WorldWideScience

Sample records for shortwave array spectroradiometer-hemispheric

  1. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Zenith (SASZe) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Zenith (SASZe) provides measurements of zenith spectral shortwave radiance at 1Hz over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm. The SASZe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections system located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector incorporates a collimator yielding a 1-degree Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) field of view. The data-acquisition electronics and spectrometers include an in-line fiber optic shutter and two Avantes fiber-coupled grating spectroradiometers within a temperature-controlled container. The Avantes Avaspec ULS 2048 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 300-1100 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 0.6 nm and a spectral resolution of about 2.4 nm FWHM. The Avantes Avaspec NIR256-1.7 spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 950 nm to 1700 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 4 nm and a spectral resolution of about 6 nm FWHM.

  2. GEWEX SRB Shortwave Release 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The new Release 4 uses the newly processed ISCCP HXS product as its primary input for cloud and radiance data. The ninefold increase in pixel number compared to the previous ISCCP DX allows finer gradations in cloud fraction in each grid box. It will also allow higher spatial resolutions (0.5 degree) in future releases. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made since Release 3. These include recalculated atmospheric transmissivities and reflectivities yielding a less transmissive atmosphere. The calculations also include variable aerosol composition, allowing for the use of a detailed aerosol history from the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC). Ocean albedo and snow/ice albedo are also improved from Release 3. Total solar irradiance is now variable, averaging 1361 Wm-2. Water vapor is taken from ISCCP's nnHIRS product. Results from GSW Release 4 are presented and analyzed. Early comparison to surface measurements show improved agreement.

  3. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  4. Simple simulation training system for short-wave radio station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xianglin; Shao, Zhichao; Tu, Jianhua; Qu, Fuqi

    2018-04-01

    The short-wave radio station is a most important transmission equipment of our signal corps, but in the actual teaching process, which exist the phenomenon of fewer equipment and more students, making the students' short-wave radio operation and practice time is very limited. In order to solve the above problems, to carry out shortwave radio simple simulation training system development is very necessary. This project is developed by combining hardware and software to simulate the voice communication operation and signal principle of shortwave radio station, and can test the signal flow of shortwave radio station. The test results indicate that this system is simple operation, human-machine interface friendly and can improve teaching more efficiency.

  5. ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) Solar Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) was conducted at the Department of Energy's ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility between September 22, 1995...

  6. Establishing BRDF calibration capabilities through shortwave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2017-09-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon*, a common material for laboratory and onorbit flight diffusers. A new measurement setup for BRDF measurements from 900 nm to 2500 nm located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. The GSFC setup employs an extended indium gallium arsenide detector, bandpass filters, and a supercontinuum light source. Comparisons of the GSFC BRDF measurements in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) with those made by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Spectral Tri-function Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) are presented. The Spectralon sample used in this study was 2 inch diameter, 99% white pressed and sintered Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) target. The NASA/NIST BRDF comparison measurements were made at an incident angle of 0° and viewing angle of 45° . Additional BRDF data not compared to NIST were measured at additional incident and viewing angle geometries and are not presented here. The total combined uncertainty for the measurement of BRDF in the SWIR range made by the GSFC scatterometer is less than 1% (k = 1). This study is in support of the calibration of the Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suit (VIIRS) instruments of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and other current and future NASA remote sensing missions operating across the reflected solar wavelength region.

  7. Updated thermal model using simplified short-wave radiosity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Goltz, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    An extension to a forest canopy thermal radiance model is described that computes the short-wave energy flux absorbed within the canopy by solving simplified radiosity equations describing flux transfers between canopy ensemble classes partitioned by vegetation layer and leaf slope. Integrated short-wave reflectance and transmittance-factors obtained from measured leaf optical properties were found to be nearly equal for the canopy studied. Short-wave view factor matrices were approximated by combining the average leaf scattering coefficient with the long-wave view factor matrices already incorporated in the model. Both the updated and original models were evaluated for a dense spruce fir forest study site in Central Maine. Canopy short-wave absorption coefficients estimated from detailed Monte Carlo ray tracing calculations were 0.60, 0.04, and 0.03 for the top, middle, and lower canopy layers corresponding to leaf area indices of 4.0, 1.05, and 0.25. The simplified radiosity technique yielded analogous absorption values of 0.55, 0.03, and 0.01. The resulting root mean square error in modeled versus measured canopy temperatures for all layers was less than 1°C with either technique. Maximum error in predicted temperature using the simplified radiosity technique was approximately 2°C during peak solar heating. (author)

  8. Updated thermal model using simplified short-wave radiosity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. A.; Goltz, S. M.

    1994-02-15

    An extension to a forest canopy thermal radiance model is described that computes the short-wave energy flux absorbed within the canopy by solving simplified radiosity equations describing flux transfers between canopy ensemble classes partitioned by vegetation layer and leaf slope. Integrated short-wave reflectance and transmittance-factors obtained from measured leaf optical properties were found to be nearly equal for the canopy studied. Short-wave view factor matrices were approximated by combining the average leaf scattering coefficient with the long-wave view factor matrices already incorporated in the model. Both the updated and original models were evaluated for a dense spruce fir forest study site in Central Maine. Canopy short-wave absorption coefficients estimated from detailed Monte Carlo ray tracing calculations were 0.60, 0.04, and 0.03 for the top, middle, and lower canopy layers corresponding to leaf area indices of 4.0, 1.05, and 0.25. The simplified radiosity technique yielded analogous absorption values of 0.55, 0.03, and 0.01. The resulting root mean square error in modeled versus measured canopy temperatures for all layers was less than 1°C with either technique. Maximum error in predicted temperature using the simplified radiosity technique was approximately 2°C during peak solar heating. (author)

  9. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  10. Estimating net short-wave radiation with the Bellani pyranometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Y.; Plamondon, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods were developed by which daily net short-wave radiation (K∗) can be evaluated from Bellani pyranometer readings. The first method involves a simple regression equation. The second method uses a physical approach taking into account the effect of the Bellani's geometry on its response to direct and diffuse radiation throughout the day. Both methods, when tested on experimental data, tended to underestimate the measured K∗, the regression approach exhibiting a higher variance of the error [fr

  11. ENSO surface shortwave radiation forcing over the tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Pavlakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spatial and temporal variation of the downward shortwave radiation (DSR at the surface of the Earth during ENSO events for a 21-year period over the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40° S–40° N, 90° E–75° W. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite data from the ISCCP-D2 database, reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR for the key atmospheric and surface input parameters, and aerosol parameters from GADS (acronyms explained in main text. A clear anti-correlation was found between the downward shortwave radiation anomaly (DSR-A time-series, in the region 7° S–5° N 160° E–160° W located west of the Niño-3.4 region, and the Niño-3.4 index time-series. In this region where the highest in absolute value DSR anomalies are observed, the mean DSR anomaly values range from −45 Wm−2 during El Niño episodes to +40 Wm−2 during La Niña events. Within the Niño-3.4 region no significant DSR anomalies are observed during the cold ENSO phase in contrast to the warm ENSO phase. A high correlation was also found over the western Pacific (10° S–5° N, 120–140° E, where the mean DSR anomaly values range from +20 Wm−2 to −20 Wm−2 during El Niño and La Niña episodes, respectively. There is also convincing evidence that the time series of the mean downward shortwave radiation anomaly in the off-equatorial western Pacific region 7–15° N 150–170° E, precedes the Niño-3.4 index time-series by about 7 months and the pattern of this anomaly is indicative of ENSO operating through the mechanism of the western Pacific oscillator. Thus, the downward shortwave radiation anomaly is a complementary index to the SST anomaly for the study of ENSO events and can be used to assess whether or not El Niño or La Niña conditions prevail.

  12. Short-wave albedo of a pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, A.

    1985-06-01

    In this paper nine years of continuous records of the short-wave albedo above a Scotch pine forest in middle Europe were analysed. Special emphasis was given to the dependencies of the albedo on its diurnal variation, its annual variation, the solar altitude, the structure of the stand, the cloud cover, the soil moisture and the spectral reflectance. A long-termed trend of the albedo could not be found, e.g. caused by the stand growth. Finally the annual variation of the albedo of the Scotch pine forest was compared with measurements above different surface types in middle Europe.

  13. Short-Wave Near-Infrared Spectrometer for Alcohol Determination and Temperature Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp. in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C. And an 2 better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry.

  14. Short-wave infrared barriode detectors using InGaAsSb absorption material lattice matched to GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A. P.; Percy, B.; Marshall, A. R. J. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Jain, M. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Wicks, G.; Hossain, K. [Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); Golding, T. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); McEwan, K.; Howle, C. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    Short-wave infrared barriode detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. An absorption layer composition of In{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}As{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75} allowed for lattice matching to GaSb and cut-off wavelengths of 2.9 μm at 250 K and 3.0 μm at room temperature. Arrhenius plots of the dark current density showed diffusion limited dark currents approaching those expected for optimized HgCdTe-based detectors. Specific detectivity figures of around 7×10{sup 10} Jones and 1×10{sup 10} Jones were calculated, for 240 K and room temperature, respectively. Significantly, these devices could support focal plane arrays working at higher operating temperatures.

  15. Does shortwave absorption by methane influence its effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Angshuman; Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2018-01-01

    In this study, using idealized step-forcing simulations, we examine the effective radiative forcing of CH4 relative to that of CO2 and compare the effects of CH4 and CO2 forcing on the climate system. A tenfold increase in CH4 concentration in the NCAR CAM5 climate model produces similar long term global mean surface warming ( 1.7 K) as a one-third increase in CO2 concentration. However, the radiative forcing estimated for CO2 using the prescribed-SST method is 81% that of CH4, indicating that the efficacy of CH4 forcing is 0.81. This estimate is nearly unchanged when the CO2 physiological effect is included in our simulations. Further, for the same long-term global mean surface warming, we simulate a smaller precipitation increase in the CH4 case compared to the CO2 case. This is because of the fast adjustment processes—precipitation reduction in the CH4 case is larger than that of the CO2 case. This is associated with a relatively more stable atmosphere and larger atmospheric radiative forcing in the CH4 case which occurs because of near-infrared absorption by CH4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Within a month after an increase in CH4, this shortwave heating results in a temperature increase of 0.8 K in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. In contrast, within a month after a CO2 increase, longwave cooling results in a temperature decrease of 3 K in the stratosphere and a small change in the upper troposphere. These fast adjustments in the lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric temperature, along with the adjustments in clouds in the troposphere, influence the effective radiative forcing and the fast precipitation response. These differences in fast climate adjustments also produce differences in the climate states from which the slow response begins to evolve and hence they are likely associated with differing feedbacks. We also find that the tropics and subtropics are relatively warmer in the CH4 case for the same global mean

  16. Incoming Shortwave Fluxes at the Surface--A Comparison of GCM Results with Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the exam surface net radiation calculated in general circulation models at continental surfaces is mostly due to excess incoming shortwave fluxes. Based on long-term observations from 22 worldwide inland stations and results from four general circulation models the overestimate in models of 20% (11 W m2) in net radiation on an annual basis compares with 6% (9 W m2) for shortwave fluxes for the same 22 locations, or 9% (18 W m2) for a larger set of 93 stations (71 having shortwave fluxes only). For annual fluxes, these differences appear to be significant.

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1991-present, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1991-present, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. Detector with internal gain for short-wave infrared ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman

    2017-09-01

    Abstarct.Highly sensitive photon detectors are regarded as the key enabling elements in many applications. Due to the low photon energy at the short-wave infrared (SWIR), photon detection and imaging at this band are very challenging. As such, many efforts in photon detector research are directed toward improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range. To solve these problems, we have developed an electron-injection (EI) technique. The significance of this detection mechanism is that it can provide both high efficiency and high sensitivity at room temperature, a condition that is very difficult to achieve in conventional SWIR detectors. An EI detector offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement due to a feedback stabilized internal avalanche-free gain. Devices exhibit an excess noise of unity, operate in linear mode, require bias voltage of a few volts, and have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. We review the material system, operating principle, and development of EI detectors. The shortcomings of the first-generation devices were addressed in the second-generation detectors. Measurement on second-generation devices showed a high-speed response of ˜6 ns rise time, low jitter of less than 20 ps, high amplification of more than 2000 (at optical power levels larger than a few nW), unity excess noise factor, and low leakage current (amplified dark current ˜10 nA at a bias voltage of -3 V and at room temperature. These characteristics make EI detectors a good candidate for high-resolution flash light detection and ranging (LiDAR) applications with millimeter scale depth resolution at longer ranges compared with conventional p-i-n diodes. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, we compare the performance of the EI detector with commercially available linear mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) as well as a p-i-n diode using a theoretical model. Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model show that the EI

  20. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura

    2015-07-13

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1984-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.

  2. Design of a temperature control system using incremental PID algorithm for a special homemade shortwave infrared spatial remote sensor based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Wei, Jun; Li, Jianwei; Zhou, Qianting

    2010-11-01

    An image spectrometer of a spatial remote sensing satellite requires shortwave band range from 2.1μm to 3μm which is one of the most important bands in remote sensing. We designed an infrared sub-system of the image spectrometer using a homemade 640x1 InGaAs shortwave infrared sensor working on FPA system which requires high uniformity and low level of dark current. The working temperature should be -15+/-0.2 Degree Celsius. This paper studies the model of noise for focal plane array (FPA) system, investigated the relationship with temperature and dark current noise, and adopts Incremental PID algorithm to generate PWM wave in order to control the temperature of the sensor. There are four modules compose of the FPGA module design. All of the modules are coded by VHDL and implemented in FPGA device APA300. Experiment shows the intelligent temperature control system succeeds in controlling the temperature of the sensor.

  3. Sensitivity of MENA Tropical Rainbelt to Dust Shortwave Absorption: A High Resolution AGCM Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-06-13

    Shortwave absorption is one of the most important, but the most uncertain, components of direct radiative effect by mineral dust. It has a broad range of estimates from different observational and modeling studies and there is no consensus on the strength of absorption. To elucidate the sensitivity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tropical summer rainbelt to a plausible range of uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption, AMIP-style global high resolution (25 km) simulations are conducted with and without dust, using the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Simulations with dust comprise three different cases by assuming dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient absorber. Inter-comparison of these simulations shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the strength of shortwave absorption. Further analyses reveal that the sensitivity of the rainbelt stems from the sensitivity of the multi-scale circulations that define the rainbelt. The maximum response and sensitivity are predicted over the northern edge of the rainbelt, geographically over Sahel. The sensitivity of the responses over the Sahel, especially that of precipitation, is comparable to the mean state. Locally, the response in precipitation reaches up to 50% of the mean, while dust is assumed to be a very efficient absorber. Taking into account that Sahel has a very high climate variability and is extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation, the present study suggests the importance of reducing uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption for a better simulation and interpretation of the Sahel climate.

  4. Integrable discretizations for the short-wave model of the Camassa-Holm equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The link between the short-wave model of the Camassa-Holm equation (SCHE) and bilinear equations of the two-dimensional Toda lattice equation is clarified. The parametric form of the N-cuspon solution of the SCHE in Casorati determinant is then given. Based on the above finding, integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SCHE are constructed. The determinant solutions of both semi-discrete and fully discrete analogues of the SCHE are also presented.

  5. Sensitivity of MENA Tropical Rainbelt to Dust Shortwave Absorption: A High Resolution AGCM Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-01-01

    Shortwave absorption is one of the most important, but the most uncertain, components of direct radiative effect by mineral dust. It has a broad range of estimates from different observational and modeling studies and there is no consensus on the strength of absorption. To elucidate the sensitivity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tropical summer rainbelt to a plausible range of uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption, AMIP-style global high resolution (25 km) simulations are conducted with and without dust, using the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Simulations with dust comprise three different cases by assuming dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient absorber. Inter-comparison of these simulations shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the strength of shortwave absorption. Further analyses reveal that the sensitivity of the rainbelt stems from the sensitivity of the multi-scale circulations that define the rainbelt. The maximum response and sensitivity are predicted over the northern edge of the rainbelt, geographically over Sahel. The sensitivity of the responses over the Sahel, especially that of precipitation, is comparable to the mean state. Locally, the response in precipitation reaches up to 50% of the mean, while dust is assumed to be a very efficient absorber. Taking into account that Sahel has a very high climate variability and is extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation, the present study suggests the importance of reducing uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption for a better simulation and interpretation of the Sahel climate.

  6. Spatial variability of shortwave radiative fluxes in the context of snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Hinkelman, Laura; Lundquist, Jessica

    2014-05-01

    Snow-covered mountain ranges are a major source of water supply for run-off and groundwater recharge. Snowmelt supplies as much as 75% of surface water in basins of the western United States. Factors that affect the rate of snow melt include incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, surface albedo, snow emissivity, snow surface temperature, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain. The net radiation generally makes up about 80% of the energy balance and is dominated by the shortwave radiation. Complex terrain poses a great challenge for obtaining the needed information on radiative fluxes from satellites due to elevation issues, spatially-variable cloud cover, rapidly changing surface conditions during snow fall and snow melt, lack of high quality ground truth for evaluation of the satellite based estimates, as well as scale issues between the ground observations and the satellite footprint. In this study we utilize observations of high spatial resolution (5-km) as available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) to derive surface shortwave radiative fluxes in complex terrain, with attention to the impact of slopes on the amount of radiation received. The methodology developed has been applied to several water years (January to July during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2009) over the western part of the United States, and the available information was used to derive metrics on spatial and temporal variability in the shortwave fluxes. It is planned to apply the findings from this study for testing improvements in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimates.

  7. Single interval shortwave radiation scheme with parameterized optical saturation and spectral overlaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašek, Jan; Geleyn, J.- F.; Brožková, Radmila; Giot, O.; Achom, H. O.; Kuma, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 659 (2016), s. 304-326 ISSN 0035-9009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shortwave radiative transfer * delta-two stream system * broadband approach * Malkmus band model * optical saturation * idealized optical paths * spectral overlap Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2016

  8. Arctic atmospheric preconditioning: do not rule out shortwave radiation just yet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlar, J.

    2017-12-01

    Springtime atmospheric preconditioning of Arctic sea ice for enhanced or buffered sea ice melt during the subsequent melt year has received considerable research focus in recent years. A general consensus points to enhanced poleward atmospheric transport of moisture and heat during spring, effectively increasing the emission of longwave radiation to the surface. Studies have essentially ruled out the role of shortwave radiation as an effective preconditioning mechanism because of the relatively weak incident solar radiation and high surface albedo from sea ice and snow during spring. These conclusions, however, are derived primarily from atmospheric reanalysis data, which may not always represent an accurate depiction of the Arctic climate system. Here, observations of top of atmosphere radiation from state of the art satellite sensors are examined and compared with reanalysis and climate model data to examine the differences in the spring radiative budget over the Arctic Ocean for years with extreme low/high ice extent at the end of the ice melt season (September). Distinct biases are observed between satellite-based measurements and reanalysis/models, particularly for the amount of shortwave radiation trapped (warming effect) within the Arctic climate system during spring months. A connection between the differences in reanalysis/model surface albedo representation and the albedo observed by satellite is discussed. These results suggest that shortwave radiation should not be overlooked as a significant contributing mechanism to springtime Arctic atmospheric preconditioning.

  9. CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, François; Dantes, Didier; Savaria, Eric; Selingardi, Mario Luis; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  10. Impact of an improved shortwave radiation scheme in the MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Morcrette

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the representation of ozone absorption in the stratosphere of the MAECHAM5 general circulation model, the spectral resolution of the shortwave radiation parameterization used in the model has been increased from 4 to 6 bands. Two 20-years simulations with the general circulation model have been performed, one with the standard and the other with the newly introduced parameterization respectively, to evaluate the temperature and dynamical changes arising from the two different representations of the shortwave radiative transfer. In the simulation with the increased spectral resolution in the radiation parameterization, a significant warming of almost the entire model domain is reported. At the summer stratopause the temperature increase is about 6 K and alleviates the cold bias present in the model when the standard radiation scheme is used. These general circulation model results are consistent both with previous validation of the radiation scheme and with the offline clear-sky comparison performed in the current work with a discrete ordinate 4 stream scattering line by line radiative transfer model. The offline validation shows a substantial reduction of the daily averaged shortwave heating rate bias (1–2 K/day cooling that occurs for the standard radiation parameterization in the upper stratosphere, present under a range of atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the 6 band shortwave radiation parameterization is considered to be better suited for the representation of the ozone absorption in the stratosphere than the 4 band parameterization. Concerning the dynamical response in the general circulation model, it is found that the reported warming at the summer stratopause induces stronger zonal mean zonal winds in the middle atmosphere. These stronger zonal mean zonal winds thereafter appear to produce a dynamical feedback that results in a dynamical warming (cooling of the polar winter (summer mesosphere, caused by an

  11. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  12. Satellite observed impacts of wildfires on regional atmosphere composition and shortwave radiative forcing: multiple cases study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Li, R.; Huang, J.; Bergeron, Y.; Fu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions of aerosols and trace gases from wildfires and the direct shortwave radiative forcing were studied using multi-satellite/sensor observations from Aqua Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Aqua Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The selected cases occurred in Northeast of China (NEC), Siberia of Russia, California of America have dominant fuel types of cropland, mixed forest and needleleaf forest, respectively. The Fire radiative power (FRP) based emission coefficients (Ce) of aerosol, NOx (NO2+NO), formaldehyde (HCHO), and carbon monoxide (CO) showed significant differences from case to case. 1) the FRP of the cropland case in NEC is strongest, however, the Ce of aerosol is the lowest (20.51 ± 2.55 g MJ-1). The highest Ce of aerosol is 71.34 ± 13.24 g MJ-1 in the needleleaf fire case in California. 2) For NOx, the highest Ce existed in the cropland case in NEC (2.76 ± 0.25 g MJ-1), which is more than three times of those in the forest fires in Siberia and California. 3) The Ce of CO is 70.21±10.97 and 88.38±46.16 g MJ-1 in the forest fires in Western Siberia and California, which are about four times of that in cropland fire. 4) The variation of Ce of HCHO are relatively small among cases. Strong spatial correlations are found among aerosol optical depth (AOD), NOx, HCHO, and CO. The ratios of NOx to AOD, HCHO, and CO in the cropland case in NEC show much higher values than those in other cases. Although huge differences of emissions and composition ratios exist among cases, the direct shortwave (SW) radiative forcing efficiency (SWARFE) of smoke at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are in good agreement, with the shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies values of 20.09 to 22.93 per unit AOD. Results in this study reveal noteworthy variations of the FRP-based emissions coefficient and relative chemical composition in the smoke

  13. Spectral composition of shortwave radiation reflected and deep penetrating into snow near the Barentsburg settlement (Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Svyashchennikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on spectral composition of shortwave radiation that is reflected from snow and penetrates deep into the snow cover obtained near the Barentsburg settlement (Svalbard are discussed in the paper. Measurements were made by the use of the spectral radiometer TriOS Ramses within the wavelength range of 280–950 nm. The results will allow more proper taking account of the anthropogenic pollution effects on the radiative properties of snow cover under conditions of industrial activity related to the coal extraction and burning in Barentsburg.

  14. The influence of scrotonin on survival of Candida guillermondii, irradiated by short-wave ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovskaya, M.G.; Frajkin, G.Ya.; Goncharenko, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the influence of serotonin on survival of Candida quilliermondu yeast irradiated by 254 nm short-wave ultraviolet. It was established that incubation with serotonin, leading to its penetration inside cells causes two opposite effects - protection from ultraviolet inactivation in preliminary incubation and intensification of cells death in postradiation incubation. Serotonin action is similar to the effects induced in C. guillermondii yeast by 334 nm long-wave ultraviolet light, that is serotonin possesses photomimetic effect. The data obtained are considered as conformaition of participation of serotonin photoinduced synthesis in manifestation of effects of long-wave ultraviolet light action on yeast

  15. Contrails and their impact on shortwave radiation and photovoltaic power production – a regional model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gruber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution regional-scale numerical model was extended by a parameterization that allows for both the generation and the life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus to be calculated. The life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus is described by a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme that was extended by a separate contrail ice class for a better representation of the high concentration of small ice crystals that occur in contrails. The basic input data set contains the spatially and temporally highly resolved flight trajectories over Central Europe derived from real-time data. The parameterization provides aircraft-dependent source terms for contrail ice mass and number. A case study was performed to investigate the influence of contrails and contrail cirrus on the shortwave radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enabled the model to simulate high clouds that were otherwise missing on this day. The effect of these extra clouds was to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.

  16. Variety identification of brown sugar using short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiqing; Wu, Di; He, Yong

    2007-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with the characteristics of high speed, non-destructiveness, high precision and reliable detection data, etc. is a pollution-free, rapid, quantitative and qualitative analysis method. A new approach for variety discrimination of brown sugars using short-wave NIR spectroscopy (800-1050nm) was developed in this work. The relationship between the absorbance spectra and brown sugar varieties was established. The spectral data were compressed by the principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting features can be visualized in principal component (PC) space, which can lead to discovery of structures correlative with the different class of spectral samples. It appears to provide a reasonable variety clustering of brown sugars. The 2-D PCs plot obtained using the first two PCs can be used for the pattern recognition. Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) was applied to solve the multivariate calibration problems in a relatively fast way. The work has shown that short-wave NIR spectroscopy technique is available for the brand identification of brown sugar, and LS-SVM has the better identification ability than PLS when the calibration set is small.

  17. Sub-grid-scale effects on short-wave instability in magnetized hall-MHD plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, H.; Nakajima, N.

    2010-11-01

    Aiming to clarify effects of short-wave modes on nonlinear evolution/saturation of the ballooning instability in the Large Helical Device, fully three-dimensional simulations of the single-fluid MHD and the Hall MHD equations are carried out. A moderate parallel heat conductivity plays an important role both in the two kinds of simulations. In the single-fluid MHD simulations, the parallel heat conduction effectively suppresses short-wave ballooning modes but it turns out that the suppression is insufficient in comparison to an experimental result. In the Hall MHD simulations, the parallel heat conduction triggers a rapid growth of the parallel flow and enhance nonlinear couplings. A comparison between single-fluid and the Hall MHD simulations reveals that the Hall MHD model does not necessarily improve the saturated pressure profile, and that we may need a further extension of the model. We also find by a comparison between two Hall MHD simulations with different numerical resolutions that sub-grid-scales of the Hall term should be modeled to mimic an inverse energy transfer in the wave number space. (author)

  18. Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment: Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2012-01-01

    The main theme for our research is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars, shortwave spectrometers, and microwave radiometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools developed by our group. In particular, we define first a large number of cloudy test cases spanning all 3D possibilities not just the customary uniform-overcast ones. Second, for each case, we define a "Best Estimate of Clouds That Affect Shortwave Radiation" using all relevant ARM instruments, notably the new scanning radars, and contribute this to the ARM Archive. Third, we test the ASR-signature radiative transfer model RRTMG_SW for those cases, focusing on the near-IR because of long-standing problems in this spectral region, and work with the developers to improve RRTMG_SW in order to increase its penetration into the modeling community.

  19. Background estimation in short-wave region during determination of total sample composition by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, V.A.; Kordyukov, S.V.; Petrov, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Method of background estimation in short-wave spectral region during determination of total sample composition by X-ray fluorescence method is described. 13 types of different rocks with considerable variations of base composition and Zr, Nb, Th, U content below 7x10 -3 % are investigated. The suggested method of background accounting provides for a less statistical error of the background estimation than direct isolated measurement and reliability of its determination in a short-wave region independent on the sample base. Possibilities of suggested method for artificial mixtures conforming by the content of main component to technological concemtrates - niobium, zirconium, tantalum are estimated

  20. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  1. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  2. Robot Towed Shortwave Infrared Camera for Specific Surface Area Retrieval of Surface Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.; Lines, A.; Ray, L.; Albert, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Optical grain size and specific surface area are key parameters for measuring the atmospheric interactions of snow, as well as tracking metamorphosis and allowing for the ground truthing of remote sensing data. We describe a device using a shortwave infrared camera with changeable optical bandpass filters (centered at 1300 nm and 1550 nm) that can be used to quickly measure the average SSA over an area of 0.25 m^2. The device and method are compared with calculations made from measurements taken with a field spectral radiometer. The instrument is designed to be towed by a small autonomous ground vehicle, and therefore rides above the snow surface on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW) skis.

  3. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of shortwave transverse sound in pure superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Various mechanisms are analyzed which lead to nonlinear phenomena (e.g., the dependence of the absorption coefficient and of the velocity of sound on its intensity) in the propagation of transverse shortwave sound in pure superconductors (the wavelength of the sound being much less than the mean free path of the quasiparticles). It is shown that the basic mechanism, over a wide range of superconductor parameters and of the sound intensity, is the so-called momentum nonlinearity. The latter is due to the distortion (induced by the sound wave) of the quasimomentum distribution of resonant electrons interacting with the wave. The dependences of the absorption coefficient and of the sound velocity on its intensity and on the temperature are analyzed in the vicinity of the superconducting transition point. The feasibility of an experimental study of nonlinear acoustic phenomena in the case of transverse sound is considered

  4. Developments of sausages in a z-pinch with short-wave perturbation of a boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A numeric simulation of sausage evolution in z-pinch during short-wave excitation of the boundary of plasma column pinch is carried out. The simulation has shown that due to nonlinear development of sausages in a pinch plasma colomn the cavities filled with a magnetic field in a rarefied pinch plasma are formed. Simultaneously compact column of tense plasma whose temperature is much higher than the average temperature of pinch plasma column are formed on the pinch axis. In the region of inlet in the cavity plasma is radially directed due to ponderomotoric force 1/2 x jB up to velocities greatly increasing the thermal velocity of ions in a plasma column

  5. Energy and carbon balances in cheatgrass, an essay in autecology. [Shortwave radiation, radiowave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to determine the fates of energy and carbon in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was carried out on steep (40/sup 0/) north- and south-facing slopes on a small earth mound, using many small lysimeters to emulate swards of cheatgrass. Meteorological conditions and energy fluxes that were measured included air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, heat flux to the soil, and evaporation and transpiration separately. The fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during spring growth was determined by analysis of the plant tissues into mineral nutrients, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) for roots, shoots, and seeds separately. (auth)

  6. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  7. A practical approach to compute short-wave irradiance interacting with subgrid-scale buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Uwe; Frueh, Barbara [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    A numerical approach for the calculation of short-wave irradiances at the ground as well as the walls and roofs of buildings in an environment with unresolved built-up is presented. In this radiative parameterization scheme the properties of the unresolved built-up are assigned to settlement types which are characterized by mean values of the volume density of the buildings and their wall area density. Therefore it is named wall area approach. In the vertical direction the range of building heights may be subdivided into several layers. In the case of non-uniform building heights the shadowing of the lower roofs by the taller buildings is taken into account. The method includes the approximate calculation of sky view and sun view factors. For an idealized building arrangement it is shown that the obtained approximate factors are in good agreement with exact calculations just as for the comparison of the calculated and measured effective albedo values. For arrangements with isolated single buildings the presented wall area approach yields a better agreement with the observations than similar methods where the unresolved built-up is characterized by the aspect ratio of a representative street canyon (aspect ratio approach). In the limiting case where the built-up is well represented by an ensemble of idealized street canyons both approaches become equivalent. The presented short-wave radiation scheme is part of the microscale atmospheric model MUKLIMO 3 where it contributes to the calculation of surface temperatures on the basis of energy-flux equilibrium conditions. (orig.)

  8. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  9. Stationary spectra of short-wave convective and magnetostatic fluctuations in a finite-pressure plasma and anomalous heat conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, M.O.

    1992-01-01

    Within the general renormalized statistical approach, the low-frequency short-wave stationary spectra of potential and magnetic perturbations in a finite-pressure plasma, are obtained. Anomalous heat conductivity considerably enhances due to non-linear interaction between magnetic excitations. 11 refs. (author)

  10. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, New York (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  11. The multispectral reflectance of shortwave radiation by agricultural crops in relation with their morphological and optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, N.J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Relations between morphological properties of uniform canopies. optical properties of the leaves and reflection of shortwave radiation, in the visible light region and the near infrared, by crops are the subject of this thesis.

    The aim of the study was a further investigation of

  12. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-Cloud Aerosols Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Yu, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It accounts for the overlapping of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure. Effects of sub-grid scale cloud and aerosol variations on DRE are accounted for. It is computationally efficient through using grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table in radiative transfer calculations. We verified that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous shortwave DRE that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4. We have also computed the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global ocean based on 4 yr of CALIOP and MODIS data. We found that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds.

  13. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  14. Sensitivity of tropical rainbelt over Africa and Middle East to dust shortwave absorption: Experiments using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-01-01

    Response of the rainbelt over Africa to dust direct radiative forcing has been an area of lively debate and is a subject of ongoing research. Previous modeling studies have contrasting results producing different amplitudes or even signs of responses. Uncertainties in the dust radiative forcing are thought to be the major cause of discrepancies in the simulated responses among various studies. The imaginary part of mineral dust shortwave refractive index, which defines the dust absorptivity, has a wide range of values estimated from various observational and modeling studies, as it depends on dust chemical composition and mineralogy. Balkanski et al. (2007) estimated dust shortwave refractive indices by assuming 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume, which corresponds to inefficient, standard, and very efficient dust shortwave absorption, respectively. To investigate the sensitivity of the position and intensity of the tropical rainbelt over Africa and its extension to the Arabian Peninsula to dust shortwave absorption, we have conducted ensembles of numerical simulations for each of the three dust absorptivity scenarios using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL's High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), at a spatial resolution of 25 km. We found that the strength and the latitudinal extent of the rainbelt are very sensitive to dust shortwave absorption, as well as circulations at various spatiotemporal scales that drive the climate of the region. Reference: Balkanski, Y., M. Schulz, T. Claquin, and S. Guibert (2007), Reevaluation of mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 81 - 95.

  15. Sensitivity of tropical rainbelt over Africa and Middle East to dust shortwave absorption: Experiments using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-04-01

    Response of the rainbelt over Africa to dust direct radiative forcing has been an area of lively debate and is a subject of ongoing research. Previous modeling studies have contrasting results producing different amplitudes or even signs of responses. Uncertainties in the dust radiative forcing are thought to be the major cause of discrepancies in the simulated responses among various studies. The imaginary part of mineral dust shortwave refractive index, which defines the dust absorptivity, has a wide range of values estimated from various observational and modeling studies, as it depends on dust chemical composition and mineralogy. Balkanski et al. (2007) estimated dust shortwave refractive indices by assuming 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume, which corresponds to inefficient, standard, and very efficient dust shortwave absorption, respectively. To investigate the sensitivity of the position and intensity of the tropical rainbelt over Africa and its extension to the Arabian Peninsula to dust shortwave absorption, we have conducted ensembles of numerical simulations for each of the three dust absorptivity scenarios using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), at a spatial resolution of 25 km. We found that the strength and the latitudinal extent of the rainbelt are very sensitive to dust shortwave absorption, as well as circulations at various spatiotemporal scales that drive the climate of the region. Reference: Balkanski, Y., M. Schulz, T. Claquin, and S. Guibert (2007), Reevaluation of mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 81 - 95.

  16. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  17. A novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Ning; You, Bo; Xiao, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Intelligent on-line detection of cable quality is a crucial issue in optic cable factory, and defects on the surface of optic cable can dramatically depress cable grade. Manual inspection in optic cable quality cannot catch up with the development of optic cable industry due to its low detection efficiency and huge human cost. Therefore, real-time is highly demanded by industry in order to replace the subjective and repetitive process of manual inspection. For this reason, automatic cable defect inspection has been a trend. In this paper, a novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance is presented. The special condition of short-wave infrared cannot only provide illumination compensation for the weak illumination environment, but also can avoid the problem of exposure when using visible light illuminance, which affects the accuracy of inspection algorithm. A series of image processing algorithms are set up to analyze cable image for the verification of real-time and veracity of the detection method. Unlike some existing detection algorithms which concentrate on the characteristics of defects with an active search way, the proposed method removes the non-defective areas of the image passively at the same time of image processing, which reduces a large amount of computation. OTSU algorithm is used to convert the gray image to the binary image. Furthermore, a threshold window is designed to eliminate the fake defects, and the threshold represents the considered minimum size of defects ε . Besides, a new regional suppression method is proposed to deal with the edge burrs of the cable, which shows the superior performance compared with that of Open-Close operation of mathematical morphological in the boundary processing. Experimental results of 10,000 samples show that the rates of miss detection and false detection are 2.35% and 0.78% respectively when ε equals to 0.5 mm, and the average processing period of one frame

  18. Leaf temperature and transpiration of rice plants in relation to short-wave radiation and wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, D.; Haseba, T.

    1984-01-01

    Leaf temperature and transpiration amount of rice plants were measured in a steady environment in a laboratory and in field situations. The plants set in Wagner pots were used. Experiments were carried out at the tillering and booting stages, and on the date of maturity. Measured leaf temperatures and transpiration rates were analyzed in connection with incident short-wave radiation on a leaf and wind speed measured simultaneously.Instantaneous supplying and turning-off of steady artificial light caused cyclic changes in leaf temperature and transpiration. Leaf temperature dropped in feeble illumination compared with the steady temperature in the preceeding dark.On the date of maturity, a rice plant leaf was warmer than the air, even in feeble light. Then, the leaf-air temperature difference and transpiration rate showed approximately linear increases with short-wave radiation intensity. On the same date, an increase in wind speed produced a decrease in leaf-air temperature difference, i.e., leaf temperature dropped, and an increase in transpiration rate. The rates of both changes in leaf temperature and transpiration rate were fairly large in a range of wind speed below about 1m/s.For rice plants growing favorably from the tillering stage through the booting stage, the leaves were considerably cooler than the air, even in an intense light and/or solar radiation. The leaf temperature showed the lowest value at short-wave radiations between 0.15 and 0.20ly/min, at above which the leaf temperature rised with an increase in short-wave radiation until it approached the air temperature. Transpiration rate of rice plants increased rapidly with an increase in short-wave radiation ranging below 0.2 or 0.3ly/min, at above which the increase in transpiration rate slowed.The relationships between leaf temperature and/or transpiration rate and wind speed and/or incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) which were obtained experimentally, supported the relationships

  19. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Aaron; Armour, Kyle C.; Pendergrass, Angeline G.; Battisti, David S.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. PMID:25385628

  20. [Bare Soil Moisture Inversion Model Based on Visible-Shortwave Infrared Reflectance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Qin, Qi-ming; Ren, Hua-zhong; Gao, Zhong-ling; Wu, Ling; Meng, Qing-ye; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Soil is the loose solum of land surface that can support plants. It consists of minerals, organics, atmosphere, moisture, microbes, et al. Among its complex compositions, soil moisture varies greatly. Therefore, the fast and accurate inversion of soil moisture by using remote sensing is very crucial. In order to reduce the influence of soil type on the retrieval of soil moisture, this paper proposed a normalized spectral slope and absorption index named NSSAI to estimate soil moisture. The modeling of the new index contains several key steps: Firstly, soil samples with different moisture level were artificially prepared, and soil reflectance spectra was consequently measured using spectroradiometer produced by ASD Company. Secondly, the moisture absorption spectral feature located at shortwave wavelengths and the spectral slope of visible wavelengths were calculated after analyzing the regular spectral feature change patterns of different soil at different moisture conditions. Then advantages of the two features at reducing soil types' effects was synthesized to build the NSSAI. Thirdly, a linear relationship between NSSAI and soil moisture was established. The result showed that NSSAI worked better (correlation coefficient is 0.93) than most of other traditional methods in soil moisture extraction. It can weaken the influences caused by soil types at different moisture levels and improve the bare soil moisture inversion accuracy.

  1. Multiyear Statistics of 2-D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the importance of horizontal photon transport effects, which are not considered in the 1-D calculations of solar radiative heating used by most atmospheric dynamical models. In particular, the paper analyzes the difference between 2-D and 1-D radiative calculations for 2-D vertical cross-sections of clouds that were observed at three sites over 2- to 3-year periods. The results show that 2-D effects increase multiyear 24-hour average total solar absorption by about 4.1 W/sq m, 1.2 W/sq m, and 0.3 W/sq m at a tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic site, respectively. However, 2-D effects are often much larger than these average values, especially for high sun and for convective clouds. The results also reveal a somewhat unexpected behavior, that horizontal photon transport often enhances solar heating even for oblique sun. These findings underscore the need for fast radiation calculation methods that can allow atmospheric dynamical simulations to consider the inherently multidimensional nature of shortwave radiative processes.

  2. Shortwave forcing and feedbacks in Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene PMIP3 simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnot, Pascale; Kageyama, Masa

    2015-11-13

    Simulations of the climates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 21 000 years ago, and of the Mid-Holocene (MH), 6000 years ago, allow an analysis of climate feedbacks in climate states that are radically different from today. The analyses of cloud and surface albedo feedbacks show that the shortwave cloud feedback is a major driver of differences between model results. Similar behaviours appear when comparing the LGM and MH simulated changes, highlighting the fingerprint of model physics. Even though the different feedbacks show similarities between the different climate periods, the fact that their relative strength differs from one climate to the other prevents a direct comparison of past and future climate sensitivity. The land-surface feedback also shows large disparities among models even though they all produce positive sea-ice and snow feedbacks. Models have very different sensitivities when considering the vegetation feedback. This feedback has a regional pattern that differs significantly between models and depends on their level of complexity and model biases. Analyses of the MH climate in two versions of the IPSL model provide further indication on the possibilities to assess the role of model biases and model physics on simulated climate changes using past climates for which observations can be used to assess the model results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Nitrogen deficiency detection using reflected shortwave radiation from irrigated corn canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmer, T.M.; Schepers, J.S.; Varvel, G.E.; Walter-Shea, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Techniques that measure the N status of corn (Zea mays L.) can aid in management decisions that have economic and environmental implications. This study was conducted to identify reflected electromagnetic wavelengths most sensitive to detecting N deficiencies in a corn canopy with the possibility for use as a management tool. Reflected shortwave radiation was measured from an irrigated corn N response trial with four hybrids and five N rates at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg N ha -1 in 1992 and 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha -1 in 1993. A portable spectroradiometer was used to measure reflected radiation (400-1100 nm in 1992, 350-1050 nm in 1993) from corn canopies at approximately the R5 growth stage. Regression analyses revealed that reflected radiation near 550 and 710 nm was superior to reflected radiation near 450 or 650 nm for detecting N deficiencies. The ratio of light reflectance between 550 and 600 nm to light reflectance between 800 and 900 nm also provided sensitive detection of N stress. In 1993, an inexpensive photometric cell, which has peak sensitivity to light centered at 550 nm, was also used to measure reflected radiation from a corn canopy. Photometric cell readings correlated with relative grain yield (P < 0.001, r 2 = 0.74), but more research will be required to develop procedures to account for varying daylight conditions. These results provide information needed for the development of variable-rate fertilizer N application technology. (author)

  4. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Aaron; Armour, Kyle C; Pendergrass, Angeline G; Battisti, David S

    2014-11-25

    In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR.

  5. Explicit validation of a surface shortwave radiation balance model over snow-covered complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, N.; Löwe, H.; Mayer, B.; Lehning, M.

    2010-09-01

    A model that computes the surface radiation balance for all sky conditions in complex terrain is presented. The spatial distribution of direct and diffuse sky radiation is determined from observations of incident global radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity at a single measurement location. Incident radiation under cloudless sky is spatially derived from a parameterization of the atmospheric transmittance. Direct and diffuse sky radiation for all sky conditions are obtained by decomposing the measured global radiation value. Spatial incident radiation values under all atmospheric conditions are computed by adjusting the spatial radiation values obtained from the parametric model with the radiation components obtained from the decomposition model at the measurement site. Topographic influences such as shading are accounted for. The radiosity approach is used to compute anisotropic terrain reflected radiation. Validations of the shortwave radiation balance model are presented in detail for a day with cloudless sky. For a day with overcast sky a first validation is presented. Validation of a section of the horizon line as well as of individual radiation components is performed with high-quality measurements. A new measurement setup was designed to determine terrain reflected radiation. There is good agreement between the measurements and the modeled terrain reflected radiation values as well as with incident radiation values. A comparison of the model with a fully three-dimensional radiative transfer Monte Carlo model is presented. That validation reveals a good agreement between modeled radiation values.

  6. Penetrating Shortwave Radiation and Sea Ice Algae feedbacks using the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntsen, A. E.; Perovich, D. K.; Bailey, D. A.; Holland, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Transmittance of solar radiation through the sea ice cover determines energy transfer to the upper ocean in the form of heat as well as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available for the growth of under ice phytoplankton and bottom ice algal communities. A thinning ice cover, increased pond coverage, and earlier melt onset has increased light availability to the upper ocean in contemporary Arctic ice-covered waters. To investigate seasonal and spatial variability of solar shortwave irradiance penetrating the ice cover in the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea regions, we use the fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) in conjunction with a multistream radiative transfer model constrained and initiated by in situ observations. Results inform the importance of light attenuation by ice-based algal pigments within large scale global climate models. We demonstrate the presence of bio-optical feedbacks related to a younger ice cover and examine how these relationships are impacting the trajectory of under ice blooms and the energy budget of the ice-ocean system.

  7. Analytic Approximations for Soliton Solutions of Short-Wave Models for Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Pei; Li Zhibin; Chen Yong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the short-wave model equations are investigated, which are associated with the Camassa-Holm (CH) and Degasperis-Procesi (DP) shallow-water wave equations. Firstly, by means of the transformation of the independent variables and the travelling wave transformation, the partial differential equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Secondly, the equation is solved by homotopy analysis method. Lastly, by the transformations back to the original independent variables, the solution of the original partial differential equation is obtained. The two types of solutions of the short-wave models are obtained in parametric form, one is one-cusp soliton for the CH equation while the other one is one-loop soliton for the DP equation. The approximate analytic solutions expressed by a series of exponential functions agree well with the exact solutions. It demonstrates the validity and great potential of homotopy analysis method for complicated nonlinear solitary wave problems. (general)

  8. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  9. Characterizing the information content of cloud thermodynamic phase retrievals from the notional PACE OCI shortwave reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Vukicevic, T.; Schmidt, K. S.; Platnick, S.

    2017-08-01

    We rigorously quantify the probability of liquid or ice thermodynamic phase using only shortwave spectral channels specific to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite, and the notional future Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem imager. The results show that two shortwave-infrared channels (2135 and 2250 nm) provide more information on cloud thermodynamic phase than either channel alone; in one case, the probability of ice phase retrieval increases from 65 to 82% by combining 2135 and 2250 nm channels. The analysis is performed with a nonlinear statistical estimation approach, the GEneralized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA). The GENRA technique has previously been used to quantify the retrieval of cloud optical properties from passive shortwave observations, for an assumed thermodynamic phase. Here we present the methodology needed to extend the utility of GENRA to a binary thermodynamic phase space (i.e., liquid or ice). We apply formal information content metrics to quantify our results; two of these (mutual and conditional information) have not previously been used in the field of cloud studies.

  10. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  11. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  12. Bias correction of surface downwelling longwave and shortwave radiation for the EWEMBI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Many meteorological forcing datasets include bias-corrected surface downwelling longwave and shortwave radiation (rlds and rsds). Methods used for such bias corrections range from multi-year monthly mean value scaling to quantile mapping at the daily timescale. An additional downscaling is necessary if the data to be corrected have a higher spatial resolution than the observational data used to determine the biases. This was the case when EartH2Observe (E2OBS; Calton et al., 2016) rlds and rsds were bias-corrected using more coarsely resolved Surface Radiation Budget (SRB; Stackhouse Jr. et al., 2011) data for the production of the meteorological forcing dataset EWEMBI (Lange, 2016). This article systematically compares various parametric quantile mapping methods designed specifically for this purpose, including those used for the production of EWEMBI rlds and rsds. The methods vary in the timescale at which they operate, in their way of accounting for physical upper radiation limits, and in their approach to bridging the spatial resolution gap between E2OBS and SRB. It is shown how temporal and spatial variability deflation related to bilinear interpolation and other deterministic downscaling approaches can be overcome by downscaling the target statistics of quantile mapping from the SRB to the E2OBS grid such that the sub-SRB-grid-scale spatial variability present in the original E2OBS data is retained. Cross validations at the daily and monthly timescales reveal that it is worthwhile to take empirical estimates of physical upper limits into account when adjusting either radiation component and that, overall, bias correction at the daily timescale is more effective than bias correction at the monthly timescale if sampling errors are taken into account.

  13. Estimating Surface Downward Shortwave Radiation over China Based on the Gradient Boosting Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Downward shortwave radiation (DSR is an essential parameter in the terrestrial radiation budget and a necessary input for models of land-surface processes. Although several radiation products using satellite observations have been released, coarse spatial resolution and low accuracy limited their application. It is important to develop robust and accurate retrieval methods with higher spatial resolution. Machine learning methods may be powerful candidates for estimating the DSR from remotely sensed data because of their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. In this study, the gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT was employed to retrieve DSR measurements with the ground observation data in China collected from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA Meteorological Information Center and the satellite observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR at a spatial resolution of 5 km. The validation results of the DSR estimates based on the GBRT method in China at a daily time scale for clear sky conditions show an R2 value of 0.82 and a root mean square error (RMSE value of 27.71 W·m−2 (38.38%. These values are 0.64 and 42.97 W·m−2 (34.57%, respectively, for cloudy sky conditions. The monthly DSR estimates were also evaluated using ground measurements. The monthly DSR estimates have an overall R2 value of 0.92 and an RMSE of 15.40 W·m−2 (12.93%. Comparison of the DSR estimates with the reanalyzed and retrieved DSR measurements from satellite observations showed that the estimated DSR is reasonably accurate but has a higher spatial resolution. Moreover, the proposed GBRT method has good scalability and is easy to apply to other parameter inversion problems by changing the parameters and training data.

  14. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao; Liang, Liheng

    2014-01-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300∼2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R 2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R 2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil

  15. Spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing from fire-induced albedo change in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Dahal, Devendra; Liu, Heping; Jin, Suming; Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The albedo change caused by both fires and subsequent succession is spatially heterogeneous, leading to the need to assess the spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing (SSF) as a component to quantify the climate impacts of high-latitude fires. We used an image reconstruction approach to compare postfire albedo with the albedo assuming fires had not occurred. Combining the fire-caused albedo change from the 2001-2010 fires in interior Alaska and the monthly surface incoming solar radiation, we examined the spatiotemporal variation of SSF in the early successional stage of around 10 years. Our results showed that while postfire albedo generally increased in fall, winter, and spring, some burned areas could show an albedo decrease during these seasons. In summer, the albedo increased for several years and then declined again. The spring SSF distribution did not show a latitudinal decrease from south to north as previously reported. The results also indicated that although the SSF is usually largely negative in the early successional years, it may not be significant during the first postfire year. The annual 2005-2010 SSF for the 2004 fire scars was -1.30, -4.40, -3.31, -4.00, -3.42, and -2.47 Wm-2. The integrated annual SSF map showed significant spatial variation with a mean of -3.15 Wm-2 and a standard deviation of 3.26 Wm-2, 16% of burned areas having positive SSF. Our results suggest that boreal deciduous fires would be less positive for climate change than boreal evergreen fires. Future research is needed to comprehensively investigate the spatiotemporal radiative and non-radiative forcings to determine the effect of boreal fires on climate.

  16. Evaluation of Shortwave Infrared Atmospheric Correction for Ocean Color Remote Sensing of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Franz, Bryan A.; Bailey, Sean W.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODIS-Aqua) provides a viable data stream for operational water quality monitoring of Chesapeake Bay. Marine geophysical products from MODIS-Aqua depend on the efficacy of the atmospheric correction process, which can be problematic in coastal environments. The operational atmospheric correction algorithm for MODIS-Aqua requires an assumption of negligible near-infrared water-leaving radiance, nL(sub w)(NIR). This assumption progressively degrades with increasing turbidity and, as such, methods exist to account for non-negligible nL(sub w)(NIR) within the atmospheric correction process or to use alternate radiometric bands where the assumption is satisfied, such as those positioned within shortwave infrared (SWIR) region of the spectrum. We evaluated a decade-long time-series of nL(sub w)(lambda) from MODIS-Aqua in Chesapeake Bay derived using NIR and SWIR bands for atmospheric correction. Low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for the SWIR bands of MODIS-Aqua added noise errors to the derived radiances, which produced broad, flat frequency distributions of nL(sub w)(lambda) relative to those produced using the NIR bands. The SWIR approach produced an increased number of negative nL(sub w)(lambda) and decreased sample size relative to the NIR approach. Revised vicarious calibration and regional tuning of the scheme to switch between the NIR and SWIR approaches may improve retrievals in Chesapeake Bay, however, poor SNR values for the MODIS-Aqua SWIR bands remain the primary deficiency of the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach.

  17. Quantitative Comparison of the Variability in Observed and Simulated Shortwave Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yolanda, L.; Pilewskie, P.; Kindel, B. C.; Feldman, D. R.; Collins, W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a climate observation system that has been designed to monitor the Earth's climate with unprecedented absolute radiometric accuracy and SI traceability. Climate Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) have been generated to simulate CLARREO hyperspectral shortwave imager measurements to help define the measurement characteristics needed for CLARREO to achieve its objectives. To evaluate how well the OSSE-simulated reflectance spectra reproduce the Earth s climate variability at the beginning of the 21st century, we compared the variability of the OSSE reflectance spectra to that of the reflectance spectra measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY). Principal component analysis (PCA) is a multivariate decomposition technique used to represent and study the variability of hyperspectral radiation measurements. Using PCA, between 99.7%and 99.9%of the total variance the OSSE and SCIAMACHY data sets can be explained by subspaces defined by six principal components (PCs). To quantify how much information is shared between the simulated and observed data sets, we spectrally decomposed the intersection of the two data set subspaces. The results from four cases in 2004 showed that the two data sets share eight (January and October) and seven (April and July) dimensions, which correspond to about 99.9% of the total SCIAMACHY variance for each month. The spectral nature of these shared spaces, understood by examining the transformed eigenvectors calculated from the subspace intersections, exhibit similar physical characteristics to the original PCs calculated from each data set, such as water vapor absorption, vegetation reflectance, and cloud reflectance.

  18. Advanced shortwave infrared and Raman hyperspectral sensors for homeland security and law enforcement operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Oksana; Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Gomer, Nathaniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of chemical and explosive threats as well as illicit drugs continues to be an escalating danger to civilian and military personnel. Conventional means of detecting and identifying hazardous materials often require the use of reagents and/or physical sampling, which is a time-consuming, costly and often dangerous process. Stand-off detection allows the operator to detect threat residues from a safer distance minimizing danger to people and equipment. Current fielded technologies for standoff detection of chemical and explosive threats are challenged by low area search rates, poor targeting efficiency, lack of sensitivity and specificity or use of costly and potentially unsafe equipment such as lasers. A demand exists for stand-off systems that are fast, safe, reliable and user-friendly. To address this need, ChemImage Sensor Systems™ (CISS) has developed reagent-less, non-contact, non-destructive sensors for the real-time detection of hazardous materials based on widefield shortwave infrared (SWIR) and Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Hyperspectral imaging enables automated target detection displayed in the form of image making result analysis intuitive and user-friendly. Application of the CISS' SWIR-HSI and Raman sensing technologies to Homeland Security and Law Enforcement for standoff detection of homemade explosives and illicit drugs and their precursors in vehicle and personnel checkpoints is discussed. Sensing technologies include a portable, robot-mounted and standalone variants of the technology. Test data is shown that supports the use of SWIR and Raman HSI for explosive and drug screening at checkpoints as well as screening for explosives and drugs at suspected clandestine manufacturing facilities.

  19. On the Use of Shortwave Infrared for Tree Species Discrimination in Tropical Semideciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M. P.; Zortea, M.; Zanotta, D. C.; Féret, J. B.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Souza Filho, C. R.

    2015-08-01

    Tree species mapping in tropical forests provides valuable insights for forest managers. Keystone species can be located for collection of seeds for forest restoration, reducing fieldwork costs. However, mapping of tree species in tropical forests using remote sensing data is a challenge due to high floristic and spectral diversity. Little is known about the use of different spectral regions as most of studies performed so far used visible/near-infrared (390-1000 nm) features. In this paper we show the contribution of shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1045-2395 nm) for tree species discrimination in a tropical semideciduous forest. Using high-resolution hyperspectral data we also simulated WorldView-3 (WV-3) multispectral bands for classification purposes. Three machine learning methods were tested to discriminate species at the pixel-level: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machines with Linear (L-SVM) and Radial Basis Function (RBF-SVM) kernels, and Random Forest (RF). Experiments were performed using all and selected features from the VNIR individually and combined with SWIR. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the effects of dimensionality reduction and identify potential wavelengths that may optimize species discrimination. Using VNIR hyperspectral bands, RBF-SVM achieved the highest average accuracy (77.4%). Inclusion of the SWIR increased accuracy to 85% with LDA. The same pattern was also observed when WV-3 simulated channels were used to classify the species. The VNIR bands provided and accuracy of 64.2% for LDA, which was increased to 79.8 % using the new SWIR bands that are operationally available in this platform. Results show that incorporating SWIR bands increased significantly average accuracy for both the hyperspectral data and WorldView-3 simulated bands.

  20. Bias correction of surface downwelling longwave and shortwave radiation for the EWEMBI dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lange

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many meteorological forcing datasets include bias-corrected surface downwelling longwave and shortwave radiation (rlds and rsds. Methods used for such bias corrections range from multi-year monthly mean value scaling to quantile mapping at the daily timescale. An additional downscaling is necessary if the data to be corrected have a higher spatial resolution than the observational data used to determine the biases. This was the case when EartH2Observe (E2OBS; Calton et al., 2016 rlds and rsds were bias-corrected using more coarsely resolved Surface Radiation Budget (SRB; Stackhouse Jr. et al., 2011 data for the production of the meteorological forcing dataset EWEMBI (Lange, 2016. This article systematically compares various parametric quantile mapping methods designed specifically for this purpose, including those used for the production of EWEMBI rlds and rsds. The methods vary in the timescale at which they operate, in their way of accounting for physical upper radiation limits, and in their approach to bridging the spatial resolution gap between E2OBS and SRB. It is shown how temporal and spatial variability deflation related to bilinear interpolation and other deterministic downscaling approaches can be overcome by downscaling the target statistics of quantile mapping from the SRB to the E2OBS grid such that the sub-SRB-grid-scale spatial variability present in the original E2OBS data is retained. Cross validations at the daily and monthly timescales reveal that it is worthwhile to take empirical estimates of physical upper limits into account when adjusting either radiation component and that, overall, bias correction at the daily timescale is more effective than bias correction at the monthly timescale if sampling errors are taken into account.

  1. Stabilized platform for tethered balloon soundings of broadband long- and short-wave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the composition of trace gases in the earth's atmosphere have been reported by many observers, and a general concern has been expressed regarding possible changes to the earth's climate that may be caused by radiatively active gases introduced into the earth's atmosphere by man's activities. Radiatively active trace gases produce temperature changes in the earth's atmosphere through changes in radiative flux divergence. Our knowledge of and means of measuring radiative flux divergence is very limited. A few observations of vertical radiative flux divergences have been reported from aircraft from radiometersondes from towers and from large tethered balloons. These measurement techniques suffers from one or more drawbacks, including shallow sounding depths (towers), high cost (aircraft), complicated logistics (large tethered balloons), and limitation to nighttime hours (radiometersondes). Changes in radiative flux divergence caused by anthropogenic trace gases are expected to be quite small, and will be difficult to measure with existing broadband radiative flux instruments. The emphasis of present research in global climate change is thus being focused on improving radiative transfer algorithms in global climate models. The radiative parameterizations in these models are at an early stage of development and information is needed regarding their performance, especially in cloudy conditions. The impetus for the research reported in this paper is the need for a device that can supplement existing means of measuring vertical profiles of long- and short-wave irradiance and radiative flux divergence. We have designed a small tethered-balloon-based system that can make radiometric soundings through the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper discusses the concept, the design considerations, and the design and construction of this sounding system. The performance of the system will be tested in a series of balloon flights scheduled for the fall and winter of 1992

  2. Spectralon BRDF and DHR Measurements in Support of Satellite Instruments Operating Through Shortwave Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon*, a common material for laboratory and onorbit flight diffusers. A new measurement setup for BRDF measurements from 900 nm to 2500 nm located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. The GSFC setup employs an extended indium gallium arsenide detector, bandpass filters, and a supercontinuum light source. Comparisons of the GSFC BRDF measurements in the ShortWave InfraRed (SWIR) with those made by the NIST Spectral Trifunction Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) are presented. The Spectralon sample used in this study was 2 inch diameter, 99% white pressed and sintered Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) target. The NASA/NIST BRDF comparison measurements were made at an incident angle of 0 deg and viewing angle of 45 deg. Additional BRDF data not compared to NIST were measured at additional incident and viewing angle geometries and are not presented here The total combined uncertainty for the measurement of BRDF in the SWIR range made by the GSFC scatterometer is less than 1% (k=1). This study is in support of the calibration of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of and other current and future NASA remote sensing missions operating across the reflected solar wavelength region.

  3. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the Top (TOA and at the Bottom Of Atmosphere (BOA modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. Six main types of atmospheric aerosols have been compared (desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere in similar observational conditions (i.e., for solar zenith angles between 55° and 65° in order to compare the nearly same solar geometry. The instantaneous ΔF averages obtained vary from −122 ± 37 Wm−2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45 at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in West Africa and −42 ± 22 Wm−2 (AOD = 0.9 ± 0.5 at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to −6 ± 3 Wm−2 and −4 ± 2 Wm−2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02 at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  4. Long-term global distribution of earth's shortwave radiation budget at the top of atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hatzianastassiou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean monthly shortwave (SW radiation budget at the top of atmosphere (TOA was computed on 2.5° longitude-latitude resolution for the 14-year period from 1984 to 1997, using a radiative transfer model with long-term climatological data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2 supplemented by data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction – National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR Global Reanalysis project, and other global data bases such as TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS and Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS. The model radiative fluxes at TOA were validated against Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE S4 scanner satellite data (1985–1989. The model is able to predict the seasonal and geographical variation of SW TOA fluxes. On a mean annual and global basis, the model is in very good agreement with ERBE, overestimating the outgoing SW radiation at TOA (OSR by 0.93 Wm-2 (or by 0.92%, within the ERBE uncertainties. At pixel level, the OSR differences between model and ERBE are mostly within ±10 Wm-2, with ±5 Wm-2 over extended regions, while there exist some geographic areas with differences of up to 40 Wm-2, associated with uncertainties in cloud properties and surface albedo. The 14-year average model results give a planetary albedo equal to 29.6% and a TOA OSR flux of 101.2 Wm-2. A significant linearly decreasing trend in OSR and planetary albedo was found, equal to 2.3 Wm-2 and 0.6% (in absolute values, respectively, over the 14-year period (from January 1984 to December 1997, indicating an increasing solar planetary warming. This planetary SW radiative heating occurs in the tropical and sub-tropical areas (20° S–20° N, with clouds being the most likely cause. The computed global mean OSR anomaly ranges within ±4 Wm-2, with signals from El Niño and La Niña events or Pinatubo eruption, whereas significant negative OSR anomalies, starting from year 1992, are also

  5. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  6. Evaluation of the shortwave cloud radiative effect over the ocean by use of ship and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanschmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE over ocean calculated by the ECHAM 5 climate model is evaluated for the cloud property input derived from ship based measurements and satellite based estimates and compared to ship based radiation measurements. The ship observations yield cloud fraction, liquid water path from a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde ascents. Level-2 products of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM~SAF from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI have been used to characterize clouds. Within a closure study six different experiments have been defined to find the optimal set of measurements to calculate downward shortwave radiation (DSR and the SWCRE from the model, and their results have been evaluated under seven different synoptic situations. Four of these experiments are defined to investigate the advantage of including the satellite-based cloud droplet effective radius as additional cloud property. The modeled SWCRE based on satellite retrieved cloud properties has a comparable accuracy to the modeled SWCRE based on ship data. For several cases, an improvement through introducing the satellite-based estimate of effective radius as additional information to the ship based data was found. Due to their different measuring characteristics, however, each dataset shows best results for different atmospheric conditions.

  7. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR). In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM) in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night. We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD) and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD) of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between -2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations to local conditions

  8. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  9. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  10. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  11. Effect of surface albedo, water vapour, and atmospheric aerosols on the cloud-free shortwave radiative budget in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Biagio, C. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Earth Science, Siena (Italy); Di Sarra, A. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); Eriksen, P. [Danish Climate Centre, DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ascanius, S.E. [DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Qaanaaq (Greenland); Muscari, G. [INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Holben, B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This study is based on ground-based measurements of downward surface shortwave irradiance (SW), columnar water vapour (wv), and aerosol optical depth ({tau}) obtained at Thule Air Base (Greenland) in 2007-2010, together with MODIS observations of the surface shortwave albedo (A). Radiative transfer model calculations are used in combination with measurements to separate the radiative effect of A ({Delta}SW{sub A}), wv ({Delta}SW{sub wv}), and aerosols ({Delta}SW{sub {tau}}) in modulating SW in cloud-free conditions. The shortwave radiation at the surface is mainly affected by water vapour absorption, which produces a reduction of SW as low as -100 Wm{sup -2} (-18%). The seasonal change of A produces an increase of SW by up to +25 Wm{sup -2} (+4.5%). The annual mean radiative effect is estimated to be -(21-22) Wm{sup -2} for wv, and +(2-3) Wm{sup -2} for A. An increase by +0.065 cm in the annual mean wv, to which corresponds an absolute increase in {Delta}SW{sub wv} by 0.93 Wm{sup -2} (4.3%), has been observed to occur between 2007 and 2010. In the same period, the annual mean A has decreased by -0.027, with a corresponding decrease in {Delta}SW{sub A} by 0.41 Wm{sup -2} (-14.9%). Atmospheric aerosols produce a reduction of SW as low as -32 Wm{sup -2} (-6.7%). The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing (RF{sub {tau}}) reaches values of -28 Wm{sup -2} and shows a strong dependency on surface albedo. The derived radiative forcing efficiency (FE{sub {tau}}) for solar zenith angles between 55 and 70 is estimated to be (-120.6 {+-} 4.3) for 0.1 < A < 0.2, and (-41.2 {+-} 1.6) Wm{sup -2} for 0.5 < A < 0.6. (orig.)

  12. Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a

  13. [Determination of fat, protein and DM in raw milk by portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-yun; Wang, Jia-hua; Huang, Ya-wei; Han, Dong-hai

    2011-03-01

    Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy calibrations of fat, protein and DM in raw milk were studied with partial least-squares (PLS) regression using portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer. The results indicated that good calibrations of fat and DM were found, the correlation coefficients were all 0.98, the RMSEC were 0.187 and 0.217, RMSEP were 0.187 and 0.296, the RPDs were 5.02 and 3.20 respectively; the calibration of protein needed to be improved but can be used for practice, the correlation coefficient was 0.95, RMSEC was 0.105, RMSEP was 0.120, and RPD was 2.60. Furthermore, the measuring accuracy was improved by analyzing the correction relation of fat and DM in raw milk This study will probably provide a new on-site method for nondestructive and rapid measurement of milk.

  14. Relation between seasonally detrended shortwave infrared reflectance data and land surface moisture in semi-arid Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard; Ceccato, Pietro; Proud, Simon Richard

    2013-01-01

    in vegetation moisture status, and is compared to detrended time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). It was found that when plant available water is low, the SIWSI anomalies increase over time, while the NDVI anomalies decrease over time, but less systematically. Therefore SIWSI may......In the Sudano-Sahelian areas of Africa droughts can have serious impacts on natural resources, and therefore land surface moisture is an important factor. Insufficient conventional sites for monitoring land surface moisture make the use of Earth Observation data for this purpose a key issue...... Second Generation (MSG) satellite. We focused on responses in surface reflectance to soil- and surface moisture for bare soil and early to mid- growing season. A method for implementing detrended time series of the Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI) is examined for detecting variations...

  15. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-cloud Aerosols over Ocean Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It accounts for the overlapping of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure. Effects of sub-grid scale cloud and aerosol variations on DRE are accounted for. It is computationally efficient through using grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table in radiative transfer calculations. We verified that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous shortwave DRE that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4%. We have also computed the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global ocean based on 4 yr of CALIOP and MODIS data. We found that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds.

  16. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  17. Optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The co-processor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of Xeon Phi will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.3x.

  18. Infrared autofluorescence, short-wave autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of optic disk melanocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the findings of infrared fundus autofluorescence (IR-AF and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in eyes with optic disc melanocytoma (ODM. METHODS: IR-AF findings and those of other ophthalmologic imaging examinations, including short-wave autofluorescence (SW-AF, fluorescein angiography (FA, fundus color photography, and SD-OCT of 8 eyes of 8 consecutive cases with ODM were assessed. RESULTS: The ODMs in all cases (100% presented similar IR-AF, SW-AF, and FA findings. On IR-AF images, ODMs showed outstanding hyper-AF with well-defined outline. On SW-AF images, the area of ODMs presented as hypo-AF. FA images revealed the leaking retinal telangiectasia on the surface of the ODMs. On SD-OCT images in 8 cases (100%, the ODMs were sloped with highly reflective surface, which were disorganized retina and optic nerve layers. In 7 cases (87.5%, peripapillary choroids were involved. The melanocytomas of 8 cases (100% presented as optically empty spaces. Vitreous seeds were found in one case (12.5%. CONCLUSION: IR-AF imaging may provide a new modality to evaluate the pathologic features of ODMs, and together with SW-AF imaging, offers a new tool to study biological characteristics associated with ODMs. SD-OCT is a valuable tool in delimitating the tumor extension and providing morphological information about the adjacent retinal tissue.

  19. Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu-Baykut, Esra; Gunes, Gurbuz; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-15

    Thyme is a good source of antioxidant compounds but it can be contaminated by microorganisms. An experimental fluid bed ultraviolet (UV) reactor was designed for microbial decontamination of thyme samples and the effect of shortwave ultraviolet light (UV-C) radiation on antioxidant properties of thyme was studied. Samples were exposed to UV-C radiation for 16 or 64 min. UV-C treatment led to 1.04 and 1.38 log CFU/g reduction of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) counts. Hunter a(∗) value was the most sensitive colour parameter during UV-C treatment. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of extracts was not significantly affected by UV-C. Addition of thyme extracts at 0.15 and 0.3 μmol GAE/ml emulsion delayed the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal in the 5.0%(wt) corn oil-in-water emulsion from 4 to 9 and 14 days, respectively. No significant changes in oxidation rates were observed between UV-C treated and untreated samples at same concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does variation in mineral composition alter the short-wave light scattering properties of desert dust aerosol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Andrew J.A.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosol is a major component of natural airborne particulates. Using satellite measurements from the visible and near-infrared, there is insufficient information to retrieve a full microphysical and chemical description of an aerosol distribution. As such, refractive index is one of many parameters that must be implicitly assumed in order to obtain an optical depth retrieval. This is essentially a proxy for the dust mineralogy. Using a global soil map, it is shown that as long as a reasonable refractive index for dust is assumed, global dust variability is unlikely to cause significant variation in the optical properties of a dust aerosol distribution in the short-wave, and so should not greatly affect retrievals of mineral dust aerosol from space by visible and near-infrared radiometers. Errors in aerosol optical depth due to this variation are expected to be ≲1%. The work is framed around the ORAC AATSR aerosol retrieval, but is equally applicable to similar satellite retrievals. In this case, variations in the top-of-atmosphere reflectance caused by mineral variation are within the noise limits of the instrument. -- Highlights: • Global variation in dust aerosol refractive index is quantified using soil maps. • Resulting visible light scattering properties have limited variability. • Satellite aerosol retrievals do not need to account for varying dust refractive indices

  1. Compositional Variations in Sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from Visible-Shortwave Infrared Spectroscopy and Comparison to Ground-Truth from the Curiosity Rover

    OpenAIRE

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity ...

  2. Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from Global Energy Balance Archive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.

    2009-05-01

    Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the Global Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5° × 2.5° grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave irradiance decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave irradiance recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.

  3. The Validation of the GEWEX SRB Surface Shortwave Flux Data Products Using BSRN Measurements: A Systematic Quality Control, Production and Application Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous record of global shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 11 latitude11 longitude. The inputs of the latest version (Release 3.0) include the GEOS Version 4.0.3 meteorological information and cloud properties derived from ISCCP DX data. The SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly time scales. To assess the quality of the product, we extensively validated the SRB data against 5969 site-months of groundbased measurements from 52 Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations. This paper describes first the characteristics of the BSRN data and the GEWEX SRB data, the methodology for quality control and processing of the shortwave BSRN data, and then the systematic SRB-BSRN comparisons. It is found that, except for occasional extreme outliers as seen in scatter plots, the satellite-based surface radiation data generally agree very well with BSRN measurements. Specifically, the bias/RMS for the daily and monthly mean shortwave fluxes are, respectively, -3.6/35.5 and -5.2/23.3W1 m2 under all-sky conditions.

  4. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  5. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Gregory C.; Calmer, Radiance; Nicoll, Keri; Hashimshoni, Eyal; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Preissler, Jana; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin; Russell, Lynn M.

    2017-08-01

    Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel model (ACPM). UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF) by between 25 and 60 W m-2. After accounting for entrainment

  6. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  7. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  8. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  9. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  10. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  11. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  12. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, Nora [School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); O' Hare, Neil [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Gormley, John [School of Physiotherapy, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2004-07-07

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  13. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists

  14. Laboratory estimate of the regional shortwave refractive index and single scattering albedo of mineral dust from major sources worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.

  15. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  16. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  17. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  18. A fast radiative transfer model for visible through shortwave infrared spectral reflectances in clear and cloudy atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenxi; Yang, Ping; Nasiri, Shaima L.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Liu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A computationally efficient radiative transfer model (RTM) for calculating visible (VIS) through shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectances is developed for use in satellite and airborne cloud property retrievals. The full radiative transfer equation (RTE) for combinations of cloud, aerosol, and molecular layers is solved approximately by using six independent RTEs that assume the plane-parallel approximation along with a single-scattering approximation for Rayleigh scattering. Each of the six RTEs can be solved analytically if the bidirectional reflectance/transmittance distribution functions (BRDF/BTDF) of the cloud/aerosol layers are known. The adding/doubling (AD) algorithm is employed to account for overlapped cloud/aerosol layers and non-Lambertian surfaces. Two approaches are used to mitigate the significant computational burden of the AD algorithm. First, the BRDF and BTDF of single cloud/aerosol layers are pre-computed using the discrete ordinates radiative transfer program (DISORT) implemented with 128 streams, and second, the required integral in the AD algorithm is numerically implemented on a twisted icosahedral mesh. A concise surface BRDF simulator associated with the MODIS land surface product (MCD43) is merged into a fast RTM to accurately account for non-isotropic surface reflectance. The resulting fast RTM is evaluated with respect to its computational accuracy and efficiency. The simulation bias between DISORT and the fast RTM is large (e.g., relative error >5%) only when both the solar zenith angle (SZA) and the viewing zenith angle (VZA) are large (i.e., SZA>45° and VZA>70°). For general situations, i.e., cloud/aerosol layers above a non-Lambertian surface, the fast RTM calculation rate is faster than that of the 128-stream DISORT by approximately two orders of magnitude. -- Highlights: ► An efficient radiative transfer model is developed for cloud remote sensing. ► Multi-layered clouds and a non-Lambertian surface can be fully considered.

  19. Economic Value of Narrowing the Uncertainty in Climate Sensitivity: Decadal Change in Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing and Low Cloud Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R. M.; Golub, A. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Young, D. F.; Baize, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Several previous studies have been published on the economic value of narrowing the uncertainty in climate sensitivity (Cooke et al. 2015, Cooke et al. 2016, Hope, 2015). All three of these studies estimated roughly 10 Trillion U.S. dollars for the Net Present Value and Real Option Value at a discount rate of 3%. This discount rate is the nominal discount rate used in the U.S. Social Cost of Carbon Memo (2010). The Cooke et al studies approached this problem by examining advances in accuracy of global temperature measurements, while the Hope 2015 study did not address the type of observations required. While temperature change is related to climate sensitivity, large uncertainties of a factor of 3 in current anthropogenic radiative forcing (IPCC, 2013) would need to be solved for advanced decadal temperature change observations to assist the challenge of narrowing climate sensitivity. The present study takes a new approach by extending the Cooke et al. 2015,2016 papers to replace observations of temperature change to observations of decadal change in the effects of changing clouds on the Earths radiative energy balance, a measurement known as Cloud Radiative Forcing, or Cloud Radiative Effect. Decadal change in this observation is direclty related to the largest uncertainty in climate sensitivity which is cloud feedback from changing amount of low clouds, primarily low clouds over the world's oceans. As a result, decadal changes in shortwave cloud radiative forcing are more directly related to cloud feedback uncertainty which is the dominant uncertainty in climate sensitivity. This paper will show results for the new approach, and allow an examination of the sensitivity of economic value results to different observations used as a constraint on uncertainty in climate sensitivity. The analysis suggests roughly a doubling of economic value to 20 Trillion Net Present Value or Real Option Value at 3% discount rate. The higher economic value results from two changes: a

  20. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  1. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  2. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  3. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  4. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  5. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  6. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Sanchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol–cloud parcel model (ACPM. UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF by between 25 and 60 W m−2. After

  7. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  8. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  9. Impact of Aerosols on Shortwave and Photosynthetically Active Radiation Balance over Sub-tropical Region in South Asia: Observational and Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, T.; Pathak, B.

    2016-12-01

    The North-East Indian Region (NER) (22-30ºN, 89-98ºE) in south Asia sandwiched between two global biodiversity hotspots namely, Himalaya and Indo-Burma, assumes significance owing to its unique topography with mountains in the north, east and south and densely populated Indo Gangetic plains (IGP) towards the west resulting in complex aerosol system. Multi-year (2010-2014) concurrent measurements of aerosol properties and the shortwave radiation budget are examined over four geographically distinct stations of NER operational under Indian Space Research organization's ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India NETwork). An attempt has been made to lessen the ambiguity of forcing estimation by validating the radiative transfer modelled ARF with the CNR4 net radiometer measured values (r2 0.98). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and its dependence on the extinction of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) due to aerosol are assessed. The spring time enhancement of aerosols in the column has shown significant surface cooling (ARF = -48 ± 5 Wm-2) over the region, while the very high Black Carbon (BC) mass concentrations near the surface (SSA > 0.8) leads to significant atmospheric warming (ARF = +41 ± 7 Wm-2) in the shortwave range. Radiative forcing estimates reveal that the atmospheric forcing by BC could be as high as +30Wm-2 over the western part, which are significantly higher than the eastern part with a consequent heating rate of 1.5 K day-1 revealing an east-west asymmetry over NER. The impact of BC aerosols on the photosynthetic rate varies among different locations ranging from -5±2 Wm-2 to -25±3 Wm-2. Almost 70% of the total atmospheric shortwave radiative absorption is attributed to just 10% contribution of Black Carbon (BC) to total mass concentration and causes a reduction of more than 30% of PAR reaching the surface over Brahmaputra valley due to direct radiative effect. Comparison of previous and the present study shows highest

  10. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  11. OSIRIS (Observing System Including PolaRisation in the Solar Infrared Spectrum) instrument: a multi-directional, polarized radiometer in the visible and shortwave infrared, airborne prototype of 3MI / EPS-SG Eumetsat - ESA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, C.; Auriol, F.; Nicolas, J. M.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Djellali, M. S.; Cornet, C.; Waquet, F.; Catalfamo, M.; Delegove, C.; Loisil, R.

    2017-12-01

    OSIRIS instrument largely inherits from the POLDER concept developed and operated between 1991 (first airborne prototype) and 2013 (end of the POLDER-3/PARASOL space-borne mission). It consists in two optical systems, one covering the visible to near infrared range (440, 490, 670, 763, 765, 870, 910 and 940 nm) and a second one for the shortwave infrared (940, 1020, 1240, 1360, 1620 and 2200 nm). Each optical system is composed of a wide field-of-view optics (114° and 105° respectively) associated to two rotating wheels with interferential filters (spectral) and analyzers filters (polarization) respectively, and a 2D array of detectors. For each channel, radiance is measured once without analyzer, followed by sequential measurements with the three analyzers shifted by an angle of 60° to reconstruct the total and polarized radiances. The complete acquisition sequence for all spectral channels last a couple of seconds according to the chosen measurement protocol. Thanks to the large field of view of the optics, any target is seen under several viewing angles during the aircraft motion. In a first step we will present the new ground characterization of the instrument based on laboratory measurements (linearity, flat-field, absolute calibration, induced polarization, polarizers efficiency and position), the radiometric model and the Radiometric Inverted Model (RIM) used to develop the Level 1 processing chain that is used to produce level 1 products (normalized radiances, polarized or not, with viewing geometries) from the instrument generated level 0 files (Digital Counts) and attitude information from inertial system. The stray light issues will be specifically discussed. In a second step we will present in-flight radiometric and geometric methods applied to OSIRIS data in order to control and validate ground-based calibrated products: molecular scattering method and sun-glint cross-band method for radiometric calibration, glories, rainbows and sun-glint targets

  12. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  13. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  14. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose...

  15. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  16. A study of the hydrothermal alteration in Paleoproterozoic volcanic centers, São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian Craton, Brazil, using short-wave infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Raquel Souza; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Juliani, Caetano; Monteiro, Lena Virgínia Soares; de Almeida, Teodoro Isnard Ribeiro; Lagler, Bruno; de Carvalho Carneiro, Cleyton; Misas, Carlos Mario Echeverri

    2015-10-01

    Hypogene hydrothermal minerals have been identified by short-wave infrared spectroscopy in hydrothermally altered rocks from the Sobreiro and Santa Rosa formations, which belong to a Paleoproterozoic volcano-plutonic system in Amazonian craton. Three clay minerals are spectrally recognized: montmorillonite, kaolinite, and illite. The integration of these data with those available in the literature, including gold occurrences, suggests that those rocks are hydrothermal products of both volcanic thermal sources and later crustal intrusions, as evidenced by variable styles of propylitic, sericitic, potassic, and intermediate argillic alteration. The influence of meteoric fluids is emphasized. This low cost exploratory technique, which can be applied to hand samples, seems to be promising in the separation of hydrothermally altered volcano-plutonic centers in regions submitted to severe weathering conditions, in addition to aid elaborating models for prospecting mineral deposits.

  17. Extended wavelength InGaAs on GaAs using InAlAs buffer for back-side-illuminated short-wave infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Lars; John, Joachim; Degroote, Stefan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Hoof, Chris van; Nemeth, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study of back-side-illuminated InGaAs photodiodes grown on GaAs and sensitive in the short-wave infrared up to 2.4 μm. Standard metamorphic InGaAs or IR-transparent InAlAs buffers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. We studied dark current and photocurrent as a function of buffer thickness, buffer material, and temperature. A saturation of the dark current with buffer thickness was not observed. The maximum resistance area product was ∼10 Ω cm2 at 295 K. The dark current above 200 K was dominated by generation-recombination current. A pronounced dependence of the photocurrent on the buffer thickness was observed. The peak external quantum efficiency was 46% (at 1.6 μm) without antireflective coating

  18. Estimation of shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing at four locations on the Indo-Gangetic plains: Model results and ground measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Bibi, Samina

    2017-08-01

    This study provides observational results of aerosol optical and radiative characteristics over four locations in IGP. Spectral variation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Asymmetry Parameter (AP) were analysed using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. The analysis revealed that coarse particles were dominant in summer and pre-monsoon, while fine particles were more pronounced in winter and post-monsoon. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal variations of Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (SDARF) and Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Efficiency (SDARFE) at the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA), SURface (SUR) and within ATMosphere (ATM) were calculated using SBDART model. The atmospheric Heating Rate (HR) associated with SDARFATM were also computed. It was observed that the monthly averaged SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were found to be negative leading to positive SDARFATM during all the months over all sites. The increments in net atmospheric forcing lead to maximum HR in November-December and May. The seasonal analysis of SDARF revealed that SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were negative during all seasons. The SW atmospheric absorption translates to highest atmospheric HR during summer over Karachi and during pre-monsoon over Lahore, Jaipur and Kanpur. Like SDARF, the monthly and seasonal variations of SDARFETOA and SDARFESUR were found to be negative, resulting in positive atmospheric forcing. Additionally, to compare the model estimated forcing against AERONET derived forcing, the regression analysis of AERONET-SBDART forcing were carried out. It was observed that SDARF at SUR and TOA showed relatively higher correlation over Lahore, moderate over Jaipur and Kanpur and lower over Karachi. Finally, the analysis of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model revealed that air masses were arriving from multiple source locations.

  19. Estimating net surface shortwave radiation from Chinese geostationary meteorological satellite FengYun-2D (FY-2D) data under clear sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lingling

    2016-03-21

    Net surface shortwave radiation (NSSR) significantly affects regional and global climate change, and is an important aspect of research on surface radiation budget balance. Many previous studies have proposed methods for estimating NSSR. This study proposes a method to calculate NSSR using FY-2D short-wave channel data. Firstly, a linear regression model is established between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband albedo (r) and the narrowband reflectivity (ρ1), based on data simulated with MODTRAN 4.2. Secondly, the relationship between surface absorption coefficient (as) and broadband albedo (r) is determined by dividing the surface type into land, sea, or snow&ice, and NSSR can then be calculated. Thirdly, sensitivity analysis is performed for errors associated with sensor noise, vertically integrated atmospheric water content, view zenith angle and solar zenith angle. Finally, validation using ground measurements is performed. Results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) between the estimated and actual r is less than 0.011 for all conditions, and the RMSEs between estimated and real NSSR are 26.60 W/m2, 9.99 W/m2, and 23.40 W/m2, using simulated data for land, sea, and snow&ice surfaces, respectively. This indicates that the proposed method can be used to adequately estimate NSSR. Additionally, we compare field measurements from TaiYuan and ChangWu ecological stations with estimates using corresponding FY-2D data acquired from January to April 2012, on cloud-free days. Results show that the RMSE between the estimated and actual NSSR is 48.56W/m2, with a mean error of -2.23W/m2. Causes of errors also include measurement accuracy and estimations of atmospheric water vertical contents. This method is only suitable for cloudless conditions.

  20. Concurrent array-based queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  1. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  2. The Big Optical Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels

  3. A 4 probe array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, C E [CEGB, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Marchwood, Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    A NDT system is described which moves away from the present manual method using a single send/receive transducer combination and uses instead an array of four transducers. Four transducers are shown sufficient to define a point reflector with a resolution of m{lambda}z/R where m{lambda} is the minimum detectable path difference in the system (corresponding to a m cycle time resolution), z the range and R the radius of the array. Signal averaging with an input ADC rate of 100 MHz is used with voice output for the range data. Typical resolution measurements in a water tank are presented. We expect a resolution of the order of mm in steel at a range of 80 mm. The system is expected to have applications in automated, high resolution, sizing of defects and in the inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds. (author)

  4. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  5. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  6. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  7. Phased array antenna control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Several new and useful improvements in steering and control of phased array antennas having a small number of elements, typically on the order of 5 to 17 elements are provided. Among the improvements are increasing the number of beam steering positions, reducing the possibility of phase transients in signals received or transmitted with the antennas, and increasing control and testing capacity with respect to the antennas.

  8. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  9. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  11. Educational Cosmic Ray Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluk, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade a great deal of interest has arisen in using sparse arrays of cosmic ray detectors located at schools as a means of doing both outreach and physics research. This approach has the unique advantage of involving grade school students in an actual ongoing experiment, rather then a simple teaching exercise, while at the same time providing researchers with the basic infrastructure for installation of cosmic ray detectors. A survey is made of projects in North America and Europe and in particular the ALTA experiment at the University of Alberta which was the first experiment operating under this paradigm

  12. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  13. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  14. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  15. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  16. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, William G [Sandia Park, NM; Siegal, Michael P [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-12-01

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  17. Array architectures for iterative algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, Hosagrahar V.; Rao, Sailesh K.; Kailath, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Regular mesh-connected arrays are shown to be isomorphic to a class of so-called regular iterative algorithms. For a wide variety of problems it is shown how to obtain appropriate iterative algorithms and then how to translate these algorithms into arrays in a systematic fashion. Several 'systolic' arrays presented in the literature are shown to be specific cases of the variety of architectures that can be derived by the techniques presented here. These include arrays for Fourier Transform, Matrix Multiplication, and Sorting.

  18. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G.A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, Sarah E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single scattering albedo spectra and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that XRD-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are non-unique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains during aeolian saltation. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances (~20 wt%) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability induced by wind sorting may be enhanced by local mixing with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within martian aeolian sandstones.

  19. Radiophysical methods of diagnostics the Earth's ionosphere and the underlying earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave range of radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. Yu.; Belova, I. N.

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring of the earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave band can provide quick identification of some characteristics of natural systems. This band range allows one to diagnose subsurface aspects of the earth, as the scattering parameter is affected by irregularities in the dielectric permittivity of subsurface structures. This method based on the organization of the monitoring probe may detect changes in these environments, for example, to assess seismic hazard, hazardous natural phenomena such as earthquakes, as well as some man-made hazards and etc. The problem of measuring and accounting for the scattering power of the earth's surface in the short-range of radio waves is important for a number of purposes, such as diagnosing properties of the medium, which is of interest for geological, environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the parameters of incoherent signal/noise ratio. The paper presents the results of comparison of the measurement method from the point of view of their admissible relative analytical errors. The new method is suggested. Analysis of analytical error of estimation of this parameter allowed to recommend new method instead of standard method. A comparative analysis and shows that the analytical (relative) accuracy of the determination of this parameter new method on the order exceeds the widely-used standard method.

  20. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that X-ray diffraction-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are nonunique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold Dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative aeolian-transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances ( 20 wt %) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability may be enhanced by local mixing of well-sorted sand with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within Martian aeolian sandstones.

  1. A strategy for testing the impact of clouds on the shortwave radiation budge of general circulation models: A prototype for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cess, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud-climate interactions are one of the greatest uncertainties in contemporary general circulation models (GCMs), and this study has focused on one aspect of this. Specifically, combined satellite and near-surface shortwave (SW) flux measurements have been used to test the impact of clouds on the SW radiation budgets of two GCMs. Concentration is initially on SW rather than longwave (LW) radiation because, in one of the GCMs used in this study an SW radiation inconsistency causes a LW inconsistency. The surface data consist of near-surface insolation measured by the upward facing pyranometer at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower. The satellite data consist of top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo data, collocated with the tower location, as determined from the GOES SW spin-scan radiometer. Measurements are made every half hour, with hourly means taken by averaging successive measurements. The combined data are for a 21-day period encompassing 28 June through 18 July 1987 and consist of 202 combined albedo/insolation measurements

  2. An Alternative Quality Control Technique for Mineral Chemistry Analysis of Portland Cement-Grade Limestone Using Shortwave Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Zaini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortwave infrared (SWIR spectroscopy can be applied directly to analyze the mineral chemistry of raw or geologic materials. It provides diagnostic spectral characteristics of the chemical composition of minerals, information that is invaluable for the identification and quality control of such materials. The present study aims to investigate the potential of SWIR spectroscopy as an alternative quality control technique for the mineral chemistry analysis of Portland cement-grade limestone. We used the spectroscopic (wavelength position and depth of absorption feature and geochemical characteristics of limestone samples to estimate the abundance and composition of carbonate and clay minerals on rock surfaces. The depth of the carbonate (CO3 and Al-OH absorption features are linearly correlated with the contents of CaO and Al2O3 in the samples, respectively, as determined by portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF measurements. Variations in the wavelength position of CO3 and Al-OH absorption features are related to changes in the chemical compositions of the samples. The results showed that the dark gray and light gray limestone samples are better suited for manufacturing Portland cement clinker than the dolomitic limestone samples. This finding is based on the CaO, MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2 concentrations and compositions. The results indicate that SWIR spectroscopy is an appropriate approach for the chemical quality control of cement raw materials.

  3. Revising shortwave and longwave radiation archives in view of possible revisions of the WSG and WISG reference scales: methods and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeki, Stephan; Wacker, Stefan; Gröbner, Julian; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Wild, Martin

    2017-08-01

    A large number of radiometers are traceable to the World Standard Group (WSG) for shortwave radiation and the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG) for longwave radiation, hosted by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre (PMOD/WRC, Davos, Switzerland). The WSG and WISG have recently been found to over- and underestimate radiation values, respectively (Fehlmann et al., 2012; Gröbner et al., 2014), although research is still ongoing. In view of a possible revision of the reference scales of both standard groups, this study discusses the methods involved and the implications on existing archives of radiation time series, such as the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). Based on PMOD/WRC calibration archives and BSRN data archives, the downward longwave radiation (DLR) time series over the 2006-2015 period were analysed at four stations (polar and mid-latitude locations). DLR was found to increase by up to 3.5 and 5.4 W m-2 for all-sky and clear-sky conditions, respectively, after applying a WISG reference scale correction and a minor correction for the dependence of pyrgeometer sensitivity on atmospheric integrated water vapour content. Similar increases in DLR may be expected at other BSRN stations. Based on our analysis, a number of recommendations are made for future studies.

  4. Prediction and measurement of the electromagnetic environment of high-power medium-wave and short-wave broadcast antennas in far field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanghong; Wang, Qun; Ji, Zhijiang; Shi, Meiwu; Hou, Guoyan; Tan, Danjun; Wang, Pengqi; Qiu, Xianbo

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing city size, high-power electromagnetic radiation devices such as high-power medium-wave (MW) and short-wave (SW) antennas have been inevitably getting closer and closer to buildings, which resulted in the pollution of indoor electromagnetic radiation becoming worsened. To avoid such radiation exceeding the exposure limits by national standards, it is necessary to predict and survey the electromagnetic radiation by MW and SW antennas before constructing the buildings. In this paper, a modified prediction method for the far-field electromagnetic radiation is proposed and successfully applied to predict the electromagnetic environment of an area close to a group of typical high-power MW and SW wave antennas. Different from currently used simplified prediction method defined in the Radiation Protection Management Guidelines (H J/T 10. 3-1996), the new method in this article makes use of more information such as antennas' patterns to predict the electromagnetic environment. Therefore, it improves the prediction accuracy significantly by the new feature of resolution at different directions. At the end of this article, a comparison between the prediction data and the measured results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Josephson junctions array resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.

  6. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  7. Low Frequency Space Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Weiler, K.W.; Johnston, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Frequency Space Array (LFSA) is a conceptual mission to survey the entire sky and to image individual sources at frequencies between 1.5 and 26 MHz, a frequency range over which the earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. With high resolution, high sensitivity observations, a new window will be opened in the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomical investigation. Also, extending observations down to such low frequencies will bring astronomy to the fundamental limit below which the galaxy becomes optically thick due to free-free absorption. A number of major scientific goals can be pursued with such a mission, including mapping galactic emission and absorption, studies of individual source spectra in a frequency range where a number of important processes may play a role, high resolution imaging of extended sources, localization of the impulsive emission from Jupiter, and a search for coherent emission processes. 19 references

  8. Scintillator detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Dibianca, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a scintillator detector array for use in computerized tomography and comprises a housing including a plurality of chambers, the said housing having a front wall transmissive to x-rays and side walls opaque to x-rays, such as of tungsten and tantalum, a liquid scintillation medium including a soluble fluor, the solvent for the fluor being disposed in the chambers. The solvent comprises either an intrinsically high Z solvent or a solvent which has dissolved therein a high Z compound e.g. iodo or bromonaphthalene; or toluene, xylene or trimethylbenzene with a lead or tin alkyl dissolved therein. Also disposed about the chambers are a plurality of photoelectric devices. (author)

  9. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  10. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  11. Impacts of spectral nudging on the simulated surface air temperature in summer compared with the selection of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics parameterization in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun; Hwang, Seung-On

    2017-11-01

    The impact of a spectral nudging technique for the dynamical downscaling of the summer surface air temperature in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model is assessed. The performance of this technique is measured by comparing 16 analysis-driven simulation sets of physical parameterization combinations of two shortwave radiation and four land surface model schemes of the model, which are known to be crucial for the simulation of the surface air temperature. It is found that the application of spectral nudging to the outermost domain has a greater impact on the regional climate than any combination of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics schemes. The optimal choice of two model physics parameterizations is helpful for obtaining more realistic spatiotemporal distributions of land surface variables such as the surface air temperature, precipitation, and surface fluxes. However, employing spectral nudging adds more value to the results; the improvement is greater than using sophisticated shortwave radiation and land surface model physical parameterizations. This result indicates that spectral nudging applied to the outermost domain provides a more accurate lateral boundary condition to the innermost domain when forced by analysis data by securing the consistency with large-scale forcing over a regional domain. This consequently indirectly helps two physical parameterizations to produce small-scale features closer to the observed values, leading to a better representation of the surface air temperature in a high-resolution downscaled climate.

  12. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, A.; Lei, L.; Dikhtyar, V.; Korol, M.; Jerby, E.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  13. Submillimeter heterodyne arrays for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güsten, R.; Baryshev, A.; Bell, A.; Belloche, A.; Graf, U.; Hafok, H.; Heyminck, S.; Hochgürtel, S.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Kasemann, C.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Korn, A.; Krämer, I.; Leinz, C.; Lundgren, A.; Menten, K. M.; Meyer, K.; Muders, D.; Pacek, F.; Rabanus, D.; Schäfer, F.; Schilke, P.; Schneider, G.; Stutzki, J.; Wieching, G.; Wunsch, A.; Wyrowski, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on developments of submillimeter heterodyne arrays for high resolution spectroscopy with APEX. Shortly, we will operate state-of-the-art instruments in all major atmospheric windows accessible from Llano de Chajnantor. CHAMP+, a dual-color 2×7 element heterodyne array for operation in the

  14. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  15. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  16. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  17. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  18. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  19. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2009-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  20. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2008-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  1. Two pathogen reduction technologies--methylene blue plus light and shortwave ultraviolet light--effectively inactivate hepatitis C virus in blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Eike; Gravemann, Ute; Friesland, Martina; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Müller, Thomas H; Pietschmann, Thomas; Seltsam, Axel

    2013-05-01

    Contamination of blood products with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause infections resulting in acute and chronic liver diseases. Pathogen reduction methods such as photodynamic treatment with methylene blue (MB) plus visible light as well as irradiation with shortwave ultraviolet (UVC) light were developed to inactivate viruses and other pathogens in plasma and platelet concentrates (PCs), respectively. So far, their inactivation capacities for HCV have only been tested in inactivation studies using model viruses for HCV. Recently, a HCV infection system for the propagation of infectious HCV in cell culture was developed. Inactivation studies were performed with cell culture-derived HCV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a model for HCV. Plasma units or PCs were spiked with high titers of cell culture-grown viruses. After treatment of the blood units with MB plus light (Theraflex MB-Plasma system, MacoPharma) or UVC (Theraflex UV-Platelets system, MacoPharma), residual viral infectivity was assessed using sensitive cell culture systems. HCV was sensitive to inactivation by both pathogen reduction procedures. HCV in plasma was efficiently inactivated by MB plus light below the detection limit already by 1/12 of the full light dose. HCV in PCs was inactivated by UVC irradiation with a reduction factor of more than 5 log. BVDV was less sensitive to the two pathogen reduction methods. Functional assays with human HCV offer an efficient tool to directly assess the inactivation capacity of pathogen reduction procedures. Pathogen reduction technologies such as MB plus light treatment and UVC irradiation have the potential to significantly reduce transfusion-transmitted HCV infections. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  3. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  4. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  5. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  6. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  7. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  8. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  9. CMOS gate array characterization procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, James P.

    1993-09-01

    Present procedures are inadequate for characterizing the radiation hardness of gate array product lines prior to personalization because the selection of circuits to be used, from among all those available in the manufacturer's circuit library, is usually uncontrolled. (Some circuits are fundamentally more radiation resistant than others.) In such cases, differences in hardness can result between different designs of the same logic function. Hardness also varies because many gate arrays feature large custom-designed megacells (e.g., microprocessors and random access memories-MicroP's and RAM's). As a result, different product lines cannot be compared equally. A characterization strategy is needed, along with standardized test vehicle(s), methodology, and conditions, so that users can make informed judgments on which gate arrays are best suited for their needs. The program described developed preferred procedures for the radiation characterization of gate arrays, including a gate array evaluation test vehicle, featuring a canary circuit, designed to define the speed versus hardness envelope of the gate array. A multiplier was chosen for this role, and a baseline multiplier architecture is suggested that could be incorporated into an existing standard evaluation circuit chip.

  10. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  11. Flexible eddy current coil arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampfner, Y.; Johnson, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel approach was devised to overcome certain limitations of conventional eddy current testing. The typical single-element hand-wound probe was replaced with a two dimensional array of spirally wound probe elements deposited on a thin, flexible polyimide substrate. This provides full and reliable coverage of the test area and eliminates the need for scanning. The flexible substrate construction of the array allows the probes to conform to irregular part geometries, such as turbine blades and tubing, thereby eliminating the need for specialized probes for each geometry. Additionally, the batch manufacturing process of the array can yield highly uniform and reproducible coil geometries. The array is driven by a portable computer-based eddy current instrument, smartEDDY/sup TM/, capable of two-frequency operation, and offers a great deal of versatility and flexibility due to its software-based architecture. The array is coupled to the instrument via an 80-switch multiplexer that can be configured to address up to 1600 probes. The individual array elements may be addressed in any desired sequence, as defined by the software

  12. Shortwave Direct Radiative Effects of Above-Cloud Aerosols Over Global Oceans Derived From 8 Years of CALIOP and MODIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yu, Hongbin; Platnick, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Liu, Zhaoyan; Oraiopoulos, Lazaros

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DREs) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans using 8 years (2007-2014) of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. Similar to previous work, we found high ACA occurrence in four regions: southeastern (SE) Atlantic region, where ACAs are mostly light-absorbing aerosols, i.e., smoke and polluted dust according to CALIOP classification, originating from biomass burning over the African Savanna; tropical northeastern (TNE) Atlantic and the Arabian Sea, where ACAs are predominantly windblown dust from the Sahara and Arabian deserts, respectively; and the northwestern (NW) Pacific, where ACAs are mostly transported smoke and polluted dusts from Asia. From radiative transfer simulations based on CALIOP-MODIS observations and a set of the preselected aerosol optical models, we found the DREs of ACAs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to be positive (i.e., warming) in the SE Atlantic and NW Pacific regions, but negative (i.e., cooling) in the TNE Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea. The cancellation of positive and negative regional DREs results in a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m(exp. -2) [range of -0.03 to 0.06 W m (exp. -2)] at TOA. The DREs at surface and within the atmosphere are -0.015 W m(exp. -2) [range of -0.09 to -0.21 W m(exp. -2)], and 0.17 W m(exp. -2) [range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m(exp. -2)], respectively. The regional and seasonal mean DREs are much stronger. For example, in the SE Atlantic region, the JJA (July-August) seasonal mean cloudy-sky DRE is about 0.7 W m(exp. -2) [range of 0.2 to 1.2 W m(exp. -2)] at TOA. All our DRE computations are publicly available. The uncertainty in our DRE computations is mainly caused by the uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties, in particular aerosol absorption, the uncertainties in the CALIOP operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval, and the ignorance of cloud and

  13. Downwelling radiation at the sea surface in the central Mediterranean: one year of shortwave and longwave irradiance measurements on the Lampedusa buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sarra, Alcide; Bommarito, Carlo; Anello, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Pace, Giandomenico; Piacentino, Salvatore; Sferlazzo, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    An oceanographic buoy has been developed and deployed in August 2015 about 3.3 miles South West of the island of Lampedusa, at 35.49°N, 12.47°E, in the central Mediterranean Sea. The buoy was developed within the Italian RITMARE flagship project, and contributes to the Italian fixed-point oceanographic observation network. The buoy is an elastic beacon type and is intended to study air-sea interactions, propagation of radiation underwater, and oceanographic properties. The buoy measurements complement the atmospheric observations carried out at the long-term Station for Climate Observations on the island of Lampedusa (www.lampedusa.enea.it; 35.52°N, 12.63°E), which is located about 15 km E-NE of the buoy. Underwater instruments and part of the atmospheric sensors are presently being installed on the buoy. Measurements of downwelling shortwave, SW, and longwave, LW, irradiance, have been made since September 2015 with a Kipp and Zonen CMP21 pyranometer and a Kipp and Zonen CGR4 pyrgeometer, respectively. The radiometers are mounted on a small platform at about 7 m above sea level, on an arm protruding southward of the buoy. High time resolution data, at 1 Hz, have been acquired since December 2015, together with the sensors' attitude. Data from the period December 2015-December 2016 are analyzed and compared with measurements made on land at the Station for Climate Observations at 50 m above mean sea level. This study aims at deriving high quality determinations of the downwelling radiation over sea in the central Mediterranean. The following aspects will be discussed: - representativeness of time averaging of irradiance measurements over moving platforms; - comparison of downwelling irradiance measurements made over land and over ocean, and identification of possible correction strategies to infer irradiances over the ocean from close by measurements made over land; - influence of dome cleaning on the quality of measurements; - envisaging possible corrections

  14. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Harilal B; Shirodkar, Shilpa; Kedia, Sumita; S, Ramachandran; Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2014-01-15

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500 μm and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500 μm exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 μg/m(3) and 4.5 μg/m(3), and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 μm4.0 μm. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between -14.1 Wm(-2) and -35.6 Wm(-2), -6.7 Wm(-2) and -13.4 Wm(-2) and 5.5 Wm(-2) to 22.5 Wm(-2), respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. © 2013.

  15. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Biagio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between  ∼  160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84–0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70–0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84–0.70 between 370 and 950 nm are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41–1.77 and 0.002–0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE, i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (−160/−235 W m−2 τ−1 at 60° solar zenith angle and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (−137/−92

  16. Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described which uses uniformly redundant arrays to image non-focusable radiation. The array is used in conjunction with a balanced correlation technique to provide a system with no artifacts so that virtually limitless signal-to-noise ratio is obtained with high transmission characteristics. The array is mosaicked to reduce required detector size over conventional array detectors. 15 claims

  17. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Zayyad, T. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R. [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Allen, M.; Anderson, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Azuma, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Cheon, B.G. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, E.J. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W.R. [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); University of Tokyo, Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Gorbunov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-10-11

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  18. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B.G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E.J.; Cho, W.R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gorbunov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  19. Successive Standardization of Rectangular Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Olshen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we illustrate and develop further with mathematics and examples, the work on successive standardization (or normalization that is studied earlier by the same authors in [1] and [2]. Thus, we deal with successive iterations applied to rectangular arrays of numbers, where to avoid technical difficulties an array has at least three rows and at least three columns. Without loss, an iteration begins with operations on columns: first subtract the mean of each column; then divide by its standard deviation. The iteration continues with the same two operations done successively for rows. These four operations applied in sequence completes one iteration. One then iterates again, and again, and again, ... In [1] it was argued that if arrays are made up of real numbers, then the set for which convergence of these successive iterations fails has Lebesgue measure 0. The limiting array has row and column means 0, row and column standard deviations 1. A basic result on convergence given in [1] is true, though the argument in [1] is faulty. The result is stated in the form of a theorem here, and the argument for the theorem is correct. Moreover, many graphics given in [1] suggest that except for a set of entries of any array with Lebesgue measure 0, convergence is very rapid, eventually exponentially fast in the number of iterations. Because we learned this set of rules from Bradley Efron, we call it “Efron’s algorithm”. More importantly, the rapidity of convergence is illustrated by numerical examples.

  20. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  1. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  2. Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices

  3. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  4. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  5. Sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    For the better part of the last decade, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with similar international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA as well as our sensitivity to gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. I will show that a detection is possible by the end of the decade.

  6. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  7. The OncoArray Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Christopher I; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Zhaoming

    2017-01-01

    by Illumina to facilitate efficient genotyping. The consortium developed standard approaches for selecting SNPs for study, for quality control of markers, and for ancestry analysis. The array was genotyped at selected sites and with prespecified replicate samples to permit evaluation of genotyping accuracy...... among centers and by ethnic background. RESULTS: The OncoArray consortium genotyped 447,705 samples. A total of 494,763 SNPs passed quality control steps with a sample success rate of 97% of the samples. Participating sites performed ancestry analysis using a common set of markers and a scoring...

  8. Phased Arrays 1985 Symposium - Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    anjl with an1 au~ U lar fy b)eanir. ( mice the 1311 0 ,0 - (a ) ,[ -40.0. -80𔃺 , -90.0 -45.0 0𔃺 45.0 90.0 ANGLE FROM BROADSIDE (DEGREES) aii ia -40,0...Electronic Scanning", RADC-TR-83-128, Dec. 1983. AL) A138808 222 m " ; . . . • " - " - . . . . -" ARRAYS OF COAXIALIY-FED MONOPOLE ELEMENTS IN A PARALLEL...Research Institute Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 Farmingdale, NY 11735 AB ST RAC U Arrays of coaxially-fed monopoles radiating into a parallel plate region

  9. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  10. Remedy and Recontamination Assessment Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    instruments pre-installed from the R/V Ecos during the April 22, 2016 event. .................................................................... 38...Environmental Security Technology Certification Program IBI Index of Benthic Integrity ISMA In situ Microcosm Arrays HOC Hydrophobic Organic Compound...system was successfully designed and constructed based on the goal of providing an integrated technology for assessing the effectiveness of

  11. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  12. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rifat, Ahmmed A. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2}) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170–180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  13. PHARUS : PHased ARray Universal SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paquay, M.H.A.; Vermeulen, B.C.B.; Koomen, P.J.; Hoogeboom, P.; Snoeij, P.; Pouwels, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has been developed. The project is called PHARUS, an acronm for PHased ARray Universal SAR. This instrument serves remote sensing applications. The antenna system contains 48 active modules (expandable to 96). A module

  14. Gamma-ray array physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution I am going to discuss the development of large arrays of Compton Suppressed, High Purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors and the physics that has been, that is being, and that will be done with them. These arrays and their science have dominated low-energy nuclear structure research for the last twenty years and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. John Sharpey Schafer played a visionary role in convincing a skeptical world that the development of these arrays would lead to a path of enlightenment. The extent to which he succeeded can be seen both through the world-wide propagation of ever more sophisticated devices, and through the world-wide propagation of his students. I, personally, would not be working in research if it were not for Johns inspirational leadership. I am eternally grateful to him. Many excellent reviews of array physics have been made in the past which can provide detailed background reading. The review by Paul Nolan, another ex-Sharpey Schafer student, is particularly comprehensive and clear

  15. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  16. Micromolding for ceramic microneedle arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; Lüttge, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication process of ceramic microneedle arrays (MNAs) is presented. This includes the manufacturing of an SU-8/Si-master, its double replication resulting in a PDMS mold for production by micromolding and ceramic sintering. The robustness of the replicated structures was tested by means of

  17. Optically Controlled Phased Array Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garafalo, David

    1998-01-01

    .... The antenna is a 3-foot by 9 foot phased array capable of a scan angle of 120 degrees. The antenna was designed to be conformal to the cargo door of a large aircraft and is designed to operate in the frequency range of 830 - 1400 MHz with a 30...

  18. Climatic responses to the shortwave and longwave direct radiative effects of sea salt aerosol in present day and the last glacial maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Climate Change Research Center (CCRC), Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Beijing (China); Harvard University, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA (United States); Liao, Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    We examine the climatic responses to the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) direct radiative effects (RE) of sea salt aerosol in present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM) using a general circulation model with online simulation of sea salt cycle. The 30-year control simulation predicts a present-day annual emission of sea salt of 4,253 Tg and a global burden of 8.1 Tg for the particles with dry radii smaller than 10 {mu}m. Predicted annual and global mean SW and LW REs of sea salt are, respectively, -1.06 and +0.14 W m{sup -2} at the top of atmosphere (TOA), and -1.10 and +0.54 W m{sup -2} at the surface. The LW warming of sea salt is found to decrease with altitude, which leads to a stronger net sea salt cooling in the upper troposphere. The changes in global mean air temperature by the present-day sea salt are simulated to be -0.55, -0.63, -0.86, and -0.91 K at the surface, 850, 500a, and 200 hPa, respectively. The emission of sea salt at the LGM is estimated to be 4,075 Tg year{sup -1}. Relative to present day, the LGM sea salt emission is higher by about 18% over the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is lower by about 35% in the mid- and high-latitudes in both hemispheres because of the expansion of sea ice. As a result of the weakened LGM water cycle, the LGM annual and global mean burden of sea salt is predicted to be higher by 4% as compared to the present-day value. Compared with the climatic effect of sea salt in present day, the sea-salt-induced reductions in surface air temperature at the LGM have similar magnitude in the tropics but are weakened by about 0.18 and 0.14 K in the high latitudes of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, respectively. We also perform a sensitivity study to explore the upper limit of the climatic effect of the LGM sea salt. We assume an across-the-board 30% increase in the glacial wind speed and consider sea salt emissions over sea ice, so that the model can reproduce the ratio of sea salt deposition between the LGM and

  19. Design and Fabrication of Large Diameter Gradient-Index Lenses for Dual-Band Visible to Short-Wave Infrared Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Anthony Joseph

    The fabrication of gradient-index (GRIN) optical elements is quite challenging, which has traditionally restricted their use in many imaging systems; consequently, commercial-level GRIN components usually exist in one particular market or niche application space. One such fabrication technique, ion exchange, is a well-known process used in the chemical strengthening of glass, the fabrication of waveguide devices, and the production of small diameter GRIN optical relay systems. However, the manufacturing of large diameter ion-exchanged GRIN elements has historically been limited by long diffusion times. For example, the diffusion time for a 20 mm diameter radial GRIN lens in commercially available ion exchange glass for small diameter relays, is on the order of a year. The diffusion time can be dramatically reduced by addressing three key ion exchange process parameters; the composition of the glass, the diffusion temperature, and the composition of the salt bath. Experimental work throughout this thesis aims to (1) scale up the ion exchange diffusion process to 20 mm diameters for a fast-diffusing titania silicate glass family in both (2) sodium ion for lithium ion (Na+ for Li+) and lithium ion for sodium ion (Li+ for Na+) exchange directions, while (3) utilizing manufacturing friendly salt bath compositions. In addition, optical design studies have demonstrated that an important benefit of gradient-index elements in imaging systems is the added degree of freedom introduced with a gradient's optical power. However, these studies have not investigated the potential usefulness of GRIN materials in dual-band visible to short-wave infrared (vis-SWIR) imaging systems. The unique chromatic properties of the titania silicate ion exchange glass become a significant degree of freedom in the design process for these color-limited, broadband imaging applications. A single GRIN element can replace a cemented doublet or even a cemented triplet, without loss in overall system

  20. DNA electrophoresis through microlithographic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevick, E.M.; Williams, D.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophoresis is one of the most widely used techniques in biochemistry and genetics for size-separating charged molecular chains such as DNA or synthetic polyelectrolytes. The separation is achieved by driving the chains through a gel with an external electric field. As a result of the field and the obstacles that the medium provides, the chains have different mobilities and are physically separated after a given process time. The macroscopically observed mobility scales inversely with chain size: small molecules move through the medium quickly while larger molecules move more slowly. However, electrophoresis remains a tool that has yet to be optimised for most efficient size separation of polyelectrolytes, particularly large polyelectrolytes, e.g. DNA in excess of 30-50 kbp. Microlithographic arrays etched with an ordered pattern of obstacles provide an attractive alternative to gel media and provide wider avenues for size separation of polyelectrolytes and promote a better understanding of the separation process. Its advantages over gels are (1) the ordered array is durable and can be re-used, (2) the array morphology is ordered and can be standardized for specific separation, and (3) calibration with a marker polyelectrolyte is not required as the array is reproduced to high precision. Most importantly, the array geometry can be graduated along the chip so as to expand the size-dependent regime over larger chain lengths and postpone saturation. In order to predict the effect of obstacles upon the chain-length dependence in mobility and hence, size separation, we study the dynamics of single chains using theory and simulation. We present recent work describing: 1) the release kinetics of a single DNA molecule hooked around a point, frictionless obstacle and in both weak and strong field limits, 2) the mobility of a chain impinging upon point obstacles in an ordered array of obstacles, demonstrating the wide range of interactions possible between the chain and

  1. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolic Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pishko, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ...(ethylene glycol) diacrylate or PEG-DA on the array electrodes. The fabricated microarray sensors were individually addressable and with no cross-talk between adjacent array elements as assessed using cyclic voltammetry...

  2. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolic Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pishko, Michael V

    2007-01-01

    ...(ethylene glycol) diacrylate or PEG-DA on the array electrodes. The fabricated microarray sensors were individually addressable and with no cross-talk between adjacent array elements as assessed using cyclic voltammetry...

  3. Leakage analysis of crossbar memristor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Fahmy, Hossam Aly Hassan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    the readout operation. In this work we study the trade-off between the crossbar array density and the power consumption required for its readout. Our analysis is based on simulating full memristor arrays on a SPICE platform.

  4. Statistical monitoring of linear antenna arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the problem of monitoring linear antenna arrays using the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test. When an abnormal event (fault) affects an array of antenna elements, the radiation pattern changes and significant deviation from

  5. Photovoltaic array: Power conditioner interface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical output (power, current, and voltage) of flat plate solar arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as dc-to-ac power conditioners must be capable of accommodating widely varying input levels while maintaining operation at or near the maximum power point of the array. The array operating characteristics and extreme output limits necessary for the systematic design of array load interfaces under a wide variety of climatic conditions are studied. A number of interface parameters are examined, including optimum operating voltage, voltage energy, maximum power and current limits, and maximum open circuit voltage. The effect of array degradation and I-V curve fill factor or the array power conditioner interface is also discussed. Results are presented as normalized ratios of power conditioner parameters to array parameters, making the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes.

  6. Leakage analysis of crossbar memristor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-07-01

    Crossbar memristor arrays provide a promising high density alternative for the current memory and storage technologies. These arrays suffer from parasitic current components that significantly increase the power consumption, and could ruin the readout operation. In this work we study the trade-off between the crossbar array density and the power consumption required for its readout. Our analysis is based on simulating full memristor arrays on a SPICE platform.

  7. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Stanley H [Placitas, NM; Ingersoll, David [Albuquerque, NM; Schmidt, Carrie [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  8. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  9. Adaptive ground implemented phase array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  10. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  11. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  12. Cavity syncronisation of underdamped Josephson junction arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbara, P.; Filatrella, G.; Lobb, C.

    2003-01-01

    the junctions in the array and an electromagnetic cavity. Here we show that a model of a one-dimensional array of Josephson junctions coupled to a resonator can produce many features of the coherent be havior above threshold, including coherent radiation of power and the shape of the array current...

  13. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  14. Microneedle array electrode for human EEG recording.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Microneedle array electrodes for EEG significantly reduce the mounting time, particularly by circumvention of the need for skin preparation by scrubbing. We designed a new replication process for numerous types of microneedle arrays. Here, polymer microneedle array electrodes with 64 microneedles,

  15. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaug, M.; Berge, D.; Daniel, M.; Doro, M.; Förster, A.; Hofmann, W.; Maccarone, M.C.; Parsons, D.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; van Eldik, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration

  16. Principles of Adaptive Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    ACE with and without tapering (homogeneous case). These analytical results are less suited to predict the detection performance of a real system ...Nickel: Adaptive Beamforming for Phased Array Radars. Proc. Int. Radar Symposium IRS’98 (Munich, Sept. 1998), DGON and VDE /ITG, pp. 897-906.(Reprint also...strategies for airborne radar. Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, 1998, IEEE Cat.Nr. 0-7803-5148-7/98, pp. 1327-1331. [17

  17. Blending of phased array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Arno; van Groenestijn, Gert-Jan; van Neer, Paul; Blacquière, Gerrit; Volker, Arno

    2018-04-01

    The use of phased arrays is growing in the non-destructive testing industry and the trend is towards large 2D arrays, but due to limitations, it is currently not possible to record the signals from all elements, resulting in aliased data. In the past, we have presented a data interpolation scheme `beyond spatial aliasing' to overcome this aliasing. In this paper, we present a different approach: blending and deblending of data. On the hardware side, groups of receivers are blended (grouped) in only a few transmit/recording channels. This allows for transmission and recording with all elements, in a shorter acquisition time and with less channels. On the data processing side, this blended data is deblended (separated) by transforming it to a different domain and applying an iterative filtering and thresholding. Two different filtering methods are compared: f-k filtering and wavefield extrapolation filtering. The deblending and filtering methods are demonstrated on simulated experimental data. The wavefield extrapolation filtering proves to outperform f-k filtering. The wavefield extrapolation method can deal with groups of up to 24 receivers, in a phased array of 48 × 48 elements.

  18. LOFAR, the low frequency array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a next-generation radio telescope designed by ASTRON, with antenna stations concentrated in the north of the Netherlands and currently spread into Germany, France, Sweden and the United Kingdom; plans for more LOFAR stations exist in several other countries. Utilizing a novel, phased-array design, LOFAR is optimized for the largely unexplored low frequency range between 30 and 240 MHz. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid re-pointing of the telescopes as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. Processing (e.g. cross-correlation) takes place in the LOFAR BlueGene/P supercomputer, and associated post-processing facilities. With its dense core (inner few km) array and long (more than 1000 km) interferometric baselines, LOFAR reaches unparalleled sensitivity and resolution in the low frequency radio regime. The International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) is now issuing its first call for observing projects that will be peer reviewed and selected for observing starting in December. Part of the allocations will be made on the basis of a fully Open Skies policy; there are also reserved fractions assigned by national consortia in return for contributions from their country to the ILT. In this invited talk, the gradually expanding complement of operationally verified observing modes and capabilities are reviewed, and some of the exciting first astronomical results are presented.

  19. Microbial Diagnostic Array Workstation (MDAW: a web server for diagnostic array data storage, sharing and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yung-Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are becoming a very popular tool for microbial detection and diagnostics. Although these diagnostic arrays are much simpler when compared to the traditional transcriptome arrays, due to the high throughput nature of the arrays, the data analysis requirements still form a bottle neck for the widespread use of these diagnostic arrays. Hence we developed a new online data sharing and analysis environment customised for diagnostic arrays. Methods Microbial Diagnostic Array Workstation (MDAW is a database driven application designed in MS Access and front end designed in ASP.NET. Conclusion MDAW is a new resource that is customised for the data analysis requirements for microbial diagnostic arrays.

  20. A novel method to design sparse linear arrays for ultrasonic phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Chen, Bin; Shi, Ke-Ren

    2006-12-22

    In ultrasonic phased array testing, a sparse array can increase the resolution by enlarging the aperture without adding system complexity. Designing a sparse array involves choosing the best or a better configuration from a large number of candidate arrays. We firstly designed sparse arrays by using a genetic algorithm, but found that the arrays have poor performance and poor consistency. So, a method based on the Minimum Redundancy Linear Array was then adopted. Some elements are determined by the minimum-redundancy array firstly in order to ensure spatial resolution and then a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the remaining elements. Sparse arrays designed by this method have much better performance and consistency compared to the arrays designed only by a genetic algorithm. Both simulation and experiment confirm the effectiveness.

  1. Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic

  2. The hyperion particle-γ detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.O.; Burke, J.T.; Casperson, R.J.; Ota, S. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Fisher, S.; Parker, J. [Science, Technology and Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Beausang, C.W. [Department of Physics, University of Richmond, 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Dag, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Humby, P. [Department of Physics, University of Richmond, 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Surrey GU27XH (United Kingdom); Koglin, J. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McCleskey, E.; McIntosh, A.B.; Saastamoinen, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Tamashiro, A.S. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Wilson, E. [Department of Physics, University of Richmond, 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Wu, T.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City UT 84112-0830 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Hyperion is a new high-efficiency charged-particle γ-ray detector array which consists of a segmented silicon telescope for charged-particle detection and up to fourteen high-purity germanium clover detectors for the detection of coincident γ rays. The array will be used in nuclear physics measurements and Stockpile Stewardship studies and replaces the STARLiTeR array. This article discusses the features of the array and presents data collected with the array in the commissioning experiment.

  3. Single-electron tunnel junction array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likharev, K.K.; Bakhvalov, N.S.; Kazacha, G.S.; Serdyukova, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have carried out an analysis of statics and dynamics of uniform one-dimensional arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. The correlated single-electron tunneling in the junctions of the array results in its behavior qualitatively similar to that of the Josephson transmission line. In particular, external electric fields applied to the array edges can inject single-electron-charged solitons into the array interior. Shape of such soliton and character of its interactions with other solitons and the array edges are very similar to those of the Josephson vortices (sine-Gordon solitons) in the Josephson transmission line. Under certain conditions, a coherent motion of the soliton train along the array is possible, resulting in generation of narrowband SET oscillations with frequency f/sub s/ = /e where is the dc current flowing along the array

  4. Integrating Scientific Array Processing into Standard SQL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misev, Dimitar; Bachhuber, Johannes; Baumann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We live in a time that is dominated by data. Data storage is cheap and more applications than ever accrue vast amounts of data. Storing the emerging multidimensional data sets efficiently, however, and allowing them to be queried by their inherent structure, is a challenge many databases have to face today. Despite the fact that multidimensional array data is almost always linked to additional, non-array information, array databases have mostly developed separately from relational systems, resulting in a disparity between the two database categories. The current SQL standard and SQL DBMS supports arrays - and in an extension also multidimensional arrays - but does so in a very rudimentary and inefficient way. This poster demonstrates the practicality of an SQL extension for array processing, implemented in a proof-of-concept multi-faceted system that manages a federation of array and relational database systems, providing transparent, efficient and scalable access to the heterogeneous data in them.

  5. Design of circular differential microphone arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Cohen, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a completely novel and efficient way to design differential beamforming algorithms for linear microphone arrays. Thanks to this very flexible approach, any order of differential arrays can be designed. Moreover, they can be made robust against white noise amplification, which is the main inconvenience in these types of arrays. The other well-known problem with linear arrays is that electronic steering is not really feasible.  In this book, we extend all these fundamental ideas to circular microphone arrays and show that we can design small and compact differential arrays of any order that can be electronically steered in many different directions and offer a good degree of control of the white noise amplification problem, high directional gain, and frequency-independent response. We also present a number of practical examples, demonstrating that differential beamforming with circular microphone arrays is likely one of the best candidates for applications involving speech enhancement (i....

  6. The FPGA Pixel Array Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromalik, Marianne S.; Green, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2013-01-01

    A proposed design for a reconfigurable x-ray Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is described. It operates by integrating a high-end commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) into a 3-layer device along with a high-resistivity diode detection layer and a custom, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) layer. The ASIC layer contains an energy-discriminating photon-counting front end with photon hits streamed directly to the FPGA via a massively parallel, high-speed data connection. FPGA resources can be allocated to perform user defined tasks on the pixel data streams, including the implementation of a direct time autocorrelation function (ACF) with time resolution down to 100 ns. Using the FPGA at the front end to calculate the ACF reduces the required data transfer rate by several orders of magnitude when compared to a fast framing detector. The FPGA-ASIC high-speed interface, as well as the in-FPGA implementation of a real-time ACF for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments has been designed and simulated. A 16×16 pixel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated and is being tested. -- Highlights: ► We describe the novelty and need for the FPGA Pixel Array Detector. ► We describe the specifications and design of the Diode, ASIC and FPGA layers. ► We highlight the Autocorrelation Function (ACF) for speckle as an example application. ► Simulated FPGA output calculates the ACF for different input bitstreams to 100 ns. ► Reduced data transfer rate by 640× and sped up real-time ACF by 100× other methods.

  7. X-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A circular array of cold cathode diode X-ray sources, for radiation imaging applications, such as computed tomography includes electrically conductive cathode plates each of which cooperates with at least two anodes to form at least two diode sources. In one arrangement, two annular cathodes are separated by radially extending, rod-like anodes. Field enhancement blades may be provided on the cathodes. In an alternative arrangement, the cathode plates extend radially and each pair is separated by an anode plate also extending radially. (author)

  8. Study of rectenna array connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, T.; Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H. [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Engineering Research Inst.

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted in which a new rectenna working at 2.45 GHz microwave was developed for ground-to-ground microwave power transmission. The new rectenna consists of an antenna section and a rectifying section. The new design is simple and therefore more accurate than a micro-strip type patch antenna. The efficiency of conversion of microwave power to direct current depends on the mutual dependence of antenna elements and circuit conditions of rectifying sections. A series of experiments were conducted to analyze the rectenna characteristics and a method for efficiently connecting rectenna arrays was proposed. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  9. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  10. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  11. Layout Of Antennas And Cables In A Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Layout devised to minimize total land area occupied by large phased array of antennas and to minimize total length of cables in array. In original intended application, array expanded version of array of paraboloidal-dish microwave communication antennas of Deep Space Network. Layout also advantageous for other phased arrays of antennas and antenna elements, including notably printed-circuit microwave antenna arrays.

  12. Characterization of photovoltaic array performance: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Jr., R. G.

    1986-09-15

    Characterization of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic array can take many forms depending on the end use of the data. Typical uses include buyer-seller negotiations, system performance prediction, and performance measurement. Buyer-seller negotiations may deal with specifying the size (power) of an array to be purchased under some standard reporting conditions, and may treat the warranty conditions governing allowable degradation of this performance with time. System design, on the other hand, requires prediction of performance under varying field conditions, not standard reporting conditions, and must include the non-ideal realities of operating systems: array shadowing, steep angles of incidence, soiling, and array-load energy utilization. Typical uses of predicted array performance include array sizing tradeoffs, tracking-pointing comparisons, load-array interface analyses and system economic evaluations. The third use, performance measurement, refers to the characterization of an as-built array as opposed to prediction of the performance of an array to be built. This may be done to assess actual array performance or to measure performance degradation over time.

  13. ArrayBridge: Interweaving declarative array processing with high-performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Haoyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Floratos, Sofoklis [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blanas, Spyros [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prabhat, Prabhat [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Paul [Paradigm4, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Scientists are increasingly turning to datacenter-scale computers to produce and analyze massive arrays. Despite decades of database research that extols the virtues of declarative query processing, scientists still write, debug and parallelize imperative HPC kernels even for the most mundane queries. This impedance mismatch has been partly attributed to the cumbersome data loading process; in response, the database community has proposed in situ mechanisms to access data in scientific file formats. Scientists, however, desire more than a passive access method that reads arrays from files. This paper describes ArrayBridge, a bi-directional array view mechanism for scientific file formats, that aims to make declarative array manipulations interoperable with imperative file-centric analyses. Our prototype implementation of ArrayBridge uses HDF5 as the underlying array storage library and seamlessly integrates into the SciDB open-source array database system. In addition to fast querying over external array objects, ArrayBridge produces arrays in the HDF5 file format just as easily as it can read from it. ArrayBridge also supports time travel queries from imperative kernels through the unmodified HDF5 API, and automatically deduplicates between array versions for space efficiency. Our extensive performance evaluation in NERSC, a large-scale scientific computing facility, shows that ArrayBridge exhibits statistically indistinguishable performance and I/O scalability to the native SciDB storage engine.

  14. Shielding in ungated field emitter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J. R. [U.S. Navy Reserve, Navy Operational Support Center New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70143 (United States); Jensen, K. L. [Code 6854, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Shiffler, D. A. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Petillo, J. J. [Leidos, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Cathodes consisting of arrays of high aspect ratio field emitters are of great interest as sources of electron beams for vacuum electronic devices. The desire for high currents and current densities drives the cathode designer towards a denser array, but for ungated emitters, denser arrays also lead to increased shielding, in which the field enhancement factor β of each emitter is reduced due to the presence of the other emitters in the array. To facilitate the study of these arrays, we have developed a method for modeling high aspect ratio emitters using tapered dipole line charges. This method can be used to investigate proximity effects from similar emitters an arbitrary distance away and is much less computationally demanding than competing simulation approaches. Here, we introduce this method and use it to study shielding as a function of array geometry. Emitters with aspect ratios of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} are modeled, and the shielding-induced reduction in β is considered as a function of tip-to-tip spacing for emitter pairs and for large arrays with triangular and square unit cells. Shielding is found to be negligible when the emitter spacing is greater than the emitter height for the two-emitter array, or about 2.5 times the emitter height in the large arrays, in agreement with previously published results. Because the onset of shielding occurs at virtually the same emitter spacing in the square and triangular arrays, the triangular array is preferred for its higher emitter density at a given emitter spacing. The primary contribution to shielding in large arrays is found to come from emitters within a distance of three times the unit cell spacing for both square and triangular arrays.

  15. Optimal shortening of uniform covering arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Torres-Jimenez

    Full Text Available Software test suites based on the concept of interaction testing are very useful for testing software components in an economical way. Test suites of this kind may be created using mathematical objects called covering arrays. A covering array, denoted by CA(N; t, k, v, is an N × k array over [Formula: see text] with the property that every N × t sub-array covers all t-tuples of [Formula: see text] at least once. Covering arrays can be used to test systems in which failures occur as a result of interactions among components or subsystems. They are often used in areas such as hardware Trojan detection, software testing, and network design. Because system testing is expensive, it is critical to reduce the amount of testing required. This paper addresses the Optimal Shortening of Covering ARrays (OSCAR problem, an optimization problem whose objective is to construct, from an existing covering array matrix of uniform level, an array with dimensions of (N - δ × (k - Δ such that the number of missing t-tuples is minimized. Two applications of the OSCAR problem are (a to produce smaller covering arrays from larger ones and (b to obtain quasi-covering arrays (covering arrays in which the number of missing t-tuples is small to be used as input to a meta-heuristic algorithm that produces covering arrays. In addition, it is proven that the OSCAR problem is NP-complete, and twelve different algorithms are proposed to solve it. An experiment was performed on 62 problem instances, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of solving the OSCAR problem to facilitate the construction of new covering arrays.

  16. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, J.E., E-mail: James.Hilton@csiro.au [CSIRO Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia); McMurry, S.M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model an adjustable 'one-sided' flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  17. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.E.; McMurry, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: ► We model an adjustable ‘one-sided’ flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. ► We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. ► Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. ► The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  18. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Prajapati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase. This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  19. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  20. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  1. New applications using phased array techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Hauser, Th.; Voelz, U.

    2001-01-01

    In general, the application of phased array techniques used to be limited to heavy components with large wall thicknesses, such as those in the nuclear power industry. With the improvement of the phased array equipment, including phased array search units, other application areas are now accessible for the phased array inspection technique, e.g. the inspection of turbine blade roots, weld inspection with a wall thickness ranging from 12 to 40 mm, inspection of aircraft components, inspection of spot welds and the inspection of concrete building components. The objective for the use of phased array techniques has not significantly changed since their first application, e.g. instant adjustment of the sound beam to the geometry of the test object by steering incidence angle, skew angle and/or sound field focusing. Because some new phased array technique applications are still in the experimental (laboratory) stage, this article will focus on some examples for practical, real-weld applications

  2. Improved linear pyroelectric IR detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twiney, R.C.; Robinson, M.K.; Porter, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Good agreement has been found between theoretical models and measured performance for a range of array geometries. A 64-element 80 x 140-micron element array with integral MOSFET IC buffer preamplifiers shows improved source voltage uniformity, a J-FET buffered array, and low-frequency specific detectivity (SD) of 1.7 x 10 to the 8th cm sq rt Hz/W at 40 Hz. The MOSFET array shows reduced degradation of SD at high temperatures, retaining an SD of not less than 1 x 10 to the 8th cm sq rt Hz/W at +70 C across much of the band. A 64-element array has been designed using onboard multiplexers, thus greatly reducing the connections needed to run the array

  3. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  4. Phased array ultrasound testing on complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Arif Tuan Mat; Khazali Mohd Zin

    2009-01-01

    Phase array ultrasonic inspection is used to investigate its response to complex welded joints geometry. A 5 MHz probe with 64 linear array elements was employed to scan mild steel T-joint, nozzle and node samples. These samples contain many defects such as cracks, lack of penetration and lack of fusion. Ultrasonic respond is analysed and viewed using the Tomoview software. The results show the actual phase array images on respective types of defect. (author)

  5. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  6. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  7. Halbach arrays in precision motion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumper, D.L.; Williams, M.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Halbach array was developed for use as an optical element in particle accelerators. Following up on a suggestion from Klaus Halbach, the authors have investigated the utility of such arrays as the permanent magnet structure for synchronous machines in cartesian, polar, and cylindrical geometries. Their work has focused on the design of a novel Halbach array linear motor for use in a magnetic suspension stage for photolithography. This paper presents the details of the motor design and its force and power characteristics.

  8. ALMA Array Operations Group process overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Emilio; Alarcon, Hector

    2016-07-01

    ALMA Science operations activities in Chile are responsibility of the Department of Science Operations, which consists of three groups, the Array Operations Group (AOG), the Program Management Group (PMG) and the Data Management Group (DMG). The AOG includes the Array Operators and have the mission to provide support for science observations, operating safely and efficiently the array. The poster describes the AOG process, management and operational tools.

  9. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolite Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pishko, Michael V; Mugweru, Amos

    2005-01-01

    .... In this work we have taken advantage of silicon micro-fabrication technologies to develop implantable redundant microsensor arrays with glucose oxidase molecules immobilized in photopolymerized...

  10. Processes and Materials for Flexible PV Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gierow, Paul

    2002-01-01

    .... A parallel incentive for development of flexible PV arrays are the possibilities of synergistic advantages for certain types of spacecraft, in particular the Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) Vehicle...

  11. Configuration Considerations for Low Frequency Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    The advance of digital signal processing capabilities has spurred a new effort to exploit the lowest radio frequencies observable from the ground, from ˜10 MHz to a few hundred MHz. Multiple scientifically and technically complementary instruments are planned, including the Mileura Widefield Array (MWA) in the 80-300 MHz range, and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) in the 20-80 MHz range. The latter instrument will target relatively high angular resolution, and baselines up to a few hundred km. An important practical question for the design of such an array is how to distribute the collecting area on the ground. The answer to this question profoundly affects both cost and performance. In this contribution, the factors which determine the anticipated performance of any such array are examined, paying particular attention to the viability and accuracy of array calibration. It is argued that due to the severity of ionospheric effects in particular, it will be difficult or impossible to achieve routine, high dynamic range imaging with a geographically large low frequency array, unless a large number of physically separate array stations is built. This conclusion is general, is based on the need for adequate sampling of ionospheric irregularities, and is independent of the calibration algorithms and techniques that might be employed. It is further argued that array configuration figures of merit that are traditionally used for higher frequency arrays are inappropriate, and a different set of criteria are proposed.

  12. Cold plasma decontamination using flexible jet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2010-04-01

    Arrays of atmospheric discharge cold plasma jets have been used to decontaminate surfaces of a wide range of microorganisms quickly, yet not damage that surface. Its effectiveness in decomposing simulated chemical warfare agents has also been demonstrated, and may also find use in assisting in the cleanup of radiological weapons. Large area jet arrays, with short dwell times, are necessary for practical applications. Realistic situations will also require jet arrays that are flexible to adapt to contoured or irregular surfaces. Various large area jet array prototypes, both planar and flexible, are described, as is the application to atmospheric decontamination.

  13. Modular Towed Acoustic Sonar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Dkt . No...d 11 5 11 0c 11 0d 11 5 14 0 16 0’ 1 60 ’’ 12 0 14 0 12 0 14 0 13 0 14 0 12 0 13 0 12 0 12 0 13 0 14 0 16 0 10 0 d 2 d 3 Dkt . No. 102060 Application...of Non-Acoustic Sensors in Second Sensor Array Dkt . No. 102060 Application No. ?? REPLACEMENT SHEET? /3 1st DRAFT 3 F IG . 3 11 5 16 4 16 8 16 2 16 6 11 5 1 50 11 0b 18 0 17 0 16 6a 16 4a 18 0 10 0 11 0a 15 0

  14. Gigapixel imaging with microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Antony; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2016-03-01

    A crucial part of the drug discovery process involves imaging the response of thousands of cell cultures to candidate drugs. Quantitative parameters from these "high content screens", such as protein expression and cell morphology, are extracted from fluorescence and brightfield micrographs. Due to the sheer number of cells that need to imaged for adequate statistics, the imaging time itself is a major bottleneck. Automated microscopes image small fields-of-view (FOVs) serially, which are then stitched together to form gigapixel-scale mosaics. We have developed a microscopy architecture that reduces mechanical overhead of traditional large field-of-view by parallelizing the image capture process. Instead of a single objective lens imaging FOVs one by one, we employ a microlens array for continuous photon capture, resulting in a 3-fold throughput increase. In this contribution, we present the design and imaging results of this microscopy architecture in three different contrast modes: multichannel fluorescence, hyperspectral fluorescence and brightfield.

  15. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  16. A Portable Diode Array Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David

    2016-05-01

    A cheap portable visible light spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses readily sourced items and could be constructed by anyone with a knowledge of electronics. The spectrometer covers the wavelength range 450-725 nm with a resolution better than 5 nm. The spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to separate wavelengths, which are detected using a 128-element diode array, the output of which is analyzed using a microprocessor. The spectrum is displayed on a small liquid crystal display screen and can be saved to a micro SD card for later analysis. Battery life (2 × AAA) is estimated to be 200 hours. The overall dimensions of the unit are 120 × 65 × 60 mm, and it weighs about 200 g. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Array abstractions for GPU programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, Martin

    The shift towards massively parallel hardware platforms for highperformance computing tasks has introduced a need for improved programming models that facilitate ease of reasoning for both users and compiler optimization. A promising direction is the field of functional data-parallel programming......, for which functional invariants can be utilized by optimizing compilers to perform large program transformations automatically. However, the previous work in this area allow users only limited ability to reason about the performance of algorithms. For this reason, such languages have yet to see wide...... industrial adoption. We present two programming languages that attempt at both supporting industrial applications and providing reasoning tools for hierarchical data-parallel architectures, such as GPUs. First, we present TAIL, an array based intermediate language and compiler framework for compiling a large...

  18. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  19. Multilayer Ferritin Array for Bionanobattery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A thin-film electrode for a bio-nanobattery is produced by consecutively depositing arrays of a ferritin protein on a substrate, employing a spin self-assembly procedure. By this procedure, a first ferritin layer is first formed on the substrate, followed by building a second, oppositely-charged ferritin layer on the top of the first ferritin layer to form a bilayer structure. Oppositely-charged ferritin layers are subsequently deposited on top of each other until a desired number of bilayer structures is produced. An ordered, uniform, stable and robust, thin-film electrode material of enhanced packing density is presented, which provides optimal charge density for the bio-nanobattery.

  20. On the (Frequency) Modulation of Coupled Oscillator Arrays in Phased Array Beam Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, R.; Acorn, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that arrays of voltage controlled oscillators coupled to nearest neighbors can be used to produce useful aperture phase distributions for phased array antennas. However, placing information of the transmitted signal requires that the oscillations be modulated.

  1. Imaging spectroscopy using embedded diffractive optical arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford

    2017-09-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera based on diffractive optic arrays. This approach to hyperspectral imaging has been demonstrated in all three infrared bands SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. The hyperspectral optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of this infrared hyperspectral sensor. This new and innovative approach to an infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics that are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a small satellite, mini-UAV, commercial quadcopter or man portable. Also, an application of how this spectral imaging technology can easily be used to quantify the mass and volume flow rates of hydrocarbon gases. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. The detector array is divided into sub-images covered by each lenslet. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the number of simultaneous different spectral images collected each frame of the camera. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image

  2. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martineau-Huynh, Olivier; Bustamante, Mauricio; Carvalho, Washington

    2017-01-01

    The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a planned array of ~200 000 radio antennas deployed over ~200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus...

  3. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms...

  4. Dumand-array data-acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; Dau, W.D.; Geelhood, B.D.; Harris, F.; Learned, J.G.; Stenger, V.; March, R.; Roos, C.; Shumard, E.

    1982-04-01

    An overall data acquisition approach for DUMAND is described. The scheme assumes one array to shore optical fiber transmission line for each string of the array. The basic event sampling period is approx. 13 μsec. All potentially interesting data is transmitted to shore where the major processing is performed

  5. Diagnostics of the BIOMASS feed array prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...

  6. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...

  7. Adaptive motion compensation in sonar array processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, sonar performance has mainly improved via a significant increase in array ap-erture, signal bandwidth and computational power. This thesis aims at improving sonar array processing techniques based on these three steps forward. In applications such as anti-submarine warfare and mine

  8. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Evlyukhin, A.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive...... to design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation....

  9. MARS - a multidetector array for reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, G.C.; Davies, W.G.; Forster, J.S.

    1988-03-01

    The proposal for MARS, a Multidetector Array for Reaction Studies is presented. MARS consists of a large, high-vacuum vessel enclosing an array of 128 scintillation detectors for use in studies of heavy-ion collisions at TASCC. The instrument will be funded and owned jointly by AECL and NSERC

  10. Submillimeter Array (SMA) Newsletter August 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Submillimeter Array (SMA) Newsletter August 2011 Blundell, Raymond Submillimeter Array Newsletter | Number 12 | August 2011 CONTENTS 1 From the Director SCIENCE HIGHLIGHTS: 2 Faint Submillimeter Sources behind Massive Lensing Clusters 5 Millimeter Imaging of the β Pictoris Debris Disk: Evidence for a Planetesimal Belt 7 Physical Properties of the Circumnuclear Starburst Ring in the Barred Galaxy NGC1097 TECHNICAL HIGHLIGHTS: 9 ...

  11. Sparse acoustic imaging with a spherical array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Xenaki, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of methods for sound source localization and sound field reconstruction with spherical microphone arrays have been proposed. These arrays have properties that are potentially very useful, e.g. omni-directionality, robustness, compensable scattering, etc. This paper propo...

  12. Blended acquisition with dispersed source arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Blended source arrays are historically configured with equal source units, such as broadband vibrators (land) and broadband air-gun arrays (marine). I refer to this concept as homogeneous blending. I have proposed to extend the blending concept to inhomogeneous blending, meaning that a blended

  13. Law of substitution for mixed arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear safety justification of a mixed array of dissimilar fissile units of metal units and dilute solution units, according to Clayton, has been a persistent and nagging problem. Dissimilar uranium metal or dissimilar uranium solution units in a mixed array can also create a modeling nightmare for the nuclear criticality safety engineer. Now, a calculational method known as the Law of Substitution has been developed to ensure that the k/sub eff/ of an array of uranium metal and uranium solution units will satisfy any k/sub eff/ limit set by the nuclear safety engineer. The nuclear criticality safety engineer can utilize the Law of Substitution to safely mix or substitute different uranium metal units, different uranium solution units, and more importantly, uranium metal and dilute UO 2 solution units in an array. The Law of Substitution is as follows: (1) calculate the k/sub eff/ of each unit type in its own infinite planar array. (2) Determine the edge-to-edge spacing of the infinite planar array of each type of unit to satisfy a desired k/sub eff/. (3) Select the largest edge-to-edge spacing from among the similar units in their infinite planar arrays and use that spacing for the finite or infinite planar array of mixed units

  14. X-ray focusing using capillary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Chapman, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    A new form of X-ray focusing device based on glass capillary arrays is presented. Theoretical and experimental results for array of circular capillaries and theoretical and computational results for square hole capillaries are given. It is envisaged that devices such as these will find wide applications in X-ray optics as achromatic condensers and collimators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  15. Spherical Horn Array for Wideband Propagation Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    properties and coupling between the elements are investigated via measurements and numerical simulations. Radiation patterns and sum beams of the array on selected frequencies throughout the band are also presented. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that the array is a good candidate...

  16. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  17. Antennas for Frequency Reconfigurable Phased Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Sensors such as phased array radars play a crucial role in public safety. They are unavoidable for surveillance, threat identification and post-disaster management. However, different scenarios impose immensely diverse requirements for these systems. Phased array systems occupy a large space. In

  18. Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array (MESA): a mesh sensor network for climate change research in remote mountainous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. W.; Neal, D.; Frome, D.; Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P. E.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z. A.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Developing sensor networks robust enough to perform unattended in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks that lack anthropogenic influence. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. The MESA (Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array) project has faced these challenges and developed a wireless mesh sensor network across a 660 m topoclimatic gradient in a wilderness area in central Idaho. This sensor array uses advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies to provide near real-time synchronized data covering a suite of biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The 76 sensors in the network monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, and leaf wetness at synchronized time intervals ranging from two minutes to two hours and spatial scales from a few meters to two kilometers. We present our novel methods of placing sensors and network nodes above, below, and throughout the forest canopy without using meteorological towers. In addition, we explain our decision to use different forms of power (wind and solar) and the equipment we use to control and integrate power harvesting. Further, we describe our use of the network to sense and quantify its own power use. Using examples of environmental data from the project, we discuss how these data may be used to increase our understanding of the effects of climate change on ecosystem processes in mountainous environments. MESA sensor locations across a 700 m topoclimatic gradient at the University of Idaho Taylor Wilderness Research Station.

  19. The Expanded Very Large Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Rick

    2012-10-01

    The Expanded Very Large Array Project, begun in 2001, is now completed -- on time, on budget, and ``on spec.'' The major goal of the project was to multiply the key observational capabilities of the Very Large Array -- the world's most powerful, versatile, and productive radio telescope -- by a factor of at least an order of magnitude by implementation of modern technologies. The result of the project is an operationally new telescope -- renamed the Jansky Very Large Array -- which is capable of new science unimagined in 1980, when the original VLA was completed. In this talk, I will review the goals of the project, and describe the new capabilities of the Jansky Very Large Array. Already, the array is providing fabulous new insights into the physics of the universe,and I will spend the majority of the time describing examples of new results.

  20. Array coding for large data memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that an array code is a convenient method for storing large quantities of data. In a typical application, the array consists of N data words having M symbols in each word. The probability of undetected error is considered, taking into account three symbol error probabilities which are of interest, and a formula for determining the probability of undetected error. Attention is given to the possibility of reading data into the array using a digital communication system with symbol error probability p. Two different schemes are found to be of interest. The conducted analysis of array coding shows that the probability of undetected error is very small even for relatively large arrays.

  1. Arraying proteins by cell-free synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in life science have led to great motivation for the development of protein arrays to study functions of genome-encoded proteins. While traditional cell-based methods have been commonly used for generating protein arrays, they are usually a time-consuming process with a number of technical challenges. Cell-free protein synthesis offers an attractive system for making protein arrays, not only does it rapidly converts the genetic information into functional proteins without the need for DNA cloning, but also presents a flexible environment amenable to production of folded proteins or proteins with defined modifications. Recent advancements have made it possible to rapidly generate protein arrays from PCR DNA templates through parallel on-chip protein synthesis. This article reviews current cell-free protein array technologies and their proteomic applications.

  2. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  3. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/manor and available from the Bioconductor site http://www.bioconductor.org. It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/CAPweb.

  4. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  5. A Si nanocube array polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Jiang, Yingjie; Xing, Li; Yao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    We have proposed a full dielectric (silicon) nanocube array polarizer based on a silicon dioxide substrate. Each polarization unit column includes a plurality of equal spaced polarization units. By optimizing the length, the width, the height of the polarization units and the center distance of adjacent polarization unit (x direction and y direction), an extinction ratio (ER) of higher than 25dB was obtained theoretically when the incident light wavelength is 1550nm. while for applications of most polarization optical elements, ER above 10dB is enough. With this condition, the polarizer we designed can work in a wide wavelength range from 1509.31nm to 1611.51nm. Compared with the previous polarizer, we have introduced a polarizer which is a full dielectric device, which solves the problems of low efficiency caused by Ohmic loss and weak coupling. Furthermore, compared with the existing optical polarizers, our polarizer has the advantages of thin thickness, small size, light weight, and low processing difficulty, which is in line with the future development trend of optical elements.

  6. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100trademark disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks

  7. Tubular fluoropolymer arrays with high piezoelectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Eder-Goy, Dagmar; Biethan, Corinna; Fedosov, Sergey; Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Polymers with electrically charged internal air cavities called ferroelectrets exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect and are regarded as soft functional materials suitable for sensor and actuator applications. In this work, a simple method for fabricating piezoelectret arrays with open-tubular channels is introduced. A set of individual fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) tubes is compressed between two heated metal plates. The squeezed FEP tubes are melted together at +270 °C. The resulting structure is a uniform, multi-tubular, flat array that reveals a strong piezoelectric response after a poling step. The fabricated arrays have a high ratio between piezoelectrically active and non-active areas. The optimal charging voltage and stability of the piezoelectric coefficients with pressures and frequency were experimentally investigated for two specific array structures with wall thickness of 50 and 120 μm. The array fabricated from 50 μm thick FEP tubes reveals a stable and high piezoelectric coefficient of {d}33 = 120-160 pC N-1 with a flat frequency response between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz for pressures between 1 and 100 kPa. An increase of wall thickness to 120 μm is accompanied by a more than twofold decrease in the piezoelectric coefficient as a result of a simultaneously higher effective array stiffness and lower remanent polarization. The obtained experimental results can be used to optimize the array design with regard to the electromechanical performance.

  8. Vibration energy harvesting using the Halbach array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dibin; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John; Harris, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of vibration energy harvesting using a Halbach array. A Halbach array is a specific arrangement of permanent magnets that concentrates the magnetic field on one side of the array while cancelling the field to almost zero on the other side. This arrangement can improve electromagnetic coupling in a limited space. The Halbach array offers an advantage over conventional layouts of magnets in terms of its concentrated magnetic field and low-profile structure, which helps improve the output power of electromagnetic energy harvesters while minimizing their size. Another benefit of the Halbach array is that due to the existence of an almost-zero magnetic field zone, electronic components can be placed close to the energy harvester without any chance of interference, which can potentially reduce the overall size of a self-powered device. The first reported example of a low-profile, planar electromagnetic vibration energy harvester utilizing a Halbach array was built and tested. Results were compared to ones for energy harvesters with conventional magnet layouts. By comparison, it is concluded that although energy harvesters with a Halbach array can have higher magnetic field density, a higher output power requires careful design in order to achieve the maximum magnetic flux gradient. (paper)

  9. An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Karpowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W or general public (GP members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons. Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs, by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users. Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated. Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment.

  10. A hierarchical classification approach for recognition of low-density (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in mixed plastic waste based on short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to recognize different polymer flakes from mixed plastic waste through an innovative hierarchical classification strategy based on hyperspectral imaging, with particular reference to low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). A plastic waste composition assessment, including also LDPE and HDPE identification, may help to define optimal recycling strategies for product quality control. Correct handling of plastic waste is essential for its further "sustainable" recovery, maximizing the sorting performance in particular for plastics with similar characteristics as LDPE and HDPE. Five different plastic waste samples were chosen for the investigation: polypropylene (PP), LDPE, HDPE, polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A calibration dataset was realized utilizing the corresponding virgin polymers. Hyperspectral imaging in the short-wave infrared range (1000-2500 nm) was thus applied to evaluate the different plastic spectral attributes finalized to perform their recognition/classification. After exploring polymer spectral differences by principal component analysis (PCA), a hierarchical partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built allowing the five different polymers to be recognized. The proposed methodology, based on hierarchical classification, is very powerful and fast, allowing to recognize the five different polymers in a single step.

  11. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for thermal therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin

    Currently, the success of hyperthermia and thermal surgery treatments is limited by the technology used in the design and fabrication of clinical heating devices and the completeness of the thermometry systems used for guidance. For both hyperthermia and thermal surgery, electrically focused ultrasound generated by phased arrays provides a means of controlling localized energy deposition in body tissues. Intracavitary applicators can be used to bring the energy source close to a target volume, such as the prostate, thereby minimizing normal tissue damage. The work performed in this study was aimed at improving noninvasive prostate thermal therapies and utilized three research approaches: (1) Acoustic, thermal and optimization simulations, (2) Design and fabrication of multiple phased arrays, (3) Ex vivo and in vivo experimental testing of the heating capabilities of the phased arrays. As part of this study, a novel aperiodic phased array design was developed which resulted in a 30- 45% reduction in grating lobe levels when compared to conventional phased arrays. Measured acoustic fields generated by the constructed aperiodic arrays agreed closely with the fields predicted by the theoretical simulations and covered anatomically appropriate ranges. The power capabilities of these arrays were demonstrated to be sufficient for the purposes of hyperthermia and thermal surgery. The advantage of using phased arrays in place of fixed focus transducers was shown by demonstrating the ability of electronic scanning to increase the size of the necrosed tissue volume while providing a more uniform thermal dose, which can ultimately reduce patient treatment times. A theoretical study on the feasibility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) thermometry for noninvasive temperature feedback control was investigated as a means to improve transient and steady state temperature distributions achieved in hyperthermia treatments. MRI guided ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrated

  12. Solar array qualification through qualified analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdemans, J.; Cruijssen, H. J.; Wijker, J. J.

    1991-04-01

    To achieve qualification is in general a very expensive exercise. For solar arrays this is done by a dedicated test program through which final qualification is achieved. Due to severe competition on the solar array market, cheaper means are looked for to achieve a qualified product for the customers. One of the methods is to drastically limit the environmental test program and to qualify the solar-array structure against its environmental loads by analysis. Qualification by analysis is possible. The benefits are that a significant amount of development effort can be saved in case such a powerful tool is available. Extensive testing can be avoided thus saving time and money.

  13. Performance Analysis of Digital loudspeaker Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Kontomichos, Fotios; Mourjopoulos, John

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of digital loudspeaker arrays shows that the ways in which bits are mapped to the drivers influence the quality of the audio result. Specifically, a "bit-summed" rather than the traditional "bit-mapped" strategy greatly reduces the number of times drivers make binary transitions per...... period of the input frequency. Detailed simulations compare the results for a 32-loudspeaker array with a similar configuration with analog excitation of the drivers. Ideally, drivers in digital arrays should be very small and span a small area, but that sets limits on the low-frequency response...

  14. Array Detector Modules for Spent Fuel Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2018-05-07

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposes to evaluate the arrays of position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) detectors for passive gamma-ray emission tomography (ET) to verify the spent fuel in storage casks before storing them in geo-repositories. Our primary objective is to conduct a preliminary analysis of the arrays capabilities and to perform field measurements to validate the effectiveness of the proposed array modules. The outcome of this proposal will consist of baseline designs for the future ET system which can ultimately be used together with neutrons detectors. This will demonstrate the usage of this technology in spent fuel storage casks.

  15. The Status of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuno, H; Azuma, R [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Blake, S A; Brusova, O; Cady, R [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Benno, T; Chikawa, M; Doura, K [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Bergman, D R [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Cheon, B G; Cho, E J [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Cho, L S; Cho, W R [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cohen, F, E-mail: htokuno@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of The Telescope Array experiment is to identify origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays. The Telescope Array is a hybrid detector consists of a surface detector array and air fluorescence detectors. This hybrid detector is observing extensive air showers to measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. The detector construction has been completed in March 2008, and the hybrid observation with the full configuration has been running since that time. In this talk, the status of observation and our prospects are described.

  16. Specialization of Generic Array Accesses After Inlining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Tokuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an optimization that specializes type-generic array accesses after inlining of polymorphic functions in the native-code OCaml compiler. Polymorphic array operations (read and write in OCaml require runtime type dispatch because of ad hoc memory representations of integer and float arrays. It cannot be removed even after being monomorphized by inlining because the intermediate language is mostly untyped. We therefore extended it with explicit type application like System F (while keeping implicit type abstraction by means of unique identifiers for type variables. Our optimization has achieved up to 21% speed-up of numerical programs.

  17. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.; Klaassen, R.; Kurkcu, N.; Barshinger, J.; Chalek, C.; Nieters, E.; Sun, Zongqi; Fromont, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed

  18. Flat-plate photovoltaic array design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented which integrates the results of specific studies in the areas of photovoltaic structural design optimization, optimization of array series/parallel circuit design, thermal design optimization, and optimization of environmental protection features. The analysis is based on minimizing the total photovoltaic system life-cycle energy cost including repair and replacement of failed cells and modules. This approach is shown to be a useful technique for array optimization, particularly when time-dependent parameters such as array degradation and maintenance are involved.

  19. Degree-of-Freedom Strengthened Cascade Array for DOD-DOA Estimation in MIMO Array Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bobin; Dong, Zhi; Zhang, Weile; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qisheng

    2018-05-14

    In spatial spectrum estimation, difference co-array can provide extra degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) for promoting parameter identifiability and parameter estimation accuracy. For the sake of acquiring as more DOFs as possible with a given number of physical sensors, we herein design a novel sensor array geometry named cascade array. This structure is generated by systematically connecting a uniform linear array (ULA) and a non-uniform linear array, and can provide more DOFs than some exist array structures but less than the upper-bound indicated by minimum redundant array (MRA). We further apply this cascade array into multiple input multiple output (MIMO) array systems, and propose a novel joint direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm, which is based on a reduced-dimensional weighted subspace fitting technique. The algorithm is angle auto-paired and computationally efficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations prove the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed array structure and the related algorithm.

  20. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Li, E-mail: dengl@bupt.edu.cn; Hong, Weijun, E-mail: hongwj@bupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Network System Architecture and Convergence, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China); Wu, Yongle, E-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  1. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Hong, Weijun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang; Wu, Yongle

    2016-01-01

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  2. Probe suppression in conformal phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Neethu, P S

    2017-01-01

    This book considers a cylindrical phased array with microstrip patch antenna elements and half-wavelength dipole antenna elements. The effect of platform and mutual coupling effect is included in the analysis. The non-planar geometry is tackled by using Euler's transformation towards the calculation of array manifold. Results are presented for both conducting and dielectric cylinder. The optimal weights obtained are used to generate adapted pattern according to a given signal scenario. It is shown that array along with adaptive algorithm is able to cater to an arbitrary signal environment even when the platform effect and mutual coupling is taken into account. This book provides a step-by-step approach for analyzing the probe suppression in non-planar geometry. Its detailed illustrations and analysis will be a useful text for graduate and research students, scientists and engineers working in the area of phased arrays, low-observables and stealth technology.

  3. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  4. Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) that have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary obj...

  5. Ordered arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of a “top-down” approach (substrate-conformal imprint lithography and two “bottom-up” approaches (dewetting and dealloying enables fabrication of perfectly ordered 2-dimensional arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles. The dewetting of Au/Ag bilayers on the periodically prepatterned substrates leads to the interdiffusion of Au and Ag and the formation of an array of Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles. The array of alloy nanoparticles is transformed into an array of nanoporous gold nanoparticles by a following dealloying step. Large areas of this new type of material arrangement can be realized with this technique. In addition, this technique allows for the control of particle size, particle spacing, and ligament size (or pore size by varying the period of the structure, total metal layer thickness, and the thickness ratio of the as-deposited bilayers.

  6. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided

  7. Thermal crosstalk in heated microcantilever arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoe Joon; Dai, Zhenting; King, William P

    2013-01-01

    We report on a detailed characterization and analysis of thermal crosstalk in a heated microcantilever array. The fabricated heated cantilever array consists of five identical independently controlled heated cantilevers. The temperature of each cantilever can be controlled over a large temperature range, up to 900 °C, by means of an integrated solid-state resistive heater. We analyze thermal crosstalk in steady and transient operating conditions when the heated cantilever array is either in contact with a substrate or freely suspended in air. The thermal conductance between neighboring cantilevers is as high as 0.61 µW °C −1 , resulting in non-negligible temperature increases in neighboring cantilevers, depending upon the operating conditions. By understanding and accounting for thermal crosstalk, it is possible to improve temperature control and temperature measurements with heated microcantilever arrays. (paper)

  8. Statistical monitoring of linear antenna arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-11-03

    The paper concerns the problem of monitoring linear antenna arrays using the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test. When an abnormal event (fault) affects an array of antenna elements, the radiation pattern changes and significant deviation from the desired design performance specifications can resulted. In this paper, the detection of faults is addressed from a statistical point of view as a fault detection problem. Specifically, a statistical method rested on the GLR principle is used to detect potential faults in linear arrays. To assess the strength of the GLR-based monitoring scheme, three case studies involving different types of faults were performed. Simulation results clearly shown the effectiveness of the GLR-based fault-detection method to monitor the performance of linear antenna arrays.

  9. Strain Actuated Solar Arrays (SASA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of CU Aerospace and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign propose multifunctional solar arrays, which can be used for attitude control of a...

  10. Ferrite LTCC based phased array antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Two phased array antennas realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC technology are presented in this paper. The use of embedded bias windings in these designs allows the negation of external magnets which are conventionally employed with bulk ferrite medium. This reduces the required magnetostatic field strength by 90% as compared to the traditional designs. The phase shifters are implemented using the SIW technology. One of the designs is operated in the half mode waveguide topology while the other design is based on standard full mode waveguide operation. The two phase shifter designs are integrated with two element patch antenna array and slotted SIW array respectively. The array designs demonstrate a beam steering of 30° and ±19° respectively for a current excitation of 200 mA. The designs, due to their small factor can be easily integrated in modern communication systems which is not possible in the case of bulk ferrite based designs.

  11. Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).

  12. Pattern formation in arrays of chemical oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical oscillators; phase flip; oscillation death. PACS No. 05.45 .... array oscillate (with varying amplitudes and frequencies), while the others experience oscillation death .... Barring the boundary cells, one observes near phase flip and near ...

  13. Marine Attack on Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Ad

    2002-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  14. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J, E-mail: joern.beyer@ptb.d [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  15. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  16. Applications of the phased array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Hauser, Th.; Voelz, U.

    1999-01-01

    The application of the phased array technique was limited to heavy and thick wall components as present in the nuclear industry. With the improvement of the equipment and probes other application areas are now open for the phased array technique, e.g. the inspection of the turbine blade root, weld inspection in a wall thickness range between 12 and 40 mm, inspection of aircraft components, inspection of spot welds or inspection of concretes. The aim of the use of phased array techniques has not been changed related to the first applications, i.e. the adaptation of the sound beam to the geometry by steering the angel of incidence or the skewing angle as well as the focussing of sound fields. Due to the fact, that the new applications of the phased array techniques in some cases don't leave the laboratories for the time being, the examples of this contribution will focus applications with practical background. (orig.)

  17. Transformational Element Level Arrays (TELA) Testbed (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalrymple, Thomas; Buck, Jonathan; Buxa, Peter; McCann, John; Neidhard, Robert; Scalzi, Gary; Shreffler, Caleb; Spendley, Dan; Watson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous work at AFRL has resulted in many technologies that support these needs. Many components exist today that were only theoretical a few years ago, such as phased array antennas that support 10...

  18. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Application components of ISPA tubes are shown: the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  19. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  20. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  1. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  2. What Else Is Decidable about Integer Arrays?

    OpenAIRE

    Habermehl, Peter; Iosif, Radu; Vojnar, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new decidable logic for reasoning about infinite arrays of integers. The logic is in the ∃ * ∀ * first-order fragment and allows (1) Presburger constraints on existentially quantified variables, (2) difference constraints as well as periodicity constraints on universally quantified indices, and (3) difference constraints on values. In particular, using our logic, one can express constraints on consecutive elements of arrays (e.g. ∀i. 0 ≤ i < n → a[i + 1]...

  3. Antibody repertoire profiling with mimotope arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Pashova, Shina; Schneider, Christoph; von Gunten, Stephan; Pashov, Anastas

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale profiling and monitoring of antibody repertoires is possible through next generation sequencing (NGS), phage display libraries and microarrays. These methods can be combined in a pipeline, which ultimately maps the antibody reactivities onto defined arrays of structures - peptides or carbohydrates. The arrays can help analyze the individual specificities or can be used as complex patterns. In any case, the targets recognized should formally be considered mimotopes unless they are ...

  4. Vibrotactile using micromachined electromagnetic actuators array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, A; Ducloux, O; Tiercelin, N; Deblock, Y; Pernod, P; Preobrazhensky, V

    2006-01-01

    One motivating application of this technology is the development of a tactile display interface, where discrete mechanical actuators apply vibratory excitation at discrete locations on the skin. Specifically, this paper describes the development fabrication and characterization of a 4 x 4 micro-actuator array of vibrating pixels for fingertip tactile communication. The vibrting pixels are generated by using an electromagnetic microresonator. The fabrication sequence and the actuation performance of the array are also presented

  5. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  6. Silver Nanowire Arrays : Fabrication and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuyi

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire arrays have increasingly received attention for their use in a variety of applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), plasmonic sensing, and electrodes for photoelectric devices. However, until now, large scale fabrication of device-suitable metallic nanowire arrays on supporting substrates has seen very limited success. This thesis describes my work rst on the development of a novel successful processing route for the fabrication of uniform noble metallic (e.g. A...

  7. Deformable wire array: fiber drawn tunable metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated.......By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated....

  8. Optical properties of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelmoula, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Department of Materials Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sokoloff, Jeffrey; Lu, Wen-Tao; Menon, Latika [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Close, Thomas; Richter, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.richter@rit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 14623 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    We present experimental measurements and a theoretical analysis of the near UV to NIR optical properties of free standing titania nanotube arrays. An improved understanding of the optical physics of this type of nanostructure is important to several next generation solar energy conversion technologies. We measured the transmission, reflection, and absorption of the electromagnetic spectrum from 300 nm to 1000 nm (UV to NIR) of titania nanotube arrays. We measured the total, specular, and diffuse reflection and transmission using both single point detection and an integrating sphere spectrometer. We find that the transmission, but not the reflection, of light (UV to NIR) through the nanotube array is well-explained by classic geometric optics using an effective medium model taking into account the conical geometry of the nanotubes. For wavelengths shorter than ∼500 nm, we find the surprising result that the reflection coefficient for light incident on the open side of the nanotube array is greater than the reflection coefficient for light incident on the closed “floor” of the nanotube array. We consider theoretical models based on the eikonal approximation, photonic crystal band theory, and a statistical treatment of scattering to explain the observed data. We attribute the fact that light with wavelengths shorter than 500 nm is more highly reflected from the open than the closed tube side as being due to disorder scattering inside the nanotube array.

  9. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  10. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  11. Adaptive port-starboard beamforming of triplet arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, S.P.; Been, R.; Groen, J.; Noutary, E.; Doisy, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Triplet arrays are single line arrays with three hydrophones on a circular section of the array. The triplet structure provides immediate port-starboard (PS) discrimination. This paper discusses the theoretical and experimental performance of triplet arrays. Results are obtained on detection gain

  12. Development of phased-array ultrasonic testing probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Seiichi; Kurokawa, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Masaru; Tada, Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    Phased-array ultrasonic testing was developed for nondestructive evaluation of power plants. Phased-array UT scans and focuses an ultrasonic beam to inspect areas difficult to inspect by conventional UT. We developed a highly sensitive piezoelectric composite, and designed optimized phased-array UT probes. We are applying our phased-array UT to different areas of power plants. (author)

  13. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  14. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Meinke Carl Goodzeit Penny Ball Roger Bangerter

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of loW--cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet RandD construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  15. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Meinke

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  16. Investigations of two types of superconducting arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, M.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation has two parts. Part one studies the anisotropy effect on homogeneous superconducting wire-networks, by using the Abrikosov approach. The networks assumed to have an infinite square lattice geometry. An anisotropy parameter R is defined to be the cross sectional area ratio of the vertical and horizontal strands. Many limiting behaviors of the order parameter distribution as R → ∞ are obtained. Many anisotropy-induced vortex configurational transitions are found at several Φ/Φ 0 values studied, and are investigated in detail. Part two studies the ground-state vortex configurations of the Josephson-coupled arrays of superconducting islands. The Ginzburg-Landau Josephson array model is used. With arrays of Penrose tiling geometry, the authors have found negative evidences against a proposed mechanism, and positive evidences for a new mechanism for generating commensurate states. But the mechanisms for the majority of the nontrivial commensurate states remain to be investigated. With arrays of infinite square lattice geometry, a temperature-induced vortex configurational transition at Φ/Φ 0 = 1/6 is found. The authors discover that the equilibrium vortex ground state of an infinite square-lattice array can occur in a unit cell of size other than q by q, or 2q by 2q, which has been widely accepted and commonly used so far

  17. Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA) project - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, C.; Stephany, S.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.

    2010-02-01

    The configuration of the second phase of the Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA), installed at Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Longitude 45° 0‧ 20″ W and Latitude 22° 41‧ 19″ S), is a T-shaped array where 21 antennas are being added to existing 5 antennas of the first phase. In the third phase, in each arm of the T array, four more antennas will be added and baselines will be increased to 2.5 × 1.25 km in east-west and south directions, respectively. The antennas will be equally spaced at the distances of 250 meters from the central antenna of the T-array. Also, the frequency range will be increased to 1.2-1.7, 2.8 and 5.6 GHz. The Second phase of the BDA should be operational by the middle of 2010 and will operate in the frequency range of (1.2-1.7) GHz for solar and non solar observations. Here, we present the characteristics of the second phase of the BDA project, details of the array configuration, the u-v coverage, the synthesized beam obtained for the proposed configuration.

  18. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.; Collins, T.; Herring, J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Wilburn, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 x 64 pixels, each 120 μm square, and the other format having 256 x 256 pixels, each 30 μm square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 μm. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs

  19. Magnetic behavior of arrays of nickel nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S.; Maaz, K.; Ahmed, M.; Nisar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is an increasing interest in magnetic nano wires because of their unusual properties compared to the bulk materials. To understand the complexity of nano wire arrays and to improve their potential in various applications more studies are still needed, for example, to understand completely the effect of geometrical factors, i.e. aspect ratio, areal density etc., on magnetic properties of these arrays. In this work, arrays of nickel nano wires with aspect ratio is proportional to 1200 and diameter ranging between 25-100 nm were fabricated by electrodeposition in etched ion track templates. Samples with areal density from 1 X 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -2/ to 1 X 10/ sup 8/ cm/sup -2/ were prepared. Measurements of magnetic hysteresis loops were performed at room temperature with SQUID magnetometer and magnetic properties of arrays of different diameters and aspect ratios were compared. Coercivity of the wires showed strong dependence on aspect ratio, diameter and microstructure. Room temperature coercivity of the wires showed a maximum at is proportional to 40 nm diameter and arrays with high density of nano wires showed lower coercivity. The results were discussed by taking into account anisotropies originating from the shape, crystalline structure and magnetostatic interactions among the wires and by previous experimental observations in literature. (Orig./A.B.)

  20. Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erick T.

    1988-08-01

    The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.

  1. Micromirror array nanostructures for anticounterfeiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert A.

    2004-06-01

    The optical characteristics of pixellated passive micro mirror arrays are derived and applied in the context of their use as reflective optically variable device (OVD) nanostructures for the protection of documents from counterfeiting. The traditional design variables of foil based diffractive OVDs are shown to be able to be mapped to a corresponding set of design parameters for reflective optical micro mirror array (OMMA) devices. The greatly increased depth characteristics of micro mirror array OVDs provides an opportunity for directly printing the OVD microstructure onto the security document in-line with the normal printing process. The micro mirror array OVD architecture therefore eliminates the need for hot stamping foil as the carrier of the OVD information, thereby reducing costs. The origination of micro mirror array devices via a palette based data format and a combination electron beam lithography and photolithography techniques is discussed via an artwork example and experimental tests. Finally the application of the technology to the design of a generic class of devices which have the interesting property of allowing for both application and customer specific OVD image encoding and data encoding at the end user stage of production is described. Because of the end user nature of the image and data encoding process these devices are particularly well suited to ID document applications and for this reason we refer this new OVD concept as biometric OVD technology.

  2. Fast disk array for image storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Zhu, Zhichun; Jin, Hai; Zhang, Jiangling

    1997-01-01

    A fast disk array is designed for the large continuous image storage. It includes a high speed data architecture and the technology of data striping and organization on the disk array. The high speed data path which is constructed by two dual port RAM and some control circuit is configured to transfer data between a host system and a plurality of disk drives. The bandwidth can be more than 100 MB/s if the data path based on PCI (peripheral component interconnect). The organization of data stored on the disk array is similar to RAID 4. Data are striped on a plurality of disk, and each striping unit is equal to a track. I/O instructions are performed in parallel on the disk drives. An independent disk is used to store the parity information in the fast disk array architecture. By placing the parity generation circuit directly on the SCSI (or SCSI 2) bus, the parity information can be generated on the fly. It will affect little on the data writing in parallel on the other disks. The fast disk array architecture designed in the paper can meet the demands of the image storage.

  3. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  4. Systems and methods of manufacturing microchannel arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Brian K.; Brannon, Samuel T.

    2018-03-20

    The present application relates to apparatus and methods of reducing the cost of microchannel array production and operation. In a representative embodiment, a microchannel array can comprise a first lamina having one or more flanges and a plurality of elongated bosses. The one or more flanges can extend along a perimeter of the first lamina, the plurality of elongated bosses can at least partially define a plurality of first flow paths, and the first lamina can define at least one opening. The microchannel array can also comprise a second lamina having a plurality of second flow paths, and can define at least one opening. The second lamina can be disposed above the first lamina such that the second lamina encloses the first flow paths of the first lamina and the at least one opening of the first lamina is coaxial with the at least one opening of the second lamina.

  5. Stochastic synaptic plasticity with memristor crossbar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2016-11-01

    Memristive devices have been shown to exhibit slow and stochastic resistive switching behavior under low-voltage, low-current operating conditions. Here we explore such mechanisms to emulate stochastic plasticity in memristor crossbar synapse arrays. Interfaced with integrate-and-fire spiking neurons, the memristive synapse arrays are capable of implementing stochastic forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity which parallel mean-rate models of stochastic learning with binary synapses. We present theory and experiments with spike-based stochastic learning in memristor crossbar arrays, including simplified modeling as well as detailed physical simulation of memristor stochastic resistive switching characteristics due to voltage and current induced filament formation and collapse. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  7. Terabyte IDE RAID-5 Disk Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Sanders et al.

    2003-09-30

    High energy physics experiments are currently recording large amounts of data and in a few years will be recording prodigious quantities of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. We examine some techniques that exploit recent developments in commodity hardware. We report on tests of redundant arrays of integrated drive electronics (IDE) disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. IDE redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) prices now are less than the cost per terabyte of million-dollar tape robots! The arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to institutions without robots and used when fast random access at low cost is important.

  8. Stochastic synaptic plasticity with memristor crossbar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan; Al-Shedivat, Maruan; Neftci, Emre; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    Memristive devices have been shown to exhibit slow and stochastic resistive switching behavior under low-voltage, low-current operating conditions. Here we explore such mechanisms to emulate stochastic plasticity in memristor crossbar synapse arrays. Interfaced with integrate-and-fire spiking neurons, the memristive synapse arrays are capable of implementing stochastic forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity which parallel mean-rate models of stochastic learning with binary synapses. We present theory and experiments with spike-based stochastic learning in memristor crossbar arrays, including simplified modeling as well as detailed physical simulation of memristor stochastic resistive switching characteristics due to voltage and current induced filament formation and collapse. © 2016 IEEE.

  9. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G.; Florez, J.; Borelli, R.; Fong, W.; Miko, J.; Trujillo, C.

    1989-01-01

    With the construction of several new large aperture telescopes and the development of large format array detectors in the near IR, the ability to obtain diffraction limited seeing via IR array speckle interferometry offers a powerful tool. We are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element 2D complex FFT, and to average the power spectrum all within the 25 msec coherence time for speckles at near IR wavelength. The processor is a compact unit controlled by a PC with real time display and data storage capability. It provides the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with off-line methods

  10. Microneedle arrays for biosensing and drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joseph; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Narayan, Roger; Miller, Philip

    2017-08-29

    Methods, structures, and systems are disclosed for biosensing and drug delivery techniques. In one aspect, a device for detecting an analyte and/or releasing a biochemical into a biological fluid can include an array of hollowed needles, in which each needle includes a protruded needle structure including an exterior wall forming a hollow interior and an opening at a terminal end of the protruded needle structure that exposes the hollow interior, and a probe inside the exterior wall to interact with one or more chemical or biological substances that come in contact with the probe via the opening to produce a probe sensing signal, and an array of wires that are coupled to probes of the array of hollowed needles, respectively, each wire being electrically conductive to transmit the probe sensing signal produced by a respective probe.

  11. SWNT array resonant gate MOS transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun, A; Salet, P; Ionescu, A M [NanoLab, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Campidelli, S; Filoramo, A; Derycke, V; Goffman, M F, E-mail: marcelo.goffman@cea.fr [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC (CNRS URA 2454), IRAMIS, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-02-04

    We show that thin horizontal arrays of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) suspended above the channel of silicon MOSFETs can be used as vibrating gate electrodes. This new class of nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) combines the unique mechanical and electronic properties of SWNTs with an integrated silicon-based motion detection. Its electrical response exhibits a clear signature of the mechanical resonance of SWNT arrays (120-150 MHz) showing that these thin horizontal arrays behave as a cohesive, rigid and elastic body membrane with a Young's modulus in the order of 1-10 GPa and ultra-low mass. The resonant frequency can be tuned by the gate voltage and its dependence is well understood within the continuum mechanics framework.

  12. SWNT array resonant gate MOS transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, A; Campidelli, S; Filoramo, A; Derycke, V; Salet, P; Ionescu, A M; Goffman, M F

    2011-02-04

    We show that thin horizontal arrays of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) suspended above the channel of silicon MOSFETs can be used as vibrating gate electrodes. This new class of nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) combines the unique mechanical and electronic properties of SWNTs with an integrated silicon-based motion detection. Its electrical response exhibits a clear signature of the mechanical resonance of SWNT arrays (120-150 MHz) showing that these thin horizontal arrays behave as a cohesive, rigid and elastic body membrane with a Young's modulus in the order of 1-10 GPa and ultra-low mass. The resonant frequency can be tuned by the gate voltage and its dependence is well understood within the continuum mechanics framework.

  13. SWNT array resonant gate MOS transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, A; Salet, P; Ionescu, A M; Campidelli, S; Filoramo, A; Derycke, V; Goffman, M F

    2011-01-01

    We show that thin horizontal arrays of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) suspended above the channel of silicon MOSFETs can be used as vibrating gate electrodes. This new class of nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) combines the unique mechanical and electronic properties of SWNTs with an integrated silicon-based motion detection. Its electrical response exhibits a clear signature of the mechanical resonance of SWNT arrays (120-150 MHz) showing that these thin horizontal arrays behave as a cohesive, rigid and elastic body membrane with a Young's modulus in the order of 1-10 GPa and ultra-low mass. The resonant frequency can be tuned by the gate voltage and its dependence is well understood within the continuum mechanics framework.

  14. Microneedle arrays for biosensing and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Narayan, Roger; Miller, Philip; Polsky, Ronen; Edwards, Thayne L.

    2017-08-22

    Methods, structures, and systems are disclosed for biosensing and drug delivery techniques. In one aspect, a^ device for detecting an analyte and/or releasing a biochemical into a biological fluid can include an array of hollowed needles, in which each needle includes a protruded needle structure including an exterior wall forming a hollow interior and an opening at a terminal end of the protruded needle structure that exposes the hollow interior, and a probe inside the exterior wall to interact with one or more chemical or biological substances that come in contact with the probe via the opening to produce a probe sensing signal, and an array of wires that are coupled to probes of the array of hollowed needles, respectively, each wire being electrically conductive to transmit the probe sensing signal produced by a respective probe.

  15. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  16. Automated installation methods for photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R.; Daniels, A.; Greenaway, R.; Oster, J., Jr.; Racki, D.; Stoeltzing, R.

    1982-11-01

    Since installation expenses constitute a substantial portion of the cost of a large photovoltaic power system, methods for reduction of these costs were investigated. The installation of the photovoltaic arrays includes all areas, starting with site preparation (i.e., trenching, wiring, drainage, foundation installation, lightning protection, grounding and installation of the panel) and concluding with the termination of the bus at the power conditioner building. To identify the optimum combination of standard installation procedures and automated/mechanized techniques, the installation process was investigated including the equipment and hardware available, the photovoltaic array structure systems and interfaces, and the array field and site characteristics. Preliminary designs of hardware for both the standard installation method, the automated/mechanized method, and a mix of standard installation procedures and mechanized procedures were identified to determine which process effectively reduced installation costs. In addition, costs associated with each type of installation method and with the design, development and fabrication of new installation hardware were generated.

  17. Simulation of sparse matrix array designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Rainer; Heckel, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Matrix phased array probes are becoming more prominently used in industrial applications. The main drawbacks, using probes incorporating a very large number of transducer elements, are needed for an appropriate cabling and an ultrasonic device offering many parallel channels. Matrix arrays designed for extended functionality feature at least 64 or more elements. Typical arrangements are square matrices, e.g., 8 by 8 or 11 by 11 or rectangular matrixes, e.g., 8 by 16 or 10 by 12 to fit a 128-channel phased array system. In some phased array systems, the number of simultaneous active elements is limited to a certain number, e.g., 32 or 64. Those setups do not allow running the probe with all elements active, which may cause a significant change in the directivity pattern of the resulting sound beam. When only a subset of elements can be used during a single acquisition, different strategies may be applied to collect enough data for rebuilding the missing information from the echo signal. Omission of certain elements may be one approach, overlay of subsequent shots with different active areas may be another one. This paper presents the influence of a decreased number of active elements on the sound field and their distribution on the array. Solutions using subsets with different element activity patterns on matrix arrays and their advantages and disadvantages concerning the sound field are evaluated using semi-analytical simulation tools. Sound field criteria are discussed, which are significant for non-destructive testing results and for the system setup.

  18. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

  19. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  20. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use

  1. The GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic co-location in space through the precision orbit determination of GPS satellites via satellite laser ranging will contribute significantly towards improving the accuracy and stability of the international terrestrial reference frame. NASA recently formed the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project to develop and deliver retroreflectors for integration on the next generation of GPS satellites. These retroreflectors will be an important contributor to achieving a global accuracy of 1.0 mm and 0.1 mm/year stability in the international terrestrial reference frame. We report here the current status of the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project.

  2. Development of flexible array tactile sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    time data acquisition system scans all the cells and converts electrical resistance to tactile pressure maps. We validate that this information can be used to improve grasping and perform object recognition. Key words: piezoresistivity, tactile, sensor, pressure, robotics......In this paper we describe the development of an array tactile sensor for use in robotic grippers based on a flexible piezoresistive material. We start by comparing different cell structures in terms of output characteristics and we construct an array of cells in a row and columns layout. A real...

  3. Tests Of Array Of Flush Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Larry J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    Report describes tests of array of pressure sensors connected to small orifices flush with surface of 1/7-scale model of F-14 airplane in wind tunnel. Part of effort to determine whether pressure parameters consisting of various sums, differences, and ratios of measured pressures used to compute accurately free-stream values of stagnation pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and mach number. Such arrays of sensors and associated processing circuitry integrated into advanced aircraft as parts of flight-monitoring and -controlling systems.

  4. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  5. Tomographical properties of uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work in coded aperture imaging has shown that the uniformly redundant array (URA) can image distant planar radioactive sources with no artifacts. The performance of two URA apertures when used in a close-up tomographic imaging system is investigated. It is shown that a URA based on m sequences is superior to one based on quadratic residues. The m sequence array not only produces less obnoxious artifacts in tomographic imaging, but is also more resilient to some described detrimental effects of close-up imaging. It is shown that in spite of these close-up effects, tomographic depth resolution increases as the source is moved closer to the detector

  6. Nanoparticle sorting in silicon waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. T.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Yap, P. H.; Wang, K.; Ser, W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the optical fractionation of nanoparticles in silicon waveguide arrays. The optical lattice is generated by evanescent coupling in silicon waveguide arrays. The hotspot size is tunable by changing the refractive index of surrounding liquids. In the experiment, 0.2-μm and 0.5-μm particles are separated with a recovery rate of 95.76%. This near-field approach is a promising candidate for manipulating nanoscale biomolecules and is anticipated to benefit the biomedical applications such as exosome purification, DNA optical mapping, cell-cell interaction, etc.

  7. Jammed-array wideband sawtooth filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongwei; Wang, Chao; Goda, Keisuke; Malik, Omer; Jalali, Bahram

    2011-11-21

    We present an all-optical passive low-cost spectral filter that exhibits a high-resolution periodic sawtooth spectral pattern without the need for active optoelectronic components. The principle of the filter is the partial masking of a phased array of virtual light sources with multiply jammed diffraction orders. We utilize the filter's periodic linear map between frequency and intensity to demonstrate fast sensitive interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays and ultrahigh-frequency electrical sawtooth waveform generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. The Telescope Array experiment: status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuno, H; Cohen, F [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Belz, J W; Blake, S A; Brusova, O; Cady, R; Cao, Z [University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Azuma, R [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Benno, T; Chikawa, M; Doura, K [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Bergman, D R [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Cheon, B G [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J [Tokyo University of Science, Noda (Japan); Cho, I S [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, T [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Doyle, T [Utah State University, Logan (United States); Endo, A [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan)], E-mail: htokuno@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp (and others)

    2008-07-15

    Telescope Array (TA) is a hybrid detector of a surface detector array and fluorescence telescopes. This hybrid detector will measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) to identify their origin. The almost construction of the detector has been completed in May 2007, and the detector is running under test and adjustments. The first hybrid observation with the full configuration is planned in beginning of 2008. In this paper the status and prospects of TA detector is described.

  9. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms of a tone row as possible (generated by any combination of transposition, inversion or reversal) are expressed 'horizontally' and that each integer partition of 12 whose cardinality is no greater than the n...

  10. The ROSPHERE γ-ray spectroscopy array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, I.; Ciocan, G.; Costache, C.; Deleanu, D.; Dima, R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Filipescu, D. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics - ELI-NP, Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Florea, N.; Ghiţă, D.G.; Glodariu, T.; Ivaşcu, M.; Lică, R.; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Mihai, C., E-mail: cmihai@tandem.nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Negret, A.; Niţă, C.R.; Olăcel, A.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-11-21

    The ROmanian array for SPectroscopy in HEavy ion REactions (ROSPHERE) has been designed as a multi-detector setup dedicated to γ-ray spectroscopy studies at the Bucharest 9 MV Tandem accelerator. Consisting of up to 25 detectors (either Compton suppressed HPGe detectors or fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors) together with a state of the art plunger device, ROSPHERE is a powerful tool for lifetime measurements using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) and the in-beam Fast Electronic Scintillation Timing (FEST) methods. The array's geometry, detectors, electronics and data acquisition system are described. Selected results from the first experimental campaigns are also presented.

  11. Standard guide for digital detector array radiology

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This standard is a user guide, which is intended to serve as a tutorial for selection and use of various digital detector array systems nominally composed of the detector array and an imaging system to perform digital radiography. This guide also serves as an in-detail reference for the following standards: Practices E2597, , and E2737. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.A.; Bess, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas(reg s ign) reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 ± 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter

  13. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Tay, Francis E. H.; Miao, Jianmin

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF6/O2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  14. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jing; Tay, Francis E H; Miao Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF 6 /O 2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases

  15. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Jing [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, Francis E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  16. Integrated power conditioning for laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Farhoud, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    This compact modulator has demonstated its ability to efficiently and accurately drive a laser diode array. The addition of the crowbar protection circuit is an invaluable addition to the integrated system and is capable of protecting the laser diode array against severe damage. We showed that the correlation between measured data and simulation indicates that our modulator model is valid and can be used as a tool in the design of future systems. The spectrometer measurements that we conducted underline the imprtance of current regulation to stable laser operation

  17. Study of Implosion of Combined Nested Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Sasorov, P. V.; Branitsky, A. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.

    2017-12-01

    New experimental data on the implosion of plasma of nested kapron-tungsten arrays are obtained at the Angara-5-1 facility. The mode of plasma implosion is implemented in which a shock wave region forms in the space between the inner and outer arrays where a transition from the super-Alfvénic ( V r > V A ) to sub-Alfvénic ( V r Z-pinch and generation of a soft X-ray pulse with a peak power of 4 TW and duration of about 5 ns.

  18. Thermal physics of transition edge sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevers, H.F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal transport in transition edge sensor (TES)-based microcalorimeter arrays is reviewed. The fundamentals of thermal conductance in Si 3 N 4 membranes are discussed and the magnitude of the electron-phonon coupling and Kapitza coupling in practical devices is summarized. Next, the thermal transport in high-stopping power and low-heat capacity absorbers, required for arrays of TES microcalorimeters, is discussed in combination with a performance analysis of detectors with mushroom-absorbers. Finally, the phenomenology of unexplained excess noise, observed in both Mo- and Ti-based TESs, is briefly summarized and related with the coupling of the TES to the heat bath

  19. Study of Plasma Flow Modes in Imploding Nested Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Branitsky, A. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Sasorov, P. V.; Ol'khovskaya, O. G.; Zaitsev, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    Results from experimental studies of implosion of nested wire and fiber arrays at currents of up to 4 MA at the Angara-5-1 facility are presented. Depending on the ratio between the radii of the inner and outer arrays, different modes of the plasma flow in the space between the inner and outer arrays were implemented: the sub-Alfvénic ( V r V A ) modes and a mode with the formation of the transition shock wave (SW) region between the cascades. By varying the material of the outer array (tungsten wires or kapron fibers), it is shown that the plasma flow mode between the inner and outer arrays depends on the ratio between the plasma production rates ṁ in / ṁ out in the inner and outer arrays. The obtained experimental results are compared with the results of one-dimensional MHD simulation of the plasma flow between the arrays. Stable implosion of the inner array plasma was observed in experiments with combined nested arrays consisting of a fiber outer array and a tungsten inner array. The growth rates of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability in the inner array plasma at different numbers of fibers in the outer array and different ratios between the radii of the inner and outer arrays are compared. Suppression of MRT instability during the implosion of the inner array plasma results in the formation of a stable compact Z-pinch and generation of a soft X-ray pulse. A possible scenario of interaction between the plasmas of the inner and outer arrays is offered. The stability of the inner array plasma in the stage of final compression depends on the character of interaction of plasma jets from the outer array with the magnetic field of the inner array.

  20. 21 CFR 890.5290 - Shortwave diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within body tissues for the treatment of selected medical conditions such as relief of pain, muscle spasms, and joint contractures, but not for the treatment of malignancies. (2) Classification. Class II...

  1. ESTABLISHING BRDF CALIBRATION CAPABILITIES THROUGH SHORTWAVE INFRARED

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2017-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon*, a common material for laborato...

  2. High-resolution SNP array analysis of patients with developmental disorder and normal array CGH results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggberg Linda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic analysis of patients with developmental disorders has improved over recent years largely due to the use of microarray technology. Array methods that facilitate copy number analysis have enabled the diagnosis of up to 20% more patients with previously normal karyotyping results. A substantial number of patients remain undiagnosed, however. Methods and Results Using the Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0, we analyzed 35 patients with a developmental disorder of unknown cause and normal array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH results, in order to characterize previously undefined genomic aberrations. We detected no seemingly pathogenic copy number aberrations. Most of the vast amount of data produced by the array was polymorphic and non-informative. Filtering of this data, based on copy number variant (CNV population frequencies as well as phenotypically relevant genes, enabled pinpointing regions of allelic homozygosity that included candidate genes correlating to the phenotypic features in four patients, but results could not be confirmed. Conclusions In this study, the use of an ultra high-resolution SNP array did not contribute to further diagnose patients with developmental disorders of unknown cause. The statistical power of these results is limited by the small size of the patient cohort, and interpretation of these negative results can only be applied to the patients studied here. We present the results of our study and the recurrence of clustered allelic homozygosity present in this material, as detected by the SNP 6.0 array.

  3. Field computation for two-dimensional array transducers with limited diffraction array beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Jiqi

    2005-10-01

    A method is developed for calculating fields produced with a two-dimensional (2D) array transducer. This method decomposes an arbitrary 2D aperture weighting function into a set of limited diffraction array beams. Using the analytical expressions of limited diffraction beams, arbitrary continuous wave (cw) or pulse wave (pw) fields of 2D arrays can be obtained with a simple superposition of these beams. In addition, this method can be simplified and applied to a 1D array transducer of a finite or infinite elevation height. For beams produced with axially symmetric aperture weighting functions, this method can be reduced to the Fourier-Bessel method studied previously where an annular array transducer can be used. The advantage of the method is that it is accurate and computationally efficient, especially in regions that are not far from the surface of the transducer (near field), where it is important for medical imaging. Both computer simulations and a synthetic array experiment are carried out to verify the method. Results (Bessel beam, focused Gaussian beam, X wave and asymmetric array beams) show that the method is accurate as compared to that using the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula and agrees well with the experiment.

  4. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Coprime Array Using Compressive Sensing Based Array Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation using array interpolation is proposed in this paper to increase the number of resolvable sources and improve the DOA estimation performance for coprime array configuration with holes in its virtual array. The virtual symmetric nonuniform linear array (VSNLA of coprime array signal model is introduced, with the conventional MUSIC with spatial smoothing algorithm (SS-MUSIC applied on the continuous lags in the VSNLA; the degrees of freedom (DoFs for DOA estimation are obviously not fully exploited. To effectively utilize the extent of DoFs offered by the coarray configuration, a compressing sensing based array interpolation algorithm is proposed. The compressing sensing technique is used to obtain the coarse initial DOA estimation, and a modified iterative initial DOA estimation based interpolation algorithm (IMCA-AI is then utilized to obtain the final DOA estimation, which maps the sample covariance matrix of the VSNLA to the covariance matrix of a filled virtual symmetric uniform linear array (VSULA with the same aperture size. The proposed DOA estimation method can efficiently improve the DOA estimation performance. The numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  6. Preliminary results from the Chicago air shower array and the Michigan muon array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large area surface array designed to detect extensive air showers (EAS) produced by primaries with energy ∼100 TeV. It operates in coincidence with the underground Michigan Muon Array (MIA). Preliminary results are presented from a search for steady emission and daily emission from three astrophysical sources: Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. There is no evidence for a significant signal from any of these sources in the 1989 data

  7. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  8. Integration of spintronic interface for nanomagnetic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lyle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental demonstration utilizing a spintronic input/output (I/O interface for arrays of closely spaced nanomagnets is presented. The free layers of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs form dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays which can be applied to different contexts including Magnetic Quantum Cellular Automata (MQCA for logic applications and self-biased devices for field sensing applications. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays demonstrate adaptability to a variety of contexts due to the ability for tuning of magnetic response. Spintronics allows individual nanomagnets to be manipulated with spin transfer torque and monitored with magnetoresistance. This facilitates measurement of the magnetic coupling which is important for (yet to be demonstrated data propagation reliability studies. In addition, the same magnetic coupling can be tuned to reduce coercivity for field sensing. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays have the potential to be thousands of times more energy efficient than CMOS technology for logic applications, and they also have the potential to form multi-axis field sensors.

  9. Review The Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12036-017-9430-4. Review. The Ooty Wide Field ... salient features of the upgrade, as well as its main science drivers. There are three ..... tecture for low frequency arrays, Ph.D. thesis, Jawaharalal.

  10. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  11. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as

  12. The Neel IRAM KID Arrays (NIKA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Bideaud, A.; Boudou, N.; Calvo, M.; Camus, P.; Hoffmann, C.; Desert, F. -X.; Leclercq, S.; Roesch, M.; Schuster, K.; Ade, P.; Doyle, S.; Mauskopf, P.; Pascale, E.; Tucker, C.; Bourrion, A.; Macias-Perez, J.; Vescovi, C.; Barishev, A.; Baselmans, J.; Ferrari, L.; Yates, S. J. C.; Cruciani, A.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Giordano, C.; Marghesin, B.; Leduc, H. G.; Swenson, L.

    We are developing an instrument based on Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) known as the N,el IRAM KID Array (NIKA). Leveraging the experience gained from the first generation NIKA in 2009, an improved, dual-band (150 GHz and 240 GHz) instrument has been designed and tested at the Institut of

  13. Gate protective device for SOS array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. E., Jr.; Scott, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Protective gate device consisting of alternating heavily doped n(+) and p(+) diffusions eliminates breakdown voltages in silicon oxide on sapphire arrays caused by electrostatic discharge from person or equipment. Diffusions are easily produced during normal double epitaxial processing. Devices with nine layers had 27-volt breakdown.

  14. Polymeric microbead arrays for microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Jason A; Du, Xiaoguang; Grogan, Joseph M; Schrlau, Michael G; Bau, Haim H

    2010-01-01

    Microbeads offer a convenient and efficient means of immobilizing biomolecules and capturing target molecules of interest in microfluidic immunoassay devices. In this study, hot embossing is used to form wells enabling the direct incorporation of a microbead array in a plastic substrate. We demonstrate two techniques to populate the well array with beads. In the first case, encoded beads with various functionalizations are distributed randomly among the wells and their position is registered by reading their encoding. Alternatively, beads are controllably placed at predetermined positions and decoding is not required. The random placement technique is demonstrated with two functionalized bead types that are distributed among the wells and then decoded to register their locations. The alternative, deliberate placement technique is demonstrated by controllably placing magnetic beads at selected locations in the array using a magnetic probe. As a proof of concept to illustrate the biosensing capability of the randomly assembled array, an on-chip, bead-based immunoassay is employed to detect the inflammatory protein Interleukin-8. The principle of the assay, however, can be extended to detect multiple targets simultaneously. Our method eliminates the need to interface silicon components with plastic devices to form microarrays containing individually addressable beads. This has the potential to reduce the cost and complexity of lab-on-chip devices for medical diagnosis, food and water quality inspection, and environmental monitoring

  15. Computationally efficient optimisation algorithms for WECs arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In this paper two derivative-free global optimization algorithms are applied for the maximisation of the energy absorbed by wave energy converter (WEC) arrays. Wave energy is a large and mostly untapped source of energy that could have a key role in the future energy mix. The collection of this r...

  16. Networked Rectenna Array for Smart Material Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Golembiewski, Walter T.; Song, Kyo D.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of microwave-driven smart material actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry. Networked rectenna patch array receives and converts microwave power into a DC power for an array of smart actuators. To use microwave power effectively, the concept of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit is adopted for networking a rectenna/actuator patch array. The PAD circuit is imbedded into a single embodiment of rectenna and actuator array. The thin-film microcircuit embodiment of PAD circuit adds insignificant amount of rigidity to membrane flexibility. Preliminary design and fabrication of PAD circuitry that consists of a few nodal elements were made for laboratory testing. The networked actuators were tested to correlate the network coupling effect, power allocation and distribution, and response time. The features of preliminary design are 16-channel computer control of actuators by a PCI board and the compensator for a power failure or leakage of one or more rectennas.

  17. Romanian earthquakes analysis using BURAR seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Rogozea, Maria; Nica, Daniela; Popescu, Emilia; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Bucovina seismic array (BURAR) is a medium-aperture array, installed in 2002 in the northern part of Romania (47.61480 N latitude, 25.21680 E longitude, 1150 m altitude), as a result of the cooperation between Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA and National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of ten elements, located in boreholes and distributed over a 5 x 5 km 2 area; nine with short-period vertical sensors and one with a broadband three-component sensor. Since the new station has been operating the earthquake survey of Romania's territory has been significantly improved. Data recorded by BURAR during 01.01.2005 - 12.31.2005 time interval are first processed and analyzed, in order to establish the array detection capability of the local earthquakes, occurred in different Romanian seismic zones. Subsequently a spectral ratios technique was applied in order to determine the calibration relationships for magnitude, using only the information gathered by BURAR station. The spectral ratios are computed relatively to a reference event, considered as representative for each seismic zone. This method has the advantage to eliminate the path effects. The new calibration procedure is tested for the case of Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes and proved to be very efficient in constraining the size of these earthquakes. (authors)

  18. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Grot, Annette; Luo, Jiafu; Psaltis, Demetri

    1993-01-01

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10,000/sq cm are discussed.

  19. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  20. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  1. CHAMP+ : A powerful array receiver for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemann, C.; Güsten, R.; Heyminck, S.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Philipp, S.D.; Korn, A.; Schneider, G.; Henseler, A.; Baryshev, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    CHAMP+, a dual-color 2 × 7 element heterodyne array for operation in the 450 ?m and 350 ?m atmospheric windows is under development. The instrument, which is currently undergoing final evaluation in the laboratories, will be deployed for commissioning at the APEX telescope in August this year. With

  2. CHAMP + : A powerful array receiver for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemann, C.; Güsten, R.; Heyminck, S.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Philipp, S. D.; Korn, A.; Schneider, G.; Henseler, A.; Baryshev, A.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    CHAMP +, a dual-color 2 × 7 element heterodyne array for operation in the 450 μm and 350 μm atmospheric windows is under development. The instrument, which is currently undergoing final evaluation in the laboratories, will be deployed for commissioning at the APEX telescope in August this year. With

  3. Shear Adhesion of Tapered Nanopillar Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Younghyun; Minsky, Helen K; Jiang, Yijie; Yin, Kaiyang; Turner, Kevin T; Yang, Shu

    2018-04-04

    Tapered nanopillars with various cross sections, including cone-shaped, stepwise, and pencil-like structures (300 nm in diameter at the base of the pillars and 1.1 μm in height), are prepared from epoxy resin templated by nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The effect of pillar geometry on the shear adhesion behavior of these nanopillar arrays is investigated via sliding experiments in a nanoindentation system. In a previous study of arrays with the same geometry, it was shown that cone-shaped nanopillars exhibit the highest adhesion under normal loading while stepwise and pencil-like nanopillars exhibit lower normal adhesion strength due to significant deformation of the pillars that occurs with increasing indentation depth. Contrary to the previous studies, here, we show that pencil-like nanopillars exhibit the highest shear adhesion strength at all indentation depths among three types of nanopillar arrays and that the shear adhesion increases with greater indentation depth due to the higher bending stiffness and closer packing of the pencil-like nanopillar array. Finite element simulations are used to elucidate the deformation of the pillars during the sliding experiments and agree with the nanoindentation-based sliding measurements. The experiments and finite element simulations together demonstrate that the shape of the nanopillars plays a key role in shear adhesion and that the mechanism is quite different from that of adhesion under normal loading.

  4. Microelectromechanical Switches for Phased Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.; Scardelletti, Maximillian; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of a MicroElectro-Mechanical (MEM) microstrip series switch. This switch is being developed for use in a K-band phased array antenna that NASA will use for communication links in its Earth orbiting satellites. Preliminary insertion loss and isolation measurements are presented.

  5. Icon arrays help younger children's proportional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Xu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the effects of two context variables, presentation format (icon arrays or numerical frequencies) and time limitation (limited or unlimited time), on the proportional reasoning abilities of children aged 7 and 10 years, as well as adults. Participants had to select, between two sets of tokens, the one that offered the highest likelihood of drawing a gold token, that is, the set of elements with the greater proportion of gold tokens. Results show that participants performed better in the unlimited time condition. Moreover, besides a general developmental improvement in accuracy, our results show that younger children performed better when proportions were presented as icon arrays, whereas older children and adults were similarly accurate in the two presentation format conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is a developmental improvement in proportional reasoning accuracy. Icon arrays facilitate reasoning in adults with low numeracy. What does this study add? Participants were more accurate when they were given more time to make the proportional judgement. Younger children's proportional reasoning was more accurate when they were presented with icon arrays. Proportional reasoning abilities correlate with working memory, approximate number system, and subitizing skills. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Searching Algorithms Implemented on Probabilistic Systolic Arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (1996), s. 7-45 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/93/0781 Keywords : searching algorithms * probabilistic algorithms * systolic arrays * parallel algorithms Impact factor: 0.214, year: 1996

  7. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  8. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  9. Microneedle Array Interface to CE on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Vrouwe, E.X.; van den Berg, Albert; Northrup, M.A.; Jensen, K.F; Harrison, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a microneedle array sampler interfaced to a capillary electrophoresis (CE) glass chip with integrated conductivity detection electrodes. A solution of alkali ions was electrokinetically loaded through the microneedles onto the chip and separation was demonstrated compared to a

  10. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Designing Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Report presents overview of state of art in design techniques for flat-plate solar photovoltaic modules and arrays. Paper discusses design requirements, design analyses, and test methods identified and developed for this technology over past several years in effort to reduce cost and improve utility and reliability for broad spectrum of terrestrial applications.

  12. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  13. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  14. Pathogen reduction through additive-free short-wave UV light irradiation retains the optimal efficacy of human platelet lysate for the expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Viau

    Full Text Available We recently developed and characterized a standardized and clinical grade human Platelet Lysate (hPL that constitutes an advantageous substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC expansion required in cell therapy procedures, avoiding xenogenic risks (virological and immunological and ethical issues. Because of the progressive use of pathogen-reduced (PR labile blood components, and the requirement of ensuring the viral safety of raw materials for cell therapy products, we evaluated the impact of the novel procedure known as THERAFLEX UV-Platelets for pathogen reduction on hPL quality (growth factors content and efficacy (as a medium supplement for hMSC expansion. This technology is based on short-wave ultraviolet light (UV-C that induces non-reversible damages in DNA and RNA of pathogens while preserving protein structures and functions, and has the main advantage of not needing the addition of any photosensitizing additives (that might secondarily interfere with hMSCs.We applied the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets procedure on fresh platelet concentrates (PCs suspended in platelet additive solution and prepared hPL from these treated PCs. We compared the quality and efficacy of PR-hPL with the corresponding non-PR ones. We found no impact on the content of five cytokines tested (EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB, VEGF and IGF-1 but a significant decrease in TGF-ß1 (-21%, n = 11, p<0.01. We performed large-scale culture of hMSCs from bone marrow (BM during three passages and showed that hPL or PR-hPL at 8% triggered comparable BM-hMSC proliferation as FBS at 10% plus bFGF. Moreover, after proliferation of hMSCs in an hPL- or PR-hPL-containing medium, their profile of membrane marker expression, their clonogenic potential and immunosuppressive properties were maintained, in comparison with BM-hMSCs cultured under FBS conditions. The potential to differentiate towards the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages of hMSCs cultured in parallel

  15. Pathogen reduction through additive-free short-wave UV light irradiation retains the optimal efficacy of human platelet lysate for the expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Sabrina; Chabrand, Lucie; Eap, Sandy; Lorant, Judith; Rouger, Karl; Goudaliez, Francis; Sumian, Chryslain; Delorme, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    We recently developed and characterized a standardized and clinical grade human Platelet Lysate (hPL) that constitutes an advantageous substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) expansion required in cell therapy procedures, avoiding xenogenic risks (virological and immunological) and ethical issues. Because of the progressive use of pathogen-reduced (PR) labile blood components, and the requirement of ensuring the viral safety of raw materials for cell therapy products, we evaluated the impact of the novel procedure known as THERAFLEX UV-Platelets for pathogen reduction on hPL quality (growth factors content) and efficacy (as a medium supplement for hMSC expansion). This technology is based on short-wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) that induces non-reversible damages in DNA and RNA of pathogens while preserving protein structures and functions, and has the main advantage of not needing the addition of any photosensitizing additives (that might secondarily interfere with hMSCs). We applied the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets procedure on fresh platelet concentrates (PCs) suspended in platelet additive solution and prepared hPL from these treated PCs. We compared the quality and efficacy of PR-hPL with the corresponding non-PR ones. We found no impact on the content of five cytokines tested (EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB, VEGF and IGF-1) but a significant decrease in TGF-ß1 (-21%, n = 11, p<0.01). We performed large-scale culture of hMSCs from bone marrow (BM) during three passages and showed that hPL or PR-hPL at 8% triggered comparable BM-hMSC proliferation as FBS at 10% plus bFGF. Moreover, after proliferation of hMSCs in an hPL- or PR-hPL-containing medium, their profile of membrane marker expression, their clonogenic potential and immunosuppressive properties were maintained, in comparison with BM-hMSCs cultured under FBS conditions. The potential to differentiate towards the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages of hMSCs cultured in parallel in the

  16. Multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The multi-kW solar array program is concerned with developing the technology required to enable the design of solar arrays required to power the missions of the 1990's. The present effort required the design of a modular solar array panel consisting of superstrate modules interconnected to provide the structural support for the solar cells. The effort was divided into two tasks: (1) superstrate solar array panel design, and (2) superstrate solar array panel-to-panel design. The primary objective was to systematically investigate critical areas of the transparent superstrate solar array and evaluate the flight capabilities of this low cost approach.

  17. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN area scanning system. A 5 m 2 composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mmx2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations

  18. Radiation effects in semiconductor laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation events are important for many of the present and future applications that involve optoelectronic components. Laser diodes show a strong resistance to degradation by gamma rays, prompt x-rays and (to a lesser extent), neutrons. This is due to the short carrier lifetime that is associated with stimulated emission and the high current injection conditions that are present in these devices. Radiation-resistant properties should carry over to many of the more recently developed devices such as multi-stripe array and broad area laser diodes. There are, however, additional considerations for radiation tolerance that are introduced by these devices. Arrays and other high power laser diodes have larger active region volumes than lower power single stripe devices. In addition, evanescent field coupling between stripes, the material quality available from newer MOCVD epitaxial growth techniques, and stripe definition methods may all influence the radiation tolerance of the high power laser diode devices. Radiation tests have been conducted on various GaAs-GaAlAs laser diode array and broad area devices. Tests involving total gamma dose have indicated that high power laser diodes and arrays have small degradations in light power output with current input after 4 MRad(Si) of radiation from a Co 60 source. Additional test results involving flash x-rays indicate that high power diode lasers and arrays are tolerant to 10 12 rads(Si)/sec, when observed on microsecond or millisecond time scales. High power diode laser devices were also irradiated with neutrons to a fluence of 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 with some degradation of threshold current level

  19. Detection and Azimuth Estimation by Infrasonic Arrays as a Function of Array Aperture and Signal Coherence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blandford, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The Infrasound Experts Group of the Geneva Conference on Disarmament Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban has recommended an infrasound array design consisting of four elements, with three elements...

  20. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  1. Utilization of antenna arrays in HF systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bertel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Different applications of radio systems are based on the implementation of antenna arrays. Classically, radio direction

    finding operates with a multi channel receiving system connected to an array of receiving antennas. More

    recently, MIMO architectures have been proposed to increase the capacity of radio links by the use of antenna

    arrays at both the transmitter and receiver.

    The first part of this paper describes some novel experimental work carried out to examine the feasibility of applying

    MIMO techniques for communications within the HF radio band. A detailed correlation analysis of a variety

    of different antenna array configurations is presented. The second section of the paper also deals with HF

    MIMO communications, focusing on the problem from a modelling point of view. The third part presents a sensitivity

    analysis of different antenna array structures for HF direction finding applications. The results demonstrate

    that when modelling errors, heterogeneous antenna arrays are more robust in comparison to homogeneous structures


  2. A Hybrid Pressure and Vector Sensor Towed Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is of a combined acoustic pressure and acoustic vector sensor array, where multiple acoustic pressure sensors are integrated with an acoustic vector sensor in a towed array...

  3. Array signal processing in the NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Jongeling, Andre P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the benefits of arraying and past as well as expected future use of this application. The signal processing aspects of array system are described. Field measurements via actual tracking spacecraft are also presented.

  4. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, W.T.; Adams, S.F.; Reinhardt, K.C.; Piszczor, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cell or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application

  5. Seed-mediated growth of patterned graphene nanoribbon arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Way, Austin James; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2017-09-12

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays, and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a seed-mediated, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of a semiconductor substrate and the orientation of the seed particles on the substrate are used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals preferentially along a single [110] direction of the substrate.

  6. Array processors based on Gaussian fraction-free method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S; Sedukhin, S [Aizu Univ., Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Sedukhin, I

    1998-03-01

    The design of algorithmic array processors for solving linear systems of equations using fraction-free Gaussian elimination method is presented. The design is based on a formal approach which constructs a family of planar array processors systematically. These array processors are synthesized and analyzed. It is shown that some array processors are optimal in the framework of linear allocation of computations and in terms of number of processing elements and computing time. (author)

  7. Radiation detection from phase-locked serial dc SQUID arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    We report on synchronous operation of series arrays of inductively coupled superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Each array consisted of N=3 or 11 dc SQUIDs with common inductances providing a strong interaction between neighboring cells. Externally shunted (betac[approximately-e......We report on synchronous operation of series arrays of inductively coupled superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Each array consisted of N=3 or 11 dc SQUIDs with common inductances providing a strong interaction between neighboring cells. Externally shunted (betac...

  8. Phased-array design for MST and ST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    All of the existing radar systems fully dedicated to clear-air radar studies use some type of phased-array antennas. The effects of beam-steering techniques including feed networks and phase shifters; sidelobe control; ground-clutter suppression; low altitude coverage; arrays with integrated radiating elements and feed networks; analysis of coaxial-collinear antennas; use of arrays with multiple beams; and array testing and measure on structural design of the antenna are discussed.

  9. Phase retrieval in near-field measurements by array synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Larsen, Flemming Holm

    1991-01-01

    The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array......The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array...

  10. Evaluation of phased array UT conditions using ultrasonic visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Komura, Ichirou

    2008-01-01

    Phased array provides many advantages over conventional ultrasonic testing method, but phased array has also limitations. This paper describes typical results of the experimental sound field analysis generated from the array probe. A photo-elastic ultrasonic visualization technique was applied in this study. The sound fields of shear wave generated from the array probe was equivalent to that from the fixed angle probe. (author)

  11. Plane-wave scattering from half-wave dipole arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels E.

    1970-01-01

    A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays.......A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays....

  12. An Ultrasonic Wheel-Array Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, B. W.; Brotherhood, C. J.; Freemantle, R. J.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development and modeling of an ultrasonic array wheel probe scanning system. The system operates at 10 MHz using a 64 element array transducer which is 50 mm in length and located in a fluid filled wheel. The wheel is coupled to the test structure dry, or with a small amount of liquid couplant. When the wheel is rolled over the surface of the test structure a defect map (C-Scan) is generated in real-time. The tyre is made from a soft, durable polymer which has very little acoustic loss. Two application studies are presented; the inspection of sealant layers in an aluminum aircraft wing structure and the detection of embedded defects in a thick section carbon composite sample.

  13. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  14. Surface modification of YIG by magnet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, S.; Kolat, V.S.; Bakır, H.G.; Izgi, T.; Kaya, A.O.; Kaya, O.A.; Gencer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array. • The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps. • A very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency. - Abstract: In this work, magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSW) were propagated along the single crystal YIG (Y_3Fe_5O_1_2) film grown on GGG substrate. In order to obtain magnonic crystals, unlike the conventional methods, the surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array in one and two-dimensions. The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps at approximately 6.55 GHz and 6.58 GHz at 1600 Oe magnetic field for one and two-dimensional magnonic crystals, respectively. It was found that a very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency.

  15. Nanowire arrays restore vision in blind mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Qin, Nan; Chong, Yan; Diao, Yupu; Yiliguma; Wang, Zhexuan; Xue, Tian; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2018-03-06

    The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm. ON responses in RGCs are blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, suggesting functional preservation of the remaining retinal circuits. Moreover, neurons in the primary visual cortex respond to light after subretinal implant of nanowire arrays. Improvement in pupillary light reflex suggests the behavioral recovery of light sensitivity. Our study will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for subretinal prosthetic devices.

  16. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  17. Surface modification of YIG by magnet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, S., E-mail: satalay@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Kolat, V.S. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bakır, H.G. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Astronomy Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Izgi, T.; Kaya, A.O. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Kaya, O.A. [Inonu University, Education Faculty, Computer Education and Educational Technology Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Gencer, H. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • The surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array. • The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps. • A very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency. - Abstract: In this work, magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSW) were propagated along the single crystal YIG (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) film grown on GGG substrate. In order to obtain magnonic crystals, unlike the conventional methods, the surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array in one and two-dimensions. The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps at approximately 6.55 GHz and 6.58 GHz at 1600 Oe magnetic field for one and two-dimensional magnonic crystals, respectively. It was found that a very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency.

  18. Nonimaging concentrators for photovoltaic arrays in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Greenman, P.; Rockey, D.

    1981-01-01

    Two stage concentrators are studied in order to design an optimum concentrator for photovoltaic arrays in space. The study is directed at designs with two-dimensional geometries because they are better suited to moderate concentrations of about 10 X to 50 X, and because the instantaneous flux distribution is more uniform. It is found that with an f/0.5 primary, where f is the focal length of the primary, the flux distribution is very smooth regardless of the angle of incidence of the radiation. As the focal ratio is increased, peaks in the distribution begin to appear. The nonuniformities can be reduced by introducing small, closely spaced distortions into the reflecting surfaces, and practical arrays can achieve a concentration of 10 when the acceptance half angle is 4.25 deg or 50 when the acceptance half angle is + or - 1 deg.

  19. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.

  20. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase......-encoded coherent light source. Two-dimensional input phase distributions corresponding to the trapping patterns are encoded using a computer-programmable spatial light modulator, enabling each trap to be shaped and moved arbitrarily within the plane of observation. We demonstrate the generation of multiple dark...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  1. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  2. The oxidized porous silicon field emission array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, T.S.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Trost, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of developing a highly efficient microwave power source has led the authors to investigate new methods of electron field emission. One method presently under consideration involves the use of oxidized porous silicon thin films. The authors have used this technology to fabricate the first working field emission arrays from this substance. This approach reduces the diameter of an individual emitter to the nanometer scale. Tests of the first samples are encouraging, with extracted electron currents to nearly 1 mA resulting from less than 20 V of pulsed DC gate voltage. Modulated emission at 5 MHz was also observed. Developments of a full-scale emission array capable of delivering an electron beam at 18 GHz of minimum density 100 A/cm 2 is in progress

  3. Cymbal and BB underwater transducers and arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnham, R.E.; Zhang, J.; Alkoy, S.; Meyer, R.; Hughes, W.J.; Hladky-Hennion, A.C.; Cochran, J.; Markley, D. [Materials Research Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The cymbal is a miniaturized class V flextensional transducer that was developed for use as a shallow water sound projector and receiver. Single elements are characterized by high Q, low efficiency, and medium power output capability. Its low cost and thin profile allow the transducer to be assembled into large flexible arrays. Efforts were made to model both single elements and arrays using the ATILA code and the integral equation formulation (EQI).Millimeter size microprobe hydrophones (BBs) have been designed and fabricated from miniature piezoelectric hollow ceramic spheres for underwater applications such as mapping acoustic fields of projectors, and flow noise sensors for complex underwater structures. Green spheres are prepared from soft lead zirconate titanate powders using a coaxial nozzle slurry process. A compact hydrophone with a radially-poled sphere is investigated using inside and outside electrodes. Characterization of these hydrophones is done through measurement of hydrostatic piezoelectric charge coefficients, free field voltage sensitivities and directivity beam patterns. (orig.)

  4. Tangent hyperbolic circular frequency diverse array radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Saeed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Frequency diverse array (FDA with uniform frequency offset (UFO has been in spot light of research for past few years. Not much attention has been devoted to non-UFOs in FDA. This study investigates tangent hyperbolic (TH function for frequency offset selection scheme in circular FDAs (CFDAs. Investigation reveals a three-dimensional single-maximum beampattern, which promises to enhance system detection capability and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio. Furthermore, by utilising the versatility of TH function, a highly configurable type array system is achieved, where beampatterns of three different configurations of FDA can be generated, just by adjusting a single function parameter. This study further examines the utility of the proposed TH-CFDA in some practical radar scenarios.

  5. Transducers and arrays for underwater sound

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, John L

    2016-01-01

    This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains updates to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to select...

  6. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, C.A.; Bents, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance

  7. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries

  8. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  9. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  10. All optical programmable logic array (PLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiluf, Dawit

    2018-03-01

    A programmable logic array (PLA) is an integrated circuit (IC) logic device that can be reconfigured to implement various kinds of combinational logic circuits. The device has a number of AND and OR gates which are linked together to give output or further combined with more gates or logic circuits. This work presents the realization of PLAs via the physics of a three level system interacting with light. A programmable logic array is designed such that a number of different logical functions can be combined as a sum-of-product or product-of-sum form. We present an all optical PLAs with the aid of laser light and observables of quantum systems, where encoded information can be considered as memory chip. The dynamics of the physical system is investigated using Lie algebra approach.

  11. Layout and cabling considerations for a large communications antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Layout considerations for a large deep space communications antenna array are discussed. A fractal geometry for the antenna layout is described that provides optimal packing of antenna elements, efficient cable routing, and logical division of the array into identical sub-arrays.

  12. Analysis of measurements on wind turbine arrays. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeg, E.

    1990-12-01

    In 1989 a Danish electric power company initiated an analysis of eight wind turbine arrays. Data from this project is presented together with the explained results of the analyses and the output variations for individual arrays and for systems within the arrays. The models for prognosis are compared and evaluated in order to find that which is most effective. (AB)

  13. InP nanowire array solar cell with cleaned sidewalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Y.; Plissard, S.; Wang, J.; Vu, T.T.T.; Smalbrugge, E.; Geluk, E.J.; de Vries, T.; Bolk, J.; Trainor, M.J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated InP nanowire array solar cells with an axial p-n junction. Catalyst gold nanoparticles were first patterned into an array by nanoimprint lithography. The nanowire array was grown in 19 minutes by vapor-liquid-solid growth. The sidewalls were in-situ etched by HCl and ex-situ

  14. Fabrication and characterization of CaP-coated nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Kuan-Chen; Chen, Jia-Ling; Liu, Yen-Ting; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2015-01-01

    Modified anodization techniques have been shown to improve the biocompatibility of titanium. This study demonstrated the anodic formation of self-organized nanotube arrays on titanium from an electrolyte solution containing 1 M H 3 PO 4 and 1 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF). Our aim was to investigate the effects of sputter-deposited CaP on nanotube arrays. SEM images revealed a surface with uniform morphology and an average pore diameter of 29 nm. XRD results indicated that the phase of the nanotube arrays was amorphous. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) confirmed that the nanotube arrays were coated with calcium and phosphorus. Cell culture experiments using human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells demonstrated that the CaP/nanotube arrays had a pronounced effect on initial cell attachment as well as on the number of cells at 1, 7, and 14 days. Compared to as-polished titanium, the CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated cell proliferation, attachment, and spreading. Our results demonstrate the pronounced effects of CaP/nanotube arrays on the biological responses of HOS cells. - Highlights: • Self-organized nanotube arrays were anodically formed on titanium. • Surfaces of nanotube arrays exhibited uniform morphology and pore size. • According to ESCA results, Ca and P were successfully coated on nanotube arrays. • CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated the attachment and spreading of cells. • CaP/nanotube arrays were shown to affect biological responses of cells

  15. Fabrication and characterization of CaP-coated nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Kuan-Chen; Chen, Jia-Ling [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Ting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzer-Min, E-mail: tmlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Medical Device Innovation Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Modified anodization techniques have been shown to improve the biocompatibility of titanium. This study demonstrated the anodic formation of self-organized nanotube arrays on titanium from an electrolyte solution containing 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 1 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF). Our aim was to investigate the effects of sputter-deposited CaP on nanotube arrays. SEM images revealed a surface with uniform morphology and an average pore diameter of 29 nm. XRD results indicated that the phase of the nanotube arrays was amorphous. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) confirmed that the nanotube arrays were coated with calcium and phosphorus. Cell culture experiments using human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells demonstrated that the CaP/nanotube arrays had a pronounced effect on initial cell attachment as well as on the number of cells at 1, 7, and 14 days. Compared to as-polished titanium, the CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated cell proliferation, attachment, and spreading. Our results demonstrate the pronounced effects of CaP/nanotube arrays on the biological responses of HOS cells. - Highlights: • Self-organized nanotube arrays were anodically formed on titanium. • Surfaces of nanotube arrays exhibited uniform morphology and pore size. • According to ESCA results, Ca and P were successfully coated on nanotube arrays. • CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated the attachment and spreading of cells. • CaP/nanotube arrays were shown to affect biological responses of cells.

  16. Proceedings of the Third EPRI Phased Array Ultrasound Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Phased array technology for ultrasonic examination is providing innovative solutions for nuclear in-service examination applications. EPRI has been a prime mover in the development and deployment of phased array ultrasound applications in the domestic nuclear market over the past decade. As part of this strategic effort, EPRI has hosted a series of seminars on phased array technology and its applications

  17. Stochastic resolution analysis of co-prime arrays in radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pribic, R; Coutiño Minguez, M.A.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Resolution from co-prime arrays and from a full ULA of the size equal to the virtual size of co-prime arrays is investigated. We take into account not only the resulting beam width but also the fact that fewer measurements are acquired by co-prime arrays. This fact is relevant in compressive

  18. Linearly tapered slot antenna circular array for mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of a conformal K-band circular array is presented. The array consists of sixteen linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA). It is fed by a 1:16 microstrip line power splitter via electromagnetic coupling. The array has an omni-directional pattern in the azimuth plane. In the elevation plane the beam is displaced above the horizon.

  19. Construction of a Piezoresistive Neural Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, W. B.; Schulze, W. A.; Pilgrim, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of a piezoresistive - piezoelectric sensor (or actuator) array is proposed using 'neural' connectivity for signal recognition and possible actuation functions. A closer integration of the sensor and decision functions is necessary in order to achieve intrinsic identification within the sensor. A neural sensor is the next logical step in development of truly 'intelligent' arrays. This proposal will integrate 1-3 polymer piezoresistors and MLC electroceramic devices for applications involving acoustic identification. The 'intelligent' piezoresistor -piezoelectric system incorporates printed resistors, composite resistors, and a feedback for the resetting of resistances. A model of a design is proposed in order to simulate electromechanical resistor interactions. The goal of optimizing a sensor geometry for improving device reliability, training, & signal identification capabilities is the goal of this work. At present, studies predict performance of a 'smart' device with a significant control of 'effective' compliance over a narrow pressure range due to a piezoresistor percolation threshold. An interesting possibility may be to use an array of control elements to shift the threshold function in order to change the level of resistance in a neural sensor array for identification, or, actuation applications. The proposed design employs elements of: (1) conductor loaded polymers for a 'fast' RC time constant response; and (2) multilayer ceramics for actuation or sensing and shifting of resistance in the polymer. Other material possibilities also exist using magnetoresistive layered systems for shifting the resistance. It is proposed to use a neural net configuration to test and to help study the possible changes required in the materials design of these devices. Numerical design models utilize electromechanical elements, in conjunction with structural elements in order to simulate piezoresistively controlled actuators and changes in resistance of sensors

  20. Hardened Solar Array High Temperature Adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    SHERWOOO. D SASIU.IS F3361S-0-C-201S UNCLASSI ED 1AC-SCG-IOOIIR AFVAL-TR-OL-201? NLm,,hinii EhhhEE11I1 AFWAL-TR-81- 2017 i : HARDENED SOLAR ARRAY D HIGH...Tg and as a consequence forms a film on the container and also precipitates as tacky waxlike particles, rather than the desired flocullated

  1. An integral field spectrograph utilizing mirrorlet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-09-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 mÅ) across a 15 Å spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  2. An Integral Field Spectrograph Utilizing Mirrorlet Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-01-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 m) across a 15 spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  3. Paper-Based Active Tactile Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-11-25

    A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The ASTRI Mini-Array Science Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone, Stefano; Catalano, O.; Maccarone, M.; Stamerra, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Vallania, P.; Canestrari, R.; Bonnoli, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tosti, G.; Caraveo, P.; ASTRI Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    ASTRI is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of the CTA small-size telescope in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) to be tested under field conditions, and scheduled to start data acquisition in 2014. A remarkable improvement in terms of performance could come from the operation, in 2016, of a SST-2M mini-array, composed by a few SST-2M telescopes and to be placed at final CTA Southern Site. The SST mini-array will be able to study in great detail relatively bright sources (a few x10E-12 erg/cm2/s at 10 TeV) with an angular resolution of a few arcmin and an energy resolution of about 10 - 15%. Moreover, thanks to the array approach, it will be possible to verify the wide FoV performance to detect very high energy showers with the core located at a distance up to 500 m, to compare the mini-array performance with the Monte Carlo expectations by means of deep observations of few selected targets, and to perform the first CTA science, with its first solid detections during the first year of operation. Prominent sources such as extreme blazars (1ES 0229+200), nearby well-known BL Lac objects (MKN 501) and radio-galaxies, galactic pulsar wind nebulae (Crab Nebula, Vela-X), supernovae remnants (Vela-junior, RX J1713.7-3946) and microquasars (LS 5039), as well as the Galactic Center can be observed in a previously unexplored energy range, in order to investigate the electron acceleration and cooling, relativistic and non relativistic shocks, the search for cosmic-ray (CR) Pevatrons, the study of the CR propagation, and the impact of the extragalactic background light on the spectra of the sources.

  5. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  6. Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liew, T C H

    2016-10-31

    We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.

  7. Micromirror Arrays for Adaptive Optics; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The long-range goal of this project is to develop the optical and mechanical design of a micromirror array for adaptive optics that will meet the following criteria: flat mirror surface ((lambda)/20), high fill factor ( and gt; 95%), large stroke (5-10(micro)m), and pixel size(approx)-200(micro)m. This will be accomplished by optimizing the mirror surface and actuators independently and then combining them using bonding technologies that are currently being developed

  8. Nanopillar arrays of amorphous carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Krishna, Katla; Pavan Kumar, B. V. V. S.; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2011-07-01

    Nanopillar arrays of amorphous carbon nitride have been prepared using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as a template. The amine groups present on the surface of these nanopillars were exploited for functionalization with oleic acid in order to stabilize the nanostructure at the aqueous-organic interface and also for the immobilization of metal nanoparticles and protein. These immobilised nanoparticles were found to have good catalytic activity.

  9. Ordered metal nanotube arrays fabricated by PVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, F; Morant, C; Campo, T; Sanz, J M; Elizalde, E

    2010-02-01

    In this work we report a simple method to fabricate ordered arrays of metal nanotubes. This method is based on the deposition of a metal by PVD onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The dimensions of the synthesized nanotubes depend both on the AAO template and on the deposited metal. In fact, it is observed that the aspect ratios of the nanotubes clearly depend significantly on the metal, ranging from 0.6 (Fe) to at least 3 (Zr).

  10. Talbot Effect in Three Waveguide Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Li; Hai-Feng, Zhou; Jian-Yi, Yang; Xiao-Qing, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    By taking the coupling between the non-neighbourhood waveguides into account, the coupling characteristic of three waveguide arrays is analysed. The strong coupling equation of three waveguides is dealt with Laplace transform and LU decomposition. The general field evolution equation is obtained by inversion of the Laplace transform. The results show that the self-imaging conditions (Talbot effect) do not satisfy in general. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the BPM simulations. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  11. Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shulabh; Jiang, Li Jun; Caloz, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    A planar magneto-electric (ME) dipole antenna array is proposed and demonstrated by both full-wave analysis and experiments. The proposed structure leverages the infinite wavelength propagation characteristic of composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines to form high-gain magnetic radiators combined with radial conventional electric radiators, where the overall structure is excited by a single differential feed. The traveling-wave type nature of the proposed ME-dipole antenna enabl...

  12. Solar panels offer array of hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The installation of what is believed to be the largest array of solar thermal panels currently in use at a UK NHS hospital has taken place at an ideal time for the facility in question, Harlow's Princess Alexandra Hospital, with the hospital's gas bill alone having risen by 153% over the past nine months thanks to soaring energy prices, and the estates department keen to mitigate the effects in any way possible. Jonathan Baillie reports.

  13. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingnan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved.

  14. DNA Array-Based Gene Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Provenzano, Maurizio; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Pilati, Pierluigi; Nitti, Donato; Lise, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease in most respects, including its cellularity, different genetic alterations, and diverse clinical behaviors. Traditional molecular analyses are reductionist, assessing only 1 or a few genes at a time, thus working with a biologic model too specific and limited to confront a process whose clinical outcome is likely to be governed by the combined influence of many genes. The potential of functional genomics is enormous, because for each experiment, thousands of relevant observations can be made simultaneously. Accordingly, DNA array, like other high-throughput technologies, might catalyze and ultimately accelerate the development of knowledge in tumor cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of DNA array technology in cancer research has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to carcinogenesis, tumor aggressiveness, and sensitivity to antiblastic agents. Given the revolutionary implications that the use of this technology might have in the clinical management of patients with cancer, principles of DNA array-based tumor gene profiling need to be clearly understood for the data to be correctly interpreted and appreciated. In the present work, we discuss the technical features characterizing this powerful laboratory tool and review the applications so far described in the field of oncology. PMID:15621987

  15. Analyzing Responses of Chemical Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a third-generation electronic nose (ENose) capable of continuous monitoring of the International Space Station s cabin atmosphere for specific, harmful airborne contaminants. Previous generations of the ENose have been described in prior NASA Tech Briefs issues. Sensor selection is critical in both (prefabrication) sensor material selection and (post-fabrication) data analysis of the ENose, which detects several analytes that are difficult to detect, or that are at very low concentration ranges. Existing sensor selection approaches usually include limited statistical measures, where selectivity is more important but reliability and sensitivity are not of concern. When reliability and sensitivity can be major limiting factors in detecting target compounds reliably, the existing approach is not able to provide meaningful selection that will actually improve data analysis results. The approach and software reported here consider more statistical measures (factors) than existing approaches for a similar purpose. The result is a more balanced and robust sensor selection from a less than ideal sensor array. The software offers quick, flexible, optimal sensor selection and weighting for a variety of purposes without a time-consuming, iterative search by performing sensor calibrations to a known linear or nonlinear model, evaluating the individual sensor s statistics, scoring the individual sensor s overall performance, finding the best sensor array size to maximize class separation, finding optimal weights for the remaining sensor array, estimating limits of detection for the target compounds, evaluating fingerprint distance between group pairs, and finding the best event-detecting sensors.

  16. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  17. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  18. Ceramic ball grid array package stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S. H. B. S.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ball grid array (BGA), a form of chip scale package (CSP), was developed as one of the most advanced surface mount devices, which may be assembled by an ordinary surface ball bumps are used instead of plated nickel and gold (Ni/Au) bumps. Assembly and reliability of the BGA's printed circuit board (PCB), which is soldered by conventional surface mount technology is considered in this study. The Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA) is a rectangular ceramic package or square-shaped that will use the solder ball for external electrical connections instead of leads or wire for connections. The solder balls will be arranged in an array or grid at the bottom of the ceramic package body. In this study, ANSYS software is used to investigate the stress on the package for 2 balls and 4 balls of the CBGA package with the various force range of 1-3 Newton applied to the top of the die, top of the substrate and side of the substrate. The highest maximum stress was analyzed and the maximum equivalent stress was observed on the solder ball and the die. From the simulation result, the CBGA package with less solder balls experience higher stress compared to the package with many solder balls. Therefore, less number of solder ball on the CBGA package results higher stress and critically affect the reliability of the solder balls itself, substrate and die which can lead to the solder crack and also die crack.

  19. GMR biosensor arrays: a system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D A; Gaster, R S; Lin, T; Osterfeld, S J; Han, S; Murmann, B; Wang, S X

    2010-05-15

    Giant magnetoresistive biosensors are becoming more prevalent for sensitive, quantifiable biomolecular detection. However, in order for magnetic biosensing to become competitive with current optical protein microarray technology, there is a need to increase the number of sensors while maintaining the high sensitivity and fast readout time characteristic of smaller arrays (1-8 sensors). In this paper, we present a circuit architecture scalable for larger sensor arrays (64 individually addressable sensors) while maintaining a high readout rate (scanning the entire array in less than 4s). The system utilizes both time domain multiplexing and frequency domain multiplexing in order to achieve this scan rate. For the implementation, we propose a new circuit architecture that does not use a classical Wheatstone bridge to measure the small change in resistance of the sensor. Instead, an architecture designed around a transimpedance amplifier is employed. A detailed analysis of this architecture including the noise, distortion, and potential sources of errors is presented, followed by a global optimization strategy for the entire system comprising the magnetic tags, sensors, and interface electronics. To demonstrate the sensitivity, quantifiable detection of two blindly spiked samples of unknown concentrations has been performed at concentrations below the limit of detection for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lastly, the multiplexing capability and reproducibility of the system was demonstrated by simultaneously monitoring sensors functionalized with three unique proteins at different concentrations in real-time. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon Nanofiber Electrode Array for Neurochemical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2017-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report using vertically aligned CNF as neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in a smart deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.