 , P=0.0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that significantly fewer (P<0.000001) patients with, than without elevated cTnI remained free of events (hospitalization due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease). Stepwise Cox multivariate analysis revealed that elevated cTnT (hazard ratio, 6.59, P=0.000001) and smoking (hazard ratio, 2.26, P=0.04) were independent predictors of events. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that cTnI is a biomarker and useful predictor of future cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in hypertensive patients. (authors)

  8. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovil, D. V.; Grant, W. D.; Jamison, E. S.; Syder, H.; Desper, O. E.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary design activity consisted of developing and analyzing alternate design concepts and selecting the optimum elevator configuration. This included trade studies in which durability, inspectability, producibility, repairability, and customer acceptance were evaluated. Preliminary development efforts consisted of evaluating and selecting material, identifying ancillary structural development test requirements, and defining full scale ground and flight test requirements necessary to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. After selection of the optimum elevator configuration, detail design was begun and included basic configuration design improvements resulting from manufacturing verification hardware, the ancillary test program, weight analysis, and structural analysis. Detail and assembly tools were designed and fabricated to support a full-scope production program, rather than a limited run. The producibility development programs were used to verify tooling approaches, fabrication processes, and inspection methods for the production mode. Quality parts were readily fabricated and assembled with a minimum rejection rate, using prior inspection methods.

  9. Red cell distribution width is associated with hemoglobin A1C elevation, but not glucose elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue; Wan, Min; Gu, Yeqing; Song, Yanqi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Shi, HongBin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Fei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Ming; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between red cell distribution width (RDW) and elevation of glucose/glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). An analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of adults. People without prediabetes or diabetes (n=7,795) were followed for a mean of 2.90years (range: 1-7years, 95% confidence interval: 2.86-2.94years). Glucose elevation is defined as fasting glucose levels exceeding 5.6mmol/l, or 2-hour glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test exceeding 7.8mmol/l. HbA1c elevation is defined as a HbA1c value exceeding a normal limit of 39mmol/mol (5.7%). Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between RDW quartiles and elevation of HbA1c/glucose. The multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of HbA1c elevation for increased quartiles of RDW were 1.00 (reference), 1.08 (0.89, 1.30), 1.28 (1.07, 1.54), and 1.54 (1.29, 1.85) (P for trend<0.0001). However, no significant association was observed between RDW and blood glucose (fasting and postprandial). Elevated RDW is independently related to future HbA1c elevation, but not to glucose elevation. This suggests that RDW may associate with HbA1c through a non-glycemic way, which should be taken into consideration when using HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion of prediabetes or diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual selection, germline mutation rate and sperm competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller AP

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of sexual selection arises because females obtain viability benefits for their offspring from their mate choice. Females choosing extra-pair fertilization generally favor males with exaggerated secondary sexual characters, and extra-pair paternity increases the variance in male reproductive success. Furthermore, females are assumed to benefit from 'good genes' from extra-pair sires. How additive genetic variance in such viability genes is maintained despite strong directional selection remains an evolutionary enigma. We propose that sexual selection is associated with elevated mutation rates, changing the balance between mutation and selection, thereby increasing variance in fitness and hence the benefits to be obtained from good genes sexual selection. Two hypotheses may account for such elevated mutation: (1 Increased sperm production associated with sperm competition may increase mutation rate. (2 Mutator alleles increase mutation rates that are revealed by the expression of condition-dependent secondary sexual characters used by choosy females during their mate choice. M Petrie has independently developed the idea that mutator alleles may account for the maintenance of genetic variation in viability despite strong directional selection. Results A comparative study of birds revealed a positive correlation between mutation rate at minisatellite loci and extra-pair paternity, but not between mutation rate and relative testes mass which is a measure of relative sperm production. Minisatellite mutation rates were not related to longevity, suggesting a meiotic rather than a mitotic origin of mutations. Conclusion We found evidence of increased mutation rate in species with more intense sexual selection. Increased mutation was not associated with increased sperm production, and we suggest that species with intense sexual selection may maintain elevated mutation rates because sexual selection continuously

  11. Haemodynamic patterns in ST-elevation myocardial infarction : incidence and correlates of elevated filling pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A.; Svilaas, T.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van den Heuvel, A. F. M.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, F.

    Objectives. We sought to study the incidence and clinical correlates of elevated filling pressures in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, without physical signs of heart failure and treated with primary coronary angioplasty. Background. Haemodynamic data, as measured with a

  12. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Douglas A. Kelt; Zhongyu Sun; Hongxiao Liu; Liangjun Hu; Hai Ren; Jun We

    2013-01-01

    While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for medical...

  14. Sex-specific responses of Populus yunnanensis exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu (Switzerland); Jianxun Luo, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu (Switzerland)); Korpelainen, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Populus yunnanensis Dode., a native dioecious woody plant in southwestern China, was employed as a model species to study sex-specific morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, salinity and their combination, the cuttings were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient CO{sub 2} and double ambient CO{sub 2}) and two salt treatments in growth chambers. Males exhibited greater downregulation of net photosynthesis rate (A{sub net}) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) than females at elevated CO{sub 2}, whereas these sexual differences were lessened under salt stress. On the other hand, salinity induced a higher decrease in Anet and CE, more growth inhibition and leaf Cl{sup -} accumulation and more damage to cell organelles in females than in males, whereas the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth were lessened at elevated CO{sub 2}. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} exacerbated membrane lipid peroxidation and organelle damage in females but not in males under salt stress. Our results indicated that: (1) females are more sensitive and suffer from greater negative effects than do males under salt stress, and elevated CO{sub 2} lessens the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth under salt stress; (2) elevated CO{sub 2} tends to aggravate the negative effects of salinity in females; and (3) sex-specific reactions under the combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity are distinct from single-stress responses. Therefore, these results provide evidence for different adaptive responses between plants of different sexes exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. (Author)

  15. Elevated CO2 increases photosynthesis in fluctuating irradiance regardless of photosynthetic induction state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Elias; Zhou, Dianfan; Heuvelink, Ep; Harbinson, Jeremy; Morales Sierra, A.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Leaves are often exposed to fluctuating irradiance, which limits assimilation. Elevated CO2 enhances dynamic photosynthesis (i.e. photosynthesis in fluctuating irradiance) beyond its effects on steady-state photosynthesis rates. Studying the role of CO2 in dynamic photosynthesis is important for

  16. Competition and habitat filtering jointly explain phylogenetic structure of soil bacterial communities across elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Goberna, Marta; Liu, Yuguo; Cui, Ming; Yang, Haishui; Sun, Qixiang; Insam, Heribert; Zhou, Jinxing

    2018-04-24

    The importance of assembly processes in shaping biological communities is poorly understood, especially for microbes. Here we report on the forces that structure soil bacterial communities along a 2000 m elevational gradient. We characterized the relative importance of habitat filtering and competition on phylogenetic structure and turnover in bacterial communities. Bacterial communities exhibited a phylogenetically clustered pattern and were more clustered with increasing elevation. Biotic factors (i.e. relative abundance of dominant bacterial lineages) appeared to be most important to the degree of clustering, evidencing the role of the competitive ability of entire clades in shaping the communities. Phylogenetic turnover showed the greatest correlation to elevation. After controlling for elevation, biotic factors showed greater correlation to phylogenetic turnover than all the habitat variables (i.e. climate, soil and vegetation). Structural equation modelling also identified that elevation and soil organic matter exerted indirect effects on phylogenetic diversity and turnover by determining the dominance of microbial competitors. Our results suggest that competition among bacterial taxa induced by soil carbon contributes to the phylogenetic pattern across elevational gradient in the Tibetan Plateau. This highlights the importance of considering not only abiotic filtering but also biotic interactions in soil bacterial communities across stressful elevational gradients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONZA, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-01-01

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands. PMID:26646571

  18. The 3D Elevation Program—Flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.; Lukas, Vicki

    2018-01-25

    Flood-damage reduction in the United States has been a longstanding but elusive societal goal. The national strategy for reducing flood damage has shifted over recent decades from a focus on construction of flood-control dams and levee systems to a three-pronged strategy to (1) improve the design and operation of such structures, (2) provide more accurate and accessible flood forecasting, and (3) shift the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) National Flood Insurance Program to a more balanced, less costly flood-insurance paradigm. Expanding the availability and use of high-quality, three-dimensional (3D) elevation information derived from modern light detection and ranging (lidar) technologies to provide essential terrain data poses a singular opportunity to dramatically enhance the effectiveness of all three components of this strategy. Additionally, FEMA, the National Weather Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed tools and joint program activities to support the national strategy.The USGS 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) has the programmatic infrastructure to produce and provide essential terrain data. This infrastructure includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding and reduce duplicative efforts, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms that ensure acquisition of consistent, low-cost 3D elevation data, and (3) the technical expertise, standards, and specifications required for consistent, edge-to-edge utility across multiple collection platforms and public access unfettered by individual database designs and limitations.High-quality elevation data, like that collected through 3DEP, are invaluable for assessing and documenting flood risk and communicating detailed information to both responders and planners alike. Multiple flood-mapping programs make use of USGS streamflow and 3DEP data. Flood insurance rate maps, flood documentation studies, and flood-inundation map libraries are products of these

  19. Differences in Body Fat Distribution Play a Role in the Lower Levels of Elevated Fasting Glucose amongst Ghanaian Migrant Women Compared to Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Mary; Kunst, Anton E; Busschers, Wim B; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; Boateng, Linda; Brewster, Lizzy M; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Despite higher levels of obesity, West African migrant women appear to have lower rates of type 2 diabetes than their male counterparts. We investigated the role of body fat distribution in these differences. Cross-sectional study of Ghanaian migrants (97 men, 115 women) aged 18-60 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of BMI, waist and hip measurements with elevated fasting glucose (glucose≥5.6 mmol/L). Linear regression was used to study the association of the same parameters with fasting glucose. Mean BMI, waist and hip circumferences were higher in women than men while the prevalence of elevated fasting glucose was higher in men than in women, 33% versus 19%. With adjustment for age only, men were non-significantly more likely than women to have an elevated fasting glucose, odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% CI: 0.95, 3.46. With correction for BMI, the higher odds among men increased and were statistically significant (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 1.32, 6.10), but with consideration of body fat distribution (by adding both hip and waist in the analysis) differences were no longer significant (OR 1.56 95% CI: 0.66, 3.68). Analysis with fasting glucose as continuous outcome measure showed somewhat similar results. Compared to men, the lower rates of elevated fasting glucose observed among Ghanaian women may be partly due to a more favorable body fat distribution, characterized by both hip and waist measurements.

  20. Differences in Body Fat Distribution Play a Role in the Lower Levels of Elevated Fasting Glucose amongst Ghanaian Migrant Women Compared to Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nicolaou

    Full Text Available Despite higher levels of obesity, West African migrant women appear to have lower rates of type 2 diabetes than their male counterparts. We investigated the role of body fat distribution in these differences.Cross-sectional study of Ghanaian migrants (97 men, 115 women aged 18-60 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of BMI, waist and hip measurements with elevated fasting glucose (glucose≥5.6 mmol/L. Linear regression was used to study the association of the same parameters with fasting glucose.Mean BMI, waist and hip circumferences were higher in women than men while the prevalence of elevated fasting glucose was higher in men than in women, 33% versus 19%. With adjustment for age only, men were non-significantly more likely than women to have an elevated fasting glucose, odds ratio (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 0.95, 3.46. With correction for BMI, the higher odds among men increased and were statistically significant (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 1.32, 6.10, but with consideration of body fat distribution (by adding both hip and waist in the analysis differences were no longer significant (OR 1.56 95% CI: 0.66, 3.68. Analysis with fasting glucose as continuous outcome measure showed somewhat similar results.Compared to men, the lower rates of elevated fasting glucose observed among Ghanaian women may be partly due to a more favorable body fat distribution, characterized by both hip and waist measurements.

  1. An Automatic System for Elevator Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Haidar Sharif; Ibrahim Furkan Ince

    2015-01-01

    An elevator is a conveyor device or transport equipment that moves people or goods between floors or levels or decks of a building, vessel, or other structures. It has become a part and parcel of modern life in developed countries. The number of floors in high buildings, skyscrapers, and towers generate the usage of elevators. If it is simply assumed that each floor has at least two elevators in a thirty-floor building, people call the elevators in each floor even they are already occupied in...

  2. Acclimation of bloom-forming and perennial seaweeds to elevated pCO2 conserved across levels of environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Schaum, Charlotte-Elisa; Lin, Fan; Sun, Ke; Munroe, James R; Zhang, Xiao W; Fan, Xiao; Teng, Lin H; Wang, Yi T; Zhuang, Zhi M; Ye, Naihao

    2017-11-01

    Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO 2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom forming/nonbloom forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an indoor mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO 2 levels ranging from 400 to 2,000 μatm. We find that, across all scales of the experimental setup, ephemeral species of the genus Ulva increase their photosynthesis and growth rates in response to elevated pCO 2 the most, whereas longer-lived perennial species show a smaller increase or a decrease. These differences in short-term growth and photosynthesis rates are likely to give bloom-forming green seaweeds a competitive advantage in mixed communities, and our results thus suggest that coastal seaweed assemblages in eutrophic waters may undergo an initial shift toward communities dominated by bloom-forming, short-lived seaweeds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Elevated chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) promotes cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fengqiong; Xu, Zhenhua; Wang, Zifeng; Yao, Hong; Shen, Zan; Yu, Fang; Tang, Yiping; Fu, Dengli; Lin, Sheng; Lu, Gang; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Poon, Wai Sang; Huang, Yunchao; Lin, Marie Chia-Mi

    2012-12-14

    Chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor which plays a key role in lung dendritic cell trafficking to peripheral lymph nodes. The function and expression of CCRL2 in cancer is not understood at present. Here we report that CCRL2 expression level is elevated in human glioma patient samples and cell lines. The magnitude of increase is positively associated with increasing tumor grade, with the highest level observed in grade IV glioblastoma. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we further showed that CCRL2 did not regulate the growth of human glioblatoma U87 and U373 cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that over-expression of CCRL2 significantly enhanced the migration rate and invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that elevated CCRL2 in glioma promotes cell migration and invasion. The potential roles of CCRL2 as a novel therapeutic target and biomarker warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  5. Prevalence of sinus floor elevation procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Ozçakır Tomruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sinus-lifting procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla. This retrospective chart review examined consecutive patients with tooth/teeth loss in the posterior maxilla between 2008 and 2012 treated with sinus lift, when needed, and implant insertion. Demographic variables, health status, residual alveolar bone height, augmentation types, the implant position, diameter and height, and implant failure, prosthesis types, and the marginal bone loss were recorded. The study included 302 patients at a mean age of 5.2 years, who received a total of 609 dental implants. A total of 380 (62.3% implants were inserted in native areas, 203 (33.3% ones in external sinus-lifted areas and 26 (4.4% ones in internal lifted areas. The survival rate in native or internal lifted areas were 100% and 95.6% in external sinus lifted ones (10 implant failures/203 implants. Almost half of the implants were examined radiologically with a mean duration of 30 months and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.64 ± 1.2 mm. The results showed that the survival rates of native bone and the internal sinus lifting were slightly higher than that of external sinus lifting. Implants placed with sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants in native bone.

  6. Study on predicting residual life of elevator links by fracture mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Helin; Zhang Yi; Deng Zengjie [China National Petroleum Corp., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China). Tubular Goods Research Center; Jin Dazeng [Xi`an Jiaotong Univ., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of investigation, failure and fracture analysis of elevator links, residual life prediction of links using fracture mechanics approach is studied, and mechanical properties, fracture toughness value K{sub IC} and fatigue crack propagation rage da/dN of the steel for elevator links are determined. Using the relation between stress intensity factor K{sub I} and the strain-energy release rate, the two-dimensional conversion thickness finite element method has been used to calculate the stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections in the ring part of links. Furthermore, the reliability of calculations of the finite element stress intensity factors K{sub I} for dangerous sections of elevator links and the residual life computation for links are verified by fatigue tests of actual links. Finally, the experimental verification of computed results by 150T link fractured at site indicates that the computed critical crack lengths and residual life tally well with those measured and meet the needs of oil drilling.

  7. A comparative evaluation of Imaging Efficiency for elevated lesions of gallbladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Toru; Karasawa, Eii; Azuma, Tsukasa; Takasaki, Ken; Hayashi, Naoaki

    1999-01-01

    Imaging Efficiency was analyzed in 118 cases of benign lesion, including adenoma and 36 cases of malignant lesion without lymph node metastasis (Stage I) of 154 cases histologically diagnosed as elevated lesions of the gallbladder (443 lesions). On ultrasonography, the maximum diameter of the benign lesions, except in the case of adenomyomatosis, was 17 mm; the minimum diameter in the case of adenocarcinoma was 7 mm. The frequency of malignancy among elevated mucosal lesions of gallbladder with a diameter of 13 to 16 mm, except in the case of adenomyomatosis was 42.1% (8/19 lesions). Of the 91 out of total 154 cases in which the elevated lesions were 10 mm or smaller in a diameter, malignant cases were observed in 5.5% (5/91 cases). Many of the malignant lesions had a solid pattern of internal echo and there was a significant difference in depiction rate on plain CT between benign and malignant lesions. We conclude that plan CT examination is helpful to differentiate benign from malignant lesions of the gallbladder. (author)

  8. Elevated midbrain serotonin transporter availability in mixed mania: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuikka Jyrki

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results obtained from brain imaging studies indicate that serotonin transporter (SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT densities are altered in major depression. However, no such studies have been published on current mania or hypomania. Case presentation In this single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT study with [123I]nor-β-CIT we present a case with simultaneous symptoms of major depression and hypomania. She had an elevated serotonin transporter availability (SERT in the midbrain and elevated dopamine transporter availability (DAT in the striatum, which normalised in a one-year follow-up period during which she received eight months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report on SERT and DAT associated with mania. In our case the availability of both SERT in the midbrain and DAT in the striatum were elevated at baseline and declined during psychotherapy, while the SERT and DAT of the depressed controls increased during psychotherapy. Symptoms of hypomania in the case were alleviated during psychotherapy. Clinical recovery was also reflected in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS scores.

  9. Comparing non-invasive scapular tracking methods across elevation angles, planes of elevation and humeral axial rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, T-J; Cudlip, A C; Dickerson, C R

    2017-12-01

    Altered scapular motions premeditate shoulder impingement and other musculoskeletal disorders. Divergent experimental conditions in previous research precludes rigorous comparisons of non-invasive scapular tracking techniques. This study evaluated scapular orientation measurement methods across an expanded range of humeral postures. Scapular medial/lateral rotation, anterior/posterior tilt and protraction/retraction was measured using an acromion marker cluster (AMC), a scapular locator, and a reference stylus. Motion was captured using reflective markers on the upper body, as well as on the AMC, locator and stylus. A combination of 5 arm elevation angles, 3 arm elevation planes and 3 arm axial rotations was examined. Measurement method interacted with elevation angle and plane of elevation for all three scapular orientation directions (p planes and axial rotations. The AMC underestimated lateral rotation, with the largest difference of ∼2° at 0° elevation. Both the locator and AMC overestimated posterior tilt at high arm elevation by up to 7.4°. Misestimations from using the locator could be enough to potentially obscure meaningful differences in scapular rotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Denudation rates and tectonic geomorphology of the Spanish Betic Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, N.; Vanacker, V.; Kubik, P. W.

    2014-03-01

    The tectonic control on landscape morphology and long-term denudation is largely documented for settings with high uplift rates. Relatively little is known about the rates of geomorphic response in areas of low tectonic uplift. Here, we evaluate spatial variations in denudation of the Spanish Betic Cordillera based on cosmogenic 10Be-derived denudation rates. Denudation rates are compared to published data on rock uplift and exhumation of the Betic Cordillera to evaluate steady-state topography. The spatial patterns of catchment-wide denudation rates (n=20) are then analysed together with topographic metrics of hillslope and channel morphology. Catchments draining the Betic ranges have relatively low denudation rates (64±54 mm kyr), but also show large variation as they range from 14 to 246 mm kyr-1. Catchment-wide denudation is linearly proportional to the mean hillslope gradient and local relief. Despite large spatial variation in denudation, the magnitude and spatial pattern of denudation rates are generally consistent with longer-term local uplift rates derived from elevated marine deposits, fission-track measurements and vertical fault slip rates. This might be indicative of a steady-state topography where rock uplift is balanced by denudation.

  11. The surface elevation table and marker horizon technique: A protocol for monitoring wetland elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Lynch,; Phillippe Hensel,; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service, in response to the growing evidence and awareness of the effects of climate change on federal lands, determined that monitoring wetland elevation change is a top priority in North Atlantic Coastal parks (Stevens et al, 2010). As a result, the NPS Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN) in collaboration with colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a protocol for monitoring wetland elevation change and other processes important for determining the viability of wetland communities. Although focused on North Atlantic Coastal parks, this document is applicable to all coastal and inland wetland regions. Wetlands exist within a narrow range of elevation which is influenced by local hydrologic conditions. For coastal wetlands in particular, local hydrologic conditions may be changing as sea levels continue to rise. As sea level rises, coastal wetland systems may respond by building elevation to maintain favorable hydrologic conditions for their survival. This protocol provides the reader with instructions and guidelines on designing a monitoring plan or study to: A) Quantify elevation change in wetlands with the Surface Elevation Table (SET). B) Understand the processes that influence elevation change, including vertical accretion (SET and Marker Horizon methods). C) Survey the wetland surface and SET mark to a common reference datum to allow for comparing sample stations to each other and to local tidal datums. D) Survey the SET mark to monitor its relative stability. This document is divided into two parts; the main body that presents an overview of all aspects of monitoring wetland elevation dynamics, and a collection of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) that describes in detail how to perform or execute each step of the methodology. Detailed instruction on the installation, data collection, data management and analysis are provided in this report

  12. Study of influence of climber motion on the space elevator dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ledkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of launching a payload into orbit by means of a space elevator is considered in this paper. The space elevator is a mechanical system that consists of a tether, a space station, and a climber. The tether connects the surface of the Earth with the space station, which is above the geostationary orbit. The climber lifts the payload to the required altitude. Then it is disconnected from the space elevator and starts free orbital flight. Creation of the space elevator will significantly reduce the cost of payloads delivery to orbit.The objective of this work is to study dynamics of the space elevator taking into account the climber motion. A mathematical model, which takes into consideration bending of the tether and features of the climber construction, is developed. In contrast to existing models, the climber is considered not as a mass point, but as a mechanical system consisting of two homogeneous weighty cylinders connected by a weightless strap upon which the payload is located. The payload and the space stations are considered as mass points. The tether is simulated as a pair of inelastic inextensible bars with variable length. The area of bars cross-sections is defined by a function, which depends on the distance to the end of the bars. Motion occurs in the equatorial plane in the gravitational field of the Earth.It is shown that lifting of the climber leads to swinging of the space elevator in the equatorial plane. This effect is caused by the influence of Coriolis forces of inertia. After stopping of the climber the space elevator oscillates about the vertical. An effect of the payload mass on amplitude of the space elevator oscillation is studied. It is shown that the increasing payload mass leads to the growing amplitude of the space elevator oscillations. A control torque providing steady lifting of the payload is obtained. The results of the calculations show that the practical implementation of the space elevator

  13. Behavioral consequences of predator stress in the rat elevated T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, Erika Mondin; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Zangrossi, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the behavioral reactions of rodents to predators have greatly contributed to the understanding of defense-related human psychopathologies such as anxiety and panic.We here investigated the behavioral consequences of exposing male Wistar rats to a live cat using the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. This test allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and escape, which in terms of pathology have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. For comparative reasons, the effects of exposure to the cat were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze. The results showed that a 5-min exposure to the cat selectively facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, an anxiogenic effect, without affecting escape expression in the elevated T-maze. This was seen immediately but not 30 min after contact with the predator. This short-lived anxiogenic effect was also detected in the elevated plus-maze. Previous administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (2 mg/kg) decreased the immediate avoidance response to the predator and the neophobic reaction to a dummy cat used as a control stimulus. The drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition in the elevated T-maze, indicating an anxiolytic effect, without affecting escape performance. The results indicate that the state of anxiety evoked during contact with the predator generalizes to both elevated plus- and T-mazes, impacting on defensive responses associated with generalized anxiety disorder.

  14. STRUCTURE LINE DETECTION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS USING TOPOLOGICAL ELEVATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Lo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LIDAR point clouds, which have considerable points on object surfaces, are essential to building modeling. In the last two decades, studies have developed different approaches to identify structure lines using two main approaches, data-driven and modeldriven. These studies have shown that automatic modeling processes depend on certain considerations, such as used thresholds, initial value, designed formulas, and predefined cues. Following the development of laser scanning systems, scanning rates have increased and can provide point clouds with higher point density. Therefore, this study proposes using topological elevation analysis (TEA to detect structure lines instead of threshold-dependent concepts and predefined constraints. This analysis contains two parts: data pre-processing and structure line detection. To preserve the original elevation information, a pseudo-grid for generating digital surface models is produced during the first part. The highest point in each grid is set as the elevation value, and its original threedimensional position is preserved. In the second part, using TEA, the structure lines are identified based on the topology of local elevation changes in two directions. Because structure lines can contain certain geometric properties, their locations have small relieves in the radial direction and steep elevation changes in the circular direction. Following the proposed approach, TEA can be used to determine 3D line information without selecting thresholds. For validation, the TEA results are compared with those of the region growing approach. The results indicate that the proposed method can produce structure lines using dense point clouds.

  15. Rising CO2 interacts with growth light and growth rate to alter photosystem II photoinactivation of the coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available We studied the interactive effects of pCO(2 and growth light on the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP 1335 growing under ambient and expected end-of-the-century pCO(2 (750 ppmv, and a range of growth light from 30 to 380 µmol photons·m(-2·s(-1. Elevated pCO(2 significantly stimulated the growth of T. pseudonana under sub-saturating growth light, but not under saturating to super-saturating growth light. Under ambient pCO(2 susceptibility to photoinactivation of photosystem II (σ(i increased with increasing growth rate, but cells growing under elevated pCO(2 showed no dependence between growth rate and σ(i, so under high growth light cells under elevated pCO(2 were less susceptible to photoinactivation of photosystem II, and thus incurred a lower running cost to maintain photosystem II function. Growth light altered the contents of RbcL (RUBISCO and PsaC (PSI protein subunits, and the ratios among the subunits, but there were only limited effects on these and other protein pools between cells grown under ambient and elevated pCO(2.

  16. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Towle

    Full Text Available Global climate change threatens coral growth and reef ecosystem health via ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA. Whereas the negative impacts of these stressors are increasingly well-documented, studies identifying pathways to resilience are still poorly understood. Heterotrophy has been shown to help corals experiencing decreases in growth due to either thermal or OA stress; however, the mechanism by which it mitigates these decreases remains unclear. This study tested the ability of coral heterotrophy to mitigate reductions in growth due to climate change stress in the critically endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis via changes in feeding rate and lipid content. Corals were either fed or unfed and exposed to elevated temperature (30°C, enriched pCO2 (800 ppm, or both (30°C/800 ppm as compared to a control (26°C/390 ppm for 8 weeks. Feeding rate and lipid content both increased in corals experiencing OA vs. present-day conditions, and were significantly correlated. Fed corals were able to maintain ambient growth rates at both elevated temperature and elevated CO2, while unfed corals experienced significant decreases in growth with respect to fed conspecifics. Our results show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer OA-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates and lipid content.

  17. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on litter quality, litter decomposability and nitrogen turnover rate of two oak species in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fayez Raiesi Gahrooee,

    1998-01-01

    Elevated CO2 may affect litter quality of plants, and subsequently C and N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but changes in litter quality associated with elevated CO2 are poorly known. Abscised leaf litter of two oak species (Quercus cerris L., and Q. pubescens Willd.) exposed to long-term

  18. Thin type inverter for machine-room-less elevator; Machine roomless elevator yo usugata inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    In the elevator industry, a machine-room-less elevator, which does not necessitate a machine room usually installed on the roof, has come into the spotlight in the domain of low and intermediate speed elevators. The lack of a machine room, however, will necessarily limit the space for the installation of the traction motor and control panel. Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., in order to properly cope with the situation, has developed in cooperation with Fujitec Co., Ltd., a very thin type inverter installable on an elevator hall floor. The inverter, based on Fuji Electric's high-performance vector control inverter FRENIC5000VG5, is as thin as 100mm, and is available in three series up to 11kW. For the embodiment of such a thin structure, a cooling structure of Fuji Electric's own is employed, and prudence is exercised as required at many locations so that maintainability will not be impaired throughout the very thin control panel design. (translated by NEDO)

  19. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B Fowler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing.In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%. Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates.These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  20. Elevated Pressure Improves the Extraction and Identification of Proteins Recovered from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B.; Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Moore, Cedric D.; O'Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form

  1. The 3D Elevation Program initiative: a call for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Constance, Eric W.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Jason, Allyson L.; Lukas, Vicki; Saghy, David L.; Stoker, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative is accelerating the rate of three-dimensional (3D) elevation data collection in response to a call for action to address a wide range of urgent needs nationwide. It began in 2012 with the recommendation to collect (1) high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data for the conterminous United States (CONUS), Hawaii, and the U.S. territories and (2) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska. Specifications were created for collecting 3D elevation data, and the data management and delivery systems are being modernized. The National Elevation Dataset (NED) will be completely refreshed with new elevation data products and services. The call for action requires broad support from a large partnership community committed to the achievement of national 3D elevation data coverage. The initiative is being led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and includes many partners—Federal agencies and State, Tribal, and local governments—who will work together to build on existing programs to complete the national collection of 3D elevation data in 8 years. Private sector firms, under contract to the Government, will continue to collect the data and provide essential technology solutions for the Government to manage and deliver these data and services. The 3DEP governance structure includes (1) an executive forum established in May 2013 to have oversight functions and (2) a multiagency coordinating committee based upon the committee structure already in place under the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP). The 3DEP initiative is based on the results of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) that was funded by NDEP agencies and completed in 2011. The study, led by the USGS, identified more than 600 requirements for enhanced (3D) elevation data to address mission-critical information requirements of 34 Federal agencies, all 50 States, and a sample of private sector companies and Tribal and local

  2. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Elevators and escalators in Germany from an energy perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirzel, Simon; Fleiter, Tobias; Rosende, Daniel

    2010-01-31

    This report aims to provide a brief introduction to the German elevator and escalator market, and gives an aggregated view of current and future developments focusing on energy consumption and energy-related emissions. This update report of January 2010 is an extended version of a report published in April 2009 before the final results from a monitoring campaign carried out within the project were available. During this campaign, 81 installations (74 elevators and 7 escalators) were monitored in terms of energy consumption. In the first section, the structure of the installed German elevator and escalator capacity is presented. The estimates1 were provided courtesy of the two main associations representing elevators and escalators in Germany: the VDMA (Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau - German Engineering Federation) and the VFA-Interlift e.V. -Verband fuer Aufzugstechnik (Association for Lift Technology). This section is followed by a short description of the German construction sector and its implications for elevators and escalators. The third section describes German electricity production in terms of its environmental impact with the main focus on the carbon dioxide emissions of the national power plants. Then the energy consumption of elevators and escalators in Germany is analyzed, comparing the results to total energy production in Germany.2 The final section summarizes the different aspects and derives indications about the future development of the total energy consumption of elevators and escalators in Germany. (orig.)

  3. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela

    Full Text Available Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  4. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  5. A model of the evolution of larval feeding rate in Drosophila driven by conflicting energy demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Laurence D; Barter, Thomas T

    2015-02-01

    Energy allocation is believed to drive trade-offs in life history evolution. We develop a physiological and genetic model of energy allocation that drives evolution of feeding rate in a well-studied model system. In a variety of stressful environments Drosophila larvae adapt by altering their rate of feeding. Drosophila larvae adapted to high levels of ammonia, urea, and the presence of parasitoids evolve lower feeding rates. Larvae adapted to crowded conditions evolve higher feeding rates. Feeding rates should affect gross food intake, metabolic rates, and efficiency of food utilization. We develop a model of larval net energy intake as a function of feeding rates. We show that when there are toxic compounds in the larval food that require energy for detoxification, larvae can maximize their energy intake by slowing their feeding rates. While the reduction in feeding rates may increase development time and decrease competitive ability, we show that genotypes with lower feeding rates can be favored by natural selection if they have a sufficiently elevated viability in the toxic environment. This work shows how a simple phenotype, larval feeding rates, may be of central importance in adaptation to a wide variety of stressful environments via its role in energy allocation.

  6. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....

  7. Increased recovery rates of phosphocreatine and inorganic phosphate after isometric contraction in oxidative muscle fibres and elevated hepatic insulin resistance in homozygous carriers of the A-allele of FTO rs9939609

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise Groth; Brøns, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Stine

    2009-01-01

    9939609 A-allele was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, hepatic insulin resistance and shorter recovery halftimes of phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) after exercise in a primarily type I muscle. These relationships - except for fasting insulin - remained...... or mitochondrially encoded genes in skeletal muscle during rest. Conclusion. Increased energy efficiency - and potentially increased mitochondrial coupling - as suggested by faster recovery rates of PCr and Pi in oxidative muscle fibres may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes...

  8. Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Veblen, Thomas T; Smith, Jeremy M.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution shifts in response to climate change require that recruitment increase beyond current range boundaries. For trees with long life spans, the importance of climate-sensitive seedling establishment to the pace of range shifts has not been demonstrated quantitatively.Using spatially explicit, stochastic population models combined with data from long-term forest surveys, we explored whether the climate-sensitivity of recruitment observed in climate manipulation experiments was sufficient to alter populations and elevation ranges of two widely distributed, high-elevation North American conifers.Empirically observed, warming-driven declines in recruitment led to rapid modelled population declines at the low-elevation, ‘warm edge’ of subalpine forest and slow emergence of populations beyond the high-elevation, ‘cool edge’. Because population declines in the forest occurred much faster than population emergence in the alpine, we observed range contraction for both species. For Engelmann spruce, this contraction was permanent over the modelled time horizon, even in the presence of increased moisture. For limber pine, lower sensitivity to warming may facilitate persistence at low elevations – especially in the presence of increased moisture – and rapid establishment above tree line, and, ultimately, expansion into the alpine.Synthesis. Assuming 21st century warming and no additional moisture, population dynamics in high-elevation forests led to transient range contractions for limber pine and potentially permanent range contractions for Engelmann spruce. Thus, limitations to seedling recruitment with warming can constrain the pace of subalpine tree range shifts.

  9. Construction of radioelement and dose rate baseline maps by combining ground and airborne radiometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Medici, F.; Schwarz, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    For emergency situations like nuclear accidents, lost isotopic sources, debris of reactor-powered satellites etc. well-documented baseline information is indispensable. Maps of cosmic, terrestrial natural and artificial radiation can be constructed by assembling different datasets such as ground and airborne gamma spectrometry, direct dose rate measurements, and soil/rock samples. The in situ measurements were calibrated using the soil samples taken at/around the field measurement sites, the airborne measurements by a combination of in situ, and soil/rock sample data. The radioelement concentrations (Bq/kg) were in turn converted to dose-rate (nSv/h). First, the cosmic radiation map was constructed from a digital terrain model, averaging topographic heights within cells of 2 km X 2 km size. For the terrestrial radiation a total of 1615 ground data points were available, in addition to the airborne data. The artificial radiation map (Chernobyl and earlier fallout) has the smallest data base (184 data points from airborne and ground measurements). The dose rate map was constructed by summing up the above-mentioned contributions. It relies on a data base which corresponds to a density of about 1 point per 25 km 2 . The cosmic radiation map shows elevated dose rates in the high parts of the Swiss Alps. The cosmic dose rate ranges from 40 to 190 nSv/h, depending on altitude. The terrestrial dose rate maps show general agreement with lithology: elevated dose rates (100 to 200 nSv/h) characterize the Central Massifs of the Alps where crystalline rocks give a maximum of 370 nSv/h, whereas the sedimentary northern Alpine Foreland (Jura, Molasse basin) shows consistently lower dose rates (40-100 nSv/h). The artificial radiation map has its maximum value in the southern part of Switzerland (90 nSv/h). The map of total dose rate exhibits values from 55 to 570 nSv/h. These values are considerably higher than reported in the Radiation Atlas (''Natural Sources of Ionising

  10. Effect of service exposure on fatigue crack propagation of Inconel 718 turbine disc material at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Dae-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RECAPT, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myung-Je [Korea Aerospace Industry, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Goto, Masahiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oita University, Oita (Japan); Lee, Hong-Chul [Republic of Korea Air Force (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangshik, E-mail: sang@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RECAPT, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 turbine disc with different service times from 0 to 4229 h was investigated at 738 and 823 K. No notable change in microstructural features, other than the increase in grain size, was observed with increasing service time. With increasing service time from 0 to 4229 h, the fatigue crack propagation rates tended to increase, while the ΔK{sub th} value decreased, in low ΔK regime and lower Paris' regime at both testing temperatures. The fractographic observation using a scanning electron microscope suggested that the elevated temperature fatigue crack propagation mechanism of Inconel 718 changed from crystallographic cleavage mechanism to striation mechanism in the low ΔK regime, depending on the grain size. The fatigue crack propagation mechanism is proposed for the crack propagating through small and large grains in the low ΔK regime, and the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 with different service times at elevated temperatures is discussed. - Highlights: • The specimens were prepared from the Inconel 718 turbine disc used for 0 to 4229 h. • FCP rates were measured at 738 and 823 K. • The ΔK{sub th} values decreased with increasing service time. • The FCP behavior showed a strong correlation with the grain size of used turbine disc.

  11. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  12. Elevated postvoid residual urine volume predicting recurrence of urinary tract infections in toilet-trained children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Jen; Tsai, Li-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Kai; Yang, Stephen S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether toilet-trained children with a history of febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) and elevated postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume according to a recently published PVR nomogram were at greater risk of UTI recurrence. One month after recovery from febrile UTI, constipation was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria, and lower urinary tract (LUT) function was evaluated with two sets of uroflowmetry and PVR by ultrasonography. For children aged ≦ 6 and ≧ 7 years, elevated PVR is defined as >20 and >10 ml, respectively. Cox proportion hazards regression was used to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of UTI. Between 2005 and 2011, 60 children aged 6.5 ± 2.5 years (boy:girl ratio 27:33) were enrolled for analysis. Univariate analysis showed that recurrent febrile UTI was more commonly observed in children with elevated PVR [repetitive elevated PVR: hazard ratio (HR) 5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-23.4; one elevated PVR: HR 4.53, 95% CI 1.01-20.2] and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR; HR 4.53, 95% CI 1.46-14.07). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.82, p UTI--but not gender, presence of high-grade VUR and constipation. Elevated PVR defined by the new PVR nomogram predicted recurrent UTI in children with history of febrile UTI. Care should be taken to manage children with elevated PVR.

  13. Does Elevated CO2 Alter Silica Uptake in Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson W. Fulweiler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C and N (N cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global carbon dioxide fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine, and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica (BSi concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20% and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.