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Sample records for shortest path tree

  1. Degree distribution of shortest path trees and bias of network sampling algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamidi, S.; Goodman, J.A.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Komjáthy, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explicitly derive the limiting distribution of the degree distribution of the shortest path tree from a single source on various random network models with edge weights. We determine the power-law exponent of the degree distribution of this tree and compare it to the degree

  2. Degree distribution of shortest path trees and bias of network sampling algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamidi, S.; Goodman, J.A.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Komjáthy, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explicitly derive the limiting degree distribution of the shortest path tree from a single source on various random network models with edge weights. We determine the asymptotics of the degree distribution for large degrees of this tree and compare it to the degree distribution

  3. The tomography of human mobility - what do shortest-path trees reveal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiemann, Christian [Eng. Sci. and Appl. Math, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Max-Planck-Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen (Germany); Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk [Eng. Sci. and Appl. Math, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Similar to illustrating the anatomy of organs using pictures of tissue slices taken at various depths, we construct shortest-path trees of different nodes to create tomograms of large-scale human mobility networks. This tomography allows us to measure global properties of the system conditioned on a reference location in the network to gain a fuller characterization of a node. It also suggests a canonical coordinate system for representing complex networks and dynamical processes thereon in a simplified way, revealing a new symmetry in the human mobility networks we investigated. Furthermore, introducing the notion of tree similarity, we devised a new technique for clustering nodes with similar topological footprint, yielding a unique and efficient method for community identification and topological backbone extraction. We applied these methods to a multi-scale human mobility network obtained from the dollar-bill-tracking site wheresgoerge.com and to the U.S. and world-wide air transportation network.

  4. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  5. Euclidean shortest paths exact or approximate algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fajie

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews algorithms for the exact or approximate solution of shortest-path problems, with a specific focus on a class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms. The coverage includes mathematical proofs for many of the given statements.

  6. Evaluation of Shortest Paths in Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Shehzad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization is a key factor in almost all the topics of operations research / management science and economics.The road networks can be optimized within different constraints like time, distance, cost and traffic running onthe roads.This study is based on optimization of real road network by means of distances. Two main objectives arepursued in this research: 1 road distances among different routes are composed in detail; 2 two standardalgorithms (Dijkstra and Floyd-Warshall algoritms are applied to optimize/minimize these distances for bothsingle-source and all-pairs shortest path problems.

  7. comparative analysis and implementation of dijkstra's shortest path

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    path problem requires finding a single shortest-path between given vertices s and t; ... Bridge in 1735, [5 – 10]. This problem led to the .... their advancements from new design paradigms, data structures ..... .

  8. Shortest Path Problems in a Stochastic and Dynamic Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Jae

    2003-01-01

    .... Particularly, we develop a variety of algorithms to solve the expected shortest path problem in addition to techniques for computing the total travel time distribution along a path in the network...

  9. A NEW APPROACH ON SHORTEST PATH IN FUZZY ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nagoorgani; A. Mumtaj Begam

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of fuzzy shortest path network problem using triangular fuzzy number. To find the smallest edge by the fuzzy distance using graded mean integration representation of generalized fuzzy number for every node. Thus the optimum shortest path for the given problem is obtained.

  10. DiversePathsJ: diverse shortest paths for bioimage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Virginie; Haubold, Carsten; Hamprecht, Fred A; Unser, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a formulation for the general task of finding diverse shortest paths between two end-points. Our approach is not linked to a specific biological problem and can be applied to a large variety of images thanks to its generic implementation as a user-friendly ImageJ/Fiji plugin. It relies on the introduction of additional layers in a Viterbi path graph, which requires slight modifications to the standard Viterbi algorithm rules. This layered graph construction allows for the specification of various constraints imposing diversity between solutions. The software allows obtaining a collection of diverse shortest paths under some user-defined constraints through a convenient and user-friendly interface. It can be used alone or be integrated into larger image analysis pipelines. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/diversepathsj. michael.unser@epfl.ch or fred.hamprecht@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Special cases of the quadratic shortest path problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotirov, Renata; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The quadratic shortest path problem (QSPP) is the problem of finding a path with prespecified start vertex s and end vertex t in a digraph such that the sum of weights of arcs and the sum of interaction costs over all pairs of arcs on the path is minimized. We first consider a variant of the QSPP

  12. Approximate Shortest Homotopic Paths in Weighted Regions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing; Jin, Jiongxin; Vigneron, Antoine; Wang, Yajun

    2010-01-01

    Let P be a path between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions. Given a relative error tolerance ε ∈(0,1), we present the first algorithm to compute a path between s and t that can be deformed to P

  13. Approximate shortest homotopic paths in weighted regions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siuwing; Jin, Jiongxin; Vigneron, Antoine E.; Wang, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    A path P between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions defines a class of paths that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle. We present the first algorithm that, given P and a relative

  14. Approximate Shortest Homotopic Paths in Weighted Regions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Let P be a path between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions. Given a relative error tolerance ε ∈(0,1), we present the first algorithm to compute a path between s and t that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle and the path cost is within a factor 1 + ε of the optimum. The running time is O(h 3/ε2 kn polylog(k, n, 1/ε)), where k is the number of segments in P and h and n are the numbers of obstacles and vertices in T, respectively. The constant in the running time of our algorithm depends on some geometric parameters and the ratio of the maximum region weight to the minimum region weight. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Approximate shortest homotopic paths in weighted regions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siuwing

    2012-02-01

    A path P between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions defines a class of paths that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle. We present the first algorithm that, given P and a relative error tolerance ε (0, 1), computes a path from this class with cost at most 1 + ε times the optimum. The running time is O(h 3/ε 2kn polylog (k,n,1/ε)), where k is the number of segments in P and h and n are the numbers of obstacles and vertices in T, respectively. The constant in the running time of our algorithm depends on some geometric parameters and the ratio of the maximum region weight to the minimum region weight. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  16. SPTH3: subroutine for finding shortest sabotage paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, B.L.; Holdridge, D.B.

    1977-07-01

    This document explains how to construct a sabotage graph which models any fixed-site facility and how to use the subroutine SPTH3 to find shortest paths in the graph. The shortest sabotage paths represent physical routes through the site which would allow an adversary to take advantage of the greatest weaknesses in the system of barriers and alarms. The subroutine SPTH3 is a tool with which safeguards designers and analysts can study the relative effects of design changes on the adversary routing problem. In addition to showing how to use SPTH3, this report discusses the methods used to find shortest paths and several implementation details which cause SPTH3 to be extremely efficient

  17. The shortest-path problem analysis and comparison of methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega-Arranz, Hector; Gonzalez-Escribano, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Many applications in different domains need to calculate the shortest-path between two points in a graph. In this paper we describe this shortest path problem in detail, starting with the classic Dijkstra's algorithm and moving to more advanced solutions that are currently applied to road network routing, including the use of heuristics and precomputation techniques. Since several of these improvements involve subtle changes to the search space, it may be difficult to appreciate their benefits in terms of time or space requirements. To make methods more comprehensive and to facilitate their co

  18. Experiments with the auction algorithm for the shortest path problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Ib

    1999-01-01

    The auction approach for the shortest path problem (SPP) as introduced by Bertsekas is tested experimentally. Parallel algorithms using the auction approach are developed and tested. Both the sequential and parallel auction algorithms perform significantly worse than a state-of-the-art Dijkstra-l......-like reference algorithm. Experiments are run on a distributed-memory MIMD class Meiko parallel computer....

  19. Effective caching of shortest paths for location-based services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian S.; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-01-01

    Web search is ubiquitous in our daily lives. Caching has been extensively used to reduce the computation time of the search engine and reduce the network traffic beyond a proxy server. Another form of web search, known as online shortest path search, is popular due to advances in geo...

  20. Ranking shortest paths in Stochastic time-denpendent networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan; Pretolani, Daniele

    A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks, the ...... present a computational comparison of time-adaptive and a priori route choices, pointing out the effect of travel time and cost distributions. The reported results show that, under realistic distributions, our solution methods are effective.......A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks...

  1. K shortest paths in stochastic time-dependent networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Pretolani, Daniele; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2004-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks, the ...... present a computational comparison of time-adaptive and a priori route choices, pointing out the effect of travel time and cost distributions. The reported results show that, under realistic distributions, our solution methods are effective.......A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks...

  2. Structural parcellation of the thalamus using shortest-path tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Darkner, Sune; Hahn, Ute

    2016-01-01

    that parcellation of the thalamus results in p-value maps that are spatially coherent across subjects. Comparing to the state-of-the-art parcellation of Behrens et al. [1], we observe some agreement, but the soft segmentation exhibits better stability for voxels connected to multiple target regions.......We demonstrate how structural parcellation can be implemented using shortest-path tractography, thereby addressing some of the shortcomings of the conventional approaches. In particular, our algorithm quantifies, via p-values, the confidence that a voxel in the parcellated region is connected...... to each cortical target region. Calculation of these statistical measures is derived from a rank-based test on the histogram of tract-based scores from all the shortest paths found between the source voxel and each voxel within the target region. Using data from the Human Connectome Project, we show...

  3. Multiple Object Tracking Using the Shortest Path Faster Association Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghao Xi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time.

  4. Calculating Graph Algorithms for Dominance and Shortest Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Midtgaard, Jan; Clarke, Dave

    2012-01-01

    We calculate two iterative, polynomial-time graph algorithms from the literature: a dominance algorithm and an algorithm for the single-source shortest path problem. Both algorithms are calculated directly from the definition of the properties by fixed-point fusion of (1) a least fixed point...... expressing all finite paths through a directed graph and (2) Galois connections that capture dominance and path length. The approach illustrates that reasoning in the style of fixed-point calculus extends gracefully to the domain of graph algorithms. We thereby bridge common practice from the school...... of program calculation with common practice from the school of static program analysis, and build a novel view on iterative graph algorithms as instances of abstract interpretation...

  5. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior...... knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we...

  6. An Efficient Shortest Path Routing Algorithm for Directed Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alamri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing systems for outdoor space have become the focus of many research works. Such routing systems are based on spatial road networks where moving objects (such as cars are affected by the directed roads and the movement of traffic, which may include traffic jams. Indoor routing, on the other hand, must take into account the features of indoor space such as walls and rooms. In this paper, we take indoor routing in a new direction whereby we consider the features that a building has in common with outdoor spaces. Inside some buildings, there may be directed floors where moving objects must move in a certain direction through directed corridors in order to reach a certain location. For example, on train platforms or in museums, movement in the corridors may be directed. In these directed floor spaces, a routing system enabling a visitor to take the shortest path to a certain location is essential. Therefore, this work proposes a new approach for buildings with directed indoor spaces, where each room can be affected by the density of the moving objects. The proposed system obtains the shortest path between objects or rooms taking into consideration the directed indoor space and the capacity of the objects to move within each room/cell.

  7. Extended shortest path selection for package routing of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bing-Hong; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Xing-Yi

    The routing strategy plays a very important role in complex networks such as Internet system and Peer-to-Peer networks. However, most of the previous work concentrates only on the path selection, e.g. Flooding and Random Walk, or finding the shortest path (SP) and rarely considering the local load information such as SP and Distance Vector Routing. Flow-based Routing mainly considers load balance and still cannot achieve best optimization. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel dynamic routing strategy on complex network by incorporating the local load information into SP algorithm to enhance the traffic flow routing optimization. It was found that the flow in a network is greatly affected by the waiting time of the network, so we should not consider only choosing optimized path for package transformation but also consider node congestion. As a result, the packages should be transmitted with a global optimized path with smaller congestion and relatively short distance. Analysis work and simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm can largely enhance the network flow with the maximum throughput within an acceptable calculating time. The detailed analysis of the algorithm will also be provided for explaining the efficiency.

  8. External Data Structures for Shortest Path Queries on Planar Digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Toma, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present space-query trade-offs for external memory data structures that answer shortest path queries on planar directed graphs. For any S = Ω(N 1 + ε) and S = O(N2/B), our main result is a family of structures that use S space and answer queries in O(N2/ S B) I/Os, thus obtaining...... optimal space-query product O(N2/B). An S space structure can be constructed in O(√S · sort(N)) I/Os, where sort(N) is the number of I/Os needed to sort N elements, B is the disk block size, and N is the size of the graph....

  9. Solving fuzzy shortest path problem by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarif, A.; Muludi, K.; Adrian, R.; Gen, M.

    2018-03-01

    Shortest Path Problem (SPP) is known as one of well-studied fields in the area Operations Research and Mathematical Optimization. It has been applied for many engineering and management designs. The objective is usually to determine path(s) in the network with minimum total cost or traveling time. In the past, the cost value for each arc was usually assigned or estimated as a deteministic value. For some specific real world applications, however, it is often difficult to determine the cost value properly. One way of handling such uncertainty in decision making is by introducing fuzzy approach. With this situation, it will become difficult to solve the problem optimally. This paper presents the investigations on the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to a new SPP model in which the cost values are represented as Triangular Fuzzy Number (TFN). We adopts the concept of ranking fuzzy numbers to determine how good the solutions. Here, by giving his/her degree value, the decision maker can determine the range of objective value. This would be very valuable for decision support system in the real world applications.Simulation experiments were carried out by modifying several test problems with 10-25 nodes. It is noted that the proposed approach is capable attaining a good solution with different degree of optimism for the tested problems.

  10. An Application of Multi-Criteria Shortest Path to a Customizable Hex-Map Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    47 Appendix A. Shortest Path Code ( VBA ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Appendix B. Quad Chart...efficient shortest path algorithm into the modeling environment, namely Excel VBA . While various algorithms offer the potential for more efficiency in...graphical interface is extremely intuitive and easily accessible to a user with no prior knowledge of the system. Since the Metz model is based on the

  11. The time-varying shortest path problem with fuzzy transit costs and speedup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezapour Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the time-varying shortest path problem, where the transit costs are fuzzy numbers. Moreover, we consider this problem in which the transit time can be shortened at a fuzzy speedup cost. Speedup may also be a better decision to find the shortest path from a source vertex to a specified vertex.

  12. External Memory Algorithms for Diameter and All-Pair Shortest-Paths on Sparse Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Meyer, Ulrich; Toma, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We present several new external-memory algorithms for finding all-pairs shortest paths in a V -node, Eedge undirected graph. For all-pairs shortest paths and diameter in unweighted undirected graphs we present cache-oblivious algorithms with O(V · E B logM B E B) I/Os, where B is the block-size a...

  13. Algorithm for shortest path search in Geographic Information Systems by using reduced graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puente, Rafael; Lazo-Cortés, Manuel S

    2013-01-01

    The use of Geographic Information Systems has increased considerably since the eighties and nineties. As one of their most demanding applications we can mention shortest paths search. Several studies about shortest path search show the feasibility of using graphs for this purpose. Dijkstra's algorithm is one of the classic shortest path search algorithms. This algorithm is not well suited for shortest path search in large graphs. This is the reason why various modifications to Dijkstra's algorithm have been proposed by several authors using heuristics to reduce the run time of shortest path search. One of the most used heuristic algorithms is the A* algorithm, the main goal is to reduce the run time by reducing the search space. This article proposes a modification of Dijkstra's shortest path search algorithm in reduced graphs. It shows that the cost of the path found in this work, is equal to the cost of the path found using Dijkstra's algorithm in the original graph. The results of finding the shortest path, applying the proposed algorithm, Dijkstra's algorithm and A* algorithm, are compared. This comparison shows that, by applying the approach proposed, it is possible to obtain the optimal path in a similar or even in less time than when using heuristic algorithms.

  14. The shortest path algorithm performance comparison in graph and relational database on a transportation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Miler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of geoinformation and transportation science, the shortest path is calculated on graph data mostly found in road and transportation networks. This data is often stored in various database systems. Many applications dealing with transportation network require calculation of the shortest path. The objective of this research is to compare the performance of Dijkstra shortest path calculation in PostgreSQL (with pgRouting and Neo4j graph database for the purpose of determining if there is any difference regarding the speed of the calculation. Benchmarking was done on commodity hardware using OpenStreetMap road network. The first assumption is that Neo4j graph database would be well suited for the shortest path calculation on transportation networks but this does not come without some cost. Memory proved to be an issue in Neo4j setup when dealing with larger transportation networks.

  15. Optimal solution for travelling salesman problem using heuristic shortest path algorithm with imprecise arc length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ibrahim, Milbah

    2017-08-01

    The shortest path problem is a popular problem in graph theory. It is about finding a path with minimum length between a specified pair of vertices. In any network the weight of each edge is usually represented in a form of crisp real number and subsequently the weight is used in the calculation of shortest path problem using deterministic algorithms. However, due to failure, uncertainty is always encountered in practice whereby the weight of edge of the network is uncertain and imprecise. In this paper, a modified algorithm which utilized heuristic shortest path method and fuzzy approach is proposed for solving a network with imprecise arc length. Here, interval number and triangular fuzzy number in representing arc length of the network are considered. The modified algorithm is then applied to a specific example of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). Total shortest distance obtained from this algorithm is then compared with the total distance obtained from traditional nearest neighbour heuristic algorithm. The result shows that the modified algorithm can provide not only on the sequence of visited cities which shown to be similar with traditional approach but it also provides a good measurement of total shortest distance which is lesser as compared to the total shortest distance calculated using traditional approach. Hence, this research could contribute to the enrichment of methods used in solving TSP.

  16. Prograph Based Analysis of Single Source Shortest Path Problem with Few Distinct Positive Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhowmik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an experimental study model S3P2 of a fast fully dynamic programming algorithm design technique in finite directed graphs with few distinct nonnegative real edge weights. The Bellman-Ford’s approach for shortest path problems has come out in various implementations. In this paper the approach once again is re-investigated with adjacency matrix selection in associate least running time. The model tests proposed algorithm against arbitrarily but positive valued weighted digraphs introducing notion of Prograph that speeds up finding the shortest path over previous implementations. Our experiments have established abstract results with the intention that the proposed algorithm can consistently dominate other existing algorithms for Single Source Shortest Path Problems. A comparison study is also shown among Dijkstra’s algorithm, Bellman-Ford algorithm, and our algorithm.

  17. The Resource constrained shortest path problem implemented in a lazy functional language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Glaser, Hugh

    The resource constrained shortest path problem is an NP-hard problem for which many ingenious algorithms have been developed. These algorithms are usually implemented in Fortran or another imperative programming language. We have implemented some of the simpler algorithms in a lazy functional

  18. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  19. Shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Managbanag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of genes that modulate longevity is a major focus of aging-related research and an area of intense public interest. In addition to facilitating an improved understanding of the basic mechanisms of aging, such genes represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention in multiple age-associated diseases, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. To date, however, targeted efforts at identifying longevity-associated genes have been limited by a lack of predictive power, and useful algorithms for candidate gene-identification have also been lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have utilized a shortest-path network analysis to identify novel genes that modulate longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on a set of previously reported genes associated with increased life span, we applied a shortest-path network algorithm to a pre-existing protein-protein interaction dataset in order to construct a shortest-path longevity network. To validate this network, the replicative aging potential of 88 single-gene deletion strains corresponding to predicted components of the shortest-path longevity network was determined. Here we report that the single-gene deletion strains identified by our shortest-path longevity analysis are significantly enriched for mutations conferring either increased or decreased replicative life span, relative to a randomly selected set of 564 single-gene deletion strains or to the current data set available for the entire haploid deletion collection. Further, we report the identification of previously unknown longevity genes, several of which function in a conserved longevity pathway believed to mediate life span extension in response to dietary restriction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates that shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity and represents the first application of

  20. A new approach to shortest paths on networks based on the quantum bosonic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xin; Wang Hailong; Tang Shaoting; Ma Lili; Zhang Zhanli; Zheng Zhiming, E-mail: jiangxin@ss.buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Informatics and Behavioral Semantics, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 Beijing (China)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents quantum bosonic shortest path searching (QBSPS), a natural, practical and highly heuristic physical algorithm for reasoning about the recognition of network structure via quantum dynamics. QBSPS is based on an Anderson-like itinerant bosonic system in which a boson's Green function is used as a navigation pointer for one to accurately approach the terminals. QBSPS is demonstrated by rigorous mathematical and physical proofs and plenty of simulations, showing how it can be used as a greedy routing to seek the shortest path between different locations. In methodology, it is an interesting and new algorithm rooted in the quantum mechanism other than combinatorics. In practice, for the all-pairs shortest-path problem in a random scale-free network with N vertices, QBSPS runs in O({mu}(N) ln ln N) time. In application, we suggest that the corresponding experimental realizations are feasible by considering path searching in quantum optical communication networks; in this situation, the method performs a pure local search on networks without requiring the global structure that is necessary for current graph algorithms.

  1. ESHOPPS: A COMPUTATIONAL TOOL TO AID THE TEACHING OF SHORTEST PATH ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. de A. LIMA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a computational tool called EShoPPS – Environment for Shortest Path Problem Solving, which is used to assist students in understanding the working of Dijkstra, Greedy search and A*(star algorithms is presented in this paper. Such algorithms are commonly taught in graduate and undergraduate courses of Engineering and Informatics and are used for solving many optimization problems that can be characterized as Shortest Path Problem. The EShoPPS is an interactive tool that allows students to create a graph representing the problem and also helps in developing their knowledge of each specific algorithm. Experiments performed with 155 students of undergraduate and graduate courses such as Industrial Engineering, Computer Science and Information Systems have shown that by using the EShoPPS tool students were able to improve their interpretation of investigated algorithms.

  2. The Shortest Path Problems in Battery-Electric Vehicle Dispatching with Battery Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minfang Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles play a key role for developing an eco-sustainable transport system. One critical component of an electric vehicle is its battery, which can be quickly charged or exchanged before it runs out. The problem of electric vehicle dispatching falls into the category of the shortest path problem with resource renewal. In this paper, we study the shortest path problems in (1 electric transit bus scheduling and (2 electric truck routing with time windows. In these applications, a fully-charged battery allows running a limited operational distance, and the battery before depletion needs to be quickly charged or exchanged with a fully-charged one at a battery management facility. The limited distance and battery renewal result in a shortest path problem with resource renewal. We develop a label-correcting algorithm with state space relaxation to find optimal solutions. In the computational experiments, real-world road geometry data are used to generate realistic travel distances, and other types of data are obtained from the real world or randomly generated. The computational results show that the label-correcting algorithm performs very well.

  3. A Universal Concept for Robust Solving of Shortest Path Problems in Dynamically Reconfigurable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chamberlain Chedjou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a flexible analytical concept for robust shortest path detection in dynamically reconfigurable graphs. The concept is expressed by a mathematical model representing the shortest path problem solver. The proposed mathematical model is characterized by three fundamental parameters expressing (a the graph topology (through the “incidence matrix”, (b the edge weights (with dynamic external weights’ setting capability, and (c the dynamic reconfigurability through external input(s of the source-destination nodes pair. In order to demonstrate the universality of the developed concept, a general algorithm is proposed to determine the three fundamental parameters (of the mathematical model developed for all types of graphs regardless of their topology, magnitude, and size. It is demonstrated that the main advantage of the developed concept is that arc costs, the origin-destination pair setting, and the graph topology are dynamically provided by external commands, which are inputs of the shortest path solver model. This enables high flexibility and full reconfigurability of the developed concept, without any retraining need. To validate the concept developed, benchmarking is performed leading to a comparison of its performance with the performances of two well-known concepts based on neural networks.

  4. Shortest path problem on a grid network with unordered intermediate points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Veekeong; Rahman, Amirah; Eng Ong, Wen

    2017-10-01

    We consider a shortest path problem with single cost factor on a grid network with unordered intermediate points. A two stage heuristic algorithm is proposed to find a feasible solution path within a reasonable amount of time. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, computational experiments are performed on grid maps of varying size and number of intermediate points. Preliminary results for the problem are reported. Numerical comparisons against brute forcing show that the proposed algorithm consistently yields solutions that are within 10% of the optimal solution and uses significantly less computation time.

  5. Comparison of Genetic Algorithm and Hill Climbing for Shortest Path Optimization Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronita Mona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is an optimization to find the shortest path to reach several destinations in one trip without passing through the same city and back again to the early departure city, the process is applied to the delivery systems. This comparison is done using two methods, namely optimization genetic algorithm and hill climbing. Hill Climbing works by directly selecting a new path that is exchanged with the neighbour’s to get the track distance smaller than the previous track, without testing. Genetic algorithms depend on the input parameters, they are the number of population, the probability of crossover, mutation probability and the number of generations. To simplify the process of determining the shortest path supported by the development of software that uses the google map API. Tests carried out as much as 20 times with the number of city 8, 16, 24 and 32 to see which method is optimal in terms of distance and time computation. Based on experiments conducted with a number of cities 3, 4, 5 and 6 producing the same value and optimal distance for the genetic algorithm and hill climbing, the value of this distance begins to differ with the number of city 7. The overall results shows that these tests, hill climbing are more optimal to number of small cities and the number of cities over 30 optimized using genetic algorithms.

  6. Study on k-shortest paths with behavioral impedance domain from the intermodal public transportation system perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Hernane Borges de Barros; Pérez Vidal, Lluís; Lozada, Eleazar G. Madrid

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral impedance domain consists of a theory on route planning for pedestrians, within which constraint management is considered. The goal of this paper is to present the k-shortest path model using the behavioral impedance approach. After the mathematical model building, optimization problem and resolution problem by a behavioral impedance algorithm, it is discussed how behavioral impedance cost function is embedded in the k-shortest path model. From the pedestrian's route planning persp...

  7. A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR FINDING FUZZY SHORTEST PATHS IN UNCERTAIN NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In realistic network analysis, there are several uncertainties in the measurements and computation of the arcs and vertices. These uncertainties should also be considered in realizing the shortest path problem (SPP due to the inherent fuzziness in the body of expert's knowledge. In this paper, we investigated the SPP under uncertainty to evaluate our modified genetic strategy. We improved the performance of genetic algorithm (GA to investigate a class of shortest path problems on networks with vague arc weights. The solutions of the uncertain SPP with considering fuzzy path lengths are examined and compared in detail. As a robust metaheuristic, GA algorithm is modified and evaluated to tackle the fuzzy SPP (FSPP with uncertain arcs. For this purpose, first, a dynamic operation is implemented to enrich the exploration/exploitation patterns of the conventional procedure and mitigate the premature convergence of GA technique. Then, the modified GA (MGA strategy is used to resolve the FSPP. The attained results of the proposed strategy are compared to those of GA with regard to the cost, quality of paths and CPU times. Numerical instances are provided to demonstrate the success of the proposed MGA-FSPP strategy in comparison with GA. The simulations affirm that not only the proposed technique can outperform GA, but also the qualities of the paths are effectively improved. The results clarify that the competence of the proposed GA is preferred in view of quality quantities. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently be utilized to handle FSPP in uncertain networks.

  8. Efficient evaluation of shortest travel-time path queries through spatial mashups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Detian; Chow, Chi-Yin; Liu, An; Zhang, Xiangliang; Ding, Qingzhu; Li, Qing

    2017-01-01

    In the real world, the route/path with the shortest travel time in a road network is more meaningful than that with the shortest network distance for location-based services (LBS). However, not every LBS provider has adequate resources to compute/estimate travel time for routes by themselves. A cost-effective way for LBS providers to estimate travel time for routes is to issue external route requests to Web mapping services (e.g., Google Maps, Bing Maps, and MapQuest Maps). Due to the high cost of processing such external route requests and the usage limits of Web mapping services, we take the advantage of direction sharing, parallel requesting and waypoints supported by Web mapping services to reduce the number of external route requests and the query response time for shortest travel-time route queries in this paper. We first give the definition of sharing ability to reflect the possibility of sharing the direction information of a route with others, and find out the queries that their query routes are independent with each other for parallel processing. Then, we model the problem of selecting the optimal waypoints for an external route request as finding the longest simple path in a weighted complete digraph. As it is a MAX SNP-hard problem, we propose a greedy algorithm with performance guarantee to find the best set of waypoints in an external route request. We evaluate the performance of our approach using a real Web mapping service, a real road network, real and synthetic data sets. Experimental results show the efficiency, scalability, and applicability of our approach.

  9. Efficient evaluation of shortest travel-time path queries through spatial mashups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Detian

    2017-01-07

    In the real world, the route/path with the shortest travel time in a road network is more meaningful than that with the shortest network distance for location-based services (LBS). However, not every LBS provider has adequate resources to compute/estimate travel time for routes by themselves. A cost-effective way for LBS providers to estimate travel time for routes is to issue external route requests to Web mapping services (e.g., Google Maps, Bing Maps, and MapQuest Maps). Due to the high cost of processing such external route requests and the usage limits of Web mapping services, we take the advantage of direction sharing, parallel requesting and waypoints supported by Web mapping services to reduce the number of external route requests and the query response time for shortest travel-time route queries in this paper. We first give the definition of sharing ability to reflect the possibility of sharing the direction information of a route with others, and find out the queries that their query routes are independent with each other for parallel processing. Then, we model the problem of selecting the optimal waypoints for an external route request as finding the longest simple path in a weighted complete digraph. As it is a MAX SNP-hard problem, we propose a greedy algorithm with performance guarantee to find the best set of waypoints in an external route request. We evaluate the performance of our approach using a real Web mapping service, a real road network, real and synthetic data sets. Experimental results show the efficiency, scalability, and applicability of our approach.

  10. A shortest-path graph kernel for estimating gene product semantic similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marco A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing methods for calculating semantic similarity between gene products using the Gene Ontology (GO often rely on external resources, which are not part of the ontology. Consequently, changes in these external resources like biased term distribution caused by shifting of hot research topics, will affect the calculation of semantic similarity. One way to avoid this problem is to use semantic methods that are "intrinsic" to the ontology, i.e. independent of external knowledge. Results We present a shortest-path graph kernel (spgk method that relies exclusively on the GO and its structure. In spgk, a gene product is represented by an induced subgraph of the GO, which consists of all the GO terms annotating it. Then a shortest-path graph kernel is used to compute the similarity between two graphs. In a comprehensive evaluation using a benchmark dataset, spgk compares favorably with other methods that depend on external resources. Compared with simUI, a method that is also intrinsic to GO, spgk achieves slightly better results on the benchmark dataset. Statistical tests show that the improvement is significant when the resolution and EC similarity correlation coefficient are used to measure the performance, but is insignificant when the Pfam similarity correlation coefficient is used. Conclusions Spgk uses a graph kernel method in polynomial time to exploit the structure of the GO to calculate semantic similarity between gene products. It provides an alternative to both methods that use external resources and "intrinsic" methods with comparable performance.

  11. Floyd-warshall algorithm to determine the shortest path based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Bukhori, D.; Azainil; Dengen, N.

    2018-04-01

    The development of technology has made all areas of life easier now, one of which is the ease of obtaining geographic information. The use of geographic information may vary according to need, for example, the digital map learning, navigation systems, observations area, and much more. With the support of adequate infrastructure, almost no one will ever get lost to a destination even to foreign places or that have never been visited before. The reasons why many institutions and business entities use technology to improve services to consumers and to streamline the production process undertaken and so forth. Speaking of the efficient, there are many elements related to efficiency in navigation systems, and one of them is the efficiency in terms of distance. The shortest distance determination algorithm required in this research is used Floyd-Warshall Algorithm. Floyd-Warshall algorithm is the algorithm to find the fastest path and the shortest distance between 2 nodes, while the program is intended to find the path of more than 2 nodes.

  12. A minimum resource neural network framework for solving multiconstraint shortest path problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhao, Xiaoxue; He, Xiaotao

    2014-08-01

    Characterized by using minimum hard (structural) and soft (computational) resources, a novel parameter-free minimal resource neural network (MRNN) framework is proposed for solving a wide range of single-source shortest path (SP) problems for various graph types. The problems are the k-shortest time path problems with any combination of three constraints: time, hop, and label constraints, and the graphs can be directed, undirected, or bidirected with symmetric and/or asymmetric traversal time, which can be real and time dependent. Isomorphic to the graph where the SP is to be sought, the network is activated by generating autowave at source neuron and the autowave travels automatically along the paths with the speed of a hop in an iteration. Properties of the network are studied, algorithms are presented, and computation complexity is analyzed. The framework guarantees globally optimal solutions of a series of problems during the iteration process of the network, which provides insight into why even the SP is still too long to be satisfied. The network facilitates very large scale integrated circuit implementation and adapt to very large scale problems due to its massively parallel processing and minimum resource utilization. When implemented in a sequentially processing computer, experiments on synthetic graphs, road maps of cities of the USA, and vehicle routing with time windows indicate that the MRNN is especially efficient for large scale sparse graphs and even dense graphs with some constraints, e.g., the CPU time taken and the iteration number used for the road maps of cities of the USA is even less than  ∼ 2% and 0.5% that of the Dijkstra's algorithm.

  13. Technical note: Quantification of neurocranial shape variation using the shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Ogihara, Naomichi; Kanai, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromasa

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques have been widely used in quantitative comparisons of craniofacial morphology in humans and nonhuman primates. However, few anatomical landmarks can actually be defined on the neurocranium. In this study, an alternative method is proposed for defining semi-landmarks on neurocranial surfaces for use in detailed analysis of cranial shape. Specifically, midsagittal, nuchal, and temporal lines were approximated using Bezier curves and equally spaced points along each of the curves were defined as semi-landmarks. The shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks as well as semi-landmarks were then calculated in order to represent the surface morphology between landmarks using equally spaced points along the paths. To evaluate the efficacy of this method, the previously outlined technique was used in morphological analysis of sexual dimorphism in modern Japanese crania. The study sample comprised 22 specimens that were used to generate 110 anatomical semi-landmarks, which were used in geometric morphometric analysis. Although variations due to sexual dimorphism in human crania are very small, differences could be identified using the proposed landmark placement, which demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lecturers' and Students’ Perception on Learning Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm Through Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Seraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies have been carried out on how to engage and support students in e-learning environments. Portable devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs, Tablet PCs, mobile phones and other mobile equipment have been used as parts of electronic learning environments to facilitate learning and teaching for both lecturers and students. However, there is still a dearth of study investigating the effects of small screen interfaces on mobile-based learning environments. This study aims to address two objectives: (i investigate lecturer and student difficulties encountered in teaching-learning process in traditional face-to-face classroom settings, and (ii to explore lecturer and student perceptions about learning the subject through mobile devices. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study using structured interviews to investigate lecturer and student experiences and perceptions on teaching and learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm via mobile devices. The interview insights were then used as inputs to define user requirements for a mobile learning prototype. The findings show that the lecturers and students raised many issues about interactivity and the flexibility of effective learning applications on small screen devices, especially for a technical subject.

  15. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  16. Comparison of Decisions Quality of Heuristic Methods with Limited Depth-First Search Techniques in the Graph Shortest Path Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatutin Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of analysis of effectiveness of the heuristic methods with limited depth-first search techniques of decision obtaining in the test problem of getting the shortest path in graph. The article briefly describes the group of methods based on the limit of branches number of the combinatorial search tree and limit of analyzed subtree depth used to solve the problem. The methodology of comparing experimental data for the estimation of the quality of solutions based on the performing of computational experiments with samples of graphs with pseudo-random structure and selected vertices and arcs number using the BOINC platform is considered. It also shows description of obtained experimental results which allow to identify the areas of the preferable usage of selected subset of heuristic methods depending on the size of the problem and power of constraints. It is shown that the considered pair of methods is ineffective in the selected problem and significantly inferior to the quality of solutions that are provided by ant colony optimization method and its modification with combinatorial returns.

  17. Comparison of Decisions Quality of Heuristic Methods with Limited Depth-First Search Techniques in the Graph Shortest Path Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatutin, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the problem of analysis of effectiveness of the heuristic methods with limited depth-first search techniques of decision obtaining in the test problem of getting the shortest path in graph. The article briefly describes the group of methods based on the limit of branches number of the combinatorial search tree and limit of analyzed subtree depth used to solve the problem. The methodology of comparing experimental data for the estimation of the quality of solutions based on the performing of computational experiments with samples of graphs with pseudo-random structure and selected vertices and arcs number using the BOINC platform is considered. It also shows description of obtained experimental results which allow to identify the areas of the preferable usage of selected subset of heuristic methods depending on the size of the problem and power of constraints. It is shown that the considered pair of methods is ineffective in the selected problem and significantly inferior to the quality of solutions that are provided by ant colony optimization method and its modification with combinatorial returns.

  18. Distribution of shortest path lengths in a class of node duplication network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Chanania; Biham, Ofer; Katzav, Eytan

    2017-09-01

    We present analytical results for the distribution of shortest path lengths (DSPL) in a network growth model which evolves by node duplication (ND). The model captures essential properties of the structure and growth dynamics of social networks, acquaintance networks, and scientific citation networks, where duplication mechanisms play a major role. Starting from an initial seed network, at each time step a random node, referred to as a mother node, is selected for duplication. Its daughter node is added to the network, forming a link to the mother node, and with probability p to each one of its neighbors. The degree distribution of the resulting network turns out to follow a power-law distribution, thus the ND network is a scale-free network. To calculate the DSPL we derive a master equation for the time evolution of the probability Pt(L =ℓ ) , ℓ =1 ,2 ,⋯ , where L is the distance between a pair of nodes and t is the time. Finding an exact analytical solution of the master equation, we obtain a closed form expression for Pt(L =ℓ ) . The mean distance 〈L〉 t and the diameter Δt are found to scale like lnt , namely, the ND network is a small-world network. The variance of the DSPL is also found to scale like lnt . Interestingly, the mean distance and the diameter exhibit properties of a small-world network, rather than the ultrasmall-world network behavior observed in other scale-free networks, in which 〈L〉 t˜lnlnt .

  19. A Hybrid Optimized Weighted Minimum Spanning Tree for the Shortest Intrapath Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheswaran Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of sensor nodes that need energy efficient routing techniques as they have limited battery power, computing, and storage resources. WSN routing protocols should enable reliable multihop communication with energy constraints. Clustering is an effective way to reduce overheads and when this is aided by effective resource allocation, it results in reduced energy consumption. In this work, a novel hybrid evolutionary algorithm called Bee Algorithm-Simulated Annealing Weighted Minimal Spanning Tree (BASA-WMST routing is proposed in which randomly deployed sensor nodes are split into the best possible number of independent clusters with cluster head and optimal route. The former gathers data from sensors belonging to the cluster, forwarding them to the sink. The shortest intrapath selection for the cluster is selected using Weighted Minimum Spanning Tree (WMST. The proposed algorithm computes the distance-based Minimum Spanning Tree (MST of the weighted graph for the multihop network. The weights are dynamically changed based on the energy level of each sensor during route selection and optimized using the proposed bee algorithm simulated annealing algorithm.

  20. Impacts of Different Mobile User Interfaces on Students’ Satisfaction for Learning Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Seraj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study of learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on mobile devices. The aim of the study is to investigate and compare the impacts of two different mobile screen user interfaces on students’ satisfaction for learning the technical subject. A mobile learning prototype was developed for learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on Apple iPhone 4 operated on iPhone operating system (iOS, and Acer Inconia Tab operated on an Android operating system. Thirty students, who are either currently studying or had previously studied Computer Networks, were recruited for the usability trial. At the end of each single session, students’ satisfaction interacting with the two mobile devices was measured using QUIS questionnaire. Although there is no significant difference in students’ satisfaction between the two different mobile screen interfaces, the subjective findings indicate that Acer Inconia Tab gained higher scores as compared to Apple iPhone 4.

  1. Shortest multiple disconnected path for the analysis of entanglements in two- and three-dimensional polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the

  2. Finding Shortest Paths on Terrains by Killing Two Birds with One Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaul, Manohar; Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing availability of terrain data, e.g., from aerial laser scans, the management of such data is attracting increasing at- tention in both industry and academia. In particular, spatial queries, e.g., k -nearest neighbor and reverse nearest neighbor queries, in Euclidean and spatial...... network spaces are being extended to ter- rains. Such queries all rely on an important operation, that of finding shortest surface distances. However, shortest surface dis- tance computation is very time consuming. We propose techniques that enable efficient computation of lower and upper bounds...... of the shortest surface distance, which enable faster query processing by eliminating expensive distance computations. Empirical studies show that our bounds are much tighter than the best-known bounds in many cases and that they enable speedups of up to 43 times for some well-known spatial querie...

  3. Fast and accurate global multiphase arrival tracking: the irregular shortest-path method in a 3-D spherical earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2013-09-01

    The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first arrivals or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax time path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax time path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum absolute traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average absolute traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU time consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase arrival tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.

  4. ACL2 Meets the GPU: Formalizing a CUDA-based Parallelizable All-Pairs Shortest Path Algorithm in ACL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Hardin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have gained in capability and GPU development environments have matured, developers are increasingly turning to the GPU to off-load the main host CPU of numerically-intensive, parallelizable computations. Modern GPUs feature hundreds of cores, and offer programming niceties such as double-precision floating point, and even limited recursion. This shift from CPU to GPU, however, raises the question: how do we know that these new GPU-based algorithms are correct? In order to explore this new verification frontier, we formalized a parallelizable all-pairs shortest path (APSP algorithm for weighted graphs, originally coded in NVIDIA's CUDA language, in ACL2. The ACL2 specification is written using a single-threaded object (stobj and tail recursion, as the stobj/tail recursion combination yields the most straightforward translation from imperative programming languages, as well as efficient, scalable executable specifications within ACL2 itself. The ACL2 version of the APSP algorithm can process millions of vertices and edges with little to no garbage generation, and executes at one-sixth the speed of a host-based version of APSP coded in C – a very respectable result for a theorem prover. In addition to formalizing the APSP algorithm (which uses Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm at its core, we have also provided capability that the original APSP code lacked, namely shortest path recovery. Path recovery is accomplished using a secondary ACL2 stobj implementing a LIFO stack, which is proven correct. To conclude the experiment, we ported the ACL2 version of the APSP kernels back to C, resulting in a less than 5% slowdown, and also performed a partial back-port to CUDA, which, surprisingly, yielded a slight performance increase.

  5. Comparison of the efficiency of two algorithms which solve the shortest path problem with an emotional agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruseva Silvana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the comparison of the efficiency of two algorithms, by estimation of their complexity. For solving the problem, the Neural Network Crossbar Adaptive Array (NN-CAA is used as the agent architecture, implementing a model of an emotion. The problem discussed is how to find the shortest path in an environment with n states. The domains concerned are environments with n states, one of which is the starting state, one is the goal state, and some states are undesirable and they should be avoided. It is obtained that finding one path (one solution is efficient, i.e. in polynomial time by both algorithms. One of the algorithms is faster than the other only in the multiplicative constant, and it shows a step forward toward the optimality of the learning process. However, finding the optimal solution (the shortest path by both algorithms is in exponential time which is asserted by two theorems. It might be concluded that the concept of subgoal is one step forward toward the optimality of the process of the agent learning. Yet, it should be explored further on, in order to obtain an efficient, polynomial algorithm.

  6. On the structure of path-like trees

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaner Batle, Francesc Antoni; Rius Font, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure of path-like trees. In order to do this, we introduce a set of trees that we call expandable trees. In this paper we also generalize the concept of path-like trees and we call such generalization generalized path-like trees. As in the case of path-like trees, generalized path-like trees, have very nice labeling properties.

  7. Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...

  8. A Shortest-Path-Based Method for the Analysis and Prediction of Fruit-Related Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Su, Fangchu; Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Biologically, fruits are defined as seed-bearing reproductive structures in angiosperms that develop from the ovary. The fertilization, development and maturation of fruits are crucial for plant reproduction and are precisely regulated by intrinsic genetic regulatory factors. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism and attempted to identify novel genes related to fruit-associated biological processes. Specifically, using validated genes, we applied a shortest-path-based method to identify several novel genes in a large network constructed using the protein-protein interactions observed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The described analyses indicate that several of the discovered genes are associated with fruit fertilization, development and maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  9. Large and Dense Swarms: Simulation of a Shortest Path Alarm Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Snels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the transmission of alarm messages in large and dense underwater swarms of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs and describes the verification process of the derived algorithm results by means of two simulation tools realized by the authors. A collision-free communication protocol has been developed, tailored to a case where a single AUV needs to send a message to a specific subset of swarm members regarding a perceived danger. The protocol includes a handshaking procedure that creates a silence region before the transmission of the message obtained through specific acoustic tones out of the normal transmission frequencies or through optical signals. This region will include all members of the swarm involved in the alarm message and their neighbours, preventing collisions between them. The AUV sending messages to a target area computes a delay function on appropriate arcs and runs a Dijkstra-like algorithm obtaining a multicast tree. After an explanation of the whole building of this collision-free multicast tree, a simulation has been carried out assuming different scenarios relevant to swarm density, signal power of the modem and the geometrical configuration of the nodes.

  10. Inferring anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) class of drugs using shortest path and random walk with restart algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Xian

    2018-06-01

    The anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system is a widely accepted drug classification scheme. This system comprises five levels and includes several classes in each level. Drugs are classified into classes according to their therapeutic effects and characteristics. The first level includes 14 main classes. In this study, we proposed two network-based models to infer novel potential chemicals deemed to belong in the first level of ATC classification. To build these models, two large chemical networks were constructed using the chemical-chemical interaction information retrieved from the Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH). Two classic network algorithms, shortest path (SP) and random walk with restart (RWR) algorithms, were executed on the corresponding network to mine novel chemicals for each ATC class using the validated drugs in a class as seed nodes. Then, the obtained chemicals yielded by these two algorithms were further evaluated by a permutation test and an association test. The former can exclude chemicals produced by the structure of the network, i.e., false positive discoveries. By contrast, the latter identifies the most important chemicals that have strong associations with the ATC class. Comparisons indicated that the two models can provide quite dissimilar results, suggesting that the results yielded by one model can be essential supplements for those obtained by the other model. In addition, several representative inferred chemicals were analyzed to confirm the reliability of the results generated by the two models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Accelerating Precision Medicine through Genetic and Genomic Big Data Analysis edited by Yudong Cai & Tao Huang. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RNAspa: a shortest path approach for comparative prediction of the secondary structure of ncRNA molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaeli Shulamit

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, RNA molecules that are not translated into proteins (ncRNAs have drawn a great deal of attention, as they were shown to be involved in many cellular functions. One of the most important computational problems regarding ncRNA is to predict the secondary structure of a molecule from its sequence. In particular, we attempted to predict the secondary structure for a set of unaligned ncRNA molecules that are taken from the same family, and thus presumably have a similar structure. Results We developed the RNAspa program, which comparatively predicts the secondary structure for a set of ncRNA molecules in linear time in the number of molecules. We observed that in a list of several hundred suboptimal minimal free energy (MFE predictions, as provided by the RNAsubopt program of the Vienna package, it is likely that at least one suggested structure would be similar to the true, correct one. The suboptimal solutions of each molecule are represented as a layer of vertices in a graph. The shortest path in this graph is the basis for structural predictions for the molecule. We also show that RNA secondary structures can be compared very rapidly by a simple string Edit-Distance algorithm with a minimal loss of accuracy. We show that this approach allows us to more deeply explore the suboptimal structure space. Conclusion The algorithm was tested on three datasets which include several ncRNA families taken from the Rfam database. These datasets allowed for comparison of the algorithm with other methods. In these tests, RNAspa performed better than four other programs.

  12. Finding the K shortest hyperpaths using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Pretolani, Daniele; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2006-01-01

    The shortest hyperpath problem is an extension of the classical shortest path problem and has applications in many different areas. Recently, algorithms for finding the K shortest hyperpaths in a directed hypergraph have been developed by Andersen, Nielsen and Pretolani. In this paper we improve...... the worst-case computational complexity of an algorithm for finding the K shortest hyperpaths in an acyclic hypergraph. This result is obtained by applying new reoptimization techniques for shortest hyperpaths. The algorithm turns out to be quite effective in practice and has already been successfully...

  13. A Comparison of the Cluster-Span Threshold and the Union of Shortest Paths as Objective Thresholds of EEG Functional Connectivity Networks from Beta Activity in Alzhaimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, K; Abasolo, Daniel Emilio; Escudero, J

    2016-01-01

    The Cluster-Span Threshold (CST) is a recently introduced unbiased threshold for functional connectivity networks. This binarisation technique offers a natural trade-off of sparsity and density of information by balancing the ratio of closed to open triples in the network topology. Here we present findings comparing it with the Union of Shortest Paths (USP), another recently proposed objective method. We analyse standard network metrics of binarised networks for sensitivity to clinical Alzhei...

  14. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  15. Total Path Length and Number of Terminal Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for study of relationships between total path length (average depth) and number of terminal nodes for decision trees. These relationships are important from the point of view of optimization of decision trees

  16. On the Organization of Parallel Operation of Some Algorithms for Finding the Shortest Path on a Graph on a Computer System with Multiple Instruction Stream and Single Data Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Podol'skii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the implementing Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms to find the shortest graph path on a computer system with multiple instruction stream and single data stream (MISD. The MISD computer is a computer that executes commands of arithmetic-logical processing (on the CPU and commands of structures processing (on the structures processor in parallel on a single data stream. Transformation of sequential programs into the MISD programs is a labor intensity process because it requires a stream of the arithmetic-logical processing to be manually separated from that of the structures processing. Algorithms based on the processing of data structures (e.g., algorithms on graphs show high performance on a MISD computer. Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms for finding the shortest path on a graph are representatives of these algorithms. They are applied to robotics for automatic planning of the robot movement in-situ. Modification of Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms for finding the shortest graph path in coprocessor MISD mode and the parallel MISD modification of these algorithms were first obtained in this article. Thus, this article continues a series of studies on the transformation of sequential algorithms into MISD ones (Dijkstra and Ford-Fulkerson 's algorithms and has a pronouncedly applied nature. The article also presents the analysis results of Bellman-Ford and Lee algorithms in MISD mode. The paper formulates the basic trends of a technique for parallelization of algorithms into arithmetic-logical processing stream and structures processing stream. Among the key areas for future research, development of the mathematical approach to provide a subsequently formalized and automated process of parallelizing sequential algorithms between the CPU and structures processor is highlighted. Among the mathematical models that can be used in future studies there are graph models of algorithms (e.g., dependency graph of a program. Due to the high

  17. Local search for Steiner tree problems in graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.G.A.; Severens, M.E.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Rayward-Smith, V.J.; Reeves, C.R.; Smith, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    We present a local search algorithm for the Steiner tree problem in graphs, which uses a neighbourhood in which paths in a steiner tree are exchanged. The exchange function of this neigbourhood is based on multiple-source shortest path algorithm. We present computational results for a known

  18. A constructive approach to minimal free resolutions of path ideals of trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle R. Bouchat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a rooted tree $\\Gamma$, we consider path ideals of $\\Gamma$, which are ideals that are generated by all directed paths of a fixed length in $\\Gamma$. In this paper, we provide a combinatorial description of the minimal free resolution of these path ideals. In particular, we provide a class of subforests of $\\Gamma$ that are in one-to-one correspondence with the multi-graded Betti numbers of the path ideal as well as providing a method for determining the projective dimension and the Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity of a given path ideal.

  19. On Finding Shortest Paths on Convex Polyhedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    versi ty of N laryhrid ml Collge :IJR-. M T) 207-12 COMPUTER SCIENCE TECHNICAL REPR SERWS .UE TE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND S 20742...planar layout can be physically interpreted as cutting the polyhedron along the ridges and unfolding the resulting object onto the plane. o% 4e.. ~16 A o

  20. Shortest-paths preserving metro maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milea, T.Y.; Schrijvers, O.J.; Buchin, K.; Haverkort, H.J.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.

    2012-01-01

    A metro map, or subway map, is a schematic representation of a metro system of a city. The main goal of a metro map is to provide a traveler with information on which lines to take to get from station A to station B, and at which stations he needs to switch lines. It is often not beneficial to use

  1. Alternative Path Communication in Wide-Scale Cluster-Tree Wireless Sensor Networks Using Inactive Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Erico; Montez, Carlos; Moraes, Ricardo; Portugal, Paulo; Vasques, Francisco

    2017-05-06

    The IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee cluster-tree topology is a suitable technology to deploy wide-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). These networks are usually designed to support convergecast traffic, where all communication paths go through the PAN (Personal Area Network) coordinator. Nevertheless, peer-to-peer communication relationships may be also required for different types of WSN applications. That is the typical case of sensor and actuator networks, where local control loops must be closed using a reduced number of communication hops. The use of communication schemes optimised just for the support of convergecast traffic may result in higher network congestion and in a potentially higher number of communication hops. Within this context, this paper proposes an Alternative-Route Definition (ARounD) communication scheme for WSNs. The underlying idea of ARounD is to setup alternative communication paths between specific source and destination nodes, avoiding congested cluster-tree paths. These alternative paths consider shorter inter-cluster paths, using a set of intermediate nodes to relay messages during their inactive periods in the cluster-tree network. Simulation results show that the ARounD communication scheme can significantly decrease the end-to-end communication delay, when compared to the use of standard cluster-tree communication schemes. Moreover, the ARounD communication scheme is able to reduce the network congestion around the PAN coordinator, enabling the reduction of the number of message drops due to queue overflows in the cluster-tree network.

  2. Rapidly Exploring Random Trees Used for Mobile Robots Path Planning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2005), s. 231-238 ISSN 1802-1484. [Mechatronics, Robotics and Biomechanics 2005. Třešť, 26.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : path planning * mobile robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  3. Computing the stretch factor and maximum detour of paths, trees, and cycles in the normed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian; Grüne, Ansgar; Klein, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    (n log n) in the algebraic computation tree model and describe a worst-case O(σn log 2 n) time algorithm for computing the stretch factor or maximum detour of a path embedded in the plane with a weighted fixed orientation metric defined by σ time algorithm to d...... time. We also obtain an optimal O(n) time algorithm for computing the maximum detour of a monotone rectilinear path in L 1 plane....

  4. MOCUS, Minimal Cut Sets and Minimal Path Sets from Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.; Henry, E.B.; Marshall, N.H.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: From a description of the Boolean failure logic of a system, called a fault tree, and control parameters specifying the minimal cut set length to be obtained MOCUS determines the system failure modes, or minimal cut sets, and the system success modes, or minimal path sets. 2 - Method of solution: MOCUS uses direct resolution of the fault tree into the cut and path sets. The algorithm used starts with the main failure of interest, the top event, and proceeds to basic independent component failures, called primary events, to resolve the fault tree to obtain the minimal sets. A key point of the algorithm is that an and gate alone always increases the number of path sets; an or gate alone always increases the number of cut sets and increases the size of path sets. Other types of logic gates must be described in terms of and and or logic gates. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Output from MOCUS can include minimal cut and path sets for up to 20 gates

  5. Total Path Length and Number of Terminal Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2014-09-13

    This paper presents a new tool for study of relationships between total path length (average depth) and number of terminal nodes for decision trees. These relationships are important from the point of view of optimization of decision trees. In this particular case of total path length and number of terminal nodes, the relationships between these two cost functions are closely related with space-time trade-off. In addition to algorithm to compute the relationships, the paper also presents results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository1. These experiments show how two cost functions behave for a given decision table and the resulting plots show the Pareto frontier or Pareto set of optimal points. Furthermore, in some cases this Pareto frontier is a singleton showing the total optimality of decision trees for the given decision table.

  6. A note on subtrees rooted along the primary path of a binary tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Let Fn denote the set of rooted binary plane trees with n external nodes, for given T???Fn let ui(T) be the altitude i node along the primary path of T, and let ??i(T) denote the number of external nodes in the induced subtree rooted at ui(T). We set ??i(T) = 0 if i is greater than the length of the primary path of T. We prove limn?????? ???i???x/n En{??i}/???itrees T???Fn and where the distribution function G is determined by its moments, for which we present an explicit expression. ?? 1993.

  7. A Novel Path Planning for Robots Based on Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Particle Swarm Optimizer Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A based on Rapidly-exploring Random Tree(RRT and Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO for path planning of the robot is proposed.First the grid method is built to describe the working space of the mobile robot,then the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree algorithm is used to obtain the global navigation path,and the Particle Swarm Optimizer algorithm is adopted to get the better path.Computer experiment results demonstrate that this novel algorithm can plan an optimal path rapidly in a cluttered environment.The successful obstacle avoidance is achieved,and the model is robust and performs reliably.

  8. An asymmetric shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two identical servers, each with exponentially distributed service times. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal length. he joins queue 1 say with probability q and queue 2

  9. Computing the Stretch Factor of Paths, Trees, and Cycles in Weighted Fixed Orientation Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Let G be a graph embedded in the L_1-plane. The stretch factor of G is the maximum over all pairs of distinct vertices p and q of G of the ratio L_1^G(p,q)/L_1(p,q), where L_1^G(p,q) is the L_1-distance in G between p and q. We show how to compute the stretch factor of an n-vertex path in O(n*(log...... n)^2) worst-case time and O(n) space and we mention generalizations to trees and cycles, to general weighted fixed orientation metrics, and to higher dimensions....

  10. Preliminary Investigation into Tree Dryness in Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. Ex Adr. De Juss Muell. Arg. by Path Analysis of Tree Dryness and Latex Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokhafe, KO.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlative path analysis between tree dryness and four latex parameters was studied in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis. The latex parameters used for evaluation were initial volume, initial flow rate, final volume and plugging index with tree dryness as the dependent factor. Estimates of direct and indirect effects of each of the latex parameters on tree dryness were calculated through linear correlation and path analysis. The correlation coefficient between initial volume and initial flow rate was 1.00 and both characters had the same correlation coefficients with other latex parameters and tree dryness. This implies that initial volume and initial flow rate are alternatives for evaluation of correlation between latex parameters and tree dryness. There was significant correlation between initial volume, initial flow rate and tree dryness at V = -0.52 and high indirect effect of initial volume and initial flow rate through final volume. In addition, despite the low correlation coefficient of V = -0.20 between final volume and tree dryness, the direct effect of final volume on tree dryness was high at 0.812. Final volume is therefore an important factor in the incidence of tree dryness.

  11. An algorithm for sequential tail value at risk for path-independent payoffs in a binomial tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berend

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm that determines Sequential Tail Value at Risk (STVaR) for path-independent payoffs in a binomial tree. STVaR is a dynamic version of Tail-Value-at-Risk (TVaR) characterized by the property that risk levels at any moment must be in the range of risk levels later on. The

  12. Mistletoe infection alters the transpiration flow path and suppresses water regulation of host trees during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, A.; Maier, C.; Barton, C. V.; Metzen, D.; Renchon, A.; Boer, M. M.; Pendall, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mistletoe is a globally distributed group of parasitic plants that infiltrates the vascular tissue of its host trees to acquire water, carbon and nutrients, making it a leading agent of biotic disturbance. Many mistletoes occur in water-limited ecosystems, thus mistletoe infection in combination with increased climatic stress may exacerbate water stress and potentially accelerate mortality rates of infected trees during extreme events. This is an emerging problem in Australia, as mistletoe distribution is increasing and clear links between mistletoe infection and mortality have been established. However, direct observations about how mistletoes alter host physiological processes during extreme events are rare, which impedes our understanding of mechanisms underlying increased tree mortality rates. We addressed this gap by continuously monitoring stem and branch sap flow and a range of leaf traits of infected and uninfected trees of two co-occurring eucalypt species during a severe heatwave in south-eastern Australia. We demonstrate that mistletoes' leaf water potentials were maintained 30% lower than hosts' to redirect the trees' transpiration flow path towards mistletoe leaves. Eucalypt leaves reduced water loss through stomatal regulation when atmospheric dryness exceeded 2 kPa, but the magnitude of stomatal regulation in non-infected eucalypts differed by species (between 40-80%). Remarkably, when infected, sap flow rates of stems and branches of both eucalypt species remained unregulated even under extreme atmospheric dryness (>8 kPa). Our observations indicate that excessive water use of mistletoes likely increases xylem cavitation rates in hosts during prolonged droughts and supports that hydraulic failure contributes to increased mortality of infected trees. Hence, in order to accurately model the contribution of biotic disturbances to tree mortality under a changing climate, it will be crucial to increase our process-based understanding of the interaction

  13. Dynamic shortest path problems : hybrid routing policies considering network disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sever, D.; Dellaert, N.P.; Woensel, van T.; Kok, de A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic network disruptions lead to significant increases in transportation costs. We consider networks in which a number of links are vulnerable to these disruptions leading to a significantly higher travel time on these links. For these vulnerable links, we consider known link disruption

  14. Minimizing Communication in All-Pairs Shortest Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    on a 16,384 vertex, 5% dense graph, is slightly faster using our approach (18.6 vs . 22.6 seconds) than using the replicated Johnson’s algorithm...Oracle and Samsung , as well as MathWorks. Research is also supported by DOE grants DE-SC0004938, DE-SC0005136, DE-SC0003959, DE-SC0008700, and AC02...Brickell, I. S. Dhillon, S. Sra, and J. A. Tropp. The metric nearness problem. SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl ., 30:375–396, 2008. [11] A. Buluç, J. R. Gilbert

  15. A Random Riemannian Metric for Probabilistic Shortest-Path Tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Schober, Michael; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2015-01-01

    of the diffusion tensor as a “random Riemannian metric”, where a geodesic is a distribution over tracts. We approximate this distribution with a Gaussian process and present a probabilistic numerics algorithm for computing the geodesic distribution. We demonstrate SPT improvements on data from the Human Connectome...

  16. Distance estimation by computer vision and shortest path planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... static or dynamic obstacle environment [1] [2] [3]. Several sensors as laser sensors, ultrasonic sensors ... decrement in processing time with higher speed. .... [1] A. Kynova, "Indoor Spatial Data Model for Wayfinding: A Case.

  17. Distance estimation by computer vision and shortest path planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 6S (2018) > ... The proposed way also detects and avoids obstacles in an environment using a single ... This paper has a great importance because of its fast execution speed also vision is a smart sensor as it helps ...

  18. Shortest triplet clustering: reconstructing large phylogenies using representative sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Vinh Le

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolutionary relationships among species based on their genetic information is one of the primary objectives in phylogenetic analysis. Reconstructing phylogenies for large data sets is still a challenging task in Bioinformatics. Results We propose a new distance-based clustering method, the shortest triplet clustering algorithm (STC, to reconstruct phylogenies. The main idea is the introduction of a natural definition of so-called k-representative sets. Based on k-representative sets, shortest triplets are reconstructed and serve as building blocks for the STC algorithm to agglomerate sequences for tree reconstruction in O(n2 time for n sequences. Simulations show that STC gives better topological accuracy than other tested methods that also build a first starting tree. STC appears as a very good method to start the tree reconstruction. However, all tested methods give similar results if balanced nearest neighbor interchange (BNNI is applied as a post-processing step. BNNI leads to an improvement in all instances. The program is available at http://www.bi.uni-duesseldorf.de/software/stc/. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the new approach efficiently reconstructs phylogenies for large data sets. We found that BNNI boosts the topological accuracy of all methods including STC, therefore, one should use BNNI as a post-processing step to get better topological accuracy.

  19. Non-binary decomposition trees - a method of reliability computation for systems with known minimal paths/cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Jacek

    2004-05-01

    A coherent system with independent components and known minimal paths (cuts) is considered. In order to compute its reliability, a tree structure T is constructed whose nodes contain the modified minimal paths (cuts) and numerical values. The value of a non-leaf node is a function of its child nodes' values. The values of leaf nodes are calculated from a simple formula. The value of the root node is the system's failure probability (reliability). Subsequently, an algorithm computing the system's failure probability (reliability) is constructed. The algorithm scans all nodes of T using a stack structure for this purpose. The nodes of T are alternately put on and removed from the stack, their data being modified in the process. Once the algorithm has terminated, the stack contains only the final modification of the root node of T, and its value is equal to the system's failure probability (reliability)

  20. Non-binary decomposition trees - a method of reliability computation for systems with known minimal paths/cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    A coherent system with independent components and known minimal paths (cuts) is considered. In order to compute its reliability, a tree structure T is constructed whose nodes contain the modified minimal paths (cuts) and numerical values. The value of a non-leaf node is a function of its child nodes' values. The values of leaf nodes are calculated from a simple formula. The value of the root node is the system's failure probability (reliability). Subsequently, an algorithm computing the system's failure probability (reliability) is constructed. The algorithm scans all nodes of T using a stack structure for this purpose. The nodes of T are alternately put on and removed from the stack, their data being modified in the process. Once the algorithm has terminated, the stack contains only the final modification of the root node of T, and its value is equal to the system's failure probability (reliability)

  1. Analysis of the asymmetric shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W. H M

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two parallel servers with different service rates. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream and generate an exponentially distributed workload. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths, he joins the first

  2. Analysis of the shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two identical servers, each with exponentially distributed service times. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal length, he joins either queue with probability ½. We show

  3. Analysis of the symmetric shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two identical servers, each with exponentially distributed service times. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream. On· arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths, he joins either queue with probability ½. By using

  4. Analysis of the symmetric shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two identical servers, each with exponentially distributed service times. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths, he joins either queue with probability 1/2. By

  5. Analysis of the asymmetric shortest queue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two parallel servers with different service rates. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream and generate an exponentially distributed workload. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths, he joins the first

  6. PREP KITT, System Reliability by Fault Tree Analysis. PREP, Min Path Set and Min Cut Set for Fault Tree Analysis, Monte-Carlo Method. KITT, Component and System Reliability Information from Kinetic Fault Tree Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Narum, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The PREP/KITT computer program package obtains system reliability information from a system fault tree. The PREP program finds the minimal cut sets and/or the minimal path sets of the system fault tree. (A minimal cut set is a smallest set of components such that if all the components are simultaneously failed the system is failed. A minimal path set is a smallest set of components such that if all of the components are simultaneously functioning the system is functioning.) The KITT programs determine reliability information for the components of each minimal cut or path set, for each minimal cut or path set, and for the system. Exact, time-dependent reliability information is determined for each component and for each minimal cut set or path set. For the system, reliability results are obtained by upper bound approximations or by a bracketing procedure in which various upper and lower bounds may be obtained as close to one another as desired. The KITT programs can handle independent components which are non-repairable or which have a constant repair time. Any assortment of non-repairable components and components having constant repair times can be considered. Any inhibit conditions having constant probabilities of occurrence can be handled. The failure intensity of each component is assumed to be constant with respect to time. The KITT2 program can also handle components which during different time intervals, called phases, may have different reliability properties. 2 - Method of solution: The PREP program obtains minimal cut sets by either direct deterministic testing or by an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm. The minimal path sets are obtained using the Monte Carlo algorithm. The reliability information is obtained by the KITT programs from numerical solution of the simple integral balance equations of kinetic tree theory. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The PREP program will obtain the minimal cut and

  7. Approaching the Brachistochrone Using Inclined Planes--Striving for Shortest or Equal Travelling Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    The classical "brachistochrone" problem asks for the path on which a mobile point M just driven by its own gravity will travel in the shortest possible time between two given points "A" and "B." The resulting curve, the cycloid, will also be the "tautochrone" curve, i.e. the travelling time of the mobile…

  8. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  9. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  10. A Path Walkability Assessment Index Model for Evaluating and Facilitating Retail Walking Using Decision-Tree-Making (DTM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keyvanfar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is the major contributor of ever-increasing CO2 and Greenhouse Gas emissions in cities. The ever-increasing hazardous emissions of transportation and energy consumption have persuaded transportation and urban planners to motivate people to non-motorized mode of travel, especially walking. Currently, there are several urban walkability assessment models; however, coping with a limited range of walkability assessment variables make these models not fully able to promote inclusive walkable urban neighborhoods. In this regard, this study develops the path walkability assessment (PWA index model which evaluates and analyzes path walkability in association with the pedestrian’s decision-tree-making (DTM. The model converts the pedestrian’s DTM qualitative data to quantifiable values. This model involves ninety-two (92 physical and environmental walkability assessment variables clustered into three layers of DTM (Layer 1: features; Layer 2: Criteria; and Layer 3: Sub-Criteria, and scoped to shopping and retail type of walking. The PWA model as a global decision support tool can be applied in any neighborhood in the world, and this study implements it at Taman Universiti neighborhood in Skudai, Malaysia. The PWA model has established the walkability score index which determines the grading rate of walkability accomplishment for each walkability variable of the under-survey neighborhood. Using the PWA grading index enables urban designers to manage properly the financial resource allocation for inspiring walkability in the targeted neighborhood.

  11. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  12. Constraint-Based Local Search for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Dung; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    Constrained Optimum Path (COP) problems arise in many real-life applications and are ubiquitous in communication networks. They have been traditionally approached by dedicated algorithms, which are often hard to extend with side constraints and to apply widely. This paper proposes a constraint-based local search (CBLS) framework for COP applications, bringing the compositionality, reuse, and extensibility at the core of CBLS and CP systems. The modeling contribution is the ability to express compositional models for various COP applications at a high level of abstraction, while cleanly separating the model and the search procedure. The main technical contribution is a connected neighborhood based on rooted spanning trees to find high-quality solutions to COP problems. The framework, implemented in COMET, is applied to Resource Constrained Shortest Path (RCSP) problems (with and without side constraints) and to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP). Computational results show the potential significance of the approach.

  13. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  14. Partial Path Column Generation for the ESPPRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn

    This talk introduces a decomposition of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints(ESPPRC), where the path is combined by smaller sub paths. We show computational result by comparing different approaches for the decomposition and compare the best of these with existing algorit...

  15. Changes in wood density, wood anatomy and hydraulic properties of the xylem along the root-to-shoot flow path in tropical rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Brock, Nicolai; Horna, Viviana

    2013-02-01

    It is generally assumed that the largest vessels are occurring in the roots and that vessel diameters and the related hydraulic conductance in the xylem are decreasing acropetally from roots to leaves. With this study in five tree species of a perhumid tropical rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia), we searched for patterns in hydraulic architecture and axial conductivity along the flow path from small-diameter roots through strong roots and the trunk to distal sun-canopy twigs. Wood density differed by not more than 10% across the different flow path positions in a species, and branch and stem wood density were closely related in three of the five species. Other than wood density, the wood anatomical and xylem hydraulic traits varied in dependence on the position along the flow path, but were unrelated to wood density within a tree. In contrast to reports from conifers and certain dicotyledonous species, we found a hump-shaped variation in vessel diameter and sapwood area--specific conductivity along the flow path in all five species with a maximum in the trunk and strong roots and minima in both small roots and twigs; the vessel size depended on the diameter of the organ. This pattern might be an adaptation to the perhumid climate with a low risk of hydraulic failure. Despite a similar mean vessel diameter in small roots and twigs, the two distal organs, hydraulically weighted mean vessel diameters were on average 30% larger in small roots, resulting in ∼ 85% higher empirical and theoretical specific conductivities. Relative vessel lumen area in percent of sapwood area decreased linearly by 70% from roots to twigs, reflecting the increase in sclerenchymatic tissue and tracheids in acropetal direction in the xylem. Vessel size was more closely related to the organ diameter than to the distance along the root-to-shoot flow path. We conclude that (i) the five co-occurring tree species show convergent patterns in their hydraulic architecture despite different growth

  16. Solving the replacement paths problem for planar directed graphs in O(n logn) time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In a graph G with non-negative edge lengths, let P be a shortest path from a vertex s to a vertex t. We consider the problem of computing, for each edge e on P, the length of a shortest path in G from s to t that avoids e. This is known as the replacement paths problem. We give a linearspace...

  17. Establishment Of The Shortest Route A Prototype For Facilitation In Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Yousuf Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Calculating the shortest path between two locations in a road network is a significant problem in network analysis. Roads play a pivotal role in day to day activities of masses live in places and areas. They travel for various purposes that are to study to work to shop and to supply their goods and the like from one place to another place. Even in this modern era roads remain one of the mediums used most frequently for travel and transportation. Being ignorant of the shortest routes people sometimes have to travel long distances consume extra precious time money and bare undesirable mental stress. Karachi is the second most populated and the seventh biggest city of the world. It is the central place of Pakistan which is famous for industry banking trade and economic activity and there are places which frequently visit by the inhabitants for their miscellaneous requirements. Federal Board of Revenue FBR is one of the departments that deal with taxation and revenue generation in the country. A common man residing near or distant areas often visit FBR to settle their business property and tax related issues. In order to facilitate the masses an effort is being made to develop a prototype based on Dijkstras Algorithm DA to establish a shortest route that will help individuals in navigation and subsequently alleviate difficulties faced by them in travelling road networks.

  18. Finding shortest non-trivial cycles in directed graphs on surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cabello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Let $D$ be a weighted directed graph cellularly embedded in a surface of genus $g$, orientable or not, possibly with boundary.  We describe algorithms to compute shortest non-contractible and shortest surface non-separating cycles in $D$, generalizing previous results that dealt with undirected graphs.Our first algorithm computes such cycles in $O(n^2\\log n$ time, where $n$ is the total number of vertices and edges of $D$, thus matching the complexity of the best general algorithm in the undirected case.  It revisits and extends Thomassen's 3-path condition; the technique applies to other families of cycles as well.We also provide more efficient algorithms in special cases, such as graphs with small genus or bounded treewidth, using a divide-and-conquer technique that simplifies the graph while preserving the topological properties of its cycles.  Finally, we give an efficient output-sensitive algorithm, whose running time depends on the length of the shortest non-contractible or non-separating cycle.

  19. Eccentric connectivity index of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haoer, R. S.; Atan, K. A.; Said, M. R. Md.; Khalaf, A. M.; Hasni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Let G = (V, E) be a simple connected molecular graph. In such a simple molecular graph, vertices and edges are depicted atoms and chemical bonds respectively, we refer to the sets of vertices by V (G) and edges by E (G). If d(u, v) be distance between two vertices u, v ∈ V(G) and can be defined as the length of a shortest path joining them. Then, the eccentricity connectivity index (ECI) of a molecular graph G is ξ(G) = ∑_v_∈_V_(_G_) d(v) ec(v), where d(v) is degree of a vertex v ∈ V(G). ec(v) is the length of a greatest path linking to another vertex of v. In this study, we focus the general formula for the eccentricity connectivity index (ECI) of some chemical trees as alkenes.

  20. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  1. Earthworms and tree roots: A model study of the effect of preferential flow paths on runoff generation and groundwater recharge in steep, saprolitic, tropical lowland catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanyan; Ogden, Fred L.; Zhu, Jianting

    2017-07-01

    Preferential flow paths (PFPs) affect the hydrological response of humid tropical catchments but have not received sufficient attention. We consider PFPs created by tree roots and earthworms in a near-surface soil layer in steep, humid, tropical lowland catchments and hypothesize that observed hydrological behaviors can be better captured by reasonably considering PFPs in this layer. We test this hypothesis by evaluating the performance of four different physically based distributed model structures without and with PFPs in different configurations. Model structures are tested both quantitatively and qualitatively using hydrological, geophysical, and geochemical data both from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Agua Salud Project experimental catchment(s) in Central Panama and other sources in the literature. The performance of different model structures is evaluated using runoff Volume Error and three Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency measures against observed total runoff, stormflows, and base flows along with visual comparison of simulated and observed hydrographs. Two of the four proposed model structures which include both lateral and vertical PFPs are plausible, but the one with explicit simulation of PFPs performs the best. A small number of vertical PFPs that fully extend below the root zone allow the model to reasonably simulate deep groundwater recharge, which plays a crucial role in base flow generation. Results also show that the shallow lateral PFPs are the main contributor to the observed high flow characteristics. Their number and size distribution are found to be more important than the depth distribution. Our model results are corroborated by geochemical and geophysical observations.

  2. Blocked All-Pairs Shortest Paths Algorithm on Intel Xeon Phi KNL Processor: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rucci, Enzo; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Naiouf, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Manycores are consolidating in HPC community as a way of improving performance while keeping power efficiency. Knights Landing is the recently released second generation of Intel Xeon Phi architec- ture.While optimizing applications on CPUs, GPUs and first Xeon Phi’s has been largely studied in the last years, the new features in Knights Landing processors require the revision of programming and optimization techniques for these devices. In this work, we selected the Floyd-Warshall algorithm ...

  3. The Threshold Shortest Path Interdiction Problem for Critical Infrastructure Resilience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    offered in the past by pizza delivery stores. A pizza parlor provides a delivery service to people living within a certain range from the restaurant ...disruptions that are outside of the pizza parlor’s control. Given this data, the owner of the restaurant can make decisions on offering the guarantee

  4. The Average Network Flow Problem: Shortest Path and Minimum Cost Flow Formulations, Algorithms, Heuristics, and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    46, 1989. [75] S. Melkote and M.S. Daskin . An integrated model of facility location and transportation network design. Transportation Research Part A ... a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/DS/ENS/12-09 THE AVERAGE NETWORK FLOW PROBLEM...focused thinking (VFT) are used sparingly, as is the case across the entirety of the supply chain literature. We provide a VFT tutorial for supply chain

  5. Probabilistic shortest path tractography in DTI using Gaussian Process ODE solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schober, Michael; Kasenburg, Niklas; Feragen, Aasa

    2014-01-01

    Tractography in diffusion tensor imaging estimates connectivity in the brain through observations of local diffusivity. These observations are noisy and of low resolution and, as a consequence, connections cannot be found with high precision. We use probabilistic numerics to estimate connectivity...

  6. Sum of All-Pairs Shortest Path Distances in a Planar Graph in Subquadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing the Wiener index of a graph, defined as the sum of distances between all pairs of its vertices. It is an open problem whether the Wiener index of a planar graph can be found in subquadratic time. We solve this problem by presenting an algorithm with O(n^2*log...

  7. Particle swarm optimization for determining shortest distance to voltage collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, L.D.; Choube, S.C. [Electrical Engineering Department, S.G.S.I.T.S. Indore, MP 452 003 (India); Shrivastava, M. [Electrical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College Ujjain, MP 456 010 (India); Kothari, D.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    This paper describes an algorithm for computing shortest distance to voltage collapse or determination of CSNBP using PSO technique. A direction along CSNBP gives conservative results from voltage security view point. This information is useful to the operator to steer the system away from this point by taking corrective actions. The distance to a closest bifurcation is a minimum of the loadability given a slack bus or participation factors for increasing generation as the load increases. CSNBP determination has been formulated as an optimization problem to be used in PSO technique. PSO is a new evolutionary algorithm (EA) which is population based inspired by the social behavior of animals such as fish schooling and birds flocking. It can handle optimization problems with any complexity since mechanization is simple with few parameters to be tuned. The developed algorithm has been implemented on two standard test systems. (author)

  8. Multi-level tree analysis of pulmonary artery/vein trees in non-contrast CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyun; Grout, Randall W.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Saha, Punam K.

    2012-02-01

    Diseases like pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension are associated with vascular dystrophy. Identifying such pulmonary artery/vein (A/V) tree dystrophy in terms of quantitative measures via CT imaging significantly facilitates early detection of disease or a treatment monitoring process. A tree structure, consisting of nodes and connected arcs, linked to the volumetric representation allows multi-level geometric and volumetric analysis of A/V trees. Here, a new theory and method is presented to generate multi-level A/V tree representation of volumetric data and to compute quantitative measures of A/V tree geometry and topology at various tree hierarchies. The new method is primarily designed on arc skeleton computation followed by a tree construction based topologic and geometric analysis of the skeleton. The method starts with a volumetric A/V representation as input and generates its topologic and multi-level volumetric tree representations long with different multi-level morphometric measures. A new recursive merging and pruning algorithms are introduced to detect bad junctions and noisy branches often associated with digital geometric and topologic analysis. Also, a new notion of shortest axial path is introduced to improve the skeletal arc joining two junctions. The accuracy of the multi-level tree analysis algorithm has been evaluated using computer generated phantoms and pulmonary CT images of a pig vessel cast phantom while the reproducibility of method is evaluated using multi-user A/V separation of in vivo contrast-enhanced CT images of a pig lung at different respiratory volumes.

  9. A Hybrid 3D Path Planning Method for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method for path planning in 3D spaces. We propose an improvement to a near-optimal 2D off-line algorithm and a flexible normalized on-line fuzzy controller to find shortest paths. Our method, targeted to low altitude domains, is simple and efficient. Our preliminary resu...

  10. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  11. Welding Robot Collision-Free Path Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewu Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable welding path has a significant impact on welding efficiency, and a collision-free path should be considered first in the process of welding robot path planning. The shortest path length is considered as an optimization objective, and obstacle avoidance is considered as the constraint condition in this paper. First, a grid method is used as a modeling method after the optimization objective is analyzed. For local collision-free path planning, an ant colony algorithm is selected as the search strategy. Then, to overcome the shortcomings of the ant colony algorithm, a secondary optimization is presented to improve the optimization performance. Finally, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to realize global path planning. Simulation results show that the desired welding path can be obtained based on the optimization strategy.

  12. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory; Greco, Evan; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current

  13. Matrix-geometric analysis of the shortest queue problem with threshold jockeying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of c parallel servers with possibly different service rates. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream and generate an exponentially distributed workload. An arriving job joins the shortest queue, where in case of multiple shortest queues, one of these

  14. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  15. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  16. QoS Supported IPTV Service Architecture over Hybrid-Tree-Based Explicit Routed Multicast Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advance in multimedia streaming and multicast transport technology, current IP multicast protocols, especially PIM-SM, become the major channel delivery mechanism for IPTV system over Internet. The goals for IPTV service are to provide two-way interactive services for viewers to select popular program channel with high quality for watching during fast channel surfing period. However, existing IP multicast protocol cannot meet above QoS requirements for IPTV applications between media server and subscribers. Therefore, we propose a cooperative scheme of hybrid-tree based on explicit routed multicast, called as HT-ERM to combine the advantages of shared tree and source tree for QoS-supported IPTV service. To increase network utilization, the constrained shortest path first (CSPF routing algorithm is designed for construction of hybrid tree to deliver the high-quality video stream over watching channel and standard quality over surfing channel. Furthermore, the Resource Reservation Protocol- Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE is used as signaling mechanism to set up QoS path for multicast channel admission control. Our simulation results demonstrated that the proposed HT-ERM scheme outperforms other multicast QoS-based delivery scheme in terms of channel switching delay, resource utilization, and blocking ratio for IPTV service.

  17. Multi-AGV path planning with double-path constraints by using an improved genetic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengliang Han

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an improved genetic algorithm on multiple automated guided vehicle (multi-AGV path planning. The innovations embody in two aspects. First, three-exchange crossover heuristic operators are used to produce more optimal offsprings for getting more information than with the traditional two-exchange crossover heuristic operators in the improved genetic algorithm. Second, double-path constraints of both minimizing the total path distance of all AGVs and minimizing single path distances of each AGV are exerted, gaining the optimal shortest total path distance. The simulation results show that the total path distance of all AGVs and the longest single AGV path distance are shortened by using the improved genetic algorithm.

  18. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  19. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  20. Path Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP

  1. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...... execution tree that characterizes the execution paths covered during symbolic execution. The new extension can be tailored to the needs of subsequent analyses/processing facilities, and we demonstrate this by presenting SPF-Visualizer, which is a tool for customizable visualization of the symbolic execution...

  2. Weight of the Shortest Path to the First Encountered Peer in a Peer Group of Size m

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mieghem, P.; Tang, S.

    We model the weight (e.g. delay, distance or cost) from an arbitrary node to the nearest (in weight) peer in a peer-to-peer (P2P) network. The exact probability generating function and an asymptotic analysis is presented for a random graph with i.i.d. exponential link weights. The asymptotic

  3. Performance analysis of parallel identical machines with a generalized shortest queue arrival mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we study a production system consisting of a group of parallel machines producing multiple job types. Each machine has its own queue and it can process a restricted set of job types only. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue among all queues capable of serving that job. Under the

  4. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: Difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Hegeman, G.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Pierik, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  5. Analysis of the asymmetric shortest queue problem : part 2: numerical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two parallel servers with different service rates. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream and generate an exponentially distributed workload. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths, he joins the first

  6. Analysis of the asymmetric shortest queue problem : Part 1: theoretical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study a system consisting of two parallel servers with different service rates. Jobs arrive according to a Poisson stream and generate an exponentially distributed workload. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue and in case both queues have equal lengths. be joins the first

  7. MARKETING DATABASES – THE SHORTEST WAY TO CLIENT’S HEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adela Laura

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the potential which could be offered by managing databases in direct marketing through gathering the information that could offer the shortest and efficient way to the clients needs. The paper includes the necessary steps to make this activity a real success

  8. Uniqueness of Steiner minimal trees on boundaries in general position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2006-01-01

    The following result is proved: there exists an open dense subset U of R 2n such that each P element of U (regarded as an enumerated subset of the standard Euclidean plane R 2 ) is spanned by a unique Steiner minimal tree, that is, a shortest non-degenerate network. Several interesting consequences are also obtained: in particular, it is proved that each planar Steiner tree is planar equivalent to a Steiner minimal tree.

  9. Reaction-diffusion path planning in a hybrid chemical and cellular-automaton processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Lacy Costello, Benjamin de

    2003-01-01

    To find the shortest collision-free path in a room containing obstacles we designed a chemical processor and coupled it with a cellular-automaton processor. In the chemical processor obstacles are represented by sites of high concentration of potassium iodide and a planar substrate is saturated with palladium chloride. Potassium iodide diffuses into the substrate and reacts with palladium chloride. A dark coloured precipitate of palladium iodide is formed almost everywhere except sites where two or more diffusion wavefronts collide. The less coloured sites are situated at the furthest distance from obstacles. Thus, the chemical processor develops a repulsive field, generated by obstacles. A snapshot of the chemical processor is inputted to a cellular automaton. The automaton behaves like a discrete excitable media; also, every cell of the automaton is supplied with a pointer that shows an origin of the cell's excitation. The excitation spreads along the cells corresponding to precipitate depleted sites of the chemical processor. When the destination-site is excited, waves travel on the lattice and update the orientations of the pointers. Thus, the automaton constructs a spanning tree, made of pointers, that guides a traveler towards the destination point. Thus, the automaton medium generates an attractive field and combination of this attractive field with the repulsive field, generated by the chemical processor, provides us with a solution of the collision-free path problem

  10. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  11. Path Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts. Competenc......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts....... Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based...

  12. A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. PMID:27413364

  13. A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals.

  14. Recursive Trees for Practical ORAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Tarik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new, general data structure that reduces the communication cost of recent tree-based ORAMs. Contrary to ORAM trees with constant height and path lengths, our new construction r-ORAM allows for trees with varying shorter path length. Accessing an element in the ORAM tree results in different communication costs depending on the location of the element. The main idea behind r-ORAM is a recursive ORAM tree structure, where nodes in the tree are roots of other trees. While this approach results in a worst-case access cost (tree height at most as any recent tree-based ORAM, we show that the average cost saving is around 35% for recent binary tree ORAMs. Besides reducing communication cost, r-ORAM also reduces storage overhead on the server by 4% to 20% depending on the ORAM’s client memory type. To prove r-ORAM’s soundness, we conduct a detailed overflow analysis. r-ORAM’s recursive approach is general in that it can be applied to all recent tree ORAMs, both constant and poly-log client memory ORAMs. Finally, we implement and benchmark r-ORAM in a practical setting to back up our theoretical claims.

  15. Influence of drag force upon the shortest time trajectory of an aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei CRAIFALEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortest time trajectory of an aircraft between two given locations is determined using a simple mathematical model. By taking into account the drag force (viscous friction force with the air, a problem of variational calculus is obtained which consists in determining two functions that minimize a functional, subject to a non-holonomic constraint. The trajectory is determined directly, by numerical integration of Euler equations with multipliers. Three types of drag forces were considered: constant, linear and quadratic. The results are verified through comparison to the values obtained from numerical minimization of the involved functional approximate forms.

  16. Virtual Network Embedding via Monte Carlo Tree Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Soroush; Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    2018-02-01

    Network virtualization helps overcome shortcomings of the current Internet architecture. The virtualized network architecture enables coexistence of multiple virtual networks (VNs) on an existing physical infrastructure. VN embedding (VNE) problem, which deals with the embedding of VN components onto a physical network, is known to be -hard. In this paper, we propose two VNE algorithms: MaVEn-M and MaVEn-S. MaVEn-M employs the multicommodity flow algorithm for virtual link mapping while MaVEn-S uses the shortest-path algorithm. They formalize the virtual node mapping problem by using the Markov decision process (MDP) framework and devise action policies (node mappings) for the proposed MDP using the Monte Carlo tree search algorithm. Service providers may adjust the execution time of the MaVEn algorithms based on the traffic load of VN requests. The objective of the algorithms is to maximize the profit of infrastructure providers. We develop a discrete event VNE simulator to implement and evaluate performance of MaVEn-M, MaVEn-S, and several recently proposed VNE algorithms. We introduce profitability as a new performance metric that captures both acceptance and revenue to cost ratios. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms find more profitable solutions than the existing algorithms. Given additional computation time, they further improve embedding solutions.

  17. Path planning of decentralized multi-quadrotor based on fuzzy-cell decomposition algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswanto, Wahyunggoro, Oyas; Cahyadi, Adha Imam

    2017-04-01

    The paper aims to present a design algorithm for multi quadrotor lanes in order to move towards the goal quickly and avoid obstacles in an area with obstacles. There are several problems in path planning including how to get to the goal position quickly and avoid static and dynamic obstacles. To overcome the problem, therefore, the paper presents fuzzy logic algorithm and fuzzy cell decomposition algorithm. Fuzzy logic algorithm is one of the artificial intelligence algorithms which can be applied to robot path planning that is able to detect static and dynamic obstacles. Cell decomposition algorithm is an algorithm of graph theory used to make a robot path map. By using the two algorithms the robot is able to get to the goal position and avoid obstacles but it takes a considerable time because they are able to find the shortest path. Therefore, this paper describes a modification of the algorithms by adding a potential field algorithm used to provide weight values on the map applied for each quadrotor by using decentralized controlled, so that the quadrotor is able to move to the goal position quickly by finding the shortest path. The simulations conducted have shown that multi-quadrotor can avoid various obstacles and find the shortest path by using the proposed algorithms.

  18. The Shortest QRS Duration of an Electrocardiogram Might Be an Optimal Electrocardiographic Predictor for Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jan-Yow; Lin, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Chou, Che-Yi

    2017-08-03

    QRS duration has been associated with the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, the methods for defining QRS duration to predict the outcome of CRT have discrepancies in previous reports. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal measurement of QRS duration to predict the response to CRT.Sixty-one patients who received CRT were analyzed. All patients had class III-IV heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction not more than 35%, and complete left bundle branch block. The shortest, longest, and average QRS durations from the 12 leads of each electrocardiogram (ECG) were measured. The responses to CRT were determined using the changes in echocardiography after 6 months. Thirty-five (57.4%) patients were responders and 26 (42.6%) patients were non-responders. The pre-procedure shortest, average, and longest QRS durations and the QRS shortening (ΔQRS) of the shortest QRS duration were significantly associated with the response to CRT in a univariate logistic regression analysis (P = 0.002, P = 0.03, P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). Based on the measurement of the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve, only the pre-procedure shortest QRS duration and the ΔQRS of the shortest QRS duration showed significant discrimination for the response to CRT (P = 0.002 and P = 0.038, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression showed the pre-procedure shortest QRS duration is an independent predictor for the response to CRT.The shortest QRS duration from the 12 leads of the electrocardiogram might be an optimal measurement to predict the response to CRT.

  19. Path Generation by Avoiding Obstacles using the Intersection of Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komák Martin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss the problem of path finding in 3D space with an obstacle. The thesis deals with the problem of searching for the shortest path between the individual points in the space so that this path does not come into collision with an obstacle. A system has been designed to construct paths in cross-sectional planes of the given object representing an obstacle, based on its surface contour. The system solves the issue of loading STL format, creating cross-sectional planes of the object, intersection between geometric shapes, and generation of lines around the contour of the object in 2D. An experiment was performed, in which we have been moving around a model of a jet aircraft and its results are described in the conclusion.

  20. On algorithm for building of optimal α-decision trees

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes an algorithm that constructs approximate decision trees (α-decision trees), which are optimal relatively to one of the following complexity measures: depth, total path length or number of nodes. The algorithm uses dynamic

  1. Reduction of wind power induced reserve requirements by advanced shortest-term forecasts and prediction intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobschinski, Jan; Wessel, Arne; Lange, Bernhard; Bremen, Lueder von [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In electricity systems with large penetration of wind power, the limited predictability of the wind power generation leads to an increase in reserve and balancing requirements. At first the present study concentrates on the capability of dynamic day-ahead prediction intervals to reduce the wind power induced reserve and balancing requirements. Alternatively the reduction of large forecast errors of the German wind power generation by using advanced shortest-term predictions has been evaluated in a second approach. With focus on the allocation of minute reserve power the aim is to estimate the maximal remaining uncertainty after trading activities on the intraday market. Finally both approaches were used in a case study concerning the reserve requirements induced by the total German wind power expansion in 2007. (orig.)

  2. The Global Optimal Algorithm of Reliable Path Finding Problem Based on Backtracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in finding a global optimal path in transportation networks particularly when the network suffers from unexpected disturbance. This paper studies the problem of finding a global optimal path to guarantee a given probability of arriving on time in a network with uncertainty, in which the travel time is stochastic instead of deterministic. Traditional path finding methods based on least expected travel time cannot capture the network user’s risk-taking behaviors in path finding. To overcome such limitation, the reliable path finding algorithms have been proposed but the convergence of global optimum is seldom addressed in the literature. This paper integrates the K-shortest path algorithm into Backtracking method to propose a new path finding algorithm under uncertainty. The global optimum of the proposed method can be guaranteed. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Computing paths and cycles in biological interaction graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kamp Axel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction graphs (signed directed graphs provide an important qualitative modeling approach for Systems Biology. They enable the analysis of causal relationships in cellular networks and can even be useful for predicting qualitative aspects of systems dynamics. Fundamental issues in the analysis of interaction graphs are the enumeration of paths and cycles (feedback loops and the calculation of shortest positive/negative paths. These computational problems have been discussed only to a minor extent in the context of Systems Biology and in particular the shortest signed paths problem requires algorithmic developments. Results We first review algorithms for the enumeration of paths and cycles and show that these algorithms are superior to a recently proposed enumeration approach based on elementary-modes computation. The main part of this work deals with the computation of shortest positive/negative paths, an NP-complete problem for which only very few algorithms are described in the literature. We propose extensions and several new algorithm variants for computing either exact results or approximations. Benchmarks with various concrete biological networks show that exact results can sometimes be obtained in networks with several hundred nodes. A class of even larger graphs can still be treated exactly by a new algorithm combining exhaustive and simple search strategies. For graphs, where the computation of exact solutions becomes time-consuming or infeasible, we devised an approximative algorithm with polynomial complexity. Strikingly, in realistic networks (where a comparison with exact results was possible this algorithm delivered results that are very close or equal to the exact values. This phenomenon can probably be attributed to the particular topology of cellular signaling and regulatory networks which contain a relatively low number of negative feedback loops. Conclusion The calculation of shortest positive

  4. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  5. Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jens; Hedman, Jonas; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    The explanation of how and why firms succeed or fail is a recurrent research challenge. This is particularly important in the context of technological innovations. We focus on the role of historical events and decisions in explaining such success and failure. Using a case study of Nokia, we develop and extend a multi-layer path dependence framework. We identify four layers of path dependence: technical, strategic and leadership, organizational, and external collaboration. We show how path dep...

  6. Mathematical foundations of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical foundation from first principles of event trees is presented. The main objective of this formulation is to offer a formal basis for developing automated computer assisted construction techniques for event trees. The mathematical theory of event trees is based on the correspondence between the paths of the tree and the elements of the outcome space of a joint event. The concept of a basic cylinder set is introduced to describe joint event outcomes conditional on specific outcomes of basic events or unconditional on the outcome of basic events. The concept of outcome space partition is used to describe the minimum amount of information intended to be preserved by the event tree representation. These concepts form the basis for an algorithm for systematic search for and generation of the most compact (reduced) form of an event tree consistent with the minimum amount of information the tree should preserve. This mathematical foundation allows for the development of techniques for automated generation of event trees corresponding to joint events which are formally described through other types of graphical models. Such a technique has been developed for complex systems described by functional blocks and it is reported elsewhere. On the quantification issue of event trees, a formal definition of a probability space corresponding to the event tree outcomes is provided. Finally, a short discussion is offered on the relationship of the presented mathematical theory with the more general use of event trees in reliability analysis of dynamic systems

  7. A 2D analytical cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CG-TFET) model: impact of shortest tunneling distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    A 2D analytical tunnel field-effect transistor (FET) potential model with cylindrical gate (CG-TFET) based on the solution of Laplace’s equation is proposed. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) current is derived by the help of lateral electric field and the shortest tunneling distance. However, the analysis is extended to obtain the subthreshold swing (SS) and transfer characteristics of the device. The dependency of drain current, SS and transconductance on gate voltage and shortest tunneling distance is discussed. Also, the effect of scaling the gate oxide thickness and the cylindrical body diameter on the electrical parameters of the device is analyzed.

  8. A 2D analytical cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CG-TFET) model: impact of shortest tunneling distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, S; Mishra, G P

    2015-01-01

    A 2D analytical tunnel field-effect transistor (FET) potential model with cylindrical gate (CG-TFET) based on the solution of Laplace’s equation is proposed. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) current is derived by the help of lateral electric field and the shortest tunneling distance. However, the analysis is extended to obtain the subthreshold swing (SS) and transfer characteristics of the device. The dependency of drain current, SS and transconductance on gate voltage and shortest tunneling distance is discussed. Also, the effect of scaling the gate oxide thickness and the cylindrical body diameter on the electrical parameters of the device is analyzed. (paper)

  9. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2016-07-28

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

  10. Feynman's path integrals and Bohm's particle paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumulka, Roderich

    2005-01-01

    Both Bohmian mechanics, a version of quantum mechanics with trajectories, and Feynman's path integral formalism have something to do with particle paths in space and time. The question thus arises how the two ideas relate to each other. In short, the answer is, path integrals provide a re-formulation of Schroedinger's equation, which is half of the defining equations of Bohmian mechanics. I try to give a clear and concise description of the various aspects of the situation. (letters and comments)

  11. Path coupling and aggregate path coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2018-01-01

    This book describes and characterizes an extension to the classical path coupling method applied to statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, the aggregate path coupling method is used to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The book shows how the parameter regions for rapid mixing for several classes of statistical mechanical models are derived using the aggregate path coupling method.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  16. Based on Short Motion Paths and Artificial Intelligence Method for Chinese Chess Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Hung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article develops the decision rules to win each set of the Chinese chess game using evaluation algorithm and artificial intelligence method, and uses the mobile robot to be instead of the chess, and presents the movement scenarios using the shortest motion paths for mobile robots. Player can play the Chinese chess game according to the game rules with the supervised computer. The supervised computer decides the optimal motion path to win the set using artificial intelligence method, and controls mobile robots according to the programmed motion paths of the assigned chesses moving on the platform via wireless RF interface. We uses enhance A* searching algorithm to solve the shortest path problem of the assigned chess, and solve the collision problems of the motion paths for two mobile robots moving on the platform simultaneously. We implement a famous set to be called lwild horses run in farmr using the proposed method. First we use simulation method to display the motion paths of the assigned chesses for the player and the supervised computer. Then the supervised computer implements the simulation results on the chessboard platform using mobile robots. Mobile robots move on the chessboard platform according to the programmed motion paths and is guided to move on the centre line of the corridor, and avoid the obstacles (chesses, and detect the cross point of the platform using three reflective IR modules.

  17. Shortest loops are pacemakers in random networks of electrically coupled axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita eVladimirov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency oscillations (HFOs are an important part of brain activity in health and disease. However, their origins remain obscure and controversial. One possible mechanism depends on the presence of sparsely distributed gap junctions that electrically couple the axons of principal cells. A plexus of electrically coupled axons is modeled as a random network with bidirectional connections between its nodes. Under certain conditions the network can demonstrate one of two types of oscillatory activity. Type I oscillations (100-200 Hz are predicted to be caused by spontaneously spiking axons in a network with strong (high-conductance gap junctions. Type II oscillations (200-300 Hz require no spontaneous spiking and relatively weak (low-conductance gap junctions, across which spike propagation failures occur. The type II oscillations are reentrant and self-sustained. Here we examine what determines the frequency of type II oscillations. Using simulations we show that the distribution of loop lengths is the key factor for determining frequency in type II network oscillations. We first analyze spike failure between two electrically coupled cells using a model of anatomically reconstructed CA1 pyramidal neuron. Then network oscillations are studied by a cellular automaton model with random network connectivity, in which we control loop statistics. We show that oscillation periods can be predicted from the network's loop statistics. The shortest loop, around which a spike can travel, is the most likely pacemaker candidate.The principle of one loop as a pacemaker is remarkable, because random networks contain a large number of loops juxtaposed and superimposed, and their number rapidly grows with network size. This principle allows us to predict the frequency of oscillations from network connectivity and visa versa. We finally propose that type I oscillations may correspond to ripples, while type II oscillations correspond to so-called fast ripples.

  18. Small flow rate can supply inwardly migrating shortest-period planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S.F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of exoplanets found with periods as short as one day and less was surprising given how fast these planets had been expected to migrate into the star due to the tides raised on the star by planets at such close distances. It has been seen as improbable that we would find planets in such a small final fraction of their lives [1]. The favored solution has been that the tidal dissipation is much weaker than expected, which would mean that the final infall would be a larger fraction of the planets’ life. We find no reason, however, to exclude the explanation that a small number of planets are continuously sent migrating inwards such that these planets indeed are in the last fraction of their lives. Following the observation that the distribution of medium planets disfavors tidal dissipation being significantly weaker than has been found from observations of binary stars [2], we now show that the numbers of planets in such a “flow” of excess planets migrating inwards is low enough that even depletion of the three-day pileup is a plausible source. Then the shortest period occurrence distribution would be shaped by planets continuously being sent into the star, which may explain the depletion of the pileup in the Kepler field relative to the solar neighborhood [3]. Because Kepler observes above the galactic plan, [3] suggested the Kepler field may include an older population of stars. The tidal dissipation strength in stars due to giant planets may be not greatly weaker than it is in binary stars.

  19. The highest velocity and the shortest duration permitting attainment of VO2max during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p226   The severe-intensity domain has important applications for the prescription of running training and the elaboration of experimental designs. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the validity of a previously proposed model to estimate the shortest exercise duration (TLOW and the highest velocity (VHIGH at which VO2max is reached during running, and 2 to evaluate the effects of aerobic training status on these variables. Eight runners and eight physically active subjects performed several treadmill running exercise tests to fatigue in order to mathematically estimate and to experimentally determine TLOW and VHIGH. The relationship between the time to achieve VO2max and time to exhaustion (Tlim was used to estimate TLOW. VHIGH was estimated using the critical velocity model. VHIGH was assumed to be the highest velocity at which VO2 was equal to or higher than the average VO2max minus one standard deviation. TLOW was defined as Tlim associated with VHIGH. Runners presented better aerobic fitness and higher VHIGH (22.2 ± 1.9 km.h-1 than active subjects (20.0 ± 2.1 km.h-1. However, TLOW did not differ between groups (runners: 101 ± 39 s; active subjects: 100 ± 35 s. TLOW and VHIGH were not well estimated by the model proposed, with high coefficients of variation (> 6% and a low correlation coefficient (r<0.70, a fact reducing the validity of the model. It was concluded that aerobic training status positively affected only VHIGH. Furthermore, the model proposed presented low validity to estimate the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain (i.e., VHIGH, irrespective of the subjects’ training status.

  20. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  1. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  2. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  3. Ants Colony Optimisation of a Measuring Path of Prismatic Parts on a CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinovic Slavenko M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimisation of a measuring probe path in inspecting the prismatic parts on a CMM. The optimisation model is based on: (i the mathematical model that establishes an initial collision-free path presented by a set of points, and (ii the solution of Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP obtained with Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO. In order to solve TSP, an ACO algorithm that aims to find the shortest path of ant colony movement (i.e. the optimised path is applied. Then, the optimised path is compared with the measuring path obtained with online programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500 and with the measuring path obtained in the CMM inspection module of Pro/ENGINEER® software. The results of comparing the optimised path with the other two generated paths show that the optimised path is at least 20% shorter than the path obtained by on-line programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500, and at least 10% shorter than the path obtained by using the CMM module in Pro/ENGINEER®.

  4. Fractional path planning and path tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, P.; Jallouli-Khlif, R.; Metoui, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of the application of fractional approach in path planning and path tracking. A new robust path planning design for mobile robot was studied in dynamic environment. The normalized attractive force applied to the robot is based on a fictitious fractional attractive potential. This method allows to obtain robust path planning despite robot mass variation. The danger level of each obstacles is characterized by the fractional order of the repulsive potential of the obstacles. Under these conditions, the robot dynamic behavior was studied by analyzing its X - Y path planning with dynamic target or dynamic obstacles. The case of simultaneously mobile obstacles and target is also considered. The influence of the robot mass variation is studied and the robustness analysis of the obtained path shows the robustness improvement due to the non integer order properties. Pre shaping approach is used to reduce system vibration in motion control. Desired systems inputs are altered so that the system finishes the requested move without residual vibration. This technique, developed by N.C. Singer and W.P.Seering, is used for flexible structure control, particularly in the aerospace field. In a previous work, this method was extended for explicit fractional derivative systems and applied to second generation CRONE control, the robustness was also studied. CRONE (the French acronym of C ommande Robuste d'Ordre Non Entier ) control system design is a frequency-domain based methodology using complex fractional integration.

  5. MultiPaths Revisited - A novel approach using OpenFlow-enabled devices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shabibi, Ali; Martin, Brian

    2011-06-11

    This thesis presents novel approaches enhancing the performance of computer networks using multipaths. Our enhancements take the form of congestion-aware routing protocols. We present three protocols called MultiRoute, Step-Route, and finally PathRoute. Each of these protocols leverage both local and remote congestion statistics and build different representations (or views) of the network congestion by using an innovative representation of congestion for router-router links. These congestion statistics are then distributed via an aggregation protocol to other routers in the network. For many years, multipath routing protocols have only been used in simple situations, such as Link Aggregation and/or networks where paths of equal cost (and therefore equal delay) exist. But, paths of unequal costs are often discarded to the benefit of shortest path only routing because it is known that paths of unequal length present different delays and therefore cause out of order packets which cause catastrophic network per...

  6. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  7. Path Planning Method in Multi-obstacle Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Sun, Hanxv

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm for particle swarm optimization is proposed for the application of underwater robot in the complex marine environment. Not only did consider to avoid obstacles when path planning, but also considered the current direction and the size effect on the performance of the robot dynamics. The algorithm uses the trunk binary tree structure to construct the path search space and A * heuristic search method is used in the search space to find a evaluation standard path. Then the particle swarm algorithm to optimize the path by adjusting evaluation function, which makes the underwater robot in the current navigation easier to control, and consume less energy.

  8. An Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Robot Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Hadi Abbas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an optimal path planning algorithm based on an Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (AMOPSO for two case studies. First case, single robot wants to reach a goal in the static environment that contain two obstacles and two danger source. The second one, is improving the ability for five robots to reach the shortest way. The proposed algorithm solves the optimization problems for the first case by finding the minimum distance from initial to goal position and also ensuring that the generated path has a maximum distance from the danger zones. And for the second case, finding the shortest path for every robot and without any collision between them with the shortest time. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm in term of finding the best solution, six benchmark test functions are used to make a comparison between AMOPSO and the standard MOPSO. The results show that the AMOPSO has a better ability to get away from local optimums with a quickest convergence than the MOPSO. The simulation results using Matlab 2014a, indicate that this methodology is extremely valuable for every robot in multi-robot framework to discover its own particular proper pa‌th from the start to the destination position with minimum distance and time.

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  14. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  15. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  17. Information spread of emergency events: path searching on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weihui; Hu, Hongzhi; Wu, Tunan; Dai, Yonghui

    2014-01-01

    Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning.

  18. Information Spread of Emergency Events: Path Searching on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihui Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning.

  19. Vervet monkeys use paths consistent with context-specific spatial movement heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichroeb, Julie A

    2015-10-01

    Animal foraging routes are analogous to the computationally demanding "traveling salesman problem" (TSP), where individuals must find the shortest path among several locations before returning to the start. Humans approximate solutions to TSPs using simple heuristics or "rules of thumb," but our knowledge of how other animals solve multidestination routing problems is incomplete. Most nonhuman primate species have shown limited ability to route plan. However, captive vervets were shown to solve a TSP for six sites. These results were consistent with either planning three steps ahead or a risk-avoidance strategy. I investigated how wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) solved a path problem with six, equally rewarding food sites; where site arrangement allowed assessment of whether vervets found the shortest route and/or used paths consistent with one of three simple heuristics to navigate. Single vervets took the shortest possible path in fewer than half of the trials, usually in ways consistent with the most efficient heuristic (the convex hull). When in competition, vervets' paths were consistent with different, more efficient heuristics dependent on their dominance rank (a cluster strategy for dominants and the nearest neighbor rule for subordinates). These results suggest that, like humans, vervets may solve multidestination routing problems by applying simple, adaptive, context-specific "rules of thumb." The heuristics that were consistent with vervet paths in this study are the same as some of those asserted to be used by humans. These spatial movement strategies may have common evolutionary roots and be part of a universal mental navigational toolkit. Alternatively, they may have emerged through convergent evolution as the optimal way to solve multidestination routing problems.

  20. Path-dependent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapko, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    A uniform description of various path-dependent functions is presented with the help of expansion of the type of the Taylor series. So called ''path-integrals'' and ''path-tensor'' are introduced which are systems of many-component quantities whose values are defined for arbitrary paths in coordinated region of space in such a way that they contain a complete information on the path. These constructions are considered as elementary path-dependent functions and are used instead of power monomials in the usual Taylor series. Coefficients of such an expansion are interpreted as partial derivatives dependent on the order of the differentiations or else as nonstandard cavariant derivatives called two-point derivatives. Some examples of pathdependent functions are presented.Space curvature tensor is considered whose geometrica properties are determined by the (non-transitive) translator of parallel transport of a general type. Covariant operation leading to the ''extension'' of tensor fiels is pointed out

  1. Iterated Leavitt Path Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrat, R.

    2009-11-01

    Leavitt path algebras associate to directed graphs a Z-graded algebra and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(1,k). In this note, we introduce iterated Leavitt path algebras associated to directed weighted graphs which have natural ± Z grading and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(n,k). We also characterize Leavitt path algebras which are strongly graded. (author)

  2. Pulled Motzkin paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2010-08-20

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) {yields} f as f {yields} {infinity}, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) {yields} 2f as f {yields} {infinity}, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  3. Pulled Motzkin paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  4. Pulled Motzkin paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  5. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  6. Nodal distances for rooted phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    Dissimilarity measures for (possibly weighted) phylogenetic trees based on the comparison of their vectors of path lengths between pairs of taxa, have been present in the systematics literature since the early seventies. For rooted phylogenetic trees, however, these vectors can only separate non-weighted binary trees, and therefore these dissimilarity measures are metrics only on this class of rooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we overcome this problem, by splitting in a suitable way each path length between two taxa into two lengths. We prove that the resulting splitted path lengths matrices single out arbitrary rooted phylogenetic trees with nested taxa and arcs weighted in the set of positive real numbers. This allows the definition of metrics on this general class of rooted phylogenetic trees by comparing these matrices through metrics in spaces M(n)(R) of real-valued n x n matrices. We conclude this paper by establishing some basic facts about the metrics for non-weighted phylogenetic trees defined in this way using L(p) metrics on M(n)(R), with p [epsilon] R(>0).

  7. Multi-Dimensional Path Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments......We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...

  8. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  10. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  11. Hamiltonian path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of path integrals associated with the allowance for nonstandard terms reflecting the operator nature of the canonical variables are considered. Rules for treating such terms (''equivalence rules'') are formulated. Problems with a boundary, the behavior of path integrals under canonical transformations, and the problem of quantization of dynamical systems with constraints are considered in the framework of the method

  12. DESIGNING APPLICATION OF ANT COLONY SYSTEM ALGORITHM FOR THE SHORTEST ROUTE OF BANDA ACEH CITY AND ACEH BESAR REGENCY TOURISM BY USING GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durisman Durisman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Banda Aceh city and Aceh Besar Regency are two of the leading tourism areas located in the province of Aceh. For travelling, there are some important things to be considered, such as determining schedule and distance of tourism. Every tourist certainly chooses the shortest route to reach the destination since it can save time, energy, and money. The purpose of this reserach is to develop a method that can be used in calculating the shortest route and applied to the tourism of Banda Aceh city and Aceh Besar regency. In this reserach, Ant Colony Optimization algorithm is used to determine the shortest route to tourism of Banda Aceh city and Aceh Besar regency. From the analysis made by using both manual calculation and  GUI MATLAB program application test, the shortest route can be obtained with a minimum distance of 120.85 km in one travel. Based on the test result, the application for tourism (in Banda Aceh city and Aceh Besar regency shortest route searching built by utilizing the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm can find optimal route.  Keyword: tourism, the shortest route, Ant Colony Optimization

  13. Mobile Robots Path Planning Using the Overall Conflict Resolution and Time Baseline Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at resolving the path planning problem in a time-varying environment based on the idea of overall conflict resolution and the algorithm of time baseline coordination. The basic task of the introduced path planning algorithms is to fulfill the automatic generation of the shortest paths from the defined start poses to their end poses with consideration of generous constraints for multiple mobile robots. Building on this, by using the overall conflict resolution, within the polynomial based paths, we take into account all the constraints including smoothness, motion boundary, kinematics constraints, obstacle avoidance, and safety constraints among robots together. And time baseline coordination algorithm is proposed to process the above formulated problem. The foremost strong point is that much time can be saved with our approach. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Feasible Path Generation Using Bezier Curves for Car-Like Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latip, Nor Badariyah Abdul; Omar, Rosli

    2017-08-01

    When planning a collision-free path for an autonomous vehicle, the main criteria that have to be considered are the shortest distance, lower computation time and completeness, i.e. a path can be found if one exists. Besides that, a feasible path for the autonomous vehicle is also crucial to guarantee that the vehicle can reach the target destination considering its kinematic constraints such as non-holonomic and minimum turning radius. In order to address these constraints, Bezier curves is applied. In this paper, Bezier curves are modeled and simulated using Matlab software and the feasibility of the resulting path is analyzed. Bezier curve is derived from a piece-wise linear pre-planned path. It is found that the Bezier curves has the capability of making the planned path feasible and could be embedded in a path planning algorithm for an autonomous vehicle with kinematic constraints. It is concluded that the length of segments of the pre-planned path have to be greater than a nominal value, derived from the vehicle wheelbase, maximum steering angle and maximum speed to ensure the path for the autonomous car is feasible.

  15. A New Minimum Trees-Based Approach for Shape Matching with Improved Time Computing: Application to Graphical Symbols Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patrick; Ogier, Jean-Marc; Loonis, Pierre; Mullot, Rémy

    Recently we have developed a model for shape description and matching. Based on minimum spanning trees construction and specifics stages like the mixture, it seems to have many desirable properties. Recognition invariance in front shift, rotated and noisy shape was checked through median scale tests related to GREC symbol reference database. Even if extracting the topology of a shape by mapping the shortest path connecting all the pixels seems to be powerful, the construction of graph induces an expensive algorithmic cost. In this article we discuss on the ways to reduce time computing. An alternative solution based on image compression concepts is provided and evaluated. The model no longer operates in the image space but in a compact space, namely the Discrete Cosine space. The use of block discrete cosine transform is discussed and justified. The experimental results led on the GREC2003 database show that the proposed method is characterized by a good discrimination power, a real robustness to noise with an acceptable time computing.

  16. Path integration quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt-Morette, C.

    1983-01-01

    Much is expected of path integration as a quantization procedure. Much more is possible if one recognizes that path integration is at the crossroad of stochastic and differential calculus and uses the full power of both stochastic and differential calculus in setting up and computing path integrals. In contrast to differential calculus, stochastic calculus has only comparatively recently become an instrument of thought. It has nevertheless already been used in a variety of challenging problems, for instance in the quantization problem. The author presents some applications of the stochastic scheme. (Auth.)

  17. Two dimensional simplicial paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piso, M.I.

    1994-07-01

    Paths on the R 3 real Euclidean manifold are defined as 2-dimensional simplicial strips which are orbits of the action of a discrete one-parameter group. It is proven that there exists at least one embedding of R 3 in the free Z-module generated by S 2 (x 0 ). The speed is defined as the simplicial derivative of the path. If mass is attached to the simplex, the free Lagrangian is proportional to the width of the path. In the continuum limit, the relativistic form of the Lagrangian is recovered. (author). 7 refs

  18. Zero-Slack, Noncritical Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…

  19. Dynamics in small worlds of tree topologies of wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Zhang, Baihai; Fan, Zhun

    2012-01-01

    Tree topologies, which construct spatial graphs with large characteristic path lengths and small clustering coefficients, are ubiquitous in deployments of wireless sensor networks. Small worlds are investigated in tree-based networks. Due to link additions, characteristic path lengths reduce...... rapidly and clustering coefficients increase greatly. A tree abstract, Cayley tree, is considered for the study of the navigation algorithm, which runs automatically in the small worlds of tree-based networks. In the further study, epidemics in the small worlds of tree-based wireless sensor networks...

  20. A Conceptual Tree of Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Sinko, John E.

    2008-01-01

    An original attempt to develop a conceptual tree for laser propulsion is offered. The tree provides a systematic view for practically all possible laser propulsion concepts and all inter-conceptual links, based on propellant phases and phase transfers. It also helps to see which fields of laser propulsion have been already thoroughly explored, where the next effort must be applied, and which paths should be taken with proper care or avoided entirely

  1. Groebner Finite Path Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Leamer, Micah J.

    2004-01-01

    Let K be a field and Q a finite directed multi-graph. In this paper I classify all path algebras KQ and admissible orders with the property that all of their finitely generated ideals have finite Groebner bases. MS

  2. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2012-01-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of $k$ paths ($k$ is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, $k$ loop--erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped in a fashion a $k$--leg watermelon. For large distance $r$ between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as $r^{-\

  3. Path planning in changeable environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuisen, D.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick

  4. Differences in physical environmental characteristics between adolescents' actual and shortest cycling routes: a study using a Google Street View-based audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Van Hecke, Linde; Van Dyck, Delfien; Baert, Tim; Van de Weghe, Nico; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2018-05-29

    The objective evaluation of the physical environmental characteristics (e.g. speed limit, cycling infrastructure) along adolescents' actual cycling routes remains understudied, although it may provide important insights into why adolescents prefer one cycling route over another. The present study aims to gain insight into the physical environmental characteristics determining the route choice of adolescent cyclists by comparing differences in physical environmental characteristics between their actual cycling routes and the shortest possible cycling routes. Adolescents (n = 204; 46.5% boys; 14.4 ± 1.2 years) recruited at secondary schools in and around Ghent (city in Flanders, northern part of Belgium) were instructed to wear a Global Positioning System device in order to identify cycling trips. For all identified cycling trips, the shortest possible route that could have been taken was calculated. Actual cycling routes that were not the shortest possible cycling routes were divided into street segments. Segments were audited with a Google Street View-based tool to assess physical environmental characteristics along actual and shortest cycling routes. Out of 160 actual cycling trips, 73.1% did not differ from the shortest possible cycling route. For actual cycling routes that were not the shortest cycling route, a speed limit of 30 km/h, roads having few buildings with windows on the street side and roads without cycle lane were more frequently present compared to the shortest possible cycling routes. A mixed land use, roads with commercial destinations, arterial roads, cycle lanes separated from traffic by white lines, small cycle lanes and cycle lanes covered by lighting were less frequently present along actual cycling routes compared to the shortest possible cycling routes. Results showed that distance mainly determines the route along which adolescents cycle. In addition, adolescents cycled more along residential streets (even if no cycle lane was

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  16. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.

  17. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  19. Quivers of Bound Path Algebras and Bound Path Coalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Intan Muchtadi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available bras and coalgebras can be represented as quiver (directed graph, and from quiver we can construct algebras and coalgebras called path algebras and path coalgebras. In this paper we show that the quiver of a bound path coalgebra (resp. algebra is the dual quiver of its bound path algebra (resp. coalgebra.

  20. Use of fault and decision tree analyses to protect against industrial sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Erdmann, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Fault tree and decision tree analyses provide systematic bases for evaluation of safety systems and procedures. Heuristically, this paper shows applications of these methods for industrial sabotage analysis at a reprocessing plant. Fault trees constructed by ''leak path'' analysis for completeness through path inventory. The escape fault tree is readily developed by this method and using the reciprocal character of the trees, the attack fault tree is constructed. After construction, the events on the fault tree are corrected for their nonreciprocal character. The fault trees are algebraically solved and the protection that is afforded is ranked by the number of barriers that must be penetrated. No attempt is made to assess the barrier penetration probabilities or penetration time duration. Event trees are useful for dynamic plant protection analysis through their time-sequencing character. To illustrate their usefulness, a simple attack scenario is devised and event-tree analyzed. Two saboteur success paths and 21 failure paths are found. This example clearly shows the event tree usefulness for concisely presenting the time sequencing of key decision points. However, event trees have the disadvantage of being scenario dependent, therefore requiring a separate event tree for each scenario

  1. Timing-Driven-Testable Convergent Tree Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnie A. Huang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry lookahead adders have been, over the years, implemented in complex arithmetic units due to their regular structure which leads to efficient VLSI implementation for fast adders. In this paper, timing-driven testability synthesis is first performed on a tree adder. It is shown that the structure of the tree adder provides for a high fanout with an imbalanced tree structure, which likely contributes to a racing effect and increases the delay of the circuit. The timing optimization is then realized by reducing the maximum fanout of the adder and by balancing the tree circuit. For a 56-b testable tree adder, the optimization produces a 6.37%increase in speed of the critical path while only contributing a 2.16% area overhead. The full testability of the circuit is achieved in the optimized adder design.

  2. Design of data structures for mergeable trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Loukas; Tarjan, Robert Endre; Werneck, Renato Fonseca F.

    2006-01-01

    merge operation can change many arcs. In spite of this, we develop a data structure that supports merges and all other standard tree operations in O(log2 n) amortized time on an n-node forest. For the special case that occurs in the motivating application, in which arbitrary arc deletions...... are not allowed, we give a data structure with an O(log n) amortized time bound per operation, which is asymptotically optimal. The analysis of both algorithms is not straightforward and requires ideas not previously used in the study of dynamic trees. We explore the design space of algorithms for the problem......Motivated by an application in computational topology, we consider a novel variant of the problem of efficiently maintaining dynamic rooted trees. This variant allows an operation that merges two tree paths. In contrast to the standard problem, in which only one tree arc at a time changes, a single...

  3. Paths correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.

  4. Leavitt path algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene; Siles Molina, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction by three of the leading experts in the field, collecting fundamental results and open problems in a single volume. Since Leavitt path algebras were first defined in 2005, interest in these algebras has grown substantially, with ring theorists as well as researchers working in graph C*-algebras, group theory and symbolic dynamics attracted to the topic. Providing a historical perspective on the subject, the authors review existing arguments, establish new results, and outline the major themes and ring-theoretic concepts, such as the ideal structure, Z-grading and the close link between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras. The book also presents key lines of current research, including the Algebraic Kirchberg Phillips Question, various additional classification questions, and connections to noncommutative algebraic geometry. Leavitt Path Algebras will appeal to graduate students and researchers working in the field and related areas, such as C*-algebras and...

  5. The Thinnest Path Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-22

    be reduced to TP in -D UDH for any . We then show that the 2-D disk hypergraph constructed in the proof of Theorem 1 can be modified to an exposed...transmission range that induces hy- peredge , i.e., (3) GAO et al.: THINNEST PATH PROBLEM 1181 Theorem 5 shows that the covered area of the path...representation of (the two hyperedges rooted at from the example given in Fig. 6 are illustrated in green and blue, respectively). step, we show in this

  6. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    This edited volume stems from a conference held in Copenhagen that the authors ran in August of 1997. The authors, aware of the recent work in evolutionary theory and the science of chaos and complexity, challenge the sometimes deterministic flavour of this work. They are interested in uncovering...... the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  7. Reparametrization in the path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    The question of the invariance of a measure in the n-dimensional path integral under the path reparametrization is considered. The non-invariance of the measure through the jacobian is suggeste. After the path integral reparametrization the representatioq for the Green's function of the Hamilton operator in terms of the path integral with the classical Hamiltonian has been obtained

  8. Testing for Polytomies in Phylogenetic Species Trees Using Quartet Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2018-02-28

    Phylogenetic species trees typically represent the speciation history as a bifurcating tree. Speciation events that simultaneously create more than two descendants, thereby creating polytomies in the phylogeny, are possible. Moreover, the inability to resolve relationships is often shown as a (soft) polytomy. Both types of polytomies have been traditionally studied in the context of gene tree reconstruction from sequence data. However, polytomies in the species tree cannot be detected or ruled out without considering gene tree discordance. In this paper, we describe a statistical test based on properties of the multi-species coalescent model to test the null hypothesis that a branch in an estimated species tree should be replaced by a polytomy. On both simulated and biological datasets, we show that the null hypothesis is rejected for all but the shortest branches, and in most cases, it is retained for true polytomies. The test, available as part of the Accurate Species TRee ALgorithm (ASTRAL) package, can help systematists decide whether their datasets are sufficient to resolve specific relationships of interest.

  9. Testing for Polytomies in Phylogenetic Species Trees Using Quartet Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyari, Erfan

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic species trees typically represent the speciation history as a bifurcating tree. Speciation events that simultaneously create more than two descendants, thereby creating polytomies in the phylogeny, are possible. Moreover, the inability to resolve relationships is often shown as a (soft) polytomy. Both types of polytomies have been traditionally studied in the context of gene tree reconstruction from sequence data. However, polytomies in the species tree cannot be detected or ruled out without considering gene tree discordance. In this paper, we describe a statistical test based on properties of the multi-species coalescent model to test the null hypothesis that a branch in an estimated species tree should be replaced by a polytomy. On both simulated and biological datasets, we show that the null hypothesis is rejected for all but the shortest branches, and in most cases, it is retained for true polytomies. The test, available as part of the Accurate Species TRee ALgorithm (ASTRAL) package, can help systematists decide whether their datasets are sufficient to resolve specific relationships of interest. PMID:29495636

  10. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  11. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  12. A novel approach for multiple mobile objects path planning: Parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yong; Wang, Hongwei; Zamirian, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach containing two steps to determine conflict-free paths for mobile objects in two and three dimensions with moving obstacles. Firstly, the shortest path of each object is set as goal function which is subject to collision-avoidance criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration constraints. This problem is formulated as calculus of variation problem (CVP). Using parametrization method, CVP is converted to time-varying nonlinear programming problems (TNLPP) and then resolved. Secondly, move sequence of object is assigned by priority scheme; conflicts are resolved by multilevel conflict resolution strategy. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples. -- Highlights: ► Approach with parametrization method and conflict resolution strategy is proposed. ► Approach fits for multi-object paths planning in two and three dimensions. ► Single object path planning and multi-object conflict resolution are orderly used. ► Path of each object obtained with parameterization method in the first phase. ► Conflict-free paths gained by multi-object conflict resolution in the second phase.

  13. Detection of deregulated modules using deregulatory linked path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Hu

    Full Text Available The identification of deregulated modules (such as induced by oncogenes is a crucial step for exploring the pathogenic process of complex diseases. Most of the existing methods focus on deregulation of genes rather than the links of the path among them. In this study, we emphasize on the detection of deregulated links, and develop a novel and effective regulatory path-based approach in finding deregulated modules. Observing that a regulatory pathway between two genes might involve in multiple rather than a single path, we identify condition-specific core regulatory path (CCRP to detect the significant deregulation of regulatory links. Using time-series gene expression, we define the regulatory strength within each gene pair based on statistical dependence analysis. The CCRPs in regulatory networks can then be identified using the shortest path algorithm. Finally, we derive the deregulated modules by integrating the differential edges (as deregulated links of the CCRPs between the case and the control group. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply the method to expression data associated with different states of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2. The experimental results show that the genes as well as the links in the deregulated modules are significantly enriched in multiple KEGG pathways and GO biological processes, most of which can be validated to suffer from impact of this oncogene based on previous studies. Additionally, we find the regulatory mechanism associated with the crucial gene SNAI1 significantly deregulated resulting from the activation of HER2. Hence, our method provides not only a strategy for detecting the deregulated links in regulatory networks, but also a way to identify concerning deregulated modules, thus contributing to the target selection of edgetic drugs.

  14. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  15. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  16. Structure theorems for game trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Srihari; Wilson, Robert

    2002-06-25

    Kohlberg and Mertens [Kohlberg, E. & Mertens, J. (1986) Econometrica 54, 1003-1039] proved that the graph of the Nash equilibrium correspondence is homeomorphic to its domain when the domain is the space of payoffs in normal-form games. A counterexample disproves the analog for the equilibrium outcome correspondence over the space of payoffs in extensive-form games, but we prove an analog when the space of behavior strategies is perturbed so that every path in the game tree has nonzero probability. Without such perturbations, the graph is the closure of the union of a finite collection of its subsets, each diffeomorphic to a corresponding path-connected open subset of the space of payoffs. As an application, we construct an algorithm for computing equilibria of an extensive-form game with a perturbed strategy space, and thus approximate equilibria of the unperturbed game.

  17. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  18. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  19. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  20. THE EFFECTS OF TRANSIENT REDUCTIONS IN FUNCTIONAL LEAF AREA ON STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE: BRANCH LEVEL EXPERIMENTS ON YOUNG AND OLD TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As trees age and increase in size, the resistance along the water transport path has been hypothesized to increase and potentially limit the ultimate size a tree can reach. Past research has demonstrated that branches are a source of significant resistance in the transport path....

  1. On algorithm for building of optimal α-decision trees

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes an algorithm that constructs approximate decision trees (α-decision trees), which are optimal relatively to one of the following complexity measures: depth, total path length or number of nodes. The algorithm uses dynamic programming and extends methods described in [4] to constructing approximate decision trees. Adjustable approximation rate allows controlling algorithm complexity. The algorithm is applied to build optimal α-decision trees for two data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository [1]. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  3. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  4. JAVA PathFinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  5. Hamiltonian path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to consideration of operator nonpermutability in Hamiltonian path integral (HPI) are considered in the review. Integrals are investigated using trajectories in configuration space (nonrelativistic quantum mechanics). Problems related to trajectory integrals in HPI phase space are discussed: the problem of operator nonpermutability consideration (extra terms problem) and corresponding equivalence rules; ambiguity of HPI usual recording; transition to curvilinear coordinates. Problem of quantization of dynamical systems with couplings has been studied. As in the case of canonical transformations, quantization of the systems with couplings of the first kind requires the consideration of extra terms

  6. Path to Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfowitz,Paul

    2006-01-01

    Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank, discussed Singapore's remarkable progress along the road from poverty to prosperity which has also been discovered by many other countries in East Asia and around the world. He spoke of how each country must find its own path for people to pursue the same dreams of the chance to go to school, the security of a good job, and the ability to provide a better future for their children. Throughout the world, and importantly in the developing world, ther...

  7. WDM Multicast Tree Construction Algorithms and Their Comparative Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Tsutomu; Mikoshi, Taiju; Takenaka, Toyofumi

    We propose novel tree construction algorithms for multicast communication in photonic networks. Since multicast communications consume many more link resources than unicast communications, effective algorithms for route selection and wavelength assignment are required. We propose a novel tree construction algorithm, called the Weighted Steiner Tree (WST) algorithm and a variation of the WST algorithm, called the Composite Weighted Steiner Tree (CWST) algorithm. Because these algorithms are based on the Steiner Tree algorithm, link resources among source and destination pairs tend to be commonly used and link utilization ratios are improved. Because of this, these algorithms can accept many more multicast requests than other multicast tree construction algorithms based on the Dijkstra algorithm. However, under certain delay constraints, the blocking characteristics of the proposed Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm deteriorate since some light paths between source and destinations use many hops and cannot satisfy the delay constraint. In order to adapt the approach to the delay-sensitive environments, we have devised the Composite Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm comprising the Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm and the Dijkstra algorithm for use in a delay constrained environment such as an IPTV application. In this paper, we also give the results of simulation experiments which demonstrate the superiority of the proposed Composite Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm compared with the Distributed Minimum Hop Tree (DMHT) algorithm, from the viewpoint of the light-tree request blocking.

  8. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between...... these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  9. World nuclear energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand

  10. Neighborhood-preserving mapping between trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Ibragimov, R.; Guo, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    (v)). Here, for a graph G and a vertex v, we use N(v) to denote the set of vertices which have distance at most i to v in G. We call this problem Neighborhood-Preserving Mapping (NPM). The main result of this paper is a complete dichotomy of the classical complexity of NPM on trees with respect to different...... values of l,d,k. Additionally, we present two dynamic programming algorithms for the case that one of the input trees is a path....

  11. Optimal path planning for a mobile robot using cuckoo search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Prases K.; Parhi, Dayal R.

    2016-03-01

    The shortest/optimal path planning is essential for efficient operation of autonomous vehicles. In this article, a new nature-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm has been applied for mobile robot path planning in an unknown or partially known environment populated by a variety of static obstacles. This meta-heuristic algorithm is based on the levy flight behaviour and brood parasitic behaviour of cuckoos. A new objective function has been formulated between the robots and the target and obstacles, which satisfied the conditions of obstacle avoidance and target-seeking behaviour of robots present in the terrain. Depending upon the objective function value of each nest (cuckoo) in the swarm, the robot avoids obstacles and proceeds towards the target. The smooth optimal trajectory is framed with this algorithm when the robot reaches its goal. Some simulation and experimental results are presented at the end of the paper to show the effectiveness of the proposed navigational controller.

  12. Benefit of adaptive FEC in shared backup path protected elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Dai, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Yongcheng; Bose, Sanjay K; Shen, Gangxiang

    2015-07-27

    We apply an adaptive forward error correction (FEC) allocation strategy to an Elastic Optical Network (EON) operated with shared backup path protection (SBPP). To maximize the protected network capacity that can be carried, an Integer Linear Programing (ILP) model and a spectrum window plane (SWP)-based heuristic algorithm are developed. Simulation results show that the FEC coding overhead required by the adaptive FEC scheme is significantly lower than that needed by a fixed FEC allocation strategy resulting in higher network capacity for the adaptive strategy. The adaptive FEC allocation strategy can also significantly outperform the fixed FEC allocation strategy both in terms of the spare capacity redundancy and the average FEC coding overhead needed per optical channel. The proposed heuristic algorithm is efficient and not only performs closer to the ILP model but also does much better than the shortest-path algorithm.

  13. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  14. Paths of Cultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ballonoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theory of cultural structures predicts the objects observed by anthropologists. We here define those which use kinship relationships to define systems. A finite structure we call a partially defined quasigroup (or pdq, as stated by Definition 1 below on a dictionary (called a natural language allows prediction of certain anthropological descriptions, using homomorphisms of pdqs onto finite groups. A viable history (defined using pdqs states how an individual in a population following such history may perform culturally allowed associations, which allows a viable history to continue to survive. The vector states on sets of viable histories identify demographic observables on descent sequences. Paths of vector states on sets of viable histories may determine which histories can exist empirically.

  15. Propagators and path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1995-08-22

    Path-integral expressions for one-particle propagators in scalar and fermionic field theories are derived, for arbitrary mass. This establishes a direct connection between field theory and specific classical point-particle models. The role of world-line reparametrization invariance of the classical action and the implementation of the corresponding BRST-symmetry in the quantum theory are discussed. The presence of classical world-line supersymmetry is shown to lead to an unwanted doubling of states for massive spin-1/2 particles. The origin of this phenomenon is traced to a `hidden` topological fermionic excitation. A different formulation of the pseudo-classical mechanics using a bosonic representation of {gamma}{sub 5} is shown to remove these extra states at the expense of losing manifest supersymmetry. (orig.).

  16. innovation path exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has entered the information age, all kinds of information technologies such as cloud technology, big data technology are in rapid development, and the “Internet plus” appeared. The main purpose of “Internet plus” is to provide an opportunity for the further development of the enterprise, the enterprise technology, business and other aspects of factors combine. For enterprises, grasp the “Internet plus” the impact of the market economy will undoubtedly pave the way for the future development of enterprises. This paper will be on the innovation path of the enterprise management “Internet plus” era tied you study, hope to be able to put forward some opinions and suggestions.

  17. Small Worlds in the Tree Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Li; Lingguo, Cui; Baihai, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of small worlds are investigated in the context of the tree topologies of wireless sensor networks. Tree topologies, which construct spatial graphs with larger characteristic path lengths than random graphs and small clustering coefficients, are ubiquitous...... in wireless sensor networks. Suffering from the link rewiring or the link addition, the characteristic path length of the tree topology reduces rapidly and the clustering coefficient increases greatly. The variety of characteristic path length influences the time synchronization characteristics of wireless...... sensor networks greatly. With the increase of the link rewiring or the link addition probability, the time synchronization error decreases drastically. Two novel protocols named LEACH-SW and TREEPSI-SW are proposed to improve the performances of the sensor networks, in which the small world...

  18. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  19. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  20. Research on Navigation Path Planning for An Underground Load Haul Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The improved A * algorithm is a method of navigation path planning for articulated underground scrapers. Firstly, an environment model based on a mining Geographic Information System (GIS map is established, and then combined with improved A * algorithm, the underground global path planning problem of the intelligent Load Haul Dump (LHD is solved. In this paper, for the articulated structure, the method of expanding nodes by articulation angle is adopted to make expanded nodes meet the trajectory characteristics. In addition, collision threat cost is introduced in the evaluation function to avoid collisions between the LHD and the tunnel walls. As peran analysis of the simulation test to verify the effectiveness of the improved A * algorithm and a comparison with the traditional A * algorithm, the improved A * algorithm can enhance search efficiency. Acontrast of multiple sets of test parameters suggests that when the price weighted coefficient of collision is 0.2, the shortest path can be derived to avoid impact. Finally, tracking results indicate that the proposed algorithm for navigation path planning can maintain the tracking error to within 0.2 m in line with the structural characteristics of the scraper in the laboratory environment to realize the path planning of unmanned scrapers and trajectory tracking. Moreover, the algorithm can enhance the safety of scrapers and prevent roadway collisions. The feasibility and practicality of the proposed method is verified in this work.

  1. Path integral in Snyder space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2016-04-29

    The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.

  2. Path integral in Snyder space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignemi, S.; Štrajn, R.

    2016-01-01

    The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.

  3. Path Planning Algorithms for Autonomous Border Patrol Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, George Tin Lam

    This thesis presents an online path planning algorithm developed for unmanned vehicles in charge of autonomous border patrol. In this Pursuit-Evasion game, the unmanned vehicle is required to capture multiple trespassers on its own before any of them reach a target safe house where they are safe from capture. The problem formulation is based on Isaacs' Target Guarding problem, but extended to the case of multiple evaders. The proposed path planning method is based on Rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT) and is capable of producing trajectories within several seconds to capture 2 or 3 evaders. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate that the resulting trajectories approach the optimal solution produced by a nonlinear programming-based numerical optimal control solver. Experiments are also conducted on unmanned ground vehicles to show the feasibility of implementing the proposed online path planning algorithm on physical applications.

  4. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  5. Path Planning for Mobile Objects in Four-Dimension Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method with Penalty Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present one algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO with penalty function to determine the conflict-free path for mobile objects in four-dimension (three spatial and one-time dimensions with obstacles. The shortest path of the mobile object is set as goal function, which is constrained by conflict-free criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration requirements. This problem is formulated as a calculus of variation problem (CVP. With parametrization method, the CVP is converted to a time-varying nonlinear programming problem (TNLPP. Constraints of TNLPP are transformed to general TNLPP without any constraints through penalty functions. Then, by using a little calculations and applying the algorithm PSO, the solution of the CVP is consequently obtained. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples.

  6. Time optimized path-choice in the termite hunting ant Megaponera analis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erik T; Hönle, Philipp O; Linsenmair, K Eduard

    2018-05-10

    Trail network systems among ants have received a lot of scientific attention due to their various applications in problem solving of networks. Recent studies have shown that ants select the fastest available path when facing different velocities on different substrates, rather than the shortest distance. The progress of decision-making by these ants is determined by pheromone-based maintenance of paths, which is a collective decision. However, path optimization through individual decision-making remains mostly unexplored. Here we present the first study of time-optimized path selection via individual decision-making by scout ants. Megaponera analis scouts search for termite foraging sites and lead highly organized raid columns to them. The path of the scout determines the path of the column. Through installation of artificial roads around M. analis nests we were able to influence the pathway choice of the raids. After road installation 59% of all recorded raids took place completely or partly on the road, instead of the direct, i.e. distance-optimized, path through grass from the nest to the termites. The raid velocity on the road was more than double the grass velocity, the detour thus saved 34.77±23.01% of the travel time compared to a hypothetical direct path. The pathway choice of the ants was similar to a mathematical model of least time allowing us to hypothesize the underlying mechanisms regulating the behavior. Our results highlight the importance of individual decision-making in the foraging behavior of ants and show a new procedure of pathway optimization. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The Problem of Predecessors on Spanning Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Poghosyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the equiprobable distribution of spanning trees on the square lattice. All bonds of each tree can be oriented uniquely with respect to an arbitrary chosen site called the root. The problem of predecessors is to find the probability that a path along the oriented bonds passes sequentially fixed sites i and j. The conformal field theory for the Potts model predicts the fractal dimension of the path to be 5/4. Using this result, we show that the probability in the predecessors problem for two sites separated by large distance r decreases as P(r ∼ r −3/4. If sites i and j are nearest neighbors on the square lattice, the probability P(1 = 5/16 can be found from the analytical theory developed for the sandpile model. The known equivalence between the loop erased random walk (LERW and the directed path on the spanning tree states that P(1 is the probability for the LERW started at i to reach the neighboring site j. By analogy with the self-avoiding walk, P(1 can be called the return probability. Extensive Monte-Carlo simulations confirm the theoretical predictions.

  8. Local Path Planning of Driverless Car Navigation Based on Jump Point Search Method Under Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jump Point Search (JPS algorithm is adopted for local path planning of the driverless car under urban environment, and it is a fast search method applied in path planning. Firstly, a vector Geographic Information System (GIS map, including Global Positioning System (GPS position, direction, and lane information, is built for global path planning. Secondly, the GIS map database is utilized in global path planning for the driverless car. Then, the JPS algorithm is adopted to avoid the front obstacle, and to find an optimal local path for the driverless car in the urban environment. Finally, 125 different simulation experiments in the urban environment demonstrate that JPS can search out the optimal and safety path successfully, and meanwhile, it has a lower time complexity compared with the Vector Field Histogram (VFH, the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT, A*, and the Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRM algorithms. Furthermore, JPS is validated usefully in the structured urban environment.

  9. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability

  10. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  11. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...

  12. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  13. On Hilbert space of paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Kolerov, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    A Hilbert space of paths, the elements of which are determined by trigonometric series, was proposed and used recently by Truman. This space is shown to consist precisely of all absolutely continuous paths ending in the origin with square-integrable derivatives

  14. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  15. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  16. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  17. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  18. A Maze Game on Android Using Growing Tree Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Y. F.

    2018-01-01

    A maze is a type of puzzle games where a player moves in complex and branched passages to find a particular target or location. One method to create a maze is the Growing Tree method. The method creates a tree that has branches which are the paths of a maze. This research explored three types of Growing Tree method implementations for maze generation on Android mobile devices. The layouts produced could be played in first and third-person perspectives. The experiment results showed that it took 17.3 seconds on average to generate 20 cells x 20 cells dynamic maze layouts.

  19. Optimal Paths in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolek, Artur

    Underwater gliders are robust and long endurance ocean sampling platforms that are increasingly being deployed in coastal regions. This new environment is characterized by shallow waters and significant currents that can challenge the mobility of these efficient (but traditionally slow moving) vehicles. This dissertation aims to improve the performance of shallow water underwater gliders through path planning. The path planning problem is formulated for a dynamic particle (or "kinematic car") model. The objective is to identify the path which satisfies specified boundary conditions and minimizes a particular cost. Several cost functions are considered. The problem is addressed using optimal control theory. The length scales of interest for path planning are within a few turn radii. First, an approach is developed for planning minimum-time paths, for a fixed speed glider, that are sub-optimal but are guaranteed to be feasible in the presence of unknown time-varying currents. Next the minimum-time problem for a glider with speed controls, that may vary between the stall speed and the maximum speed, is solved. Last, optimal paths that minimize change in depth (equivalently, maximize range) are investigated. Recognizing that path planning alone cannot overcome all of the challenges associated with significant currents and shallow waters, the design of a novel underwater glider with improved capabilities is explored. A glider with a pneumatic buoyancy engine (allowing large, rapid buoyancy changes) and a cylindrical moving mass mechanism (generating large pitch and roll moments) is designed, manufactured, and tested to demonstrate potential improvements in speed and maneuverability.

  20. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  1. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.

  2. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.

  3. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  4. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  5. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  6. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  7. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  8. The Robot Path Planning Based on Improved Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Path planning is critical to the efficiency and fidelity of robot navigation. The solution of robot path planning is to seek a collision-free and the shortest path from the start node to target node. In this paper, we propose a new improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA to process the mobile robot path planning problem in a real environment. In IAFSA, an attenuation function is introduced to improve the visual of standard AFSA and get the balance of global search and local search; also, an adaptive operator is introduced to enhance the adaptive ability of step. Besides, a concept of inertia weight factor is proposed in IAFSA inspired by PSO intelligence algorithm to improve the convergence rate and accuracy of IAFSA. Five unconstrained optimization test functions are given to illustrate the strong searching ability and ideal convergence of IAFSA. Finally, the ROS (robot operation system based experiment is carried out on a Pioneer 3-DX mobile robot; the experiment results also show the superiority of IAFSA.

  9. Integrated flight path planning system and flight control system for unmanned helicopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM).

  10. The graph-theoretic minimum energy path problem for ionic conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippei Kishida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new computational method was developed to analyze the ionic conduction mechanism in crystals through graph theory. The graph was organized into nodes, which represent the crystal structures modeled by ionic site occupation, and edges, which represent structure transitions via ionic jumps. We proposed a minimum energy path problem, which is similar to the shortest path problem. An effective algorithm to solve the problem was established. Since our method does not use randomized algorithm and time parameters, the computational cost to analyze conduction paths and a migration energy is very low. The power of the method was verified by applying it to α-AgI and the ionic conduction mechanism in α-AgI was revealed. The analysis using single point calculations found the minimum energy path for long-distance ionic conduction, which consists of 12 steps of ionic jumps in a unit cell. From the results, the detailed theoretical migration energy was calculated as 0.11 eV by geometry optimization and nudged elastic band method. Our method can refine candidates for possible jumps in crystals and it can be adapted to other computational methods, such as the nudged elastic band method. We expect that our method will be a powerful tool for analyzing ionic conduction mechanisms, even for large complex crystals.

  11. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM). PMID:22164029

  12. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  13. An Introduction to Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lee M.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)

  14. Probabilistic simulation of fermion paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirov, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Permutation symmetry of fermion path integral allows (while spin degrees of freedom are ignored) to use in its simulation any probabilistic algorithm, like Metropolis one, heat bath, etc. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Computer-aided Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willie, R.R.

    1978-08-01

    A computer-oriented methodology for deriving minimal cut and path set families associated with arbitrary fault trees is discussed first. Then the use of the Fault Tree Analysis Program (FTAP), an extensive FORTRAN computer package that implements the methodology is described. An input fault tree to FTAP may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems associated with the tree as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the state of the system as a function of these module state variables. Another FTAP feature allows a subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily consists only of sets that are interesting to the analyst in a special sense

  16. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discu...

  17. Path integration in conical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Akira; Junker, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics in conical space is studied by the path integral method. It is shown that the curvature effect gives rise to an effective potential in the radial path integral. It is further shown that the radial path integral in conical space can be reduced to a form identical with that in flat space when the discrete angular momentum of each partial wave is replaced by a specific non-integral angular momentum. The effective potential is found proportional to the squared mean curvature of the conical surface embedded in Euclidean space. The path integral calculation is compatible with the Schrödinger equation modified with the Gaussian and the mean curvature. -- Highlights: ► We study quantum mechanics on a cone by the path integral approach. ► The path integral depends only on the metric and the curvature effect is built in. ► The approach is consistent with the Schrödinger equation modified by an effective potential. ► The effective potential is found to be of the “Jensen–Koppe” and “da Costa” type.

  18. Path integrals on curved manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A general framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. We also show how to perform general coordinate and space-time transformations in path integrals. The main result is that one has to subtract a quantum correction ΔV ∝ ℎ 2 from the classical Lagrangian L, i.e. the correct effective Lagrangian to be used in the path integral is L eff = L-ΔV. A general prescription for calculating the quantum correction ΔV is given. It is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined by the midpoint prescription. The general framework is illustrated by several examples: The d-dimensional rotator, i.e. the motion on the sphere S d-1 , the path integral in d-dimensional polar coordinates, the exact treatment of the hydrogen atom in R 2 and R 3 by performing a Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, the Langer transformation and the path integral for the Morse potential. (orig.)

  19. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path...... a specific path by only retrieving data from the first and last edge in the path. To correctly answer strict path queries existing network-constrained trajectory indexes must retrieve data from all edges in the path. An extensive performance study of NETTRA using a very large real-world trajectory data set...

  20. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  1. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  2. Measurements of isocenter path characteristics of the gantry rotation axis with a smartphone application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiefer, H.; Peters, S.; Plasswilm, L.; Ingulfsen, N.; Kluckert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: For stereotactic radiosurgery, the AAPM Report No. 54 [AAPM Task Group 42 (AAPM, 1995)] requires the overall stability of the isocenter (couch, gantry, and collimator) to be within a 1 mm radius. In reality, a rotating system has no rigid axis and thus no isocenter point which is fixed in space. As a consequence, the isocenter concept is reviewed here. It is the aim to develop a measurement method following the revised definitions. Methods: The mechanical isocenter is defined here by the point which rotates on the shortest path in the room coordinate system. The path is labeled as “isocenter path.” Its center of gravity is assumed to be the mechanical isocenter. Following this definition, an image-based and radiation-free measurement method was developed. Multiple marker pairs in a plane perpendicular to the assumed gantry rotation axis of a linear accelerator are imaged with a smartphone application from several rotation angles. Each marker pair represents an independent measuring system. The room coordinates of the isocenter path and the mechanical isocenter are calculated based on the marker coordinates. The presented measurement method is by this means strictly focused on the mechanical isocenter. Results: The measurement result is available virtually immediately following completion of measurement. When 12 independent measurement systems are evaluated, the standard deviations of the isocenter path points and mechanical isocenter coordinates are 0.02 and 0.002 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The measurement is highly accurate, time efficient, and simple to adapt. It is therefore suitable for regular checks of the mechanical isocenter characteristics of the gantry and collimator rotation axis. When the isocenter path is reproducible and its extent is in the range of the needed geometrical accuracy, it should be taken into account in the planning process. This is especially true for stereotactic treatments and radiosurgery

  3. Measurements of isocenter path characteristics of the gantry rotation axis with a smartphone application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefer, H., E-mail: johann.schiefer@kssg.ch; Peters, S.; Plasswilm, L. [Klinik für Radio-Onkologie, Kantonsspital St.Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 107, St.Gallen CH-9007 (Switzerland); Ingulfsen, N.; Kluckert, J. [Kantonsschule am Burggraben St.Gallen, Burggraben 21, St.Gallen CH-9000 (Switzerland)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: For stereotactic radiosurgery, the AAPM Report No. 54 [AAPM Task Group 42 (AAPM, 1995)] requires the overall stability of the isocenter (couch, gantry, and collimator) to be within a 1 mm radius. In reality, a rotating system has no rigid axis and thus no isocenter point which is fixed in space. As a consequence, the isocenter concept is reviewed here. It is the aim to develop a measurement method following the revised definitions. Methods: The mechanical isocenter is defined here by the point which rotates on the shortest path in the room coordinate system. The path is labeled as “isocenter path.” Its center of gravity is assumed to be the mechanical isocenter. Following this definition, an image-based and radiation-free measurement method was developed. Multiple marker pairs in a plane perpendicular to the assumed gantry rotation axis of a linear accelerator are imaged with a smartphone application from several rotation angles. Each marker pair represents an independent measuring system. The room coordinates of the isocenter path and the mechanical isocenter are calculated based on the marker coordinates. The presented measurement method is by this means strictly focused on the mechanical isocenter. Results: The measurement result is available virtually immediately following completion of measurement. When 12 independent measurement systems are evaluated, the standard deviations of the isocenter path points and mechanical isocenter coordinates are 0.02 and 0.002 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The measurement is highly accurate, time efficient, and simple to adapt. It is therefore suitable for regular checks of the mechanical isocenter characteristics of the gantry and collimator rotation axis. When the isocenter path is reproducible and its extent is in the range of the needed geometrical accuracy, it should be taken into account in the planning process. This is especially true for stereotactic treatments and radiosurgery.

  4. Path integration on hyperbolic spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1991-11-01

    Quantum mechanics on the hyperbolic spaces of rank one is discussed by path integration technique. Hyperbolic spaces are multi-dimensional generalisation of the hyperbolic plane, i.e. the Poincare upper half-plane endowed with a hyperbolic geometry. We evalute the path integral on S{sub 1} {approx equal} SO (n,1)/SO(n) and S{sub 2} {approx equal} SU(n,1)/S(U(1) x U(n)) in a particular coordinate system, yielding explicitly the wave-functions and the energy spectrum. Futhermore we can exploit a general property of all these spaces, namely that they can be parametrized by a pseudopolar coordinate system. This allows a separation in path integration over spheres and an additional path integration over the remaining hyperbolic coordinate, yielding effectively a path integral for a modified Poeschl-Teller potential. Only continuous spectra can exist in all the cases. For all the hyperbolic spaces of rank one we find a general formula for the largest lower bound (zero-point energy) of the spectrum which is given by E{sub O} = h{sup 2} /8m(m{sub {alpha}} +2m{sub 2} {alpha}){sup 2} (m {alpha} and m{sub 2}{alpha} denote the dimension of the root subspace corresponding to the roots {alpha} and 2{alpha}, respectively). I also discuss the case, where a constant magnetic field on H{sup n} is incorporated. (orig.).

  5. Path integration on hyperbolic spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.

    1991-11-01

    Quantum mechanics on the hyperbolic spaces of rank one is discussed by path integration technique. Hyperbolic spaces are multi-dimensional generalisation of the hyperbolic plane, i.e. the Poincare upper half-plane endowed with a hyperbolic geometry. We evalute the path integral on S 1 ≅ SO (n,1)/SO(n) and S 2 ≅ SU(n,1)/S[U(1) x U(n)] in a particular coordinate system, yielding explicitly the wave-functions and the energy spectrum. Futhermore we can exploit a general property of all these spaces, namely that they can be parametrized by a pseudopolar coordinate system. This allows a separation in path integration over spheres and an additional path integration over the remaining hyperbolic coordinate, yielding effectively a path integral for a modified Poeschl-Teller potential. Only continuous spectra can exist in all the cases. For all the hyperbolic spaces of rank one we find a general formula for the largest lower bound (zero-point energy) of the spectrum which is given by E O = h 2 /8m(m α +2m 2 α) 2 (m α and m 2 α denote the dimension of the root subspace corresponding to the roots α and 2α, respectively). I also discuss the case, where a constant magnetic field on H n is incorporated. (orig.)

  6. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  7. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  8. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  9. Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louko, J

    2005-01-01

    Jean Zinn-Justin's textbook Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics aims to familiarize the reader with the path integral as a calculational tool in quantum mechanics and field theory. The emphasis is on quantum statistical mechanics, starting with the partition function Tr exp(-β H) and proceeding through the diffusion equation to barrier penetration problems and their semiclassical limit. The 'real time' path integral is defined via analytic continuation and used for the path-integral representation of the nonrelativistic S-matrix and its perturbative expansion. Holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals are introduced and applied to nonrelativistic quantum field theory. There is also a brief discussion of path integrals in phase space. The introduction includes a brief historical review of path integrals, supported by a bibliography with some 40 entries. As emphasized in the introduction, mathematical rigour is not a central issue in the book. This allows the text to present the calculational techniques in a very readable manner: much of the text consists of worked-out examples, such as the quartic anharmonic oscillator in the barrier penetration chapter. At the end of each chapter there are exercises, some of which are of elementary coursework type, but the majority are more in the style of extended examples. Most of the exercises indeed include the solution or a sketch thereof. The book assumes minimal previous knowledge of quantum mechanics, and some basic quantum mechanical notation is collected in an appendix. The material has a large overlap with selected chapters in the author's thousand-page textbook Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena (2002 Oxford: Clarendon). The stand-alone scope of the present work has, however, allowed a more focussed organization of this material, especially in the chapters on, respectively, holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals. In my view the book accomplishes its aim admirably and is eminently usable as a textbook

  10. From path integrals to anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canright, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    I offer a pedagogical review of the homotopy arguments for fractional statistics in two dimensions. These arguments arise naturally in path-integral language since they necessarily consider the properties of paths rather than simply permutations. The braid group replaces the permutation group as the basic structure for quantum statistics; hence properties of the braid group on several surfaces are briefly discussed. Finally, the question of multiple (real-space) occupancy is addressed; I suggest that the ''traditional'' treatment of this question (ie, an assumption that many-anyon wavefunctions necessarily vanish for multiple occupancy) needs reexamination

  11. Isomorphisms and traversability of directed path graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Li, Xueliang; Li, X.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of a line digraph is generalized to that of a directed path graph. The directed path graph $\\forw P_k(D)$ of a digraph $D$ is obtained by representing the directed paths on $k$ vertices of $D$ by vertices. Two vertices are joined by an arc whenever the corresponding directed paths in $D$

  12. Taxon ordering in phylogenetic trees by means of evolutionary algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerutti Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In in a typical "left-to-right" phylogenetic tree, the vertical order of taxa is meaningless, as only the branch path between them reflects their degree of similarity. To make unresolved trees more informative, here we propose an innovative Evolutionary Algorithm (EA method to search the best graphical representation of unresolved trees, in order to give a biological meaning to the vertical order of taxa. Methods Starting from a West Nile virus phylogenetic tree, in a (1 + 1-EA we evolved it by randomly rotating the internal nodes and selecting the tree with better fitness every generation. The fitness is a sum of genetic distances between the considered taxon and the r (radius next taxa. After having set the radius to the best performance, we evolved the trees with (λ + μ-EAs to study the influence of population on the algorithm. Results The (1 + 1-EA consistently outperformed a random search, and better results were obtained setting the radius to 8. The (λ + μ-EAs performed as well as the (1 + 1, except the larger population (1000 + 1000. Conclusions The trees after the evolution showed an improvement both of the fitness (based on a genetic distance matrix, then close taxa are actually genetically close, and of the biological interpretation. Samples collected in the same state or year moved close each other, making the tree easier to interpret. Biological relationships between samples are also easier to observe.

  13. Active object recognition using vocabulary trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . Using this quantity, a feature’s uniqueness may be cal- culated. This is done in the following way. The feature’s Figure 3. Viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object in the database. path through the vocabulary tree is determined by evaluat- ing... on the background will not negatively effect the weighting since all images were captured using the same background and their uniqueness weighting will be extremely low. Figure 3 is an example polar plot of viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object...

  14. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  15. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  16. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  17. Tree growth visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  18. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  19. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  20. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  1. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  2. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  3. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  4. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  5. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resul......We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...... as the complementing theory with a number of examples....

  6. Multicasting in Wireless Communications (Ad-Hoc Networks): Comparison against a Tree-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, G. E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    We examine on-demand multicasting in ad hoc networks. The Core Assisted Mesh Protocol (CAMP) is a well-known protocol for multicast routing in ad-hoc networks, generalizing the notion of core-based trees employed for internet multicasting into multicast meshes that have much richer connectivity than trees. On the other hand, wireless tree-based multicast routing protocols use much simpler structures for determining route paths, using only parent-child relationships. In this work, we compare the performance of the CAMP protocol against the performance of wireless tree-based multicast routing protocols, in terms of two important factors, namely packet delay and ratio of dropped packets.

  7. FTAP, Minimal Cut Sets of Arbitrary Fault Trees. FRTPLT, Fault Tree Structure and Logical Gates Plot for Program FTAP. FRTGEN, Fault Trees by Sub-tree Generator from Parent Tree for Program FTAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willie, Randall R.; Rabien, U.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FTAP is a general-purpose program for deriving minimal reliability cut and path set families from the fault tree for a complex system. The program has a number of useful features that make it well-suited to nearly all fault tree applications. An input fault tree may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables; thus, for instance, 'exclusive-or' type relations may be formed. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. The program offers the flexibility of several distinct methods of generating cut set families. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the system state as a function of these module state variables. Another feature allows a useful subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily may consist of only those sets not containing more than some fixed number of elements or only those sets 'interesting' to the analyst in some special sense. Finally, the analyst can modify the input fault tree in various ways by declaring state variables identically true or false. 2 - Method of solution: Fault tree methods are based on the observation that the system state, either working or failed, can usually be expressed as a Boolean relation between states of several large, readily identifiable subsystems. The state of each subsystem in turn depends on states of simpler subsystems and components which compose it, so that the state of the system itself is determined by a hierarchy of logical relationships between states of subsystems. A fault tree is a graphical representation of these relationships. 3 - Restrictions on the

  8. A recursive algorithm for trees and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Song; Guo, Victor J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Trees or rooted trees have been generously studied in the literature. A forest is a set of trees or rooted trees. Here we give recurrence relations between the number of some kind of rooted forest with $k$ roots and that with $k+1$ roots on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$. Classical formulas for counting various trees such as rooted trees, bipartite trees, tripartite trees, plane trees, $k$-ary plane trees, $k$-edge colored trees follow immediately from our recursive relations.

  9. An O(n log n) Version of the Averbakh-Berman Algorithm for the Robust Median of a Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Georgiadis, Loukas; Katriel, Irit

    2008-01-01

    We show that the minmax regret median of a tree can be found in O(nlog n) time. This is obtained by a modification of Averbakh and Berman's O(nlog2 n)-time algorithm: We design a dynamic solution to their bottleneck subproblem of finding the middle of every root-leaf path in a tree....

  10. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  11. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  12. Stochastic control with rough paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  13. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  14. Path modeling and process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.

    2007-01-01

    and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... be performed regarding the foreseeable output property y, and with respect to an admissible range of correcting actions for the parameters of the next stage. In this paper the basic principles of path modeling is presented. The mathematics is presented for processes having only one stage, having two stages...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data....

  15. TP-Space RRT – Kinematic Path Planning of Non-Holonomic Any-Shape Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blanco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous navigation of vehicles typically combines two kinds of methods: a path is first planned, and then the robot is driven by a local obstacle-avoidance controller. The present work, which focuses on path planning, proposes an extension to the well-known rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT algorithm to allow its integration with a trajectory parameter-space (TP-space as an efficient method to detect collision-free, kinematically-feasible paths for arbitrarily-shaped vehicles. In contrast to original RRT, this proposal generates navigation trees, with poses as nodes, whose edges are all kinematically-feasible paths, suitable to being accurately followed by vehicles driven by pure reactive algorithms. Initial experiments demonstrate the suitability of the method with an Ackermann-steering vehicle model whose severe kinematic constraints cannot be obviated. An important result that sets this work apart from previous research is the finding that employing several families of potential trajectories to expand the tree, which can be done efficiently under the TP-space formalism, improves the optimality of the planned trajectories. A reference C++ implementation has been released as open-source.

  16. Factorization-algebraization-path integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, A.; Wilson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors review the method of factorization proposed by Schroedinger of a quantum mechanical second-order linear differential equation into a product of two first-order differential operators, often referred to as ladder operators, as well as the modifications made to Schroedinger's method by Infeld and Hull. They then review the group theoretical treatments proposed by Miller of the Schroedinger-Infeld-Hull factorizations and go on to demonstrate the application of dynamical symmetry to path integral calculations. 30 references

  17. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  18. Career path for operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explains how selected personnel can now obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with a Nuclear Power Operations option. The program went into effect the Fall of 1984. Another program was worked out in 1982 whereby students attending the Nuclear Operators Training Program could obtain an Associates of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology at the end of two years of study. This paper presents tables and charts which describe these programs and outline the career path for operators

  19. Conditionally solvable path integral problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.

    1995-05-01

    Some specific conditionally exactly solvable potentials are discussed within the path integral formalism. They generalize the usually known potentials by the incorporation of a fractional power behaviour and strongly anharmonic terms. We find four different kinds of such potentials, the first is related to the Coulomb potential, the second is an anharmonic confinement potential, and the third and the fourth are related to the Manning-Rosen potential. (orig.)

  20. Path integrals in curvilinear coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1984-01-01

    Integration limits are studied for presenting the path integral curvilinear coordinates. For spherical (and topoloqically equivalent) coordinates it is shown that in formulas involving classical action in the exponent integration over all variables should be carried out within infinite limits. Another peculiarity is associated with appearance of the operator q which provides a complete definition of the wave functions out of the physical region. arguments are given upporting the validity of the cited statament in the general case

  1. Decision-Tree Formulation With Order-1 Lateral Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    -disjunctive paths to a flattened conjunctive form composed only of equality checks when possible. If each reduced conjunctive form contains only equality checks and all of these forms use the same variables, then the decision tree can be reduced to an order-one operation through a table lookup. The speedup to order one is accomplished by distributing each decision variable over a surface of a multidimensional object by mapping the equality constant to an index

  2. Polygonal-path approximations on the path spaces of quantum-mechanical systems: properties of the polygonal paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Kolerov, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of the subset of polygonal paths in the Hilbert space H of paths referring to a d-dimensional quantum-mechanical system are examined. Using the reproduction kernel technique we prove that each element of H is approximated by polygonal paths uniformly with respect to the ''norm'' of time-interval partitions. This result will be applied in the second part of the present paper to prove consistency of the uniform polygonal-path extension of the Feynman maps [ru

  3. Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetouani, L

    2005-01-01

    By treating path integrals the author, in this book, places at the disposal of the reader a modern tool for the comprehension of standard quantum mechanics. Thus the most important applications, such as the tunnel effect, the diffusion matrix, etc, are presented from an original point of view on the action S of classical mechanics while having it play a central role in quantum mechanics. What also emerges is that the path integral describes these applications more richly than are described traditionally by differential equations, and consequently explains them more fully. The book is certainly of high quality in all aspects: original in presentation, rigorous in the demonstrations, judicious in the choice of exercises and, finally, modern, for example in the treatment of the tunnel effect by the method of instantons. Moreover, the correspondence that exists between classical and quantum mechanics is well underlined. I thus highly recommend this book (the French version being already available) to those who wish to familiarize themselves with formulation by path integrals. They will find, in addition, interesting topics suitable for exploring further. (book review)

  4. Nonperturbative path integral expansion II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Feynman path integral representation of the 2-point function for a self-interacting Bose field is investigated using an expansion ('Path Integral Expansion', PIE) of the exponential of the kinetic term of the Lagrangian. This leads to a series - illustrated by a graph scheme - involving successively a coupling of more and more points of the lattice space commonly employed in the evaluation of path integrals. The values of the individual PIE graphs depend of course on the lattice constant. Two methods - Pade approximation and Borel-type extrapolation - are proposed to extract information about the continuum limit from a finite-order PIE. A more flexible PIE is possible by expanding besides the kinetic term a suitably chosen part of the interaction term too. In particular, if the co-expanded part is a mass term the calculation becomes only slightly more complicated than in the original formulation and the appearance of the graph scheme is unchanged. A significant reduction of the number of graphs and an improvement of the convergence of the PIE can be achieved by performing certain sums over an infinity of graph elements. (author)

  5. Distribution definition of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerler, W.

    1979-01-01

    By starting from quantum mechanics it turns out that a rather general definition of quantum functional integrals can be given which is based on distribution theory. It applies also to curved space and provides clear rules for non-linear transformations. The refinements necessary in usual definitions of path integrals are pointed out. Since the quantum nature requires special care with time sequences, it is not the classical phase space which occurs in the phase-space form of the path integral. Feynman's configuration-space form only applies to a highly specialized situation, and therefore is not a very advantageous starting point for general investigations. It is shown that the commonly used substitutions of variables do not properly account for quantum effects. The relation to the traditional ordering problem is clarified. The distribution formulation has allowed to treat constrained systems directly at the quantum level, to complete the path integral formulation of the equivalence theorem, and to define functional integrals also for space translation after the transition to fields. (orig.)

  6. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  7. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  8. USING PRECEDENTS FOR REDUCTION OF DECISION TREE BY GRAPH SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bessmertny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of mutual payment organization between business entities by means of clearing that is solved by search of graph paths. To reduce the decision tree complexity a method of precedents is proposed that consists in saving the intermediate solution during the moving along decision tree. An algorithm and example are presented demonstrating solution complexity coming close to a linear one. The tests carried out in civil aviation settlement system demonstrate approximately 30 percent shortage of real money transfer. The proposed algorithm is planned to be implemented also in other clearing organizations of the Russian Federation.

  9. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree

  10. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  11. A bijection between phylogenetic trees and plane oriented recursive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Prodinger, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are binary nonplanar trees with labelled leaves, and plane oriented recursive trees are planar trees with an increasing labelling. Both families are enumerated by double factorials. A bijection is constructed, using the respective representations a 2-partitions and trapezoidal words.

  12. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part...

  13. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  14. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  15. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  16. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  17. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.

  18. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  19. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... organisms. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to explore genetic resilience and phenotypic plasticity mechanisms that allows trees to adapt and evolve with changing climates. The thesis focus on the abiotic factors associated with climate change, especially raised temperatures and lack...... age of these tree species and the uncertainty around the pace and effect of climate, it remains an open question if the native populations can respond fast enough. Phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic regulation of spring phenology is found to be present in a tree species which might act...

  20. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  1. Path Integral Formulation of Anomalous Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Rudolf; Eule, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We present the path integral formulation of a broad class of generalized diffusion processes. Employing the path integral we derive exact expressions for the path probability densities and joint probability distributions for the class of processes under consideration. We show that Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRWs) are included in our framework. A closed expression for the path probability distribution of CTRWs is found in terms of their waiting time distribution as the solution of a Dyson ...

  2. Path Network Recovery Using Remote Sensing Data and Geospatial-Temporal Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, William C.,; Brost, Randolph

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing systems produce large volumes of high-resolution images that are difficult to search. The GeoGraphy (pronounced Geo-Graph-y) framework [2, 20] encodes remote sensing imagery into a geospatial-temporal semantic graph representation to enable high level semantic searches to be performed. Typically scene objects such as buildings and trees tend to be shaped like blocks with few holes, but other shapes generated from path networks tend to have a large number of holes and can span a large geographic region due to their connectedness. For example, we have a dataset covering the city of Philadelphia in which there is a single road network node spanning a 6 mile x 8 mile region. Even a simple question such as "find two houses near the same street" might give unexpected results. More generally, nodes arising from networks of paths (roads, sidewalks, trails, etc.) require additional processing to make them useful for searches in GeoGraphy. We have assigned the term Path Network Recovery to this process. Path Network Recovery is a three-step process involving (1) partitioning the network node into segments, (2) repairing broken path segments interrupted by occlusions or sensor noise, and (3) adding path-aware search semantics into GeoQuestions. This report covers the path network recovery process, how it is used, and some example use cases of the current capabilities.

  3. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  4. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  5. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  6. Strain path dependency in metal plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viatkina, E.M.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2003-01-01

    A change in strain path has a significant effect on the mechanical response of metals. Strain path change effects physically originate from a complex microstructure evolution. This paper deals with the contribution of cell structure evolution to the strain path change effect. The material with cells

  7. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  8. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  9. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r-ν log r with ν = (k2 - 1) / 2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k (1 + 1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν˜ =k2 / 2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems.

  10. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V.S.; Priezzhev, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r −ν logr with ν=(k 2 −1)/2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k(1+1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν -tilde= k 2 /2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems

  11. Decomposing highly edge-connected graphs into homomorphic copies of a fixed tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2016-01-01

    far this conjecture has only been verified for paths, stars, and a family of bistars. We prove a weaker version of the Tree Decomposition Conjecture, where we require the subgraphs in the decomposition to be isomorphic to graphs that can be obtained from T by vertex-identifications. We call......The Tree Decomposition Conjecture by Barát and Thomassen states that for every tree T there exists a natural number k(T) such that the following holds: If G is a k(T)-edge-connected simple graph with size divisible by the size of T, then G can be edge-decomposed into subgraphs isomorphic to T. So...... such a subgraph a homomorphic copy of T. This implies the Tree Decomposition Conjecture under the additional constraint that the girth of G is greater than the diameter of T. As an application, we verify the Tree Decomposition Conjecture for all trees of diameter at most 4....

  12. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  13. Space charge models and PATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, H.B.

    1990-01-01

    The 'PATH' codes are used to design magnetic optics subsystems for neutral particle beam systems. They include a 2-1/2D and three 3-D space charge models, two of which have recently been added. This paper describes the 3-D models and reports on preliminary benchmark studies in which these models are checked for stability as the cloud size is varied and for consistency with each other. Differences between the models are investigated and the computer time requirements for running these models are established

  14. Innovation paths in wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke

    Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back....... The ‘Danish Design’ remains the global standard. The direct drive design, while uncommon in Denmark, dominates the German installation base. Direct drive technology has thus emerged as a distinctly German design and sub-trajectory within the overall technological innovation path. When it comes to organising...... global interconnectedness of wind technology markets and the role of emerging new players, such as China and India....

  15. Uncommon paths in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Konstantin V

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fascinating, and at the same time most controversial, branches of contemporary science. Disputes have accompanied this science since its birth and have not ceased to this day. Uncommon Paths in Quantum Physics allows the reader to contemplate deeply some ideas and methods that are seldom met in the contemporary literature. Instead of widespread recipes of mathematical physics, based on the solutions of integro-differential equations, the book follows logical and partly intuitional derivations of non-commutative algebra. Readers can directly penetrate the

  16. Beyond centrality-classifying topological significance using backup efficiency and alternative paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavitt, Yuval; Singer, Yaron

    2007-01-01

    In complex networks characterized by broad degree distribution, node significance is often associated with its degree or with centrality metrics which relate to its reachability and shortest paths passing through it. Such measures do not consider availability of efficient backup of the node and thus often fail to capture its contribution to the functionality and resilience of the network operation. In this paper, we suggest the quality of backup (QoB) and alternative path centrality (APC) measures as complementary methods which enable analysis of node significance in a manner which considers backup. We examine the theoretical significance of these measures and use them to classify nodes in social interaction networks and in the Internet AS (autonomous system) graph while applying the valley-free routing restrictions which reflect the economic relationships between the AS nodes in the Internet. We show that both node degree and node centrality are not necessarily evidence of its significance. In particular, we show that social structures do not necessarily depend on highly central nodes and that medium degree nodes with medium centrality measure prove to be crucial for efficient routing in the Internet AS graph

  17. Integral transforms of the quantum mechanical path integral: Hit function and path-averaged potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, James P.; Gerber, Urs; Schubert, Christian; Trejo, Maria Anabel; Weber, Axel

    2018-04-01

    We introduce two integral transforms of the quantum mechanical transition kernel that represent physical information about the path integral. These transforms can be interpreted as probability distributions on particle trajectories measuring respectively the relative contribution to the path integral from paths crossing a given spatial point (the hit function) and the likelihood of values of the line integral of the potential along a path in the ensemble (the path-averaged potential).

  18. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  19. A Novel Quad Harmony Search Algorithm for Grid-Based Path Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saso Koceski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to the problem of grid-based path finding has been introduced. The method is a block-based search algorithm, founded on the bases of two algorithms, namely the quad-tree algorithm, which offered a great opportunity for decreasing the time needed to compute the solution, and the harmony search (HS algorithm, a meta-heuristic algorithm used to obtain the optimal solution. This quad HS algorithm uses the quad-tree decomposition of free space in the grid to mark the free areas and treat them as a single node, which greatly improves the execution. The results of the quad HS algorithm have been compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms, i.e., ant colony, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing, and it was proved to obtain the best results in terms of time and giving the optimal path.

  20. TreeBASIS Feature Descriptor and Its Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Fowers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature descriptor called TreeBASIS that provides improvements in descriptor size, computation time, matching speed, and accuracy. This new descriptor uses a binary vocabulary tree that is computed using basis dictionary images and a test set of feature region images. To facilitate real-time implementation, a feature region image is binary quantized and the resulting quantized vector is passed into the BASIS vocabulary tree. A Hamming distance is then computed between the feature region image and the effectively descriptive basis dictionary image at a node to determine the branch taken and the path the feature region image takes is saved as a descriptor. The TreeBASIS feature descriptor is an excellent candidate for hardware implementation because of its reduced descriptor size and the fact that descriptors can be created and features matched without the use of floating point operations. The TreeBASIS descriptor is more computationally and space efficient than other descriptors such as BASIS, SIFT, and SURF. Moreover, it can be computed entirely in hardware without the support of a CPU for additional software-based computations. Experimental results and a hardware implementation show that the TreeBASIS descriptor compares well with other descriptors for frame-to-frame homography computation while requiring fewer hardware resources.

  1. Time-dependent methodology for fault tree evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Any fault tree may be evaluated applying the method called the kinetic theory of fault trees. The basic feature of this method as presented here is in that any information on primary failure, type failure or peak failure is derived from three characteristics: probability of existence, failure intensity and failure density. The determination of the said three characteristics for a given phenomenon yields the remaining probabilistic information on the individual aspects of the failure and on their totality for the whole observed period. The probabilistic characteristics are determined by applying the analysis of phenomenon probability. The total time dependent information on the peak failure is obtained by using the type failures (critical paths) of the fault tree. By applying the said process the total time dependent information is obtained for every primary failure and type failure of the fault tree. In the application of the method of the kinetic theory of fault trees represented by the PREP and KITT programmes, the type failures are first obtained using the deterministic testing method or using the Monte Carlo simulation (PREP programme). The respective characteristics are then determined using the kinetic theory of fault trees (KITT programmes). (Oy)

  2. Limited growth recovery after drought-induced forest dieback in very defoliated trees of two pine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eGuada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width and intra-annual (xylogenesis scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized three years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die.

  3. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  4. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  5. Computing Maximum Cardinality Matchings in Parallel on Bipartite Graphs via Tree-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Ariful; Buluc, Aydn; Pothen, Alex

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain high performance when computing matchings on parallel processors because matching algorithms explicitly or implicitly search for paths in the graph, and when these paths become long, there is little concurrency. In spite of this limitation, we present a new algorithm and its shared-memory parallelization that achieves good performance and scalability in computing maximum cardinality matchings in bipartite graphs. This algorithm searches for augmenting paths via specialized breadth-first searches (BFS) from multiple source vertices, hence creating more parallelism than single source algorithms. Algorithms that employ multiple-source searches cannot discard a search tree once no augmenting path is discovered from the tree, unlike algorithms that rely on single-source searches. We describe a novel tree-grafting method that eliminates most of the redundant edge traversals resulting from this property of multiple-source searches. We also employ the recent direction-optimizing BFS algorithm as a subroutine to discover augmenting paths faster. Our algorithm compares favorably with the current best algorithms in terms of the number of edges traversed, the average augmenting path length, and the number of iterations. Here, we provide a proof of correctness for our algorithm. Our NUMA-aware implementation is scalable to 80 threads of an Intel multiprocessor and to 240 threads on an Intel Knights Corner coprocessor. On average, our parallel algorithm runs an order of magnitude faster than the fastest algorithms available. The performance improvement is more significant on graphs with small matching number.

  6. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  7. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-07-31

    Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.

  8. Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path: Re-Examining the Case of Nokia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jens; Hedman, Jonas; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    The explanation of how and why firms succeed or fail is a recurrent research challenge. This is particularly important in the context of technological innovations. We focus on the role of historical events and decisions in explaining such success and failure. Using a case study of Nokia, we develop and extend a multi-layer path dependence framework. We identify four layers of path dependence: technical, strategic and leadership, organizational, and external collaboration. We show how path dep...

  9. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  10. Rainbow paths with prescribed ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    vertices. We also prove that every connected graph with atleast one edge has a proper k-coloring (for some k) such that every vertex of color i has a neighbor of color i + 1 (mod k). C-5 shows that k may have to be greater than the chromatic number. However, if the graph is connected, infinite and locally...... finite, and has finite chromatic number, then the k-coloring exists for every k >= chi(G). In fact, the k-coloring can be chosen such that every vertex is a starting vertex of an infinite path such that the color increases by 1 (mod k) along each edge. The method is based on the circular chromatic number...... chi(c)(G). In particular, we verify the above conjecture for all connected graphs whose circular chromatic number equals the chromatic number....

  11. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  12. On-line Ramsey Numbers for Paths and Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Grytczuk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study on-line version of size-Ramsey numbers of graphs defined via a game played between Builder and Painter: in one round Builder joins two vertices by an edge and Painter paints it red or blue. The goal of Builder is to force Painter to create a monochromatic copy of a fixed graph H in as few rounds as possible. The minimum number of rounds (assuming both players play perfectly is the on-line Ramsey number r(H of the graph H. We determine exact values of r(H for a few short paths and obtain a general upper bound r(Pn ≤ 4n-7. We also study asymmetric version of this parameter when one of the target graphs is a star Sn with n edges. We prove that r(Sn,H≤n ·e(H when H is any tree, cycle or clique.

  13. Potential paths for male-mediated gene flow to and from an isolated grizzly bear population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Christopher P.; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Landenburger, Lisa; Roberts, Lori L.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Mace, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    For several decades, grizzly bear populations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) have increased in numbers and range extent. The GYE population remains isolated and although effective population size has increased since the early 1980s, genetic connectivity between these populations remains a long-term management goal. With only ~110 km distance separating current estimates of occupied range for these populations, the potential for gene flow is likely greater now than it has been for many decades. We sought to delineate potential paths that would provide the opportunity for male-mediated gene flow between the two populations. We first developed step-selection functions to generate conductance layers using ecological, physical, and anthropogenic landscape features associated with non-stationary GPS locations of 124 male grizzly bears (199 bear-years). We then used a randomized shortest path (RSP) algorithm to estimate the average number of net passages for all grid cells in the study region, when moving from an origin to a destination node. Given habitat characteristics that were the basis for the conductance layer, movements follow certain grid cell sequences more than others and the resulting RSP values thus provide a measure of movement potential. Repeating this process for 100 pairs of random origin and destination nodes, we identified paths for three levels of random deviation (θ) from the least-cost path. We observed broad-scale concordance between model predictions for paths originating in the NCDE and those originating in the GYE for all three levels of movement exploration. Model predictions indicated that male grizzly bear movement between the ecosystems could involve a variety of routes, and verified observations of grizzly bears outside occupied range supported this finding. Where landscape features concentrated paths into corridors (e.g., because of anthropogenic influence), they typically

  14. Strategic Team AI Path Plans: Probabilistic Pathfinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tng C. H. John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method to generate strategic team AI pathfinding plans for computer games and simulations using probabilistic pathfinding. This method is inspired by genetic algorithms (Russell and Norvig, 2002, in that, a fitness function is used to test the quality of the path plans. The method generates high-quality path plans by eliminating the low-quality ones. The path plans are generated by probabilistic pathfinding, and the elimination is done by a fitness test of the path plans. This path plan generation method has the ability to generate variation or different high-quality paths, which is desired for games to increase replay values. This work is an extension of our earlier work on team AI: probabilistic pathfinding (John et al., 2006. We explore ways to combine probabilistic pathfinding and genetic algorithm to create a new method to generate strategic team AI pathfinding plans.

  15. Tool path in torus tool CNC machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.

  16. Constructing Dynamic Event Trees from Markov Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolo Bucci; Jason Kirschenbaum; Tunc Aldemir; Curtis Smith; Ted Wood

    2006-01-01

    In the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of process plants, Markov models can be used to model accurately the complex dynamic interactions between plant physical process variables (e.g., temperature, pressure, etc.) and the instrumentation and control system that monitors and manages the process. One limitation of this approach that has prevented its use in nuclear power plant PRAs is the difficulty of integrating the results of a Markov analysis into an existing PRA. In this paper, we explore a new approach to the generation of failure scenarios and their compilation into dynamic event trees from a Markov model of the system. These event trees can be integrated into an existing PRA using software tools such as SAPHIRE. To implement our approach, we first construct a discrete-time Markov chain modeling the system of interest by: (a) partitioning the process variable state space into magnitude intervals (cells), (b) using analytical equations or a system simulator to determine the transition probabilities between the cells through the cell-to-cell mapping technique, and, (c) using given failure/repair data for all the components of interest. The Markov transition matrix thus generated can be thought of as a process model describing the stochastic dynamic behavior of the finite-state system. We can therefore search the state space starting from a set of initial states to explore all possible paths to failure (scenarios) with associated probabilities. We can also construct event trees of arbitrary depth by tracing paths from a chosen initiating event and recording the following events while keeping track of the probabilities associated with each branch in the tree. As an example of our approach, we use the simple level control system often used as benchmark in the literature with one process variable (liquid level in a tank), and three control units: a drain unit and two supply units. Each unit includes a separate level sensor to observe the liquid level in the tank

  17. Design of Active N-path Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darvishi, M.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    A design methodology for synthesis of active N-path bandpass filters is introduced. Based on this methodology, a 0.1-to-1.2 GHz tunable 6th-order N-path channel-select filter in 65 nm LP CMOS is introduced. It is based on coupling N-path filters with gyrators, achieving a “flat‿ passband shape and

  18. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  19. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats

  20. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  1. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...

  2. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  3. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  4. Base tree property

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2

  5. Multiquarks and Steiner trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    A brief review review is presented of models tentatively leading to stable multiquarks. A new attempt is presented, based on a Steiner-tree model of confinement, which is inspired by by QCD. It leads to more attraction than the empirical colour-additive model used in earlier multiquark calculations, and predict several multiquark states in configurations with different flavours.

  6. Evaluation of fungicides to protect pruning wounds from Botryosphaeriaceae species infections on almond trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego OLMO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ten fungicides was evaluated against four Botryosphaeriaceae spp. (Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum and N. parvum associated with branch cankers on almond trees. Cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and thiophanate-methyl were effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of most of these fungi. An experiment on 3-year-old almond trees evaluated boscalid, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole for preventative ability against infections caused by the four pathogens. Five months after pruning and fungicide application, lesion length measurements and isolation percentages showed no significant differences among the four pathogens after they were inoculated onto the trees, and also between the two inoculation times tested (1 or 7 d after fungicide application. Thiophanate-methyl was the most effective fungicide, resulting in the shortest lesion lengths and the lowest isolation percentages from artificially inoculated pruning wounds. This chemical is therefore a candidate for inclusion in integrated disease management, to protect pruning wounds from infections caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. This study represents the first approach to development of chemical control strategies for the management of canker diseases caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi on almond trees

  7. Path integrals and geometry of trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Niemi, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation of path integrals is developed in the space of trajectories. This yields a supersymmetric formulation of a generic path integral, with the supersymmetry resembling the BRST supersymmetry of a first class constrained system. If the classical equation of motion is a Killing vector field in the space of trajectories, the supersymmetry localizes the path integral to classical trajectories and the WKB approximation becomes exact. This can be viewed as a path integral generalization of the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, which states the conditions for the exactness of the WKB approximation for integrals in a compact phase space. (orig.)

  8. Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.A.R. de.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. Techniques and applications of path integration

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, L S

    2005-01-01

    A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra

  10. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  11. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  12. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  13. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  14. The Re-Think Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  15. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  16. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  17. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  18. Genetic transformation of forest trees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this review, the recent progress on genetic transformation of forest trees were discussed. Its described also, different applications of genetic engineering for improving forest trees or understanding the mechanisms governing genes expression in woody plants. Key words: Genetic transformation, transgenic forest trees, ...

  19. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according to spatio...

  20. Decision paths in complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  1. Practicality of diversion path analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphey, W.M.; Schleter, J.C.

    1974-07-01

    One can define the safeguards system for nuclear material as the set of all protective actions taken to prevent or to deter attempts to divert nuclear material to unauthorized use. Maintenance of effective safeguards requires a program for routine assessment of plant safeguards systems in terms of their capabilities to satisfy safeguards aims. Plant internal control systems provide capabilities for detection of unprevented diversion and can provide assurance that diversion has not occurred. A procedure called Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) enables routine assessment of the capabilities of internal control systems in this regard and identification of safeguards problem areas in a plant. A framework for safeguards system design is also provided which will allow flexibility to accommodate individual plant circumstances while maintaining acceptable diversion detection capability. The steps of the procedure are described and the practicality of the analytical method is shown by referring to a demonstration test for a high throughput process where plant personnel were major participants. The boundary conditions for the demonstration case are given, along with some conclusions about the general procedure. (U.S.)

  2. Inked Careers: Tattooing Professional Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DeLuca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of career has an interdisciplinary and historical constitution, which includes persons, groups, organizations and society. Given that, we aim to deepen the interactionist notion of career from the understanding of a deviant path, supported by a theory and a method appropriated to the cited call for interdisciplinary approaches. Dilemmas (Hughes, 1958 and conflicts (Hughes, 1937 emerged as important analytical categories. Although necessary, these two concepts were not sufficient to contemplate analyses in their entirety. For this reason we conceptualized a third possibility of controversy during a career: the inquiries. The study followed the Narrative method to analyze objective and subjective changes during a tattoo artist’s career through interviews and informal conversations carried out over 22 months. The discussion presents three main contributions. Theoretically, a new understanding of the concept of careers, linking past, present and future and the idea of non-linearity of experienced and envisioned careers. Methodologically, suggesting orientations for future career studies such as the use of turning points as a methodological tool and the investigation of deviant fields. Finally, our defense of the interactionist perspective as suitable for career studies, since it allows the investigation of deviant elements.

  3. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  4. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  5. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  6. Two Generations of Path Dependence in Economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2010-01-01

    Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences – primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...

  7. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  8. Evaluation of Calcine Disposition Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrer, S.A.; Heiser, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward

  9. Generalized measures and the Feynman path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Generalizations are obtained for the earlier results by the authors concerning the inclusion of the Feynmann path integral in the momentum representation into the general integration theory. Feynmann path integrals are considered which do not represent T-products. Generalized Feynmann measure in the configuration representation is introduced

  10. Paths and cycles in colored graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Shenggui; Hurink, Johann L.; Pickl, Stefan; Broersma, Haitze J.; Faigle, U.

    2001-01-01

    Let G be an (edge-)colored graph. A path (cycle) is called monochromatic if all the edges of it have the same color, and is called heterochromatic if all the edges of it have different colors. In this note, some sufficient conditions for the existence of monochromatic and heterochromatic paths and

  11. from synchronic variation to a grammaticalization path

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. The authors argue that the synchronic variation of cognate objects of weather verbs exhibited in six African languages of South Africa (Sepedi, Sesotho, Tshivenda, isiXhosa, Xitsonga, and. isiZulu) has a diachronic explanation, and may be represented as a grammaticalization path. This path gradually leads from ...

  12. Tree-average distances on certain phylogenetic networks have their weights uniquely determined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetic network N has vertices corresponding to species and arcs corresponding to direct genetic inheritance from the species at the tail to the species at the head. Measurements of DNA are often made on species in the leaf set, and one seeks to infer properties of the network, possibly including the graph itself. In the case of phylogenetic trees, distances between extant species are frequently used to infer the phylogenetic trees by methods such as neighbor-joining. This paper proposes a tree-average distance for networks more general than trees. The notion requires a weight on each arc measuring the genetic change along the arc. For each displayed tree the distance between two leaves is the sum of the weights along the path joining them. At a hybrid vertex, each character is inherited from one of its parents. We will assume that for each hybrid there is a probability that the inheritance of a character is from a specified parent. Assume that the inheritance events at different hybrids are independent. Then for each displayed tree there will be a probability that the inheritance of a given character follows the tree; this probability may be interpreted as the probability of the tree. The tree-average distance between the leaves is defined to be the expected value of their distance in the displayed trees. For a class of rooted networks that includes rooted trees, it is shown that the weights and the probabilities at each hybrid vertex can be calculated given the network and the tree-average distances between the leaves. Hence these weights and probabilities are uniquely determined. The hypotheses on the networks include that hybrid vertices have indegree exactly 2 and that vertices that are not leaves have a tree-child.

  13. Tree-hierarchy of DNA and distribution of Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozikov, U A

    2017-12-01

    We define a DNA as a sequence of [Formula: see text]'s and embed it on a path of Cayley tree. Using group representation of the Cayley tree, we give a hierarchy of a countable set of DNAs each of which 'lives' on the same Cayley tree. This hierarchy has property that each vertex of the Cayley tree belongs only to one of DNA. Then we give a model (energy, Hamiltonian) of this set of DNAs by an analogue of Ising model with three spin values (considered as DNA base pairs) on a set of admissible configurations. To study thermodynamic properties of the model of DNAs we describe corresponding translation invariant Gibbs measures (TIGM) of the model on the Cayley tree of order two. We show that there is a critical temperature [Formula: see text] such that (i) if temperature [Formula: see text] then there exists unique TIGM; (ii) if [Formula: see text] then there are two TIGMs; (iii) if [Formula: see text] then there are three TIGMs. Each such measure describes a phase of the set of DNAs. We use these results to study distributions of Holliday junctions and branches of DNAs. In case of very high and very low temperatures we give stationary distributions and typical configurations of the Holliday junctions.

  14. Ergonomics aspects of tree-planting using 'multipot' technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, D; Bélanger, R; Gauthier, J M; Larue, C

    1993-08-01

    The highlights of a descriptive study on the ergonomics and occupational health and safety aspects of tree-planting in Québec are presented. The study was planned to consider the most representative geographical sites, planting technologies, and planting organizations. Semi-directed interviews were made with a mixed group of 48 male and female tree-planters and physiological measurements were made on four male planters. Tools and other equipment were also examined. An analysis of the work identified the main elements of the planting cycle, and the high cardiac rate in the working planters was related more to his manual transportation of seedlings and travel on rough paths than to planting per se. A tree-planter will typically travel 2.4 km carrying 16.8 kg of material and equipment in order to plant an average of 1245 seedlings daily. One out of two interviewed planters reported having a work-related accident or incident during his or her lifetime planting career. The body parts reported most frequently injured were the lower extremities (knee, foot, ankle), the skin, the eyes, and the wrist. Recommendations on the development of appropriate tools and footwear for tree-planters and for further research on repetitive strain injury induced by tree-planting have been made.

  15. Relationships between average depth and number of misclassifications for decision trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2014-02-14

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between the total path length or the average depth and the number of misclassifications for decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository [9] and datasets representing Boolean functions with 10 variables.

  16. Relationships Between Average Depth and Number of Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2013-07-24

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between total path length or average depth and number of nodes of decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository [1]. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  17. Calculating Adversarial Risk from Attack Trees: Control Strength and Probabilistic Attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Davarynejad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Attack trees are a well-known formalism for quantitative analysis of cyber attacks consisting of multiple steps and alternative paths. It is possible to derive properties of the overall attacks from properties of individual steps, such as cost for the attacker and probability of success. However, in

  18. Relationships Between Average Depth and Number of Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between total path length or average depth and number of nodes of decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML

  19. Relationships between average depth and number of misclassifications for decision trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between the total path length or the average depth and the number of misclassifications for decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository [9] and datasets representing Boolean functions with 10 variables.

  20. Optimization of educational paths for higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Agarkov, Gavriil; Medvedev, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    In our research, we combine the theory of economic behavior and the methodology of increasing efficiency of the human capital to estimate the optimal educational paths. We provide an optimization model for higher education process to analyze possible educational paths for each rational individual. The preferences of each rational individual are compared to the best economically possible educational path. The main factor of the individual choice, which is formed by the formation of optimal educational path, deals with higher salaries level in the chosen economic sector after graduation. Another factor that influences on the economic profit is the reduction of educational costs or the possibility of the budget support for the student. The main outcome of this research consists in correction of the governmental policy of investment in human capital based on the results of educational paths optimal control.

  1. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Tree-level formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    We review two novel techniques used to calculate tree-level scattering amplitudes efficiently: MHV diagrams, and on-shell recursion relations. For the MHV diagrams, we consider applications to tree-level amplitudes and focus in particular on the N=4 supersymmetric formulation. We also briefly describe the derivation of loop amplitudes using MHV diagrams. For the recursion relations, after presenting their general proof, we discuss several applications to massless theories with and without supersymmetry, to theories with massive particles, and to graviton amplitudes in general relativity. This article is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)

  3. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  4. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  5. Extensions of Dynamic Programming: Decision Trees, Combinatorial Optimization, and Data Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the development of extensions of dynamic programming to the study of decision trees. The considered extensions allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to a sequence of cost functions, to count the number of optimal trees, and to study relationships: cost vs cost and cost vs uncertainty for decision trees by construction of the set of Pareto-optimal points for the corresponding bi-criteria optimization problem. The applications include study of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision trees for Boolean functions, improvement of bounds on complexity of decision trees for diagnosis of circuits, study of time and memory trade-off for corner point detection, study of decision rules derived from decision trees, creation of new procedure (multi-pruning) for construction of classifiers, and comparison of heuristics for decision tree construction. Part of these extensions (multi-stage optimization) was generalized to well-known combinatorial optimization problems: matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and optimal paths in directed graphs.

  6. Extensions of Dynamic Programming: Decision Trees, Combinatorial Optimization, and Data Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2016-07-10

    This thesis is devoted to the development of extensions of dynamic programming to the study of decision trees. The considered extensions allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to a sequence of cost functions, to count the number of optimal trees, and to study relationships: cost vs cost and cost vs uncertainty for decision trees by construction of the set of Pareto-optimal points for the corresponding bi-criteria optimization problem. The applications include study of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision trees for Boolean functions, improvement of bounds on complexity of decision trees for diagnosis of circuits, study of time and memory trade-off for corner point detection, study of decision rules derived from decision trees, creation of new procedure (multi-pruning) for construction of classifiers, and comparison of heuristics for decision tree construction. Part of these extensions (multi-stage optimization) was generalized to well-known combinatorial optimization problems: matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and optimal paths in directed graphs.

  7. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose......Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  8. Submodular unsplittable flow on trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Chalermsook, Parinya; Ene, Alina

    2016-01-01

    We study the Unsplittable Flow problem (UFP) on trees with a submodular objective function. The input to this problem is a tree with edge capacities and a collection of tasks, each characterized by a source node, a sink node, and a demand. A subset of the tasks is feasible if the tasks can...... simultaneously send their demands from the source to the sink without violating the edge capacities. The goal is to select a feasible subset of the tasks that maximizes a submodular objective function. Our main result is an O(k log n)-approximation algorithm for Submodular UFP on trees where k denotes...... the pathwidth of the given tree. Since every tree has pathwidth O(log n), we obtain an O(log2 n) approximation for arbitrary trees. This is the first non-trivial approximation guarantee for the problem and it matches the best approximation known for UFP on trees with a linear objective function. Our main...

  9. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  10. Software complex for finding the path routings in synchronous digital hierarchy networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bulanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication network constructions based on the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH are widely used in design and operation of telephone networks and data transfer ones on the basis of dedicated links. The providing the link for data transmission from one node to another one is a nontrivial objective. The network equipment vendors, as a rule, may provide also a network system control. However, these systems can be used only with the manufacturer's equipment, but are not intended for finding the optimal paths for the current network operation. They serve for examination to choose a network structure at the stage of its development or modernization for the known in advance matrix of connections. From the practice it is seen that the real networks structures use diverse equipment. Therefore to develop a complex to find the paths in SDH-based network is a challenge.Dijkstra algorithm is implemented to find the shortest network path routings in the complex. The use of the classical algorithm is impossible because of the restrictions in providing main and reserve links. There are multiplex sections with no routes to be expected. Such restriction is due to real arrangement of some multiplex sections in the same cables, but in different fibres. When providing the main link, the appropriate structuring sections should be preferable. For example, the link E3 (34 Mbit/s can pass only across the section of relevant configuration. The reserve link cannot pass across those multiplex sections where the main link has passed. This rule is not 'extra' considering the first restriction since the main and reserve link sections cannot crisscross the node. At the dead ends reserving has no sense, and the reserve link has to coincide with the main one to save a multiplex section resource of terminal switching. In implementation all these restrictions have been taken into consideration.In addition to the path routings, complex enables saving information on the network

  11. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  12. A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-05-03

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance.

  13. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance.

  14. Integrated path towards geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, R.; Delaytermoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    Among solutions to contribute to CO 2 emissions mitigation, sequestration is a promising path that presents the main advantage of being able to cope with the large volume at stake when considering the growing energy demand. Of particular importance, geological storage has widely been seen as an effective solution for large CO 2 sources like power plants or refineries. Many R and D projects have been initiated, whereby research institutes, government agencies and end-users achieve an effective collaboration. So far, progress has been made towards reinjection of CO 2 , in understanding and then predicting the phenomenon and fluid dynamics inside the geological target, while monitoring the expansion of the CO 2 bubble in the case of demonstration projects. A question arises however when talking about sequestration, namely the time scale to be taken into account. Time is indeed of the essence, and points out the need to understand leakage as well as trapping mechanisms. It is therefore of prime importance to be able to predict the fate of the injected fluids, in an accurate manner and over a relevant period of time. On the grounds of geology, four items are involved in geological storage reliability: the matrix itself, which is the recipient of the injected fluids; the seal, that is the mechanistic trap preventing the injected fluids to flow upward and escape; the lower part of the concerned structure, usually an aquifer, that can be a migration way for dissolved fluids; and the man- made injecting hole, the well, whose characteristics should be as good as the geological formation itself. These issues call for specific competencies such as reservoir engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, mineral chemistry, geomechanics, and well engineering. These competencies, even if put to use to a large extent in the oil industry, have never been connected with the reliability of geological storage as ultimate goal. This paper aims at providing an introduction to these

  15. On Determining if Tree-based Networks Contain Fixed Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Maria; Anipchenko-Ulaj, Olga; Ashfaq, Aisha; Chiu, Joyce; Kaiser, Mahedi; Ohsawa, Max Shoji; Owen, Megan; Pavlechko, Ella; St John, Katherine; Suleria, Shivam; Thompson, Keith; Yap, Corrine

    2016-05-01

    We address an open question of Francis and Steel about phylogenetic networks and trees. They give a polynomial time algorithm to decide if a phylogenetic network, N, is tree-based and pose the problem: given a fixed tree T and network N, is N based on T? We show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard to decide, by reduction from 3-Dimensional Matching (3DM) and further that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable.

  16. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  17. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  18. Path integral for relativistic particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.

    1990-06-01

    An action for a relativistic spinning particle interacting with external electromagnetic field is considered in reparametrization and local supergauge invariant form. It is shown that various path integral representations derived for the causal Green function correspond to the different forms of the relativistic particle action. The analogy of the path integral derived with the Lagrangian path integral of the field theory is discussed. It is shown that to obtain the causal propagator, the integration over the null mode of the Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the reparametrization invariance, has to be performed in the (0,+infinity) limits. (author). 23 refs

  19. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  20. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Leadership and Turnover Among Managers ," Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10(1973), pp. 184-200; R. J. House, "A Path-Goal Theory of...of Leadership ." 6R. J. House and G. Dessler, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " R. M. Stqg- dill. Managers , Employees, Organization (Ohio State...of Control." 23 R. J. House, "Notes on the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " (University of Toronto, Faculty of Management Studies, May 1974). 24 R

  1. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S{sub 3C}. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  2. Path probabilities of continuous time random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eule, Stephan; Friedrich, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Employing the path integral formulation of a broad class of anomalous diffusion processes, we derive the exact relations for the path probability densities of these processes. In particular, we obtain a closed analytical solution for the path probability distribution of a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) process. This solution is given in terms of its waiting time distribution and short time propagator of the corresponding random walk as a solution of a Dyson equation. Applying our analytical solution we derive generalized Feynman–Kac formulae. (paper)

  3. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S 3C . The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  4. Positroids Induced by Rational Dyck Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gotti, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A rational Dyck path of type $(m,d)$ is an increasing unit-step lattice path from $(0,0)$ to $(m,d) \\in \\mathbb{Z}^2$ that never goes above the diagonal line $y = (d/m)x$. On the other hand, a positroid of rank $d$ on the ground set $[d+m]$ is a special type of matroid coming from the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. In this paper we describe how to naturally assign a rank $d$ positroid on the ground set $[d+m]$, which we name rational Dyck positroid, to each rational Dyck path of type $(m,d...

  5. Unusual bond paths in organolithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, S.M.; Ritchie, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have applied the topological method to a number of organolithium compounds. The wavefunctions were determined with GAUSSIAN-82 using 3-21G basis set and fully optimized geometries. Gradient paths were obtained using the RHODER package and critical points were located using EXTREME. These results indicate the unusual nature of organolithium compounds. The strange bond paths arise mainly from the ionic nature of the C-Li interaction. We suggest that the term ''bond path'' may best be suited for covalent bonds. 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. New framework for the Feynman path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharir, M.Z.

    1986-01-01

    The well-known Fourier integral solution of the free diffusion equation in an arbitrary Euclidean space is reduced to Feynmannian integrals using the method partly contained in the formulation of the Fresnelian integral. By replacing the standard Hilbert space underlying the present mathematical formulation of the Feynman path integral by a new Hilbert space, the space of classical paths on the tangent bundle to the Euclidean space (and more general to an arbitrary Riemannian manifold) equipped with a natural inner product, we show that our Feynmannian integral is in better agreement with the qualitative features of the original Feynman path integral than the previous formulations of the integral

  7. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  8. Systolic trees and systolic language recognition by tree automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinby, M

    1983-01-01

    K. Culik II, J. Gruska, A. Salomaa and D. Wood have studied the language recognition capabilities of certain types of systolically operating networks of processors (see research reports Cs-81-32, Cs-81-36 and Cs-82-01, Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). In this paper, their model for systolic VLSI trees is formalised in terms of standard tree automaton theory, and the way in which some known facts about recognisable forests and tree transductions can be applied in VLSI tree theory is demonstrated. 13 references.

  9. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  10. Ductility behavior of irradiated path B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the practicality of using five Path B alloys in their current form as structural materials in the Fusion First-Wall/Blanket by evaluating both their postirradiation ductility and the corresponding microstructures

  11. AEDT sensor path methods using BADA4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of sensor path data processing in the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAAs) Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The methods are primarily intended to assist analysts with using AEDT to determ...

  12. Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Yih Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.

  13. Search Path Evaluation Incorporating Object Placement Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baylog, John G; Wettergren, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a computationally robust approach to search path performance evaluation where the objects of search interest exhibit structure in the way in which they occur within the search space...

  14. Multiagent path-finding in strategic games

    OpenAIRE

    Mihevc, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I worked on creating, comparing and improving algorithms for multi-agent path planning on a domain typical for real-time strategy games. I implemented and compared Multiagent pathfinding using clearance and Multiagent pathfinding using independence detection and operator decomposition. I discovered that they had problems maintaining group compactness and took too long to calculate the path. I considerably improved the efficiency of both algorithms.

  15. Diversion Path Analysis Handbook. Volume 1. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, K.E.; Schleter, J.C.; Maltese, M.D.K.

    1978-11-01

    Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a safeguards evaluation tool which is used to determine the vulnerability of the Material Control and Material Accounting (MC and MA) Subsystems to the threat of theft of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) by a knowledgeable Insider. The DPA team should consist of two individuals who have technical backgrounds. The implementation of DPA is divided into five basic steps: Information and Data Gathering, Process Characterization, Analysis of Diversion Paths, Results and Findings, and Documentation

  16. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  17. A career path in clinical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, K A

    1998-03-01

    Much like the development of a clinical path, the creation of a career path requires knowledge of patterns of behavior, needs for standardized education and skill development, along with variance analysis and individualized care. This nationally known nursing entrepreneur tells the story of her involvement in the development of case management and clinical pathways and how she turned that into a successful business that has changed how patient care is managed nationally and internationally.

  18. Acquisition Path Analysis as a Collaborative Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, A.; Grundule, R.; Gushchyn, K.; El Gebaly, A.; Higgy, R.; Tsvetkov, I.; Mandl, W.

    2015-01-01

    In the International Atomic Energy Agency, acquisition path analysis (APA) is indispensable to safeguards implementation. It is an integral part of both State evaluation process and the development of State level safeguards approaches, all performed through ongoing collaborative analysis of all available safeguards relevant information by State evaluation groups (SEG) with participation of other contributors, as required. To perform comprehensive State evaluation, to develop and revise State-level safeguards approaches, and to prepare annual implementation plans, the SEG in its collaborative analysis follows accepted safeguards methodology and guidance. In particular, the guide ''Performing Acquisition Path Analysis for the Development of a State-level Safeguards Approach for a State with a CSA'' is used. This guide identifies four major steps of the APA process: 1. Consolidating information about the State's past, present and planned nuclear fuel cycle-related capabilities and infrastructure; 2. Identifying and visually presenting technically plausible acquisition paths for the State; 3. Assessing acquisition path steps (State's technical capabilities and possible actions) along the identified acquisition paths; and 4. Assessing the time needed to accomplish each identified technically plausible acquisition path for the State. The paper reports on SEG members' and other contributors' experience with APA when following the above steps, including the identification of plausible acquisition pathways, estimation of time frames for all identified steps and determination of the time needed to accomplish each acquisition path. The difficulties that the SEG encountered during the process of performing the APA are also addressed. Feedback in the form of practical suggestions for improving the clarity of the acquisition path step assessment forms and a proposal for software support are also included. (author)

  19. Lattice Paths and the Constant Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brak, R; Essam, J; Osborn, J; Owczarek, A L; Rechnitzer, A

    2006-01-01

    We firstly review the constant term method (CTM), illustrating its combinatorial connections and show how it can be used to solve a certain class of lattice path problems. We show the connection between the CTM, the transfer matrix method (eigenvectors and eigenvalues), partial difference equations, the Bethe Ansatz and orthogonal polynomials. Secondly, we solve a lattice path problem first posed in 1971. The model stated in 1971 was only solved for a special case - we solve the full model

  20. Tree felling: a necessary evil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced.   Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...