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Sample records for shorter oviposition period

  1. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Louie H

    2006-12-07

    Organisms use incomplete information from local experience to assess the suitability of potential habitat sites over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scales in habitat selection, few studies have investigated the temporal scales of habitat selection. In particular, cues in the immediate environment may commonly provide indirect information about future habitat quality. In periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), oviposition site selection represents a very long-term habitat choice. Adult female cicadas insert eggs into tree branches during a few weeks in the summer of emergence, but their oviposition choices determine the underground habitats of root-feeding nymphs over the following 13 or 17 years. Here, field experiments are used to show that female cicadas use the local light environment of host trees during the summer of emergence to select long-term host trees. Light environments may also influence oviposition microsite selection within hosts, suggesting a potential behavioural mechanism for associating solar cues with host trees. In contrast, experimental nutrient enrichment of host trees did not influence cicada oviposition densities. These findings suggest that the light environments around host trees may provide a robust predictor of host tree quality in the near future. This habitat selection may influence the spatial distribution of several cicada-mediated ecological processes in eastern North American forests.

  2. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising periods in emergencies. In emergency situations where prompt...

  3. Spatial variability in oviposition damage by periodical cicadas in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William M; Holt, Robert D; Yao, Jin

    2001-03-01

    Effects of the periodical cicada (Magicicada spp.) on forest dynamics are poorly documented. A 1998 emergence of M. cassini in eastern Kansas led to colonization of a fragmented experimental landscape undergoing secondary succession. We hypothesized that per-tree rates of oviposition damage by cicadas would reflect: (1) distance from the source of the emergence, (2) patch size, and (3) local tree density. Ovipositing females displayed clear preferences for host species and damage incidence showed predictable spatial patterns. Two species (smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, and eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana) were rarely attacked, whereas others (rough-leaved dogwood, Cornus drummondii; slippery elm, Ulmus rubra; box elder, Acer negundo, and honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos) were strongly attacked. The dominant early successional tree, dogwood, received on average the most attacks. As predicted, attacks per stem declined strongly with distance from the emergence source, and with local stem density (a "dilution" effect). Contrary to expectations, there were more attacks per stem on larger patches. Because ovipositing cicadas cut damaging slits in host tree branches, potentially affecting tree growth rate, competitive ability, and capacity to reproduce, cicada damage could potentially influence spatial variation in secondary succession.

  4. Comparison of exclusion and imidacloprid for reduction of oviposition damage to young trees by periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Robert G; Frank, Steven D; Raupp, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Insecticides are traditionally used to control periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae) and to reduce associated injury caused by oviposition. However, research has shown that conventional insecticides have low or variable season-long efficacy in reducing injury caused by cicadas. New systemic neonicotinoid insecticides provide excellent levels of control against a variety of sucking insects. We compared the efficacy of a neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, and a nonchemical control measure, netting, to reduce cicada injury. Netted trees sustained very little injury, whereas unprotected trees were heavily damaged. Fewer eggnests, scars, and flags were observed on trees treated with imidacloprid compared with unprotected trees; however, the hatching of cicada eggs was unaffected by imidacloprid.

  5. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Intrinsic colony conditions affect the provisioning and oviposition process in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Morais, M M; Nascimento, F S; Bego, L R

    2009-01-01

    The cell provisioning and oviposition process (POP) is a unique characteristic of stingless bees (Meliponini), in which coordinated interactions between workers and queen regulate the filling of brood cells with larval resources and subsequent egg laying. Environmental conditions seem to regulate reproduction in stingless bees; however, little is known about how the amount of food affects quantitative sequences of the process. We examined intrinsic variables by comparing three colonies in distinct conditions (strong, intermediate and weak state). We predicted that some of these variables are correlated with temporal events of POP in Melipona scutellaris colonies. The results demonstrated that the strong colony had shorter periods of POP.

  7. Oviposition of aquatic insects in a tropical high altitude stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Touma, Blanca; Encalada, A C; Prat, N

    2012-12-01

    The persistence of aquatic insect populations in streams depends on the recruitment of larval populations from egg masses deposited by adults, especially after disturbance. However, recruitment of aquatic populations by oviposition is a process that remains unstudied in streams and rivers. The objectives of our study were to document flying and oviposition patterns of aquatic insects in a high altitude tropical stream during both dry and wet seasons. In particular we studied 1) richness and abundance of adult forms of aquatic insects flying and ovipositing; 2) number of eggs (oviposition pattern), egg mass identity, and morphology; and 3) substrate preferences by ovipositing females. We found 2,383 aquatic insects corresponding to 28 families, with dipterans representing 89% of total individuals collected. Adult insects had lower richness (28 taxa) than larval diversity (up to 52 taxa) and distinct community composition. Richness and relative abundance of most taxa (adults) were not significantly different between seasons, behaviors, diel period, or all three. During both sampling periods we found females with eggs in a total of 15 different families (13 in the dry season and 14 in the wet season). There were no significant differences in the proportion of females with eggs between seasons, diel periods, or different behaviors (flying versus ovipositing traps) of the different female taxa. Few types of egg masses were found in rocks at the stream during both seasons, and most egg masses found corresponded to families Baetidae and Chironomidae. Finally, we provide the first description of eggs masses (size, shape, color, and number of eggs per female) of gravid females (10 taxa) and those found in the stream substrate (six taxa) of Andean macroinvertebrates. This is the first study reporting oviposition, adult diversity, and oviposition patterns of aquatic insects in the Andean region.

  8. Oviposition preference hierarchy in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae): influence of female age and experience

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.; Fernandes, Odair A.; Bortoli, Sérgio A.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of two factors, age and previous experience, on the oviposition hierarchy preference of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) females was studied. Two populations were analyzed: one reared in laboratory during 17 years and the other captured in nature. In the first experiment the oviposition preference for four fruits, papaya, orange, banana and apple was tested at the beginning of oviposition period and 20 days past. The results showed that the wild females as much the laborator...

  9. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  10. Synchronized oviposition triggered by migratory flight intensifies larval outbreaks of beet webworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xia Cheng

    Full Text Available Identifying the reproductive consequences of insect migration is critical to understanding its ecological and evolutionary significance. However, many empirical studies are seemingly contradictory, making recognition of unifying themes elusive and controversial. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. is a long-range migratory pest of many crops in the northern temperate zone from 36 °N to 55 °N, with larval populations often exploding in regions receiving immigrants. In laboratory experiments, we examined (i the reproductive costs of migratory flight by tethered flight, and (ii the reproductive traits contributing to larval outbreaks of immigrant populations. Our results suggest that the beet webworm does not initiate migratory flight until the 2nd or 3rd night after emergence. Preoviposition period, lifetime fecundity, mating capacity, and egg hatch rate for adults that experienced prolonged flight after the 2nd night did not differ significantly from unflown moths, suggesting these traits are irrelevant to the severity of beet webworm outbreaks after migration. However, the period of first oviposition, a novel parameter developed in this paper measuring synchrony of first egg-laying by cohorts of post-migratory females, for moths flown on d 3 and 5 of adulthood was shorter than that of unflown moths, indicating a tightened time-window for onset of oviposition after migration. The resulting synchrony of egg-laying will serve to increase egg and subsequent larval densities. A dense population offers potential selective advantages to the individual larvae comprising it, whereas the effect from the human standpoint is intensification of damage by an outbreak population. The strategy of synchronized oviposition may be common in other migratory insect pests, such as locust and armyworm species, and warrants further study.

  11. Temporal patterns in Homalodisca spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) oviposition on southern California citrus and jojoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaibi, Ali K; Morse, Joseph G

    2010-02-01

    A detailed study of the distribution of egg masses of Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) and H. liturata Ball was done across a 2-yr period (2001-2003) on six host plants in southern California (Marsh grapefruit, Lisbon lemon, Washington navel, Dancy tangerine, rough lemon, and jojoba in Riverside; jojoba in Desert Center). The majority of egg masses in Riverside belonged to H. vitripennis (84-100%), whereas in Desert Center, all Homalodisca egg masses were H. liturata. Oviposition in Riverside occurred in two discrete periods, a late winter and spring period (mid-February to late May), followed by a short interval of very low oviposition during most of June, and then a summer period (late June to late September) followed by a relatively long period of very low oviposition in fall and early winter (October to mid-February). Levels of oviposition during the late winter-spring period were similar to those during the summer despite an observed larger population of adults during the latter period. Moreover, egg clutch size for H. vitripennis was generally greater in spring than during summer and was generally higher than that for H. liturata, especially on Riverside jojoba. Larger egg clutch size was seen on grapefruit than on lemon, navel, and tangerine during summer. There appeared to be temporal host shifts in oviposition; most evident was the shift from relatively high rates of oviposition on lemon and tangerine in late winter-early spring to relatively higher rates of oviposition on grapefruit and navel during summer.

  12. Oviposition preference hierarchy in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of female age and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim-Bravo Iara S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two factors, age and previous experience, on the oviposition hierarchy preference of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 females was studied. Two populations were analyzed: one reared in laboratory during 17 years and the other captured in nature. In the first experiment the oviposition preference for four fruits, papaya, orange, banana and apple was tested at the beginning of oviposition period and 20 days past. The results showed that the wild females as much the laboratory ones had an oviposition preference hierarchy at the beginning of peak period of oviposition. However this hierarchic preference disappeared in a later phase of life. In the second experiment the females were previously exposed to fruits of different hierarchic positions and afterwards their choice was tested in respect to the oviposition preference for those fruits. The results showed that there was an influence of the previous experience on the posterior choice of fruits to oviposition when the females were exposed to fruits of lower hierarchic position.

  13. Induction of oviposition by the administration of oxytocin in hawksbill turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Isao; Kino, Masakatsu; Maeda, Konomi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sawamukai, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    We set out to develop an oviposition induction technique for captive female hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. The infertile eggs of nine females were induced to develop by the administration of follicle-stimulating hormone, after which we investigated the effects of administering oxytocin on oviposition. Seven of the turtles were held in a stationary horizontal position on a retention stand, and then oxytocin was administrated (0.6-0.8 units/kg of body weight; 5 mL). The seven turtles were retained for a mandatory 2 h period after oxytocin administration, and were then returned to the holding tanks. As the control, normal saline (5 mL) was administered to the other two turtles, followed by the administration of oxytocin after 24 h. The eggs in oviducts of all nine turtles were observed by ultrasonography at 24 h after oxytocin administration. The control experiment validated that stationary retention and normal saline administration had no effect on egg oviposition. Eight of the turtles began ovipositing eggs at 17-43 min after oxytocin administration, while one began ovipositing in the holding tank immediately after retention. All turtles finished ovipositing eggs within 24 h of oxytocin administration. This report is the first to demonstrate successful induced oviposition in sea turtles. We suggest that the muscles in the oviducts of hawksbill turtles may respond to relatively lower doses of oxytocin (inducing contractions) compared to land and freshwater turtles (4-40 units/kg) based on existing studies.

  14. Daily oviposition patterns of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae on different types of aqueous substrates

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae Giles is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the factors that influence its daily oviposition pattern is crucial if field interventions targeting gravid females are to be successful. This laboratory study investigated the effect of oviposition substrate and time of blood feeding on daily oviposition patterns of An. gambiae mosquitoes. Methods Greenhouse-reared gravid and hypergravid (delayed oviposition onset An. gambiae sensu stricto and wild-caught An. gambiae sensu lato were exposed to three types of substrates in choice and no-choice cage bioassays: water from a predominantly anopheline colonised ground pool (anopheline habitat water, swamp water mainly colonised by culicine larvae (culicine habitat water and distilled water. The daily oviposition pattern and the number of eggs oviposited on each substrate during the entire egg-laying period were determined. The results were subjected to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure. Results The main oviposition time for greenhouse-reared An. gambiae s.s. was between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs, approximately one hour after sunset. Wild-caught gravid An. gambiae s.l. displayed two distinct peak oviposition times between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs and between 22:00 and 23:00 hrs, respectively. During these times, both greenhouse-reared and wild-caught mosquitoes significantly (P P Conclusion This study shows that the peak oviposition time of An. gambiae s.l. may be regulated by the light-dark cycle rather than oviposition habitat characteristics or feeding times. However, the number of eggs laid by the female mosquito during the peak oviposition time is affected by the suitability of the habitat.

  15. Trials to determine levels of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit and artificial oviposition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current work was conducted in order to determine the level of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus on fresh mangos and artificial oviposition devices. Four trials were carried out during which freshly harvested fruit was exposed to wild South American adult fruit flies. The following viable oviposition/day/kg of fruit (viable ovipositions = emerged adults) were established: 79.16, 71.25, 83.6 and 60.6. The trials were carried out at 25 deg. C - 28 deg. C and 60%-80% relative humidity. Beginning with the first generation one trial was carried out which confirmed the acceptance of sexually mature females to oviposit on red oviposition devices consisting of wax-covered cloth. However, red plastic containers with holes of 0.5 mm did not produce good results. (author)

  16. Studies on the post-oviposition blood-feeding behaviour of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D

    2012-11-01

    The blood-feeding behaviour of the Trinidad strain of Aedes aegypti was studied, under laboratory conditions, using one female per cage and monitoring blood feeding immediately, 12, and 24 hours after oviposition. To get large numbers of females that had newly completed their first gonotrophic cycle, the diel oviposition periodicity was conducted using single females per cage and monitoring at 2-hour intervals. The diel oviposition periodicity showed a small morning peak (8%) during the first 2 hours of the photophase after which oviposition declined: during the second half of the photophase, oviposition increased reaching a peak comprising 56% of eggs (G = 59·9, P>0·01) between 16:00 and 18:00 hours. At post-oviposition hour 0, only five (10%) of the females accepted a blood meal but at post-oviposition hour 12, significantly more (G = 46·98, P>0·02) females, 35 (70%) accepted a blood meal. This pattern was consistently observed when females were offered blood meals at 12 and 24 hours after completing their first gonotrophic cycle. Multiple feeding was observed among the blood-feeding females and the results of this study are discussed in the context of disease transmission patterns and physiological mechanisms which control their blood-feeding behaviours.

  17. Oviposition strategies of conifer seed chalcids in relation to host phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Gaëlle; Turgeon, Jean; Candau, Jean-Noël; Roques, Alain; Aderkas, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Insects are considered the most important predators of seed cones, the female reproductive structures of conifers, prior to seed dispersal. Slightly more than 100 genera of insects are known to parasitize conifer seed cones. The most diverse (i.e., number of species) of these genera is Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), which comprises many important seed pests of native and exotic conifers. Seed chalcids, Megastigmus spp., lay eggs inside the developing ovules of host conifers and, until recently, oviposition was believed to occur only in fertilized ovules. Ovule development begins just after pollination, but stops if cells are not fertilized. The morphological stage of cone development at the time of oviposition by seed chalcids has been established for many species; however, knowledge of ovule development at that time has been documented for only one species, M. spermotrophus. Megastigmus spermotrophus oviposits in Douglas-fir ovules after pollination but before fertilization. Unlike the unfertilized ovules, those containing a M. spermotrophus larva continue to develop, whether fertilized or not, stressing the need to broaden our understanding of the insect plant interactions for this entire genus. To achieve this task, we reviewed the scientific literature and assembled information pertaining to the timing of oviposition and to the pollination and fertilization periods of their respective host(s). More specifically, we were searching for circumstantial evidence that other species of Megastigmus associated with conifers could behave (i.e., oviposit before ovule fertilization) and impact on female gametophyte (i.e., prevent abortion) like M. spermotrophus. The evidence from our compilation suggests that seed chalcids infesting Pinaceae may also oviposit before ovule fertilization, just like M. spermotrophus, whereas those infesting Cupressaceae seemingly oviposit after ovule fertilization. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that all species of Megastigmus

  18. Oviposition and egg quality traits of dwarf and naked neck layers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oviposition and egg quality traits were studied in dwarf and naked neck layers in Maputo (Mozambique) during a 28-d period at 35 weeks of age. Birds were caged individually in a laying house with natural light and ventilation. Average daylight length during the study was 11.2 hr and minimum and maximum temperature ...

  19. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  20. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  1. Species Abundance and Colour Preferences of Oviposition by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the occurrence and colour preferences of oviposition by mosquitoes in man-made containers under field conditions. A total of nine (9) different colour 2 litre plastic containers were used as artificial mosquito oviposition containers. They were filled with equal amounts of water and placed ...

  2. Acceptance and preference of fruits for oviposition in two Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim-Bravo, Iara Sordi; Silva-Neto, Alberto Moreira da

    2004-01-01

    The influence of four host fruits, orange (Citrus sinensis L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and apple (Malus domestica Borkh) on oviposition behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) was evaluated. Experiments were carried out on two C. capitata laboratory-reared populations: one with artificial diet for 10 years with periodic introduction of wild flies and other reared with artificial diet for 20 years without wild flies introduction. In acceptance experimen...

  3. Effect of Population Density on Timing of Oviposition and Brood Size Reduction in the Burying Beetle Nicrophorus pustulatus Herschel (Coleoptera: Silphidae

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    Claudia M. Rauter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp. bury small carcasses to feed their larvae. Carcasses are a limited, high-quality resource and contests over carcasses become more frequent with increasing population density. Successful beetles kill eggs and larvae present on carcass. In response, females should accelerate oviposition, while offspring development should increase to minimize mortality. Both value of a carcass and frequency of contests decrease as larvae develop. If overproduction of offspring is an insurance against high mortality, females should reduce brood size as carcass value declines. Testing our predictions, we reared female burying beetles, Nicrophorus pustulatus, at high and low densities and compared oviposition and brood reduction. High-density females delayed oviposition, suggesting that high population density imposes nutritional and/or physiological stress. Females responded to the physiological constraints and the potentially high mortality rates of eggs and newly hatched larvae by lengthening oviposition period and changing brood reduction rate.

  4. Investigation of nocturnal oviposition by necrophilous flies in central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Robert S; Wallace, Susan G; Kirkpatrick, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The need to accurately estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) has prompted research into factors affecting fly oviposition (i.e., oviposition and/or larviposition) on a corpse. Research efforts have focused on whether or not diurnally active flies oviposit during nighttime hours. This study reports that nocturnal oviposition (defined as occurring between 2100-0600 h CDST (Central Daylight Savings Time)) did not occur on freshly killed white rats or mice, on beef (fresh or aged up to 48 h), on freshly thawed pigs, nor, usually, on thawed pigs that were aged for up to 48 h. Limited oviposition did occur between 2100 and 2120 h on one bloated pig at a lighted rural site. Necrophilous flies were present and active at lighted and dark sites (urban and rural) before and immediately after sunset, but fly activity on the bait ceased within 50 min postsunset and did not resume until after 0600 h. These observations support other studies reporting that diurnally active flies do not oviposit during the nighttime.

  5. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

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    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  6. Temperature studies with the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri: cold hardiness and temperature thresholds for oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G; Wenninger, Erik J; Hentz, Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. The psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, Huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri was first found in Florida during 1998, and the disease was discovered during 2005. Little was known regarding cold hardiness of D. citri, but Florida citrus is occasionally subjected to notable freeze events. Temperature and duration were each significant sources of variation in percent mortality of D. citri subjected to freeze events. Relatively large percentages of adults and nymphs survived after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -5 to -6 °C. Relatively large percentages of eggs hatched after being exposed for several hours to temperatures as low as -8 °C. Research results indicated that adult D. citri become cold acclimated during the winter through exposure to cooler winter temperatures. There was no evidence that eggs became cold acclimated during winter. Cold acclimation in nymphs was not investigated. Research with adult D. citri from laboratory and greenhouse colonies revealed that mild to moderate freeze events were usually nonlethal to the D. citri irrespective of whether they were cold acclimated or not. Upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition were investigated because such information may be valuable in explaining the geographic distribution and potential spread of the pest from Florida as well as how cooler winter temperatures might limit population growth. The estimated lower and upper thresholds for oviposition were 16.0 and 41.6 °C, respectively; the estimated temperature of peak oviposition over a 48 h period was 29.6 °C.

  7. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

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    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  8. Rhagoletis cerasi: Oviposition Reduction Effects of Oil Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. Methods to control it are limited and alternatives are needed. Observations of cherry fruit flies suggest that females exert much effort to penetrate cherries at color change stage (from green to yellow for oviposition. Therefore, the question arose as to whether a physical barrier on the fruit surface could reduce oviposition. The effects of different commercial horticultural oil products on R. cerasi oviposition were evaluated in a series of laboratory, semi-field and field experiments. In the laboratory experiments, the rate of successful oviposition on fruits treated with 0.25% v/v of the rapeseed oil product Telmion was significantly reduced by 90% compared to the untreated control. In semi-field experiments, deposits of 1% of rapeseed, mineral and paraffinic oil significantly reduced oviposition for up to 3 days. Semi-field experiments indicated that the oil products lose efficacy within 3 to 6 days after application due to degradation. Although treatments with the rapeseed oil product Telmion reduced infestation rates in an on-farm field experiment, the infested fruit clearly exceeded the level of market tolerance of 2%. Further research is needed to assess whether combinations of oil products, higher application rates and different formulations might improve field efficacy.

  9. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution......Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host......-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close...

  10. Competing dopamine neurons drive oviposition choice for ethanol in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanchi, Reza; Kaun, Karla R; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2013-12-24

    The neural circuits that mediate behavioral choice evaluate and integrate information from the environment with internal demands and then initiate a behavioral response. Even circuits that support simple decisions remain poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, oviposition on a substrate containing ethanol enhances fitness; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating this important choice behavior. Here, we characterize the neural modulation of this simple choice and show that distinct subsets of dopaminergic neurons compete to either enhance or inhibit egg-laying preference for ethanol-containing food. Moreover, activity in α'β' neurons of the mushroom body and a subset of ellipsoid body ring neurons (R2) is required for this choice. We propose a model where competing dopaminergic systems modulate oviposition preference to adjust to changes in natural oviposition substrates.

  11. Implications of shorter cells in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Further studies on the beam-stay-clear requirements in PEP led to the conclusion that the vertical aperture needed to be enlarged. There are two main reasons for that: Observations at SPEAR indicate that the aperture should be large enough for a fully coupled beam. Full coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations occurs not only occasionally when the energy, tune or betatron function at the interaction point is changed but also due to the beam/endash/beam effect of two strong colliding beams. The second reason for an increased aperture requirement is the nonlinear perturbation of the particle trajectories by the sextupoles. This perturbation increases a fully coupled beam by another 50% to 80%. Both effects together with a +-5 mm allowance for closed orbit perturbation result in a vertical beam-stay-clear in the bending magnets of +-4.8 to +-5.6 cm, compared to the present +-2.0 cm. This beam-stay-clear, together with additional space for vacuum chamber, etc., leads to very costly bending magnets. In this note, a shorter cell length is proposed which would reduce considerably the vertical beam-stay-clear requirements in the bending magnets. 7 figs

  12. Taxonomic variation in oviposition by tailed frogs (Aschaphus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Karraker; David S. Pilliod; Michael J. Adams; Evelyn L. Bull; Paul Stephen Corn; Lowell V. Diller; Linda A. Dupuis; Marc P. Hayes; Blake R. Hossack; Garth R. Hodgson; Erin J. Hyde; Kirk Lohman; Bradford R. Norman; Lisa M. Ollivier; Christopher A. Pearl; Charles R. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Tailed frogs (Ascaphus spp.) oviposit in cryptic locations in streams of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. This aspect of their life history has restricted our understanding of their reproductive ecology. The recent split of A. montanus in the Rocky Mountains from A. truei was based on molecular...

  13. Predatory mites avoid ovipositing near counter-attacking prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraji, F.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Attacking prey is not without risk; predators may endure counterattackby the prey. Here, we study the oviposition behaviour of a predatory mite(Iphiseius degenerans) in relation to its prey, thewesternflower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). This thrips iscapable of killing the eggs of the

  14. Hypofractionated Breast Radiation: Shorter Scheme, Lower Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Isabel; Tovar, María Isabel; Zurita, Mercedes; Guerrero, Rosario; Expósito, Manuela; Del Moral, Rosario

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the toxicity and cosmetic outcomes for patients who had undergone 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated schedule and identified the risk factors associated with such a schedule. A total of 143 patients were treated for breast cancer (stage 0-III) with a hypofractionated radiation schedule after breast-conserving surgery from 2006 to 2011. Most patients received 42.4 Gy in 16 daily fractions, 2.65 Gy per fraction to the whole breast plus an additional simultaneous integrated or sequential boost to the tumor bed. The median follow-up period was 36 months. Mild acute skin toxicity was observed in 62%; 7% of the patients developed moderate skin toxicity, but no grade 4 toxicity was observed. The prevalence of fibrosis within the boost area was 5%, but no grade ≥ 2 was observed. The prevalence of fibrosis of any grade was greater in the nonboost (23%) than in the boost area. Of all the patients, 91% had good or excellent cosmetic outcomes. From the multivariate analysis, the incidence of epithelitis correlated with the patient's treated volume (P = .044). The incidence of acute toxicity correlated with the boost type to the tumor bed and the total treatment dose (P = .012 and P = .002, respectively). Also, a poor to fair cosmetic outcome was significantly associated statistically with the surgery type (P = .05), boost type (P = .004), and total dose (P = .001). Delivering whole-breast irradiation with a hypofractionated schedule of 42.4 Gy plus a simultaneous integrated boost to the tumor bed appears to be a safe and effective technique, with good cosmetic results and lower toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of oviposition-site deprivation on Anopheles gambiae reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kathryne L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depends on availability of suitable surface water for oviposition. Short and long dry spells occur throughout the year in many parts of its range that limit its access to oviposition sites. Although not well understood, oviposition-site deprivation has been found to rapidly reduce egg batch size and hatch rate of several mosquito species. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess these effects of oviposition-site deprivation on An. gambiae and to evaluate the role of nutrition and sperm viability as mediators of these effects. Methods Anopheles gambiae adults (1–2 d old from the G3 laboratory colony were assigned to the following treatment groups: oviposition-deprived (fed once and then deprived of oviposition site for 7 or 14 d, multiple-fed control (fed regularly once a week and allowed to lay eggs without delay, and age matched blood-deprived control (fed once, three days before water for oviposition was provided. Egg batch size and hatch rate were measured. In the second experiment two additional treatment groups were included: oviposition-deprived females that received either a second (supplemental blood meal or virgin males (supplemental mating 4 days prior to receiving water for oviposition. Results An. gambiae was highly sensitive to oviposition-site deprivation. Egg batch size dropped sharply to 0–3.5 egg/female within 14 days, due to reduced oviposition rate rather than a reduced number of eggs/batch. Egg hatch rate also fell dramatically to 0-2% within 7 days. The frequency of brown eggs that fail to tan was elevated. A supplemental blood meal, but not ‘supplemental insemination,’ recovered the oviposition rate of females subjected to oviposition-site deprivation. Similarly, a supplemental blood meal, but not ‘supplemental insemination,’ partly recovered hatch rate, but this increase was marginally significant (P  Conclusions Even a short dry spell

  16. Maternal influences on early development: preferred temperature prior to oviposition hastens embryogenesis and enhances offspring traits in the Children's python, Antaresia childreni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorioux, Sophie; DeNardo, Dale F; Gorelick, Root; Lourdais, Olivier

    2012-04-15

    Embryonic life is particularly sensitive to its surroundings, and the developmental environment can have long-lasting effects on offspring. In oviparous species, the impacts of the developmental environment on offspring traits are mostly examined during development within the egg. However, as more than 25% of the development of squamate reptiles can occur prior to oviposition, we explored the effect of thermal conditions on development prior to oviposition in an oviparous snake species, the Children's python (Antaresia childreni). We housed gravid female pythons under three thermal cycles: an optimal regime that reflected maternal preference in a non-constrained environment (constant preferred body temperature of gravid females, T(set)=31.5°C) and two mildly suboptimal regimes that shared the same mean temperature of 27.7°C, but differed in the duration at T(set). In one of the constraining regimes, females had access to T(set) for 4 h daily whereas in the other regime, females never reached T(set) (maximal temperature of 29.0°C). Thermal treatments were maintained throughout gravidity in all three groups, but, after oviposition, all eggs were incubated at T(set) until hatching. Compared with the optimal regime, the two suboptimal regimes had a longer duration of gravidity, which resulted in delayed hatching. Between the two suboptimal regimes, gravidity was significantly shorter in the treatment that included time at T(set). Furthermore, suboptimal regimes influenced offspring traits at hatching, including body morphology, antipredator behavior, strength and metabolism. However, partial access to maternal T(set) significantly enhanced several offspring traits, including performance. Our results demonstrate the importance of time at T(set) on early development and suggest an adaptive significance of maternal thermoregulation prior to oviposition.

  17. Predation-related odours reduce oviposition in a herbivorous mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Yasuyuki; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    When adult females of the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, were exposed to the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, they laid fewer eggs than females that had not been exposed to P. persimilis when transferred onto a new leaf patch. However, when T. urticae females were exposed to either products of P. persimilis or artificially damaged conspecific eggs on a leaf patch, the number of T. urticae eggs on a new leaf patch did not differ significantly from the control. The reduced oviposition was neither due to the feeding activity on the leaf patch with P. persimilis nor to that on the new leaf patch. There was also no significant difference between the number of T. urticae eggs produced on a new leaf patch following exposure to the odours of a neighbouring leaf patch where there had previously been either P. persimilis or T. urticae adults. However, female T. urticae that had been exposed to odours from neighbouring leaf patches on which both T. urticae and P. persimilis had been placed produced significantly fewer eggs on a new leaf patch than those that had not been exposed to such odours. Neither odours from neighbouring intact leaf patches on which T. urticae eggs were preyed on by P. persimilis, nor odours from a neighbouring Parafilm patch on which T. urticae was preyed on by P. persimilis affected the oviposition of T. urticae. These data suggest that the presence of T. urticae, P. persimilis and a leaf patch are needed for the emission of odours to reduce oviposition in T. urticae.

  18. Cell provisioning and oviposition in Melipona beecheii (Apidae, Meliponinae),with a note on caste determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Johan Wilhelm van

    1999-01-01

    We examined the food provisioning and oviposition process (POP) for worker- and gyne-producing cells of Melipona beecheii. POPs for both castes did not differ significantly in duration and number of trophic eggs oviposited by workers in the cells. The frequency of food discharges by workers in

  19. Oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes--a laboratory-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Das, Pradeep

    2013-12-01

    The breeding habitat of sandflies is a little studied and poorly understood phenomenon. More importantly, oviposition behaviour is a largely neglected aspect of sandfly biology and this knowledge gap further undermines our understanding of the biology of sandflies. Pheromones released by the eggs play an important role in identifying good sites for oviposition by female insects. Several recent studies have examined the oviposition pheromone. The present study provides a preliminary report on the oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes, the only vector of kala-azar (or visceral leishmaniasis) on the Indian sub-continent. Sandflies prefer to oviposit their eggs on surfaces that contain organic substances, especially substances with an odour of decaying animal products and the remains of conspecific eggs. The results presented here suggest that the odour released by the organic substances of old sandfly colony remains that contain dead flies, old unhatched eggs, larval food containing vertebrate faeces, frass and other organic matter serves as an attractant for the ovipositing females of P. argentipes and hence greatly increases the number of oviposited eggs compared to eggs deposited in controlled oviposition pots. This result will be helpful in maintaining an efficient colony of P. argentipes and may be a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the target insect as part of a synergistic approach.

  20. The Napoleon Complex: When Shorter Men Take More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jill E P; Blaker, Nancy M; Van Vugt, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by an evolutionary psychological perspective on the Napoleon complex, we hypothesized that shorter males are more likely to show indirect aggression in resource competitions with taller males. Three studies provide support for our interpretation of the Napoleon complex. Our pilot study shows that men (but not women) keep more resources for themselves when they feel small. When paired with a taller male opponent (Study 1), shorter men keep more resources to themselves in a game in which they have all the power (dictator game) versus a game in which the opponent also has some power (ultimatum game). Furthermore, shorter men are not more likely to show direct, physical aggression toward a taller opponent (Study 2). As predicted by the Napoleon complex, we conclude that (relatively) shorter men show greater behavioral flexibility in securing resources when presented with cues that they are physically less competitive. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis (Acari: Parasitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Tomasz; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    We observed the oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis Berlese (Acari: Parasitidae) using continuous video-monitoring. Oviposition consisted of six sequential phases. The first phase (I) involved inspection of the substrate. In the second phase (II) there were rhythmic movements of the first pair of legs and slight reciprocating movements of the body. The third (III) was a resting phase. In the fourth phase (IV) the gnathosoma was lowered and the body was raised. In the next phase (V) there were two sub-phases. During the first (Va), the female held the egg below the gnathosoma. In the second sub-phase (Vb), the gnathosoma moved up holding the egg, which was then placed on the substrate. The last phase (VI) involved intense 'cleaning' movements of the chelicerae and palps. During Va a protective external eggshell structure is gradually formed, involving a phase where the egg shell is sticky. After moving the egg to the substrate, the female freed her palps and chelicerae from the sticky egg shell and cleaned her gnathosomal appendages. Phases II-V took on average 207 ± 69 s.

  2. Forest litter crickets prefer higher substrate moisture for oviposition: Evidence from field and lab experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias-Martins, Fernando; Sperber, Carlos Frankl; Albeny-Simões, Daniel; Breaux, Jennifer Ann; Fianco, Marcos; Szinwelski, Neucir

    2017-01-01

    For insects, choosing a favorable oviposition site is a type of parental care, as far as it increases the fitness of its offspring. Niche theory predicts that crickets should show a bell-shaped oviposition response to substrate moisture. However, lab experiments with mole crickets showed a linear oviposition response to substrate moisture. Studies with the house cricket Acheta domesticus also showed a linear juvenile body growth response to water availability, thus adult ovipositing females should respond positively to substrate moisture. We used a field experiment to evaluate the relationship between oviposition preference and substrate moisture in forest litter-dwelling cricket species. We also evaluated oviposition responses to substrate moisture level in Ubiquepuella telytokous, the most abundant litter cricket species in our study area, using a laboratory study. We offered cotton substrate for oviposition which varied in substrate moisture level from zero (i.e., dry) to maximum water absorption capacity. We used two complementary metrics to evaluate oviposition preference: (i) presence or absence of eggs in each sampling unit as binary response variable, and (ii) number of eggs oviposited per sampling unit as count response variable. To test for non-linear responses, we adjusted generalized additive models (GAMM) with mixed effects. We found that both cricket oviposition probability and effort (i.e., number of eggs laid) increased linearly with substrate moisture in the field experiment, and for U. telytokous in the lab experiment. We discarded any non-linear responses. Our results demonstrate the importance of substrate moisture as an ecological niche dimension for litter crickets. This work bolsters knowledge of litter cricket life history association with moisture, and suggests that litter crickets may be particularly threatened by changes in climate that favor habitat drying.

  3. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J Guillermo; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Marina, Carlos F; Ulloa, Armando; Orozco-Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz, Miguel; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-22

    The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Oviposition sites were sampled during 2-3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H' = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 1.61) and Michoacán (H' = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H' = 1.93), Colima (H' = 1.95), Sinaloa (H' = 1.99) and Jalisco (H' = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H' = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico's National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection.

  4. Spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in northwestern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Lilia Estallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. METHODOLOGY: Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007. Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran's Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC=0.77, obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist

  5. Natural and synthetic oviposition stimulants forCatolaccus grandis (Burks) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, A A; Martinez, S; Sonia Del Rio, H

    1994-07-01

    Oviposition behavior was elicited fromCatolaccus grandis (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) females, an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), by smears of freshly cut cotton bolls or smears of extracts prepared with boll weevil damaged or undamaged cotton boll tissues. Oviposition behavior was also elicited fromC. grandis females by smears made withn-pentane,n-hexane,n-heptane, and isooctane. This is the first report of oviposition behavior elicited for any parasitoid by these short-chain saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes), introducing a new concept on the chemical mediation of parasitoid behavior during host selection. Oviposition behavior was also elicited fromC. grandis females by volatiles emanating from an artificial diet devoid of insect components that was specifically developed for the in vitro rearing of ectoparasitoids. The possible use of a synergistic combination ofn-hexane and diet to optimize the mechanized production of noncontaminated eggs is also discussed.

  6. Oviposition site selection by the grasshoppers Melanoplus borealis and M. sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female grasshoppers can affect the fitness of their offspring through their selection of oviposition sites. Successful embryological development depends on suitable temperature and moisture levels, factors which may vary considerably on a fine scale in natural environments where grasshoppers occur. ...

  7. The effect of relatedness on the response of Adalia bipunctata L. to oviposition deterring cues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martini, X.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 1 (2013), s. 14-19 ISSN 0007-4853 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Coccinellidae * relatedness * kin * larval tracks * oviposition deterring pheromone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2013

  8. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  9. Construction of a field trap for initiating an ovipositional response in Aedes taeniorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, F L

    1996-09-01

    An oviposition trap was constructed for the black saltmarsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus. The trap consisted of a 50 x 60-cm piece of contaminated 100% cotton bath towel, saturated with 85% tap water, a container, and a cover of dried plant parts placed over the contaminated toweling. This combination initiated oviposition. Contamination of the toweling was due to populations of bacteria and fungi. The eggs recovered were free from soil and debris.

  10. Quasi-double-blind screening of semiochemicals for reducing navel orangeworm oviposition on almonds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Cloonan

    Full Text Available A three-step, quasi-double-bind approach was used as a proof-of-concept study to screen twenty compounds for their ability to reduce oviposition of gravid female navel orangeworm(NOW, Ameylois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. First, the panel of compounds, whose identity was unknown to the experimenters, was tested by electroantennogram (EAG using antennae of two-day old gravid females as the sensing element. Of the twenty compounds tested three showed significant EAG responses. These three EAG-active compounds and a negative control were then analyzed for their ability to reduce oviposition via small-cage, two-choice laboratory assays. Two of the three compounds significantly reduced oviposition under laboratory conditions. Lastly, these two compounds were deployed in a field setting in an organic almond orchard in Arbuckle, CA using black egg traps to monitor NOW oviposition. One of these two compounds significantly reduced oviposition on black egg traps under these field conditions. Compound 9 (later identified as isophorone showed a significant reduction in oviposition in field assays and thus has a potential as a tool to control the navel orangeworm as a pest of almonds.

  11. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longevidade e oviposição de Ophyra albuquerquei (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório Longevity and oviposition of Ophyra albuquerquei (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Krüger

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to the longevity and oviposition of Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 are studied. Males had a mean lifespan longer than females (40.24 vs. 33.15 days, respectively, while still possessing qualitative advantages during this period. Females O. albuquerquei were fed on powdered milk, fish flour, refined sugar and water, and provided fish flour and moistened sawdust for oviposition. The length of the oviposition period for females was 46.75 days, and most of the deposition of the eggs occurred in the first days of the colony. Females completed 50% of their egg deposition by Day 16, seven days before the large last mortality peak and about 12 days after the first oviposition in the colony. Females deposited an average of 184 eggs per individual. Mortality of males, unlike females, was low until the 28th day, and increased thereafter. It was demonstrated that it is possible to maintain colonies of this species under laboratory conditions for at least 28 days with high fertility and low cost.

  13. Role of methyl salicylate on oviposition deterrence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groux, Raphaël; Hilfiker, Olivier; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Erb, Matthias; Reymond, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Plants attacked by herbivores have evolved different strategies that fend off their enemies. Insect eggs deposited on leaves have been shown to inhibit further oviposition through visual or chemical cues. In some plant species, the volatile methyl salicylate (MeSA) repels gravid insects but whether it plays the same role in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana is currently unknown. Here we showed that Pieris brassicae butterflies laid fewer eggs on Arabidopsis plants that were next to a MeSA dispenser or on plants with constitutively high MeSA emission than on control plants. Surprisingly, the MeSA biosynthesis mutant bsmt1-1 treated with egg extract was still repellent to butterflies when compared to untreated bsmt1-1. Moreover, the expression of BSMT1 was not enhanced by egg extract treatment but was induced by herbivory. Altogether, these results provide evidence that the deterring activity of eggs on gravid butterflies is independent of MeSA emission in Arabidopsis, and that MeSA might rather serve as a deterrent in plants challenged by feeding larvae.

  14. Predation and the evolution of complex oviposition behaviour in Amazon rainforest frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, William E; Hero, Jean-Marc

    1991-05-01

    Terrestrial oviposition with free-living aquatic larvae is a common reproductive mode used by amphibians within the central Amazonian rainforest. We investigated the factors presently associated with diversity of microhabitats (waterbodies) that may be maintaining the diversity of reproductive modes. In particular, desiccation, predation by fish, competition with other anurans and water quality were examined in 11 waterbodies as possible forces leading to the evolution of terrestrial oviposition. Predation experiments demonstrated that fish generally do not eat anuran eggs, and that predacious tadpoles and dytiscid beetle larvae are voracious predators of anuran eggs. The percentage of species with terrestrial oviposition was only weakly correlated with the occurrence of pond drying, pH and oxygen concentration, suggesting that anurans in this tropical community are able to use the range of water quality available for egg development. There was a tendency for terrestrial oviposition to be associated with the number of species of tadpoles using the waterbody, but we consider this to be spurious as there was no obvious competitive mechanism that could result in this relationship. The percentage of species with terrestrial oviposition was significantly positively related to our index of egg predation pressure, and negatively related to our index of fish biomass. Egg predation pressure was also negatively related to the index of fish biomass. These results allow us to discount as improbable the hypothesis that predation by fish on anuran eggs was an important selective pressure leading to terrestrial oviposition in this community. The strong positive relationship between terrestrial oviposition and our index of egg predation pressure indicates that these predators have exerted, and are exerting, a significant selective pressure for terrestrial oviposition. The strong negative relationship between the occurrence of fish and the egg predators suggests the surprising

  15. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  16. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  17. Repellent activity of Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus Mart. and Ricinus communis L. extracts against Aedes aegypti L. oviposition behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafayette Pereira Candido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Female Aedes aegypti lay their eggs on nearly any moist substrate. Methods with potential to repel oviposition may reduce infestation, thereby contributing to control of epidemics. We evaluated the influence of Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus and Ricinus communis plant extracts on the oviposition behavior of A. aegypti. Lethal concentrations were first determined in experiments with larvae after 24 h of exposure, after which LC50 and LC90 were used to test oviposition repellency. The experiment consisted of an oviposition preference test based multiple-choice and no-choice assays. The Oviposition Activity Indices (OAIs from the multiple-choice test using both R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were negative, suggesting oviposition repellent and deterrent activity. The LC90 of both plant extracts deterred oviposition by this vector, as demonstrated by an OAI = value of -1. In the choice study, mean oviposition values were significantly different between R. communis and C. phyllacanthus. In the absence of choice, mosquitoes laid eggs independent of the substrate. In conclusion, our OAI values indicate that all substrates used repelled oviposition by A. aegypti.

  18. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California

  19. D-Pinitol in Fabaceae: an Oviposition Stimulant for the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema mandarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukae, Shin-Ya; Ohashi, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yuika; Ohta, Shinji; Ômura, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females. A polar subfraction of the aqueous fraction also stimulated high oviposition-stimulatory activity, comparable to the original aqueous fraction, suggesting that E. mandarina females use water-soluble compounds for host recognition. Subsequent activity-directed fractionation by ion exchange chromatography indicated that one of the key substances was contained in the neutral/amphoteric fraction. Chemical analyses revealed that the active fractions of both hosts contained D-(+)-pinitol as the major component. We examined female responses to authentic D-pinitol and found that it induced oviposition responses at concentrations greater than 0.1 %. Since this cyclitol is omnipresent in Fabaceae, we conclude that D-pinitol plays a role in mediating oviposition of E. mandarina on fabaceous plants.

  20. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R.

    2008-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  1. The Effect of Open Brood and Colony Strength on the Onset of Oviposition by Queen Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąbka Jakub

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In bee colonies without open brood, e.g., after swarming, there is no need for royal jelly, and nurse bees thus do not produce it. According to many beekeepers, adding combs with open brood restarts the production of royal jelly by nurse bees, and the virgin queens then are better fed and start earlier oviposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of open brood and the strength of the colonies affect the onset of oviposition by queen bees. Open brood in colonies with virgins before and during mating flights did not accelerate the initiation of oviposition by the queens. In addition, no differences were identified in starting oviposition by queens in strong colonies of more than 30,000 worker bees, or in weak colonies with up to 1,000 workers. Overall, the results showed that neither open brood in the nests, nor the strength of the colonies affects the onset of oviposition by queen bees.

  2. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Preference as Influenced by Container Size and Buddleja davidii Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Kline, Daniel L; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding mosquito commonly found in residential areas of its range in the United States. Mosquitoes are known to utilize flowering plants for sugar acquisition. Limited information is known about the influences on oviposition site selection, outside of container size. Residential areas are often landscaped with a variety of flowering plants and are known to provide numerous sizes of potential larval developmental sites for container-breeding mosqutioes. Through screened enclosure and field studies, the oviposition preference of Ae. albopictus for containers of three selected sizes (473, 946 and 1,892 ml) and the influence of flowering butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franchett cultivar 'Guinevere') plants were examined. Our results document that significantly more eggs were oviposited in the largest containers. Additionally, significantly more eggs were oviposited in containers adjacent to flowering butterfly bushes than in those without a flowering butterfly bush. Finally, our results document that flowering butterfly bushes exerted greater influence over Ae. albopictus oviposition decisions than did container size. Our findings can be applied to several aspects of Ae. albopictus surveillance and control.

  3. Effects of environmental temperature on oviposition behavior in three blow fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ody, Helen; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2017-06-01

    A number of factors are known to affect blow fly behavior with respect to oviposition. Current research indicates that temperature is the most significant factor. However temperature thresholds for oviposition in forensically important blow flies have not been well studied. Here, the oviposition behavior of three species of forensically important blow fly species (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata,) was studied under controlled laboratory conditions over a range of temperatures (10-40°C). Lower temperature thresholds for oviposition of 16°C and 17.5°C were established for C. vomitoria and L. sericata respectively, whilst C. vicina continued to lay eggs at 10°C. C. vomitoria and L. sericata both continued to lay eggs at 40°C, whilst the highest temperature at which oviposition occurred in C. vicina was 35°C. Within these thresholds there was considerable variation in the number of surviving pupae, with a general pattern of a single peak within the range of temperatures at which eggs were laid, but with the pattern being much less distinct for L. sericata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroni, P; Pifferi, A; Torricelli, A; Spinelli, L; Danesini, G M; Cubeddu, R

    2004-01-01

    The detection of tumours with time-resolved transmittance imaging relies essentially on blood absorption. Previous theoretical and phantom studies have shown that both contrast and spatial resolution of optical images are affected by the optical properties of the background medium, and high absorption and scattering are generally beneficial. Based on these observations, wavelengths shorter than presently used (680-780 nm) could be profitable for optical mammography. A study was thus performed analysing time-resolved transmittance images at 637, 656, 683 and 785 nm obtained from 26 patients bearing 16 tumours and 15 cysts. The optical contrast proved to increase upon decreasing wavelengths for the detection of cancers in late-gated intensity images, with higher gain in contrast for lesions of smaller size (<1.5 cm diameter). For cysts either a progressive increase or decrease in contrast with wavelength was observed in scattering images

  5. The risk of shorter fasting time for pediatric deep sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mathew; Birisci, Esma; Anderson, Jordan E; Anliker, Christina M; Bryant, Micheal A; Downs, Craig; Dalabih, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics calls for prolonged fasting times before performing pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). PSA is increasingly provided to children outside of the operating theater by sedation trained pediatric providers and does not require airway manipulation. We investigated the safety of a shorter fasting time compared to a longer and guideline compliant fasting time. We tried to identify the association between fasting time and sedation-related complications. This is a prospective observational study that included children 2 months to 18 years of age and had an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of I or II, who underwent deep sedation for elective procedures, performed by pediatric critical care providers. Procedures included radiologic imaging studies, electroencephalograms, auditory brainstem response, echocardiograms, Botox injections, and other minor surgical procedures. Subjects were divided into two groups depending on the length of their fasting time (4-6 h and >6 h). Complication rates were calculated and compared between the three groups. In the studied group of 2487 subjects, 1007 (40.5%) had fasting time of 4-6 h and the remaining 1480 (59.5%) subjects had fasted for >6 h. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the studied complications between the two groups. This study found no difference in complication rate in regard to the fasting time among our subjects cohort, which included only healthy children receiving elective procedures performed by sedation trained pediatric critical care providers. This suggests that using shorter fasting time may be safe for procedures performed outside of the operating theater that does not involve high-risk patients or airway manipulation.

  6. The effects of simulated rainfall on immature population dynamics of Aedes albopictus and female oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Rahman, G. M. Saifur; Abu Hassan, A.; Che Salmah, M. R.; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Boots, Michael; Sazaly, Abubakar

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).

  7. Mediterranean fruit fly: interference of oviposition by radiation-sterilized females in field cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnis, D. O. [Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Lab. USDA-ARS, Honolulu, HI (United States); Wong, T. T.Y.

    1990-07-01

    In experiments between April and September 1984, the behaviour of nonirradiated and radiation-sterilized laboratory-adapted adults of the tephritid Ceratitis capitata was observed on apples hung on guava trees in outdoor cages in Hawaii. The numbers of nonirradiated females observed resting on fruit were reduced several times by the presence of irradiated females, either alone or with irradiated males, but not by irradiated males alone. Similarly, the number of nonirradiated females observed ovipositing and the duration of oviposition was reduced by the presence of irradiated females. In control cages (all nonirradiated flies), the duration of oviposition by females averaged 255.9±15.0 s on fruit, while most of nonirradiated and irradiated females in the mixed (treatment) cage averaged 157±19.8 s and 77.5±7.5 s on fruit, resp. Irradiated females behaved skittishly on fruit and frequently engaged in physical encounters with other flies.

  8. Plastic pellets as oviposition site and means of dispersal for the ocean-skater insect Halobates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, A P; Vedolin, M C; Turra, A

    2012-06-01

    Microplastics are omnipresent in the oceans and generally have negative impacts on the biota. However, flotsam may increase the availability of hard substrates, which are considered a limiting resource for some oceanic species, e.g. as oviposition sites for the ocean insect Halobates. This study describes the use of plastic pellets as an oviposition site for Halobates micans and discusses possible effects on its abundance and dispersion. Inspection of egg masses on stranded particles on beaches revealed that a mean of 24% (from 0% to 62%) of the pellets bore eggs (mean of 5 and max. of 48 eggs per pellet). Most eggs (63%) contained embryos, while 37% were empty egg shells. This shows that even small plastic particles are used as oviposition site by H. micans, and that marine litter may have a positive effect over the abundance and dispersion of this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oviposition Site Selection by the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti and Its Implications for Dengue Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Stoddard, Steven T.; Astete, Helvio; Morrison, Amy C.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Because no dengue vaccine or antiviral therapy is commercially available, controlling the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is currently the only means to prevent dengue outbreaks. Traditional models of Ae. aegypti assume that population dynamics are regulated by density-dependent larval competition for food and little affected by oviposition behavior. Due to direct impacts on offspring survival and development, however, mosquito choice in oviposition site can have important consequences for population regulation that should be taken into account when designing vector control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined oviposition patterns by Ae. aegypti among 591 naturally occurring containers and a set of experimental containers in Iquitos, Peru. Using larval starvation bioassays as an indirect measure of container food content, we assessed whether females select containers with the most food for their offspring. Our data indicate that choice of egg-laying site is influenced by conspecific larvae and pupae, container fill method, container size, lid, and sun exposure. Although larval food positively influenced oviposition, our results did not support the hypothesis that females act primarily to maximize food for larvae. Females were most strongly attracted to sites containing immature conspecifics, even when potential competitors for their progeny were present in abundance. Conclusion/Significance Due to strong conspecific attraction, egg-laying behavior may contribute more to regulating Ae. aegypti populations than previously thought. If highly infested containers are targeted for removal or larvicide application, females that would have preferentially oviposited in those sites may instead distribute their eggs among other suitable, previously unoccupied containers. Strategies that kill mosquitoes late in their development (i.e., insect growth regulators that kill pupae rather than larvae) will enhance vector control by creating

  10. Oviposition site selection in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): are the effects of predation risk and food level independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; White, L; Bullard, A; King, J; Maxwell, R

    2013-09-01

    For organisms lacking parental care and where larval dispersal is limited, oviposition site selection decisions are critical fitness-enhancing choices. However, studies usually do not consider the interdependence of the two. In this study, we evaluated the effect of food level on the oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the presence or the absence of a nonlethal predator (caged dragonfly nymph). We also attempted to quantify the perceived cost of predation to ovipositioning mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were presented with oviposition cups containing four levels of larval food (fermented leaf infusion) with or without a caged libellulid nymph. By titrating larval food, we estimated the amount of food needed to attract the female mosquito to oviposit in the riskier habitat. As expected, oviposition rate increased with food level and decreased in the presence of a predator. However, the effect of food level did not differ between predator treatments. By calculating the difference in the amount of food for points of equal oviposition rate in the predator-present and predator-absent regression lines, we estimated the cost of predation risk to be 1950 colony-forming-units per milliliter. Our study demonstrated the importance of considering the possible interdependence of predation risk and food abundance for oviposition-site-seeking insects. This study also quantified the perceived cost of predation and found it to be relatively low, a fact with positive implications for biological control.

  11. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-01-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the

  12. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with

  13. First record of invasive Burmese Python oviposition and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslowe, Emma; Falk, Bryan; Collier, Michelle A. M.; Josimovich, Jillian; Rahill, Thomas; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discovered an adult female Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) coiled around a clutch of 25 eggs in a cement culvert in Flamingo, FL, in Everglades National Park. To our knowledge, this is the first record of an invasive Burmese Python laying eggs and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure in Florida. A 92% hatch-success rate suggests that the cement culvert provided suitable conditions for oviposition, embryonic development, and hatching. Given the plenitude of such anthropogenic structures across the landscape, available sites for oviposition and brooding may not be limiting for the invasive Burmese Python population.

  14. Integration of lncRNA–miRNA–mRNA reveals novel insights into oviposition regulation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The honey bee (Apis mellifera is a highly diverse species commonly used for honey production and pollination services. The oviposition of the honey bee queen affects the development and overall performance of the colony. To investigate the ovary activation and oviposition processes on a molecular level, a genome-wide analysis of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNA expression in the ovaries of the queens was performed to screen for differentially expressed coding and noncoding RNAs. Further analysis identified relevant candidate genes or RNAs. Results The analysis of the RNA profiles in different oviposition phase of the queens revealed that 740 lncRNAs, 81 miRNAs and 5,481 mRNAs were differently expressed during the ovary activation; 88 lncRNAs, 13 miRNAs and 338 mRNAs were differently expressed during the oviposition inhibition process; and finally, 100 lncRNAs, four miRNAs and 497 mRNAs were differently expressed during the oviposition recovery process. In addition, functional annotation of differentially expressed RNAs revealed several pathways that are closely related to oviposition, including hippo, MAPK, notch, Wnt, mTOR, TGF-beta and FoxO signaling pathways. Furthermore, in the QTL region for ovary size, 73 differentially expressed genes and 14 differentially expressed lncRNAs were located, which are considered as candidate genes affecting ovary size and oviposition. Moreover, a core set of genes served as bridges among different miRNAs were identified through the integrated analysis of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network. Conclusion The observed dramatic expression changes of coding and noncoding RNAs suggest that they may play a critical role in honey bee queens’ oviposition. The identified candidate genes for oviposition activation and regulation could serve as a resource for further studies of genetic markers of oviposition in honey bees.

  15. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramim, Jose D.; Souza, Antonio P. de; Ongarelli, Maria das G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  16. Heat dosage and oviposition depth influence egg mortality of two common rangeland grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland fire is a common naturally occurring event and management tool, with the amount and structure of biomass controlling transfer of heat belowground. Temperatures grasshopper eggs are exposed to during rangeland fires are mediated by species specific oviposition traits. This experiment examin...

  17. The tale of two buckets and associated containers: impact on aedes albopictus oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species. Its oviposition behavior is the subject of several projects in our research unit. The main emphasis of this presentation is a study which utilizes two five gallon buckets, one heated and one with ambient temperature. The heat is provided by an aquarium hea...

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  19. Oviposition of Quesada gigas in weed no hostess: implication in pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Henrique Bottura Maccagnan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study recorded the choice of dry plant of Conyza spp as oviposition site by cicada Quesada gigas (Olivier, 1790. We presented issues of natural history of the cicadas that indicate the inability of immatures to complete life cycle in this species of plant. Some implications on cultures where Q. gigas has economic importance are also discussed.

  20. Development, oviposition, and mortality of Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in response to reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Walgenbach, James F

    2005-12-01

    Eight reduced-risk insecticides (acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, indoxacarb, and spinosad) and three conventional insecticides (azinphosmethyl, fenpropathrin, and esfenvalerate) were tested against Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), the most abundant predacious mite in North Carolina apple (Malus spp.) orchards. To assess the effect of insecticides on development and mortality of N. fallacis immatures, 12-h-old eggs were individually placed on bean leaf disks previously dipped in insecticide solutions. Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) females were added as a food source. None of the reduced-risk insecticides significantly affected immature N. fallacis compared with the control; however, the pyrethroids esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin were highly toxic to immatures. To evaluate the effect of insecticides on mortality and oviposition of adult N. fallacis, 7- to 8-d-old females were confined on insecticide-treated bean leaves with Malephora crocea (Aizoaceae) pollen added as a food source. Spinosad resulted in the highest mortality, whereas azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, fenpropathrin, and imidacloprid were moderately toxic, and mortality from esfenvalerate, indoxacarb, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, and thiamethoxam did not differ significantly from the control. Oviposition was affected in a similar manner, with the exception of acetamiprid that did not affect oviposition, and thiamethoxam that reduced oviposition.

  1. Volatiles of grape inoculated with microorganisms: modulation of grapevine moth oviposition and field attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiochemicals released by plant-microbe associations are used by herbivorous insects to access and evaluate food resources and oviposition sites. Adult insects may utilize microbial-derived nutrients to prolong their lifespan, promote egg development and offer a high nutritional substrate to their ...

  2. Spatial distribution of oviposition sites determines variance in the reproductive rate of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Przybylski, M.; Reichard, Martin; Spence, R.; Smith, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 11 (2007), s. 1403-1417 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating system * opportunity for selection * oviposition * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2007

  3. Oviposition inhibitor in umbelliferous medicinal plants for the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Chisato; Morita, Yusuke; Minami, Kazuki; Nishidono, Yuto; Nakashima, Yoshitaka; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Ono, Naoaki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Tamura, Takayuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Umbelliferous medicinal plants, such as Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa and Angelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker filius ex Franchet et Savatier, account for a large percentage of crude drug consumption in Japan. The most serious problem in the cultivation of umbelliferous medicinal plants is the feeding damage caused by the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon hippocrates C. & R. Felder, 1864). When we compared the numbers of eggs laid by P. machaon on six umbelliferous medicinal plants, the eggs on A. acutiloba, A. dahurica, and Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miquel were the most numerous, those on Saposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin and Cnidium officinale Makino were rare, and Bupleurum falcatum Linné was not oviposited at all. To identify oviposition inhibitors for P. machaon in B. falcatum, S. divaricata, and C. officinale, the volatile chemical constituents of these umbelliferous medicinal plants were compared with GC-MS. We carried out multivariate analysis of gas chromatographic data and concluded that germacrene D, α-humulene, and trans-caryophyllene play important roles in protecting plants from oviposition by P. machaon. Their oviposition repellent activity was confirmed by the fact that the number of eggs laid on the leaves around a repellent device containing a mixture of germacrene D, α-humulene, and trans-caryophyllene was reduced by 40% compared to a control.

  4. Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Trager

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri. Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships.

  5. Oviposition site-selection by Bactrocera dorsalis is mediated through an innate recognition template tuned to γ-octalactone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available Innate recognition templates (IRTs in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest.

  6. Presence of a predator image in potential breeding sites and oviposition responses of a dengue vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Suradi, Nur Farrahana Binti; Hakim, Hafijah; Abang, Fatimah; Aliasan, Nur Ezzati; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Fadzly, Nik; Vargas, Ronald E Morales; Morales, Noppawan P; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-12-01

    In dengue vector control, attempts to minimize or replace the use of pesticides have mostly involved use of predators, but success has been severely impeded by difficulties associated with financial and environmental costs, predator mass production, and persistence in target habitats. Visual deterrents have been used successfully to control animal pests, in some cases in an effort to replace pesticide use. Despite evidence that visual signals are crucial in site choice for egg deposition by dengue vectors, and that female mosquitoes respond to artificial predation, the role of predator intimidation as it affects the oviposition behavior of dengue vectors remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti exposed to various mosquito predator pictures. Gravid females were presented with equal opportunities to oviposit in two cups with predator images [Toxorhynchites splendens-TXI, Goldfish (Carassius auratus)-small (SFI) and large (LFI) and Tx. splendens+Goldfish-TXFI] and two others without pictures. Differences in egg deposition were examined between sites with and without these images. When given a chance to oviposit in cups with and without TXI, Ae. aegypti females were similarly attracted to both sites. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups displaying pictures of fish (SFI or LFI) and blank cups, egg deposition rates were much lower in the fish picture sites. Females showed a preference for blank cups over TXFI for egg deposition. They also equally avoided cups with pictures of fish, regardless of the size of the picture. Our results indicate that the presence of images of goldfish and their association with Tx. larvae significantly reduced egg deposition by Ae. aegypti, and this was not the case with the predatory larvae alone. The observations that the images of natural predators can repel gravid females of a dengue vector provide novel possibilities to develop effective and inexpensive alternative tools to

  7. Use of artificial substrates of different colors for oviposition by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many colors are suitable as oviposition substrate for E. heros, providing information for the mass rearing of this insect.

  8. Differential and Synergistic Functionality of Acylsugars in Suppressing Oviposition by Insect Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Leckie

    Full Text Available Acylsugars are secondary metabolites exuded from type IV glandular trichomes that provide broad-spectrum insect suppression for Solanum pennellii Correll, a wild relative of cultivated tomato. Acylsugars produced by different S. pennellii accessions vary by sugar moieties (glucose or sucrose and fatty acid side chains (lengths and branching patterns. Our objective was to determine which acylsugar compositions more effectively suppressed oviposition of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Middle East--Asia Minor 1 Group, tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds, and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande. We extracted and characterized acylsugars from four S. pennellii accessions with different compositions, as well as from an acylsugar-producing tomato breeding line. We also fractionated the acylsugars of one S. pennellii accession to examine the effects of its components. Effects of acylsugars on oviposition were evaluated by administering a range of doses to oviposition sites of adult whiteflies and thrips in non-choice and choice bioassays, respectively. The acylsugars from S. pennellii accessions and the tomato breeding line demonstrated differential functionality in their ability to alter the distribution of whitefly oviposition and suppress oviposition on acylsugar treated substrates. Tobacco thrips were sensitive to all compositions while western flower thrips and whiteflies were more sensitive to acylsugars from a subset of S. pennellii accessions. It follows that acylsugars could thus mediate plant-enemy interactions in such a way as to affect evolution of host specialization, resistance specificity, and potentially host differentiation or local adaptation. The acylsugars from S. pennellii LA1376 were separated by polarity into two fractions that differed sharply for their sugar moieties and fatty acid side chains. These fractions had different efficacies, with neither having activity approaching that of the

  9. REPELLENT AND OVIPOSITION DETERRENT ACTIVITIES OFTHE ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MIKANIA MICRANTHA AND ITS COMPOUNDS ON PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-xinZhang; BingLing; Shao-yingChen; Guang-wenLiang; Xiong-feiPang

    2004-01-01

    Repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of the essential oil from Mikania micrantha and five volatile compounds including limonene, a-terpinene, linalool, B-caryophylene and verbenone on the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, was investigated in door and in net-house. The results showed that the essential oil of the M. micrantha had significant repellant effect (at flow 100-180 mL/min) and oviposition deterrent activity at dose 1020 uL/seedling for the DBM. In five volatile compounds, a-terpinene, limonene and linalool had significant effect on repellent and oviposition deterrent of the DBM moths, but verbenone and B-caryophylene, no significantly effect was observed in repellent and oviposition deterrent.

  10. Comparison of BG-Sentinel Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    COMPARISON OF BG-SENTINELH TRAP AND OVIPOSITION CUPS FOR AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS SURVEILLANCE IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, USA JENNIFER A...trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could...best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae

  11. A shorter and more specific oral sensitization-based experimental model of food allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Elvira; Cueto-Sola, Margarita; Utrilla, Pilar; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Judith; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Xaus, Jordi; Gálvez, Julio; Comalada, Mònica

    2012-07-31

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in children. Experimental animal models have become critical tools with which to perform research on new therapeutic approaches and on the molecular mechanisms involved. However, oral food allergen sensitization in mice requires several weeks and is usually associated with unspecific immune responses. To overcome these inconveniences, we have developed a new food allergy model that takes only two weeks while retaining the main characters of allergic response to food antigens. The new model is characterized by oral sensitization of weaned Balb/c mice with 5 doses of purified cow's milk protein (CMP) plus cholera toxin (CT) for only two weeks and posterior challenge with an intraperitoneal administration of the allergen at the end of the sensitization period. In parallel, we studied a conventional protocol that lasts for seven weeks, and also the non-specific effects exerted by CT in both protocols. The shorter protocol achieves a similar clinical score as the original food allergy model without macroscopically affecting gut morphology or physiology. Moreover, the shorter protocol caused an increased IL-4 production and a more selective antigen-specific IgG1 response. Finally, the extended CT administration during the sensitization period of the conventional protocol is responsible for the exacerbated immune response observed in that model. Therefore, the new model presented here allows a reduction not only in experimental time but also in the number of animals required per experiment while maintaining the features of conventional allergy models. We propose that the new protocol reported will contribute to advancing allergy research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  13. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorio, Nildimar A.

    2007-01-01

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  14. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  15. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorio, Nildimar A. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Transmissores de Hematozoarios; Barros, Fabio S.M. de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Nucleo Avancado de Vetores; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G. [Freitas and Tsouris Consultants, Spata-Attikis (Greece)]. E-mail: maria@freitas-tsouris.com

    2007-09-15

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  16. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan R. Sambaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  17. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R; Donelson, Sarah L; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-22

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  18. Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered vs. whole Artemia franciscana (A. franciscana (brine shrimp eggs with or without a dietary supplement on development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (C. maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. We tested the hypotheses that (1 powdered A. franciscana eggs are more suitable than whole eggs; and (2 palmitic acid, a common fatty acid in natural prey, i.e., aphids, is an effective dietary supplement. Development time, pre-imaginal survival, sex ratio, and body weight of adults did not differ significantly amongst individuals fed powdered vs. whole eggs, with or without 5% palmitic acid. Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect on progeny (egg hatch rate. In conclusion, a simple change in A. franciscana egg texture and particle size (i.e., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg maturation in some females.

  19. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  20. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruchi; Tyagi, Varun; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K; Mendki, Murlidhar J; Jain, Ashok K; Sukumaran, Devanathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory. Methods: Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20–400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior) against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50), while OAI (Oviposition activity index) was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts. Results: Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466) at 100ppm. Conclusion: Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito. PMID:26114131

  1. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontellas-Brandalha, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: zucoloto@ffclrp.usp.br

    2004-09-15

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  2. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontellas-Brandalha, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2004-01-01

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  3. Integration of multiple intraguild predator cues for oviposition decisions by a predatory mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In mutual intraguild predation (IGP), the role of individual guild members is strongly context dependent and, during ontogeny, can shift from an intraguild (IG) prey to a food competitor or to an IG predator. Consequently, recognition of an offspring's predator is more complex for IG than classic prey females. Thus, IG prey females should be able to modulate their oviposition decisions by integrating multiple IG predator cues and by experience. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as prey and passing through ontogenetic role shifts in mutual IGP, we assessed the effects of single and combined direct cues of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni (eggs and traces left by a female on the substrate) on prey patch selection and oviposition behaviour of naïve and IG predator-experienced IG prey females of Phytoseiulus persimilis. The IG prey females preferentially resided in patches without predator cues when the alternative patch contained traces of predator females or the cue combination. Preferential egg placement in patches without predator cues was only apparent in the choice situation with the cue combination. Experience increased the responsiveness of females exposed to the IG predator cue combination, indicated by immediate selection of the prey patch without predator cues and almost perfect oviposition avoidance in patches with the cue combination. We argue that the evolution of the ability of IG prey females to evaluate offspring's IGP risk accurately is driven by the irreversibility of oviposition and the functionally complex relationships between predator guild members. PMID:23264692

  4. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings.

  5. On the origin of grasshopper oviposition behavior: structural homology in pregenital and genital motor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen J; Jones, Alaine D; Miller, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    In female grasshoppers, oviposition is a highly specialized behavior involving a rhythm-generating neural circuit, the oviposition central pattern generator, unusual abdominal appendages, and dedicated muscles. This study of Schistocerca americana (Drury) grasshoppers was undertaken to determine whether the simpler pregenital abdominal segments, which do not contain ovipositor appendages, share common features with the genital segment, suggesting a roadmap for the genesis of oviposition behavior. Our study revealed that although 5 of the standard pregenital body wall muscles were missing in the female genital segment, homologous lateral nerves were, indeed, present and served 4 ovipositor muscles. Retrograde labeling of the corresponding pregenital nerve branches in male and female grasshoppers revealed motor neurons, dorsal unpaired median neurons, and common inhibitor neurons which appear to be structural homologues of those filled from ovipositor muscles. Some pregenital motor neurons displayed pronounced contralateral neurites; in contrast, some ovipositor motor neurons were exclusively ipsilateral. Strong evidence of structural homology was also obtained for pregenital and ovipositor skeletal muscles supplied by the identified neurons and of the pregenital and ovipositor skeletons. For example, transient embryonic segmental appendages were maintained in the female genital segments, giving rise to ovipositor valves, but were lost in pregenital abdominal segments. Significant proportional differences in sternal apodemes and plates were observed, which partially obscure the similarities between the pregenital and genital skeletons. Other changes in reorganization included genital muscles that displayed adult hypertrophy, 1 genital muscle that appeared to represent 2 fused pregenital muscles, and the insertion points of 2 ovipositor muscles that appeared to have been relocated. Together, the comparisons support the idea that the oviposition behavior of genital

  6. Avoidance of host resistance in the oviposition-site preferences of rose bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouchet, Romain; Smith, Carl; Liu, H.; Methling, Caroline; Douda, K.; Yu, D.; Tang, Q.; Reichard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2017), s. 769-783 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Coevolutionary dynamic * Egg ejection * Host selection * Oviposition choice * Parasite specialisation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  7. Different levels of shade on population of grasshoppers and its oviposition preference on heliconias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Bittar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Grasshoppers of the families Acrididae and Romaleidae (Orthoptera are among the insects that defoliate heliconias and have been gaining status as pests of commercial crops of these plants in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to identify the grasshopper defoliating heliconias in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Pádua, RJ (Brazil, to evaluate the effect of different levels of shade on the population of this grasshopper and the production parameters of heliconias, and to determine if this grasshopper has an oviposition preference among the heliconias evaluated. The experiment was in a completely randomized block design, in subdivided plots (four levels of shade in the plot, 0%, 30%, 50% and 80%, and four species of Heliconia: H. psittacorum, H. stricta, H. wagneriana and H. psittacorum x H. spathocircinata ‘Golden Torch’ in the subplot, with four replications. The grasshopper was identified as Cornops frenatum frenatum (Acrididae. An increase in shade resulted in a decrease in the number of oviposition holes from the grasshopper and the number of lateral buds. Shade did not influence the number of C. f. frenatum nymphs and adults and the number of flower stems. H. wagneriana was the most preferred species for oviposition by C. f. frenatum. Results suggested using screens to shade heliconia plants can help control C. f. frenatum populations, however, the light requirements of the heliconias should be considered to guarantee productivity.

  8. Larval exposure to azadirachtin affects fitness and oviposition site preference of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzar-Bendjazia, Radia; Kilani-Morakchi, Samira; Aribi, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD 25 (0.28μg) and LD 50 (0.67μg) and evaluated on fitness (development duration, fecundity, adult survival) and oviposition site preference with and without choice. Results showed that azadirachtin increased significantly at the two tested doses the duration of larval and pupal development. Moreover, azadirachtin treatment reduced significantly adult's survival of both sex as compared to control. In addition, azadirachtin affected fecundity of flies by a significant reduction of the number of eggs laid. Finally results showed that females present clear preference for oviposition in control medium. Pre-imaginal exposure (L3) to azadirachtin increased aversion to this substance suggesting a memorability of the learned avoidance. The results provide some evidence that larval exposure to azadirachtin altered adult oviposition preference as well as major fitness traits of D. melanogaster. Theses finding may reinforce behavioural avoidance of azadirachtin and contribute as repellent strategies in integrated pest management programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Searching and oviposition behavior of aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raki A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphidophagous hoverflies forage according two different host-finding mechanisms: they forage for suitable food sources (for their energy-expensive hovering flight, and for protein to mature their reproductive system, and for suitable oviposition sites. Syrphids are highly mobile, enabling them to lay eggs over large areas, and to locate aphid colonies earlier in the season than other aphidophaga. The result is that most syrphid eggs tend to be laid close to aphid colonies. The choice of oviposition sites may be crucial for offspring performance because the neonate larvae have limited dispersal ability. Selection of aphid patches should therefore reflect nutritional value, risk of predation and competition pressure. Several factors are known to affect the choice of oviposition site: habitat, host plant, aphid species, aphid availability, semiochemicals, the presence of intra- or interspecific competitors and female age. We review here the available information on these factors in order to understand the mechanisms of decision-making by syrphid females during their egg-laying behavior, a crucial aspect of their effective use in strategies of the biological control of aphids.

  10. Oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities of Moringa oleifera lectin on Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Diniz de Lima Santos

    Full Text Available Natural insecticides against the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been the object of research due to their high level of eco-safety. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL is a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti. This work reports the effects of WSMoL on oviposition and egg hatching of A. aegypti.WSMoL crude preparations (seed extract and 0-60 protein fraction, at 0.1 mg/mL protein concentration, did not affect oviposition, while A. aegypti gravid females laid their eggs preferentially (73% in vessels containing isolated WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL, compared with vessels containing only distilled water (control. Volatile compounds were not detected in WSMoL preparation. The hatchability of fresh eggs deposited in the solutions in the oviposition assay was evaluated. The numbers of hatched larvae in seed extract, 0-60 protein fraction and WSMoL were 45 ± 8.7 %, 20 ± 11 % and 55 ± 7.5 %, respectively, significantly (p<0.05 lower than in controls containing only distilled water (75-95%. Embryos were visualized inside fresh control eggs, but not within eggs that were laid and maintained in WSMoL solution. Ovicidal activity was also assessed using stored A. aegypti eggs. The protein concentrations able to reduce the hatching rate by 50% (EC50 were 0.32, 0.16 and 0.1 mg/mL for seed extract, 0-60 protein fraction and WSMoL, respectively. The absence of hatching of stored eggs treated with WSMoL at 0.3 mg/mL (EC99 after transfer to medium without lectin indicates that embryos within the eggs were killed by WSMoL. The reduction in hatching rate of A. aegypti was not linked to decrease in bacteria population.WSMoL acted both as a chemical stimulant cue for ovipositing females and ovicidal agent at a given concentration. The oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities, combined with the previously reported larvicidal activity, make WSMoL a very interesting candidate in integrated A. aegypti control.

  11. Smoking Topography among Korean Smokers: Intensive Smoking Behavior with Larger Puff Volume and Shorter Interpuff Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Yu, Sol

    2018-05-18

    The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15.0 (13.0⁻19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0⁻21.0) as the median (Interquartile range)), but had a significantly larger puff volume (62.7 (52.7⁻75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0⁻64.2) mL); p = 0.012). The interpuff interval was similar between men and women (8.9 (6.5⁻11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2⁻11.0) s; p = 0.122) but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association ( p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level and nicotine addiction level. An understanding of the difference of topography measures, particularly the larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers, may help to overcome a potential underestimation of internal doses of hazardous byproducts of smoking.

  12. Assessment of patch quality by aphidophagous ladybirds: laboratory study on the minimum density of aphids required for oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Das

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate that there is a density of aphids below which ladybirds are unlikely to lay eggs. This is adaptive as theory indicates that a certain minimum population density of aphids is required if hatchling larvae are to survive. The responses of gravid females of the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, recorded over a period of an hour, to colonies of 5 and 50 pea aphids on bean plants and similar plants each previously infested with the same number of aphids for 48 hours were determined. Proportionally more of the ladybirds on plants with 50 aphids or that were previously infested with the same number of aphids for 48 hours laid eggs and larger clusters of eggs, and were less active than those on plants that were infested with or had previously been infested with five aphids. That is, gravid females showed similar oviposition and activity responses to aphid abundance and different levels of honeydew contamination. This indicates that honeydew contamination may be an important cue used by ladybirds when locating and assessing the abundance of prey in aphid colonies.

  13. Push-Pull Effects of Three Plant Secondary Metabolites on Oviposition of the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.F.; Xiao, C.

    2013-01-01

    The push-pull effects of three plant secondary metabolites, azadirachtin, eucalyptol, and heptanal, on the oviposition choices of potato tubers by the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were tested in the laboratory. Azadirachtin at concentrations from 1.5 to 12 mg/L had a significant repellent effect on oviposition. Eucalyptol at concentrations from 3 to 12 mg/L promoted oviposition. Heptanal promoted oviposition at low concentrations from 0.1875 to 3.0 mg/L but repelled it at higher concentrations from 12 to 24 mg/L. The combination of azadirachtin (12 mg/L) with eucalyptol (3.0 mg/L) resulted in a significant pushpull effect of 56.3% on oviposition. The average maximum push-pull effects occurred with the combinations of azadirachtin with heptanal (12 and 0.375 mg/L, respectively; 38.7% push-pull effect), heptanal with eucalyptol (12 and 6 mg/L, respectively; 31.4% push-pull effect), and heptanal (high concentration) with heptanal (low concentration) (12.0 and 0.375 mg/L, respectively; 25% push-pull effect). PMID:24786822

  14. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae ) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-06-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.

  15. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes.

  16. High temperature triggers latent variation among individuals: oviposition rate and probability for outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Björkman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that extreme population events, such as extinctions and outbreaks, will become more frequent as a consequence of climate change. To evaluate the increased probability of such events, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms involved. Variation between individuals in their response to climatic factors is an important consideration, especially if microevolution is expected to change the composition of populations.Here we present data of a willow leaf beetle species, showing high variation among individuals in oviposition rate at a high temperature (20 °C. It is particularly noteworthy that not all individuals responded to changes in temperature; individuals laying few eggs at 20 °C continued to do so when transferred to 12 °C, whereas individuals that laid many eggs at 20 °C reduced their oviposition and laid the same number of eggs as the others when transferred to 12 °C. When transferred back to 20 °C most individuals reverted to their original oviposition rate. Thus, high variation among individuals was only observed at the higher temperature. Using a simple population model and based on regional climate change scenarios we show that the probability of outbreaks increases if there is a realistic increase in the number of warm summers. The probability of outbreaks also increased with increasing heritability of the ability to respond to increased temperature.If climate becomes warmer and there is latent variation among individuals in their temperature response, the probability for outbreaks may increase. However, the likelihood for microevolution to play a role may be low. This conclusion is based on the fact that it has been difficult to show that microevolution affect the probability for extinctions. Our results highlight the urge for cautiousness when predicting the future concerning probabilities for extreme population events.

  17. Mortality risk from entomopathogenic fungi affects oviposition behavior in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter; Rämert, Birgitta; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of pests in agroecosystems could be enhanced by combining multiple natural enemies. However, this approach might also compromise the control efficacy through intraguild predation (IGP) among the natural enemies. Parasitoids may be able to avoid the risk of unidirectional IGP posed by entomopathogenic fungi through selective oviposition behavior during host foraging. Trybliographa rapae is a larval parasitoid of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of D. radicum and T. rapae to two species of generalist entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium brunneum isolate KVL 04-57 and Beauveria bassiana isolate KVL 03-90. Furthermore, T. rapae oviposition behavior was assessed in the presence of these entomopathogenic fungi either as infected hosts or as infective propagules in the environment. Both fungi were pathogenic to D. radicum larvae and T. rapae adults, but with variable virulence. When host patches were inoculated with M. brunneum conidia in a no-choice situation, more eggs were laid by T. rapae in hosts of those patches compared to control and B. bassiana treated patches. Females that later succumbed to mycosis from either fungus laid significantly more eggs than non-mycosed females, indicating that resources were allocated to increased oviposition due to perceived decreased life expectancy. When presented with a choice between healthy and fungal infected hosts, T. rapae females laid more eggs in healthy larvae than in M. brunneum infected larvae. This was less pronounced for B. bassiana. Based on our results we propose that T. rapae can perceive and react towards IGP risk posed by M. brunneum but not B. bassiana to the foraging female herself and her offspring. Thus, M. brunneum has the potential to be used for biological control against D. radicum with a limited risk to T. rapae populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on the sperm transmission and oviposition response in Helicoverpa armigera (L. Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohui; Wang Huasong; Song Jiaxiang

    1999-12-01

    The transmission of sperm by unirradiated and irradiated cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was studied by live dissection of the female immediately after the initiation of mating. In cotton bollworm the sperm transfer was a rather complex process. In fact, the unirradiated male failed to transfer sperm in about 19% of their matings. After being irradiated with 250 Gy and 400 Gy, the aberrations of sperm transmission were about 21% and 50% respectively. The failure of spermatophore 'cap' location was an important reason of sperm transmission aberrations. When female mated to high-dose-irradiated males, its oviposition response appeared abnormal

  19. Deceptive female oviposition behaviour elicits male ejaculation in the European bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, H.; Reichard, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2007), s. 1841-1846 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Grant - others:The Leverhulme Trust(GB) NSFC 30470237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating tactics * pre-oviposition ejaculation * signal evolution * sneaking sperm competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2007 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01624.x

  20. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field.

  1. Keeping the golden mean: plant stiffness and anatomy as proximal factors driving endophytic oviposition site selection in a dragonfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matushkina, Natalia; Lambret, Philippe; Gorb, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Oviposition site selection is a crucial component of habitat selection in dragonflies. The presence of appropriate oviposition plants at breeding waters is considered to be one of the key habitat determinants for species laying eggs endophytically. Thus, Lestes macrostigma, a species which is regarded as threatened in Europe because of its highly disjunct distribution, typically prefers to lay eggs in the sea club rush Bolboschoenus maritimus. However, little is known about how the anatomical and mechanical properties of plant tissues determine the choice of L. macrostigma females. We examined green shoots of six plant species used by L. macrostigma for oviposition, either in the field (actual oviposition plants) or under experimental conditions (potential oviposition plants), to analyse anatomical and mechanical properties of shoots in a framework of known preferences regarding plant substrates for oviposition. As expected, the anatomy of shoots differed between representatives of two plant families, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, most essentially in the distribution of supporting bundles and the presence of large aeriferous cavities that may affect egg placing within a shoot. The force necessary to puncture the tested plant samples ranged from 360 to 3298 mN, and their local stiffness ranged from 777 to 3363N/m. We show that the shoots of B. maritimus, the plant most preferred by L. macrostigma, have intermediate characteristics regarding both the stiffness and specific anatomical characteristics. The bending stiffness of the ovipositor in L. macrostigma was estimated as 1414N/m, one of the highest values recorded for zygopteran dragonflies so far. The ecological and behavioural implications of plant choice mechanisms in L. macrostigma are discussed in the context of the disjunct distribution of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  3. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  4. Correlation of molecular expression with diel rhythm of oviposition in Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the molecular mechanisms potentially underlying blow fly nocturnal oviposition. A behavioral study revealed that Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) possesses a diel rhythm of oviposition in light under 12:12 light/dark conditions. Reversal to 12:12 dark/light resulted in oviposition behavior changing to align with the adjusted regime in most females, but four of 59 experimental females lacked a diel rhythm of oviposition (were arrhythmic). Real-time PCR was used to monitor the molecular expression levels of known circadian genes per and tim in C. vicina to determine whether gene expression and behavior correlated. As with behavior, reversing light/dark conditions changed rhythmic gene expression to align with an adjusted light regime. This suggests that although it is unlikely that C. vicina will colonize dead bodies at night, arrhythmic females and oviposition in the dark was demonstrated. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Adaptation to new nutritional environments: larval performance, foraging decisions, and adult oviposition choices in Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Soares, Nuno F; Nogueira-Alves, A; Beldade, P; Mirth, Christen Kerry

    2017-06-07

    Understanding how species adapt to new niches is a central issue in evolutionary ecology. Nutrition is vital for the survival of all organisms and impacts species fitness and distribution. While most Drosophila species exploit rotting plant parts, some species have diversified to use ripe fruit, allowing earlier colonization. The decomposition of plant material is facilitated by yeast colonization and proliferation. These yeasts serve as the main protein source for Drosophila larvae. This dynamic rotting process entails changes in the nutritional composition of the food and other properties, and animals feeding on material at different stages of decay are expected to have behavioural and nutritional adaptations. We compared larval performance, feeding behaviour and adult oviposition site choice between the ripe fruit colonizer and invasive pest Drosophila suzukii, and a closely-related rotting fruit colonizer, Drosophila biarmipes. Through the manipulation of protein:carbohydrate ratios in artificial diets, we found that D. suzukii larvae perform better at lower protein concentrations and consume less protein rich diets relative to D. biarmipes. For adult oviposition, these species differed in preference for substrate hardness, but not for the substrate nutritional composition. Our findings highlight that rather than being an exclusive specialist on ripe fruit, D. suzukii's adaptation to use ripening fruit allow it to colonize a wider range of food substrates than D. biarmipes, which is limited to soft foods with higher protein concentrations. Our results underscore the importance of nutritional performance and feeding behaviours in the colonization of new food niches.

  6. Prenatal paracetamol exposure is associated with shorter anogenital distance in male infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.G.; Thankamony, A.; Hughes, I.A.; Ong, K.K.; Dunger, D.B.; Acerini, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8–14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8–14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW. Animal and human xenograft studies have demonstrated that paracetamol reduces foetal testicular testosterone production, consistent with reported epidemiological associations between prenatal paracetamol exposure and cryptorchidism. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study (Cambridge Baby Growth Study), with recruitment of pregnant women at ~12 post-menstrual weeks of gestation from a single UK maternity unit between 2001 and 2009, and 24 months of infant follow-up. Of 2229 recruited women, 1640 continued with the infancy study after delivery, of whom 676 delivered male infants and completed a medicine consumption questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Mothers self-reported medicine consumption during pregnancy by a questionnaire administered during the perinatal period. Infant AGD (measured from 2006 onwards), penile length and testicular descent were assessed at 0, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, and age-specific Z scores were calculated. Associations between paracetamol intake during three gestational periods (14 weeks) and these outcomes were tested by linear mixed models. Two hundred and twenty-five (33%) of six hundred and eighty-one male infants were exposed to paracetamol during pregnancy, of whom sixty-eight were reported to be exposed during 8–14 weeks. AGD measurements were available for 434 male infants. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Paracetamol exposure during 8–14

  7. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  8. Hypermetabolism in ALS is associated with greater functional decline and shorter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Frederik J; Ioannides, Zara A; van Eijk, Ruben P A; Heggie, Susan; Thorpe, Kathryn A; Ceslis, Amelia; Heshmat, Saman; Henders, Anjali K; Wray, Naomi R; van den Berg, Leonard H; Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A; Ngo, Shyuan T

    2018-04-29

    To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls. Longitudinal changes in clinical parameters between hypermetabolic and normometabolic patients with ALS were determined for up to 12 months following metabolic assessment. Survival was monitored over a 30-month period following metabolic assessment. Hypermetabolism was more prevalent in patients with ALS than controls (41% vs 12%, adjusted OR=5.4; pALS. Mean lower motor neuron score (SD) was greater in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (4 (0.3) vs 3 (0.7); p=0.04). In the 12 months following metabolic assessment, there was a greater change in Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale score in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (-0.68 points/month vs -0.39 points/month; p=0.01). Hypermetabolism was inversely associated with survival. Overall, hypermetabolism increased the risk of death during follow-up to 220% (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.4, p=0.03). Hypermetabolic patients with ALS have a greater level of lower motor neuron involvement, faster rate of functional decline and shorter survival. The metabolic index could be important for informing prognosis in ALS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  10. Disruption of plant carotenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Optical plant characteristics are important cues to plant-feeding insects. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that silencing the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, encoding a key enzyme in plant carotenoid biosynthesis, affects insect oviposition site selection behaviour. Virus-induced

  11. [Oviposition, development, and reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on different hosts of economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Eduardo M; Torres, Jorge B; Bueno, Adeney F

    2010-01-01

    The host selection for oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) among corn, millet, cotton and soybean, and its relationship with the biological characteristics were investigated. Free and non-choice tests for oviposition using plots containing five plants each, from each host in plastic greenhouse, resulted in similar oviposition preference among the host plants. In addition, selected biological characteristics of S. frugiperda were determined in the laboratory with larvae feeding on host leaves, and the combination of leaf and cotton boll. Neonate larvae exhibited low success of colonization on cotton boll compared to the leaves of all other hosts. Spodoptera frugiperda fed only on cotton bolls exhibited longer larval and pupal development, and longer adult life span; however with similar egg production. Larvae fed cotton leaves during six days and then transferred to cotton bolls, however, exhibited development and reproduction similar to those reared on corn or only on cotton leaves. Therefore, the variations on immature stages of S. frugiperda were not related with host selection for oviposition which was similar among the studied hosts. Based on our data, the millet as a winter, rotational, and cover crop is a potential host for S. frugiperda, while leaves and cotton bolls were diets of intermediate suitability as compared to corn and soybean leaves.

  12. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  13. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and

  14. Phenetic distances in the Drosophila melanogaster-subgroup species and oviposition-site preference for food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Boerema, A.

    1981-01-01

    Oviposition-site preferences (O.S.P.) have been investigated in females of six sibling species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. O.S.P. were determined for standard food components and yeast genotypes. Females of all species showed a strong preference for complete medium and avoidance of pure

  15. Oviposition activity and seasonal pattern of a population of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae in subtropical Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micieli María Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly oviposition activity and the seasonal density pattern of Aedes aegypti were studied using larvitraps and ovitraps during a research carried out by the Public Health Ministry of Salta Province, in Tartagal, Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, in subtropical Argentina. The A. aegypti population was active in both dry and wet seasons with a peak in March, accordant with the heaviest rainfall. From May to November, the immature population level remained low, but increased in December. Ae. aegypti oviposition activity increased during the fall and summer, when the relative humidity was 60% or higher. Eggs were found in large numbers of ovitraps during all seasons but few eggs were observed in each one during winter. The occurrence and the number of eggs laid were variable when both seasons and cities were compared. The reduction of the population during the winter months was related to the low in the relative humidity of the atmosphere. Significant differences were detected between oviposition occurrences in Tartagal and Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, but no differences in the number of eggs were observed. Two factors characterize the seasonal distribution pattern of Ae. aegypti in subtropical Argentina, the absence of a break during winter and an oviposition activity concomitant of the high relative humidity of the atmosphere.

  16. The potential attractant or repellent effects of different water types on oviposition in Aedes aegypti L. (Dipt., Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, D.M.A.F.; Oliveira, de P.E.S.; Potting, R.P.J.; Brito, A.C.; Fital, S.J.F.; Goulart Sant Ana, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The selection of oviposition sites by the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti , was studied in the laboratory. The repellent or attractant effects of salinity and the presence of bacteria in water collected from a local community on the Brazilian coast were investigated. Water contaminated with

  17. Oviposition Decision of the Weevil Exapion ulicis on Ulex europaeus Depends on External and Internal Pod Cues

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    Jean-Sébastien Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms underlying insects’ host choice and plant susceptibility is important to the study of plant-insect interactions in general, and in the context of plant invasions. This study investigates the oviposition and feeding choices of the specialist weevil Exapion ulicis on the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus, gorse. To do so, we studied the oviposition and feeding preferences of the weevil in choice experiments, using pods and flowers, respectively, from gorses grown in a common garden. The plants used came from regions with different infestation histories: Brittany and Scotland belong to the native range, where the weevil is present, while Reunion and New Zealand belong to the invasive range, where the weevil was not initially introduced with gorse. Results of these experiments suggest that the oviposition choice of E. ulicis females is driven by cues located at the surface of pods and inside them, including pod size and pod seed content. Feeding-choice experiments showed a different pattern of preference compared to oviposition. Taken together with previous studies, our results reveal that E. ulicis uses several traits to choose its host, including whole-plant traits, flower traits and pod traits.

  18. Attraction, oviposition preferences, and olfactory responses of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to various host-based substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh market sweet corn produced in Florida is threatened by larval damage by Euxesta stigmatias Loew, E. eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition and attraction bioassays were desig...

  19. Sex differences in the responses to oviposition site cues by a fish revealed by tests with an artificial host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phillips, A.; Reichard, Martin; Smith, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, April (2017), s. 187-194 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : maternal effect * mussel * oviposition site cue * reproduction * Rhodeus * sexual conflict Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Behavioral sciences biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  20. Dispersal and oviposition of laboratory-reared gravid females of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in an arid urban area of Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Duarte, Alberto; Alvarado-Castro, J Andrés; Dórame-Navarro, María E; Félix-Torres, A Amalia

    2009-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide. Biological control of its vector, Aedes aegypti, remains a feasible option in light of increasing urbanization and insecticide resistance. We studied the dispersal and oviposition activity of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in a dengue-endemic urban area in SSonora, Mexico, to provide information about the potential of Toxorhynchites as a control agent for Ae. aegypti in arid areas. We released 210 and 100 laboratory-reared gravid females of Tx. moctezuma in 2 city blocks during the summer and fall of 1993. We set 3 1-liter containers and 1 car tire as sentinel traps at each of 10 backyards within each city block. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal and oviposition activity differed between city blocks and between releases. However, a Cox regression analysis showed no significant difference in the per-day probability of Tx. moctezuma oviposition events in sentinel traps between summer and fall releases. Per-day oviposition probability was nearly 5 times greater for sentineltraps that contained larvae of Ae. aegypti, suggesting a high specificity of the predator for its prey. The proportion of sentinel traps positive for Tx. moctezuma eggs did not increase substantially after the 8th day piost-release, reaching 66% and 23% for sentinel traps with and without Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively.

  1. Mediation of oviposition site selection in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) by semiochemicals of microbial origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumba, L.A.; Guda, T.O.; Deng, A.L.; Hassanali, A.; Beier, J.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the role of larval habitat-derived microorganisms in the production of semiochemicals for oviposition site selection by Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto mosquitoes. Dual-choice bioassays with gravid females were conducted in standard mosquito

  2. Influence of container size, location, and time of day on oviposition patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, L C; Ponlawat, A; Edman, J D; Scott, T W; Vermeylen, F

    2008-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine the effect of container size and location on oviposition site selection by Ae. aegypti in large outdoor field enclosures (10 x 10 x 4 m high). There was a strong positive relationship between increasing container diameter, container volume, and water surface area with egg numbers over both high (rainy, July) and low (cool-dry, January) dengue transmission seasons. Location of containers (indoors versus immediately outdoors and underneath houses) did not influence the number of eggs deposited for containers 5-32 cm in diameter in either season. No trends based on container color (black, brown, or grey) were observed. A slight trend with a greater numbers of eggs laid outdoors in the largest containers (42 cm diameter) during the dry season was observed. Three separate models were run using the mixed model procedure in SAS for each container attribute. Controlling for season, time, and date, the most important container attribute predicting total egg numbers was container volume (total capacity) explaining 88% of the variation, followed by water surface area (85%), and container diameter opening (83%). Oviposition peaked in the afternoon at 1600 hrs and 2000 hrs in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Few eggs were laid overnight (2000 hrs-0600 hrs). Our results indicate that physical attributes of oviposition sites, such as size, light-dark contrasts, and specular reflectance from water surfaces, play a significant role in oviposition site selection.

  3. How parasitoid females produce sexy sons: a causal link between oviposition preference, dietary lipids and mate choice in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaul, Birgit; Ruther, Joachim

    2011-11-07

    Sexual selection theory predicts that phenotypic traits used to choose a mate should reflect honestly the quality of the sender and thus, are often costly. Physiological costs arise if a signal depends on limited nutritional resources. Hence, the nutritional condition of an organism should determine both its quality as a potential mate and its ability to advertise this quality to the choosing sex. In insects, the quality of the offspring's nutrition is often determined by the ovipositing female. A causal connection, however, between the oviposition decisions of the mother and the mating chances of her offspring has never been shown. Here, we demonstrate that females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis prefer those hosts for oviposition that have been experimentally enriched in linoleic acid (LA). We show by (13)C-labelling that LA from the host diet is a precursor of the male sex pheromone. Consequently, males from LA-rich hosts produce and release higher amounts of the pheromone and attract more virgin females than males from LA-poor hosts. Finally, males from LA-rich hosts possess three times as many spermatozoa as those from LA-poor hosts. Hence, females making the right oviposition decisions may increase both the fertility and the sexual attractiveness of their sons.

  4. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugassa Sisay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. Results An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.40-0.53, p Conclusion A square of four e-nets with yellow sticky boards as a collection device can be used for quantifying the numbers of mosquitoes approaching a small oviposition site. Shiny sticky surfaces attract gravid females possibly because they are visually mistaken as aquatic habitats. These materials might be developed further as gravid traps

  5. Attraction, Oviposition Preferences, and Olfactory Responses of Corn-Infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to Various Host-Based Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D; Nuessly, G S; Kendra, P E; Colquhoun, T A; Seal, D R

    2017-08-01

    Fresh market sweet corn (Zea mays L., convar. saccharata var. rugosa, Poales: Poaceae) ears produced in Florida are damaged by the larvae of Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition substrate and attractant bioassays were designed to identify attractive substrates for further semiochemical investigation. Frass from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was more attractive than other ovipositional substrates tested for E. eluta and C. massyla, and resulted in greater ovipositional output. Tassel-derived armyworm frass was more attractive than leaf-derived frass for oviposition. Frass also resulted in greater oviposition output by two species. In attraction bioassays, frass was generally preferred over the corresponding corn tissue, and only C. massyla demonstrated a preference for silk-frass over tassel-frass. The most promising substrates were then evaluated by electroantennography (EAG) to quantify olfactory responses. Frass volatiles also elicited greater antennal responses than corn volatiles. With tassel-frass, greater amplitude EAG responses were recorded from immature E. eluta female antennae, while mature female E. stigmatias exhibited greater responses. Equivalent antennal response to silk-frass was observed from E. eluta. Overall, silk-frass elicited the greatest EAG responses among all three fly species. Our results indicate that armyworm frass is an important resource in the chemical ecology of corn-infesting silk flies, and this substrate warrants further investigation for potential attractants that may facilitate development of novel management tools for these pests. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  7. A(maize)ing attraction: gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to maize pollen odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Hill, Sharon R; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-01-23

    Maize cultivation contributes to the prevalence of malaria mosquitoes and exacerbates malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. The pollen from maize serves as an important larval food source for Anopheles mosquitoes, and females that are able to detect breeding sites where maize pollen is abundant may provide their offspring with selective advantages. Anopheles mosquitoes are hypothesized to locate, discriminate among, and select such sites using olfactory cues, and that synthetic volatile blends can mimic these olfactory-guided behaviours. Two-port olfactometer and two-choice oviposition assays were used to assess the attraction and oviposition preference of gravid Anopheles arabiensis to the headspace of the pollen from two maize cultivars (BH-660 and ZM-521). Bioactive compounds were identified using combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection from the headspace of the cultivar found to be most attractive (BH-660). Synthetic blends of the volatile compounds were then assessed for attraction and oviposition preference of gravid An. arabiensis, as above. Here the collected headspace volatiles from the pollen of two maize cultivars was shown to differentially attract and stimulate oviposition in gravid An. arabiensis. Furthermore, a five-component synthetic maize pollen odour blend was identified, which elicited the full oviposition behavioural repertoire of the gravid mosquitoes. The cues identified from maize pollen provide important substrates for the development of novel control measures that modulate gravid female behaviour. Such measures are irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns, thus providing a much-needed addition to the arsenal of tools that currently target indoor biting mosquitoes.

  8. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16 was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches.

  10. Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Filipe Vieira Santos; Morais, Maira Moreira; Ribeiro, Sérvio Pontes; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16) was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches. PMID:26154742

  11. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  12. Relationship between oviposition, virulence gene expression and parasitism success in Cotesia typhae nov. sp. parasitoid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, R; Chantre, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Bodet, M; Mougel, F; Calatayud, P A; Dupas, S; Huguet, E; Jeannette, R; Obonyo, J; Odorico, C; Silvain, J F; Le Ru, B; Kaiser, L

    2017-12-01

    Studying mechanisms that drive host adaptation in parasitoids is crucial for the efficient use of parasitoids in biocontrol programs. Cotesia typhae nov. sp. (Fernández-Triana) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described parasitoid of the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Braconidae are known for their domesticated bracovirus, which is injected with eggs in the host larva to overcome its resistance. In this context, we compared reproductive success traits of four Kenyan strains of C. typhae on a French and a Kenyan populations of its host. Differences were found between the four strains and the two most contrasted ones were studied more thoroughly on the French host population. Parasitoid offspring size was correlated with parasitism success and the expression of bracovirus virulence genes (CrV1 and Cystatin) in the host larva after parasitism. Hybrids between these two parasitoid strains showed phenotype and gene expression profiles similar to the most successful parental strain, suggesting the involvement of dominant alleles in the reproductive traits. Ovary dissections revealed that the most successful strain injected more eggs in a single host larva than the less successful one, despite an equal initial ovocyte number in ovaries. It can be expected that the amount of viral particles increase with the number of eggs injected. The ability to bypass the resistance of the allopatric host may in consequence be related to the oviposition behaviour (eggs allocation). The influence of the number of injected eggs on parasitism success and on virulence gene expression was evaluated by oviposition interruption experiments.

  13. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Shorter height is related to lower cardiovascular disease risk – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Western studies have shown a negative correlation between height and cardiovascular disease. However, these correlations do not prove causation. This review provides a variety of studies showing short people have little to no cardiovascular disease. When shorter people are compared to taller people, a number of biological mechanisms evolve favoring shorter people, including reduced telomere shortening, lower atrial fibrillation, higher heart pumping efficiency, lower DNA damage, lower risk of blood clots, lower left ventricular hypertrophy and superior blood parameters. The causes of increased heart disease among shorter people in the developed world are related to lower income, excessive weight, poor diet, lifestyle factors, catch-up growth, childhood illness and poor environmental conditions. For short people in developed countries, the data indicate that a plant-based diet, leanness and regular exercise can substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Miho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P . Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding

  16. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of flower buds of globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi torrey, against boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Bowers, W S

    1996-01-01

    The globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi Torrey, a plant native to Arizona was evaluated as a source of feeding or oviposition deterrents to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Feeding and oviposition responses of reproductive weevils to the flower buds and artificial diets spiked with dry powder or extracts of the globemallow buds were determined. Boll weevils were deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the flower buds unless the calyxes were removed. Male and virgin female weevils were discouraged from feeding as much as gravid weevils. Secondary chemicals in the flower buds served primarily as feeding deterrents but also prevented oviposition. The concentration of these chemicals was highest in the calyxes of the buds, and potent deterrent activity could be extracted from the calyxes with methanol. Boll weevils were able to perceive the deterrents by contact chemosensory organs on the antennae, maxillary palps and labial palps.

  17. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8 % of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2 %). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47 days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8 %) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32 days and 91.7 %). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39 days, 88.0 %) in

  18. Use of statistical models based on radiographic measurements to predict oviposition date and clutch size in rock iguanas (Cyclura nubila)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to noninvasively estimate clutch size and predict oviposition date in reptiles can be useful not only to veterinary clinicians but also to managers of captive collections and field researchers. Measurements of egg size and shape, as well as position of the clutch within the coelomic cavity, were taken from diagnostic radiographs of 20 female Cuban rock iguanas, Cyclura nubila, 81 to 18 days prior to laying. Combined with data on maternal body size, these variables were entered into multiple regression models to predict clutch size and timing of egg laying. The model for clutch size was accurate to 0.53 ± 0.08 eggs, while the model for oviposition date was accurate to 6.22 ± 0.81 days. Equations were generated that should be applicable to this and other large Cyclura species. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  19. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2017-08-01

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m 2 , planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m 2 (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  20. Assessment of patch quality by aphidophagous ladybirds: Laboratory study on the minimum density of aphids required for oviposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Das, B. C.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 57-60 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Adalia bipunctata * Aphididae * arrestant * Coccinellidae * cues for oviposition * honeydew * minimum aphid density * patch quality * predator Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Variation in the Volatile Profiles of Black and Manchurian Ash in Relation to Emerald Ash Borer Oviposition Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, Chad M; McCartney, Nathaniel B; Herms, Daniel A; Tumlinson, James H; Cipollini, Don

    2017-08-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is a devastating pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in its invaded range in North America. Its coevolved Asian hosts are more resistant and less preferred for oviposition than susceptible North American species. We compared EAB oviposition preferences and bark and canopy volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of resistant Manchurian ash and susceptible black ash, and examined relationships between VOC profiles and oviposition. In the field, black ash was highly preferred for oviposition while no eggs were laid on Manchurian ash, and we found clear differences in the VOC profiles of Manchurian and black ash. We detected 78 compounds emitted from these species, including 16 compounds that elicited EAB antennal activity in prior studies. Four compounds were unique to black and 11 to Manchurian ash. Emission rates of 14 canopy and 19 bark volatiles varied among the two species, including four previously reported as antennally active. Specifically, 7-epi-sesquithujene (bark) emissions were greater from black ash, while β-caryophyllene (canopy), linalool (bark), and α-cubebene (bark) were emitted at higher rates by Manchurian ash. No relationships were found between the emission rate of any single compound or group of compounds (e.g. monoterpenes) suggesting that preference may be based on complex profile combinations. This is the first study to directly compare VOCs of black and Manchurian ash as well as the first to examine bark- and canopy-specific VOCs. The unique bark and canopy VOC profiles of these two species implicates potentially important variation in VOCs between a closely related resistant and susceptible species that provides a foundation for future studies of host preferences of EAB.

  2. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  3. Oviposition responses of Aedes mosquitoes to bacterial isolates from attractive bamboo infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Wesson, Dawn M; Arellano, Consuelo; Apperson, Charles S

    2015-09-23

    The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are vectors of pathogenic viruses that cause major human illnesses including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. Both mosquito species are expanding their geographic distributions and now occur worldwide in temperate and tropical climates. Collection of eggs in oviposition traps (ovitraps) is commonly used for monitoring and surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes populations by public health agencies charged with managing mosquito-transmitted illness. Addition of an organic infusion in these traps increases the number of eggs deposited. Gravid females are guided to ovitraps by volatile chemicals produced from the breakdown of organic matter by microbes. We previously isolated and cultured 14 species of bacteria from attractive experimental infusions, made from the senescent leaves of canebrake bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea). Cultures were grown for 24 h at 28 °C with constant shaking (120 rpm) and cell densities were determined with a hemocytometer. Behavioral responses to single bacterial isolates and to a mix of isolates at different cell densities were evaluated using two-choice sticky-screen bioassay methods with gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In behavioral assays of a mix of 14 bacterial isolates, significantly greater attraction responses were exhibited by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to bacterial densities of 10(7) and 10(8) cells/mL than to the control medium. When we tested single bacterial isolates, seven isolates (B1, B2, B3, B5, B12, B13 and B14) were significantly attractive to Ae. aegypti, and six isolates (B1, B5, B7, B10, B13 and B14) significantly attracted Ae. albopictus. Among all the isolates tested at three different cell densities, bacterial isolates B1, B5, B13 and B14 were highly attractive to both Aedes species. Our results show that at specific cell densities, some bacteria significantly influence the attraction of gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females to

  4. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  5. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  6. Crystal and solution structures of an odorant-binding protein from the southern house mosquito complexed with an oviposition pheromone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Yang; Xu, Xianzhong; Xu, Wei; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S.; Ames, James B.; Clardy, Jon (Harvard-Med); (UCD)

    2010-11-15

    Culex mosquitoes introduce the pathogens responsible for filariasis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, and other diseases into humans. Currently, traps baited with oviposition semiochemicals play an important role in detection efforts and could provide an environmentally friendly approach to controlling their populations. The odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in the female's antenna play a crucial, if yet imperfectly understood, role in sensing oviposition cues. Here, we report the X-ray crystallography and NMR 3D structures of OBP1 for Culex quinquefasciatus (CquiOBP1) bound to an oviposition pheromone (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MOP). In both studies, CquiOBP1 had the same overall six-helix structure seen in other insect OBPs, but a detailed analysis revealed an important previously undescribed feature. There are two models for OBP-mediated signal transduction: (i) direct release of the pheromone from an internal binding pocket in a pH-dependent fashion and (ii) detection of a pheromone-induced conformational change in the OBP {center_dot} pheromone complex. Although CquiOBP1 binds MOP in a pH-dependent fashion, it lacks the C terminus required for the pH-dependent release model. This study shows that CquiOBP binds MOP in an unprecedented fashion using both a small central cavity for the lactone head group and a long hydrophobic channel for its tail.

  7. Ovipositional Deterrence of Methanolic and Etherial Extracts of Five Plants to the Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Elhag

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol and diethyl ether extracts of Harmal, Rhazya stricta Decne.; neem seed kernels, Azadirachta indica A.Juss; cloves, Syzygeum aromarticum (L.; citrus peel and Ramram, Heliotropium bacciferum (Forssk- were evaluated for their deterrence to oviposition by Callosobruchus maculatus (F. on chickpeas in choice tests. Both extracts of all materials significantly reduced oviposition on treated seeds. Maximum deterrent effects (91.8% were obtained in the neem seed methanol extract at 0.5% concentration, citrus peel O. l% ether extract (90.9%, R stricta 0.5% methanol extract (83.9%, and clove 0. 1% ether extract (80.0%. Methanol extracts of neem seeds and R. stricta evoked higher deterrent effects than their etherial extracts, whereas the responses for cloves and citrus peel were more pronounced in their ether extracts. H. bacirferum % deterrency due to both types of extracts were practically identical. The results encourage future incorporation of such plant extracts as ovipositional deterrents in stored-product lPM programmes.

  8. Evaluation of oviposition traps as an entomological surveillance method for Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Avaliação das armadilhas de oviposição como método de vigilância entomológica para Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Anália Carniel Barbosa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the behavior of oviposition traps for Aedes aegypti over time, to compare it with the larval survey and to investigate the association with climatic variables. It was conducted in São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo. Daily climatic data and fortnightly measurements for oviposition traps and larval infestation were collected from October 2003 to September 2004. Three different periods were identified in the behavior of oviposition traps' positivity and mean number of eggs: increase, plateau and decrease in values. These measurements followed the variation of climatic data from the first and third periods. High correlation was obtained between the positivity and the mean number of eggs. The oviposition traps showed higher capacity to detect the vector than did larval survey. It was observed that the first (October to December and third (May to September periods were considered to be the most suitable to use oviposition traps than larval surveys.O estudo teve como objetivos descrever o comportamento da armadilha de oviposição para Aedes aegypti ao longo do tempo, comparar com a pesquisa larvária e investigar sua associação com variáveis climáticas. O trabalho foi realizado em São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. Entre outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004, as armadilhas e a pesquisa larvária forneceram dados quinzenais e foram obtidos dados climáticos. Três períodos distintos foram identificados no comportamento da positividade das armadilhas e no número médio de ovos: aumento, patamar e decréscimo dos valores. Estas medidas acompanharam as variações climáticas. Alta correlação foi obtida entre a positividade e número de ovos. As armadilhas de oviposição apresentam maior capacidade para detectar o vetor do que a pesquisa larvária. Foi observado que o primeiro (outubro a dezembro e terceiro (maio a setembro períodos foram os mais adequados para utilização das armadilhas de oviposição em

  9. YAOPBM-II: extension to higher degrees and to shorter time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    In 2005, I presented a new fitting methodology (Yet AnOther Peak Bagging Method -YAOPBM), derived for very-long time series (2088-day-long) and applied it to low degree modes, {iota} {<=} 25. That very-long time series was also sub-divided into shorter segments (728-day-long) that were each fitted over the same range of degrees, to estimate changes with solar activity levels. I present here the extension of this method in several 'directions': a) to substantially higher degrees ({iota} {<=} 125); b) to shorter time series (364- and 182-day-long); and c) to additional 728-day-long segments, covering now some 10 years of observations. I discuss issues with the fitting, namely the leakage matrix, and the f- and p1 mode at very low frequencies, and I present some of the characteristics of the observed temporal changes.

  10. Is equity confined to the shorter term projects - and if not, what does it need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryan, T.

    1996-01-01

    There are two types of equity investor generally found in shorter term energy projects: energy project developers or sponsors who view a given project as buying or building a business; and financial investors who have viewed an investment as buying a stream of cash flows. This article examines the objectives and needs of these two investor groups, and discusses the principal issues which govern their respective decision-making process. (author)

  11. How do shorter working hours affect employee wellbeing? : Shortening working time in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lahdenperä, Netta

    2017-01-01

    The way work is done is dramatically changing due to digital breakthroughs. Generation Y is entering the workforce with a changed attitude towards work as organizations are increasing their focus towards employee wellbeing. Organizations who adopt the new model of work and understand the importance of the wellbeing of their staff are leading the transition to a more efficient business, better working life and a healthier planet. The thesis explores the numerous effects of shorter working...

  12. Influence des engrais de type NPK sur l’oviposition d’Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les engrais sont des associations de minéraux destinées à apporter aux plantes des compléments nutritifs nécessaires à leur croissance. Les engrais modernes de type NPK combinent les trois éléments de base que sont l’azote (N, le phosphore (P et le potassium (K. Dans cette étude de laboratoire réalisée dans des tunnels expérimentaux, nous avons étudié l’influence de solutions aqueuses contenant différentes concentrations en engrais NPK sur l’oviposition de femelles d’Aedes aegypti. Les résultats ont montré que les solutions contenant les concentrations en NK = 17-33 mg/l et P = 23-47 mg/l attiraient significativement plus de femelles gravides que l’eau osmosée seule (P 0,05. Ces résultats suggèrent que certaines teneurs en engrais NPK peuvent influencer le comportement de ponte du moustique Ae. aegypti.

  13. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lenita J.; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper and Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. (author)

  14. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lenita J.; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B. [EMBRAPA Soja, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: lenita@cnpso.embrapa.br; Garcia, Maria A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Zoologia; Amaral, Maria L.B. do [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper and Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. (author)

  16. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  17. Strong oviposition preference for Bt over non-Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda and its implications for the evolution of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying the evolution of resistance. The ‘high dose/refuge strategy’, in which a refuge of non-Bt plants is planted in close proximity to the Bt crop, is the foundation of most existing resistance management. Most theoretical analyses of the high dose/refuge strategy assume random oviposition across refugia and Bt crops. Results In this study we examined oviposition and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda across conventional and Bt maize and explored the impact of oviposition behavior on the evolution of resistance in simulation models. Over six growing seasons oviposition rates per plant were higher in Bt crops than in refugia. The Cry1F Bt maize variety retained largely undamaged leaves, and oviposition preference was correlated with the level of feeding damage in the refuge. In simulation models, damage-avoiding oviposition accelerated the evolution of resistance and either led to requirements for larger refugia or undermined resistance management altogether. Since larval densities affected oviposition preferences, pest population dynamics affected resistance evolution: larger refugia were weakly beneficial for resistance management if they increased pest population sizes and the concomitant degree of leaf damage. Conclusions Damaged host plants have reduced attractiveness to many insect pests, and crops expressing Bt toxins are generally less damaged than conventional counterparts. Resistance management strategies should take account of this behavior, as it has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of existing practice, especially in the tropics where many pests are polyvoltinous. Efforts to bring down total pest population sizes and/or increase the attractiveness of damaged conventional plants will have substantial benefits for slowing the

  18. Physical activity during video capsule endoscopy correlates with shorter bowel transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Peter P; Peck, Joshua; Murphy, Christopher; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2017-09-01

     Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is limited by reliance on bowel motility for propulsion, and lack of physical activity has been proposed as a cause of incomplete studies. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between physical activity and VCE bowel transit.  Ambulatory outpatients receiving VCE were eligible for the study. A pedometer was attached at the time of VCE ingestion and step count was recorded at the end of the procedure. VCE completion was assessed by logistic regression models, which included step count (500 steps as one unit). Total transit time was analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. The hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) indicated the "hazard" of completion, such that HRs > 1 indicated a reduced transit time.  A total of 100 patients were included. VCE was completed in 93 patients (93 %). The median step count was 2782 steps. Step count was not significantly associated with VCE completion (odds ratio 1.45, 95 %CI 0.84, 2.49). Pedometer step count was significantly associated with shorter total, gastric, and small-bowel transit times (HR 1.09, 95 %CI 1.03, 1.16; HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.00, 1.11; HR 1.07, 95 %CI 1.01, 1.14, respectively). Higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with VCE completion (HR 1.87, 95 %CI 1.18, 2.97) and shorter bowel transit times (HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.02, 1.08).  Increased physical activity during outpatient VCE was associated with shorter bowel transit times but not with study completion. In addition, BMI was a previously unreported clinical characteristic associated with VCE completion and should be included as a variable of interest in future studies.

  19. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-03

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.

  20. Reemission spectra and inelastic processes at interaction of attosecond and shorter duration electromagnetic pulses with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, D.N.; Matveev, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Inelastic processes and the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by atoms have been considered within the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation in the sudden perturbation approximation. A method of calculations with the exact inclusion of spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and the momenta of photons in the reemission processes has been developed. The probabilities of inelastic processes and spectra of reemission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by one- and many-electron atoms have been calculated. The results have been presented in the form of analytical formulas.

  1. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  2. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Applicability of the shorter ‘Bangladesh regimen’ in high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sotgiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the recent introduction of two new drugs (delamanid and bedaquiline and a few repurposed compounds to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB, clinicians are facing increasing problems in designing effective regimens in severe cases. Recently a 9 to 12-month regimen (known as the ‘Bangladesh regimen’ proved to be effective in treating MDR-TB cases. It included an initial phase of 4 to 6 months of kanamycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, high-dose isoniazid, and ethambutol, followed by 5 months of moxifloxacin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. However, recent evidence from Europe and Latin America identified prevalences of resistance to the first-line drugs in this regimen (ethambutol and pyrazinamide exceeding 60%, and of prothionamide exceeding 50%. Furthermore, the proportions of resistance to the two most important pillars of the regimen – quinolones and kanamycin – were higher than 40%. Overall, only 14 out of 348 adult patients (4.0% were susceptible to all of the drugs composing the regimen, and were therefore potentially suitable for the ‘shorter regimen’. A shorter, cheaper, and well-tolerated MDR-TB regimen is likely to impact the number of patients treated and improve adherence if prescribed to the right patients through the systematic use of rapid MTBDRsl testing.

  4. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  5. Are Shorter Versions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Doable? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a well-established assessment tool for measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia. Researchers and clinicians have been interested in the development of a short version of the PANSS that could reduce the burden of its administration for patients and raters. The author presents a comprehensive overview of existing brief PANSS measures, including their strengths and limitations, and discusses some possible next steps. There are two available scales that offer a reduced number of original PANSS items: PANSS-14 and PANSS-19; and two shorter versions that include six items: Brief PANSS and PANSS-6. The PANSS-6 has been tested quite extensively in established trials and appears to demonstrate high sensitivity to change and an established cut off definition for remission. Prospective testing in new antipsychotic treatment trials is still required for these shorter versions of PANSS. In addition, they need to be supplemented with interview guides, as well as provide conversion formulas to translate total scores from the short PANSS versions to the PANSS-30. Both short versions of the PANSS are essentially designed to evaluate response to antipsychotic treatment. Future PANSS scale development needs to address specific measurement of treatment-responsive positive symptoms by including treatment-sensitive items, as well as illness-phase specific PANSS tools.

  6. Food-plant niche selection rather than the presence of ant nests explains oviposition patterns in the myrmecophilous butterfly genus Maculinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J A; Elmes, G W

    2001-03-07

    It has been suggested that the socially parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon detects ant odours before ovipositing on initial larval food plants near colonies of its obligate ant host Myrmica ruginodis. It has also been suggested that overcrowding on food plants near M. ruginodis is avoided by an ability to detect high egg loads, resulting in a switch to selecting plants near less suitable ant species. If confirmed, this hypothesis (H1) would have serious implications for the application of current population models aimed at the conservation of endangered Maculinea species, which are based on the null hypothesis (H0) that females randomly select food plants whose flower buds are at a precise phenological stage, making oviposition independent of ants. If H1 were wrong, practical management based upon its assumptions could lead to the extinction of protected populations. We present data for the five European species of Maculinea which show that (i) each oviposits on a phenologically restricted flower-bud stage, which accounts for the apparent host-ant-mediated niche separation in sympatric populations of Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea teleius, (ii) there is no temporal shift in oviposition by Maculinea arion in relation to host ant distribution or egg density, and (iii) oviposition patterns in 13 populations of M. alcon's closest relative, Macaulinea rebeli, conform to H0 not H1 predictions. It is concluded that conservation measures should continue to be based on H0.

  7. Effect of different oviposition media and number of matings on the mass rearing of the olive Fruit Fly Dacus Oleae Gmel. (Diptera Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Moursy, A.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Rahman, A.M.; Ali, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    The highest average egg of female dacus oleae was obtained when the texwax domes m.p. 121 degree C were used together with G.G.M. as oviposition medium, whereas the lowest mean was obtained when the paraffin mixture domes used. Using the texwax domes as a new oviposition medium was superior to either the G.G.M.or the paraffin mixture. The optimum percent hatchability was recorded when the G.G.M., texwax and paraffin mixture were used together as oviposition media, where the lowest percent hatchability was recorded when the G.G.M. was used only as oviposition medium. The longest oviposition duration was recorded when using the G.G.M. whereas the shortest duration occurred when the paraffin mixture was used. The highest rate of egg production was obtained by the twice mated females, whereas the lowest rate was obtained by the virgin ones. Also the percent hatchability recorded was higher in case of the twice-mated females than in females mated once

  8. The immunomodulatory protein RH36 is relating to blood-feeding success and oviposition in hard ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Lu, Xiaojuan; Guo, Fengxun; Gong, Haiyan; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Cao, Jie; Zhou, Jinlin

    2017-06-15

    An immunomodulatory protein designated RH36 was identified in the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides. The cDNA sequence of RH36 has 844bp and encodes a deduced protein with a predicted molecular weight of 24kDa. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that RH36 presented a degree of similarity of 34.36% with the immunomodulatory protein p36 from the tick Dermacentor andersoni. The recombinant RH36 (rRH36) expressed in Sf9 insect cells suppressed the T-lymphocyte mitogen-driven in vitro proliferation of splenocytes and the expression of several cytokines such as IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-α. Furthermore, the proliferation of splenocytes isolated from rRH36-inoculated mice was significantly lower than that in control mice, suggesting that rRH36 could directly suppress immune responses in vivo. In addition, microarray analysis of splenocytes indicated that the expression of several immunomodulatory genes was downregulated by rRH36. The silencing of the RH36 gene by RNAi led to a 37.5% decrease in the tick attachment rate 24h after placement into the rabbit ears, whereas vaccination with RH36 caused a 53.06% decrease in the tick engorgement rate. Unexpectedly, RNAi induced a significant decrease in the oviposition rate, ovary weight at day 12 after engorgement, and egg-hatching rate. The effects of RH36 on blood feeding and oviposition were further confirmed by vaccination tests using the recombinant protein. These results indicate that RH36 is a novel member of immunosuppressant proteins and affects tick blood feeding and oviposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M.; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  10. Attractiveness of botanical infusions to ovipositing Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. erraticus in San Antonio, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee P; Debboun, Mustapha

    2009-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the Fort Sam Houston Military Reservation, San Antonio, TX, in fall 2008 to observe the attractiveness of selected botanical infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. The following infusions were tested in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps: Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), oak leaf (Quercus virginiana), acacia leaf (Acacia schaffneri), rabbit chow (alfalfa pellets), and algae (Spirogyra sp.). Four (Bermuda, acacia, oak, and algae) of the 5 infusions were effective in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. erraticus. Of the 4 infusions, Bermuda collected the greatest number of the mosquitoes sampled. Female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were collected in moderate numbers during this study.

  11. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  12. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  13. Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, L; Christiansen, L; Nybo, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether the frequency of carriers of mutations in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis diminishes with age as an indication that HFE mutations are associated with increased mortality. It is of value in the debate concerning screening for hereditary...... hemochromatosis to determine the significance of heterozygosity. METHODS: Genotyping for mutations in exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in 1784 participants aged 45 to 100 years from 4 population-based studies: all 183 centenarians from the Danish Centenarian Study, 601...... in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy....

  14. Shorter Decentralized Attribute-Based Encryption via Extended Dual System Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE is a special form of multiauthority ABE systems, in which no central authority and global coordination are required other than creating the common reference parameters. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized ABE in prime-order groups by using extended dual system groups. We formulate some assumptions used to prove the security of our scheme. Our proposed scheme is fully secure under the standard k-Lin assumption in random oracle model and can support any monotone access structures. Compared with existing fully secure decentralized ABE systems, our construction has shorter ciphertexts and secret keys. Moreover, fast decryption is achieved in our system, in which ciphertexts can be decrypted with a constant number of pairings.

  15. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  16. Hereditary angioedema attacks resolve faster and are shorter after early icatibant treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maurer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE are unpredictable and, if affecting the upper airway, can be lethal. Icatibant is used for physician- or patient self-administered symptomatic treatment of HAE attacks in adults. Its mode of action includes disruption of the bradykinin pathway via blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor. Early treatment is believed to shorten attack duration and prevent severe outcomes; however, evidence to support these benefits is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of timing of icatibant administration on the duration and resolution of HAE type I and II attacks. METHODS: The Icatibant Outcome Survey is an international, prospective, observational study for patients treated with icatibant. Data on timings and outcomes of icatibant treatment for HAE attacks were collected between July 2009-February 2012. A mixed-model of repeated measures was performed for 426 attacks in 136 HAE type I and II patients. RESULTS: Attack duration was significantly shorter in patients treated <1 hour of attack onset compared with those treated ≥ 1 hour (6.1 hours versus 16.8 hours [p<0.001]. Similar significant effects were observed for <2 hours versus ≥ 2 hours (7.2 hours versus 20.2 hours [p<0.001] and <5 hours versus ≥ 5 hours (8.0 hours versus 23.5 hours [p<0.001]. Treatment within 1 hour of attack onset also significantly reduced time to attack resolution (5.8 hours versus 8.8 hours [p<0.05]. Self-administrators were more likely to treat early and experience shorter attacks than those treated by a healthcare professional. CONCLUSION: Early blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor with icatibant, particularly within the first hour of attack onset, significantly reduced attack duration and time to attack resolution.

  17. ATM/RB1 mutations predict shorter overall survival in urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Grivas, Petros; Emamekhoo, Hamid; Mendiratta, Prateek; Ali, Siraj; Hsu, JoAnn; Vasekar, Monali; Drabick, Joseph J; Pal, Sumanta; Joshi, Monika

    2018-03-30

    Mutations of DNA repair genes, e.g. ATM/RB1 , are frequently found in urothelial cancer (UC) and have been associated with better response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further external validation of the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations in UC can inform clinical decision making and trial designs. In the discovery dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 24% of patients and were associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 2.67, 95% CI, 1.45-4.92, p = 0.002). There was a higher mutation load in patients carrying ATM/RB1 mutations (median mutation load: 6.7 versus 5.5 per Mb, p = 0.072). In the validation dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 22.2% of patients and were non-significantly associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI, 0.97-3.59, p = 0.06) and higher mutation load (median mutation load: 8.1 versus 7.2 per Mb, p = 0.126). Exome sequencing data of 130 bladder UC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed as a discovery cohort to determine the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations. Results were validated in an independent cohort of 81 advanced UC patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare overall survival (OS). ATM/RB1 mutations may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in unselected UC patients and may correlate with higher mutational load. Further studies are required to determine factors that can further stratify prognosis and evaluate predictive role of ATM/RB1 mutation status to immunotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  18. Marital disruption is associated with shorter salivary telomere length in a probability sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Robustelli, Briana L; Sbarra, David A

    2016-05-01

    Marital disruption (i.e., marital separation, divorce) is associated with a wide range of poor mental and physical health outcomes, including increased risk for all-cause mortality. One biological intermediary that may help explain the association between marital disruption and poor health is accelerated cellular aging. This study examines the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length in a United States probability sample of adults ≥50 years of age. Participants were 3526 individuals who participated in the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Telomere length assays were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on DNA extracted from saliva samples. Health and lifestyle factors, traumatic and stressful life events, and neuroticism were assessed via self-report. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between predictor variables and salivary telomere length. Based on their marital status data in the 2006 wave, people who were separated or divorced had shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or had never been married, and the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length was not moderated by gender or neuroticism. Furthermore, the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, neuroticism, cigarette use, body mass, traumatic life events, and other stressful life events. Additionally, results revealed that currently married adults with a history of divorce evidenced shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or never married. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere shortening, may be one pathway through which marital disruption is associated with morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a neem extract on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure in Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantoni, L; Giusti, F; Cristofaro, M; Pasqualini, L; Esposito, F; Lupetti, P; Habluetzel, A

    2006-12-01

    Secondary metabolites of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have addressed the effects of neem extracts or compounds in arthropods of medical importance. In this study, a laboratory strain of Anopheles stephensi was used to assess the effects of a commercial formulation (Neem Azal) (NA)), containing azadirachtin A at 34%, on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure. Oral administration of Neem Azal) to A. stephensi females through artificial blood meals did impair blood intake and oviposition in a concentration dependent manner. Similar results were obtained on females, which had consumed Neem Azal) in sucrose solution before taking a blood meal of plain blood. Neem treated females displayed a delay in oocyte development in both the phase of vitellogenesis and the phase of choriogenesis. The ultrastructural studies on ovaries from Neem Azal) treated females revealed distinct structural modifications indicative of: (i) a complete block of oogenesis, (ii) impairment of vitellogenesis and vitelline envelope formation, (iii) a severe degeneration of follicle cells. In agreement with results obtained in other insects, this study indicates that Neem Azal) impairs hormone control of oogenesis and exerts a cytotoxic effect on both follicular cells and oocytes of the Asian malaria vector A. stephensi.

  20. Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta de Oliveira, Sofia; Dantas de Oliveira, Caroline; Viana Sant'Anna, Mauricio Roberto; Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae. aegypti, on survival post-blood feeding, blood meal excretion, rate of oviposition, expression levels of key genes involved in oogenesis, and activity levels of trypsin blood digestion enzymes. We observed that wMel infection altered the rate and duration of blood meal excretion, delayed the onset of oviposition and was associated with a greater number of eggs being laid later. wMel-infected Ae. aegypti also had lower levels of key yolk protein precursor genes necessary for oogenesis. However, all of these effects occurred without a change in trypsin activity. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection may disrupt normal metabolic processes associated with blood feeding and reproduction in Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attraction and Oviposition of Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Resources Colonized by the Invasive Competitor Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindola, Aline F; Zheng, Le; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Thyssen, Patricia J

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the presence of immatures of the invasive blow fly species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) influences the adult behavior of the native species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) in Brazil. The level of attraction and oviposition by the native species was assessed in a dual-choice assay. The evaluation was based on sex and stage of ovarian development of L. eximia adults to a resource not colonized (NCR) or colonized (RPC) with eggs, different instars, or densities of C. albiceps. A significant difference in attraction was observed based on sex and stages of ovarian development. Males and nongravid females were more attracted to RPC, whereas gravid females preferred NCR. Moreover, males exhibited the lowest response in all assays among the three sex categories examined. In general, adults preferably oviposited on NCR rather than RPC. Also, between the eggs and second instar treatments, L. eximia laid more eggs on RPC with eggs than second instars (predatory stage). Lucilia eximia attraction to second-instar C. albiceps at different densities was marginally significant. Overall, results indicate the invasive species, C. albiceps, is impacting the behavior of the native blow fly, L. eximia, with regards to its attraction and colonization of vertebrate carrion, which could explain why native blow fly populations have significantly decreased since the introduction of C. albiceps. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Mauck, Kerry E; Balogh, Christopher M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2013-04-22

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds-including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores.

  3. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-08-01

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  4. Minimally invasive oesophagectomy more expensive than open despite shorter length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Anish; Dhamija, Ankit; Hancock, Jacquelyn; McCloskey, Barbara; Kim, Anthony W; Detterbeck, Frank C; Boffa, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) approach offers a number of advantages over open approaches including reduced discomfort, shorter length of stay and a faster recovery to baseline status. On the other hand, minimally invasive procedures typically are longer and consume greater disposable instrumentation, potentially resulting in a greater overall cost. The objective of this study was to compare costs associated with various oesophagectomy approaches for oesophageal cancer. An institutional Resource Information Management System (RIMS) was queried for cost data relating to hospital expenditures (as opposed to billings or collections). The RIMS was searched for patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer between 2003 and 2012 via minimally invasive, open transthoracic (OTT) (including Ivor Lewis, modified McKeown or thoracoabdominal) or transhiatal approaches. Patients that were converted from minimally invasive to open, or involved hybrid procedures, were excluded. A total of 160 oesophagectomies were identified, including 61 minimally invasive, 35 open transthoracic and 64 transhiatal. Costs on the day of surgery averaged higher in the MIO group ($12 476 ± 2190) compared with the open groups, OTT ($8202 ± 2512, P < 0.0001) or OTH ($5809 ± 2575, P < 0.0001). The median costs associated with the entire hospitalization also appear to be higher in the MIO group ($25 935) compared with OTT ($24 440) and OTH ($15 248). The average length of stay was lowest in the MIO group (11 ± 9 days) compared with OTT (19 ± 18 days, P = 0.006) and OTH (18 ± 28 days P = 0.07). The operative mortality was similar in the three groups (MIO = 3%, OTT = 9% and OTH = 3%). The operating theatre costs associated with minimally invasive oesophagectomy are significantly higher than OTT or OTH approaches. Unfortunately, a shorter hospital stay after MIO does not consistently offset higher surgical expense, as total hospital costs trend higher in the MIO patients. In

  5. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brandt

    Full Text Available Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  6. Risky family processes prospectively forecast shorter telomere length mediated through negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... blood. RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA......-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required...

  8. Gain of chromosome arm 1q in atypical meningioma correlates with shorter progression-free survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aims: Atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas have moderately high recurrence rates; even for completely resected tumours, approximately one-third will recur. Post-operative radiotherapy (RT) may aid local control and improve survival, but carries the risk of side effects. More accurate prediction of recurrence risk is therefore needed for patients with atypical meningioma. Previously, we used high-resolution array CGH to identify genetic variations in 47 primary atypical meningiomas and found that approximately 60% of tumors show gain of 1q at 1q25.1 and 1q25.3 to 1q32.1 and that 1q gain appeared to correlate with shorter progression-free survival. This study aimed to validate and extend these findings in an independent sample. Methods: 86 completely resected atypical meningiomas (with 25 recurrences) from two neurosurgical centres in Ireland were identified and clinical follow up was obtained. Utilizing a dual-colour interphase FISH assay, 1q gain was assessed using BAC probes directed against 1q25.1 and 1q32.1. Results: The results confirm the high prevalence of 1q gain at these loci in atypical meningiomas. We further show that gain at 1q32.1 and age each correlate with progression-free survival in patients who have undergone complete surgical resection of atypical meningiomas. Conclusions: These independent findings suggest that assessment of 1q copy number status can add clinically useful information for the management of patients with atypical meningiomas.

  9. Greater reproductive investment, but shorter lifespan, in agrosystem than in natural-habitat toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global amphibian decline is due to several factors: habitat loss, anthropization, pollution, emerging diseases, and global warming. Amphibians, with complex life cycles, are particularly susceptible to habitat alterations, and their survival may be impaired in anthropized habitats. Increased mortality is a well-known consequence of anthropization. Life-history theory predicts higher reproductive investment when mortality is increased. In this work, we compared age, body size, and different indicators of reproductive investment, as well as prey availability, in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita from agrosystems and adjacent natural pine groves in Southwestern Spain. Mean age was lower in agrosystems than in pine groves, possibly as a consequence of increased mortality due to agrosystem environmental stressors. Remarkably, agrosystem toads were larger despite being younger, suggesting accelerated growth rate. Although we detected no differences in prey availability between habitats, artificial irrigation could shorten aestivation in agrosystems, thus increasing energy trade. Moreover, agrosystem toads exhibited increased indicators of reproductive investment. In the light of life-history theory, agrosystem toads might compensate for lesser reproductive events—due to shorter lives—with a higher reproductive investment in each attempt. Our results show that agrosystems may alter demography, which may have complex consequences on both individual fitness and population stability.

  10. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  11. Oviposição e dispersão de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro Oviposition and nymphal dispersion of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2008-12-01

    exudates on tomato genotypes. Seven genotypes were used: LA716, LA1739, PI134417, LA462, LA1584, 'Santa Clara' and P25 (susceptible control. The oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B was evaluated by using ten couples of the insect in clip cages (2.8 cm² attached to the abaxial surface of the leaflets. For evaluating the nymphal dispersion, it was considered the insect movement beyond the limits of the occupied area by the clip cages. The evaluated variables were adult mortality 24 hours after the liberation, egg numbers, egg viability, incubation period, nymph numbers and nymphal dispersal. Under leaflets with glandular exudate, LA716, LA1739 and PI134417 caused the highest mortality values. Dead adults found in leaflets of those genotypes were trapped to the glandular exudates, causing reduced oviposition by the insect. For nymphal dispersal, in leaflets with glandular exudate, the highest values occurred in LA716, LA462 and P25. In leaflets without glandular exudate, LA716 promoted the lowest value for nymphal dispersal. The exudate influences negatively on the insect survivorship and oviposition. The nymphal dispersal is also affected by the glandular exudate, but other factors can make an important role on insect movement.

  12. Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, on maize, and its effect on host finding by Trichogramma egg parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Dutton, A.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of Ostrinia nubilalis is reviewed based on published information and new research. The position of egg masses of O. nubilalis on maize plants and leaves were sampled in the field. Most egg masses were found on the lower leaf side, on the middle part of the

  13. The Effect of Shorter Treatment Regimens for Hepatitis C on Population Health and Under Fixed Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jake R; Kim, Arthur Y; Naggie, Susanna; Linas, Benjamin P

    2018-01-01

    Direct acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies are highly effective but costly. Wider adoption of an 8-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment regimen could result in significant savings, but may be less efficacious compared with a 12-week regimen. We evaluated outcomes under a constrained budget and cost-effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks of therapy in treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, genotype 1 HCV-infected black and nonblack individuals and considered scenarios of IL28B and NS5A resistance testing to determine treatment duration in sensitivity analyses. We developed a decision tree to use in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the cost-effectiveness of recommended treatment durations and the population health effect of these strategies given a constrained budget. Outcomes included the total number of individuals treated and attaining sustained virologic response (SVR) given a constrained budget and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We found that treating eligible (treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, HCV-RNA budget among both black and nonblack individuals, and our results suggested that NS5A resistance testing is cost-effective. Eight-week therapy provides good value, and wider adoption of shorter treatment could allow more individuals to attain SVR on the population level given a constrained budget. This analysis provides an evidence base to justify movement of the 8-week regimen to the preferred regimen list for appropriate patients in the HCV treatment guidelines and suggests expanding that recommendation to black patients in settings where cost and relapse trade-offs are considered.

  14. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todor, D.

    2015-01-01

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  15. Shorter Ground Contact Time and Better Running Economy: Evidence From Female Kenyan Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooses, Martin; Haile, Diresibachew W; Ojiambo, Robert; Sang, Meshack; Mooses, Kerli; Lane, Amy R; Hackney, Anthony C

    2018-06-25

    Mooses, M, Haile, DW, Ojiambo, R, Sang, M, Mooses, K, Lane, AR, and Hackney, AC. Shorter ground contact time and better running economy: evidence from female Kenyan runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previously, it has been concluded that the improvement in running economy (RE) might be considered as a key to the continued improvement in performance when no further increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max is observed. To date, RE has been extensively studied among male East African distance runners. By contrast, there is a paucity of data on the RE of female East African runners. A total of 10 female Kenyan runners performed 3 × 1,600-m steady-state run trials on a flat outdoor clay track (400-m lap) at the intensities that corresponded to their everyday training intensities for easy, moderate, and fast running. Running economy together with gait characteristics was determined. Participants showed moderate to very good RE at the first (202 ± 26 ml·kg·km) and second (188 ± 12 ml·kg·km) run trials, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationship between ground contact time (GCT) and RE at the second run (r = 0.782; p = 0.022), which represented the intensity of anaerobic threshold. This study is the first to report the RE and gait characteristics of East African female athletes measured under everyday training settings. We provided the evidence that GCT is associated with the superior RE of the female Kenyan runners.

  16. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  17. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todor, D. [Virginia Commonwealth University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  18. Are Shorter Article Titles More Attractive for Citations? Cross-sectional Study of 22 Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Methods Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n = 9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters’ Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. Results The slope of the regression line for some journals (n = 6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative – none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), significantly different from 0 (P articles with longer titles received more citations – Spearman ρ = 0.266 – when titles were measured in characters, and ρ = 0.244 when titles were measured in words (P 10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor <10 (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). Conclusion Longer titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title. PMID:20401960

  19. Shorter exposures to harder X-rays trigger early apoptotic events in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJia Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and

  20. Feasibility of a shorter Goal Attainment Scaling method for a pediatric spasticity clinic - The 3-milestones GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny-Pacini, A; Pauly, F; Hiebel, J; Godon, S; Isner-Horobeti, M-E; Chevignard, M

    2017-07-01

    Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a method for writing personalized evaluation scales to quantify progress toward defined goals. It is useful in rehabilitation but is hampered by the experience required to adequately "predict" the possible outcomes relating to a particular goal before treatment and the time needed to describe all 5 levels of the scale. Here we aimed to investigate the feasibility of using GAS in a clinical setting of a pediatric spasticity clinic with a shorter method, the "3-milestones" GAS (goal setting with 3 levels and goal rating with the classical 5 levels). Secondary aims were to (1) analyze the types of goals children's therapists set for botulinum toxin treatment and (2) compare the score distribution (and therefore the ability to predict outcome) by goal type. Therapists were trained in GAS writing and prepared GAS scales in the regional spasticity-management clinic they attended with their patients and families. The study included all GAS scales written during a 2-year period. GAS score distribution across the 5 GAS levels was examined to assess whether the therapist could reliably predict outcome and whether the 3-milestones GAS yielded similar distributions as the original GAS method. In total, 541 GAS scales were written and showed the expected score distribution. Most scales (55%) referred to movement quality goals and fewer (29%) to family goals and activity domains. The 3-milestones GAS method was feasible within the time constraints of the spasticity clinic and could be used by local therapists in cooperation with the hospital team. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. (E-Caryophyllene and α-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane Cristine Santos da Silva

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC-mass spectrometry, with α-phellandrene (26.3%, (E-caryophyllene (18.0% and β-phellandrene (12.9% identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm. Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E-caryophyllene and α-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and

  2. Mortality risk from entomopathogenic fungi affects oviposition behavior in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    brunneum isolate KVL 04-57 and Beauveria bassiana isolate KVL 03-90. Furthermore, T. rapae oviposition behavior was assessed in the presence of these entomopathogenic fungi either as infected hosts or as infective propagules in the environment. Both fungi were pathogenic to D. radicum larvae and T. rapae...... adults, but with variable virulence. When host patches were inoculated with M. brunneum conidia in a no-choice situation, more eggs were laid by T. rapae in hosts of those patches compared to control and B. bassiana treated patches. Females that later succumbed to mycosis from either fungusi laid...... larvae. This was less pronounced for B. bassiana. Based on our results we propose that T. rapae can perceive and react towards IGP risk posed by M. brunneum but not B. bassiana to the foraging female herself and her offspring. Thus, M. brunneum has the potential to be used for biological control against...

  3. Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs for Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin for Venous Thrombosis Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Bookhart, Brahim; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-06

    % confidence interval, $8035-$8739]; warfarin $10 275 [95% confidence interval, $9842-$10 708]). Rivaroxaban was associated with significantly shorter hospital LOS and lower hospitalization costs compared with warfarin. © 2016 The Authors, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, and Truven Health Analytics. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. Pulmonary Embolism Inpatients Treated With Rivaroxaban Had Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs Compared With Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Crivera, Concetta; Bookhart, Brahim; Schein, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Using real-world data, this study compares inpatient length of stay (LOS) and costs for patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) initiating treatment with oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus warfarin. Hospitalizations from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database were selected from November 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013, for adults with a primary diagnosis of PE initiating treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Warfarin patients were matched 1:1 to rivaroxaban patients using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, treatment patterns, and hospitalization costs were evaluated. Matched cohorts included 751 rivaroxaban-treated patients and 751 warfarin-treated patients. Adjusted mean LOS was 3.77 days for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, 3.66-3.87 days) and 5.48 days for warfarin patients (95% CI, 5.33-5.63 days; P < .001). Mean (SD) LOS was shorter for patients taking rivaroxaban whether admission was for provoked PE (rivaroxaban: 5.2 [5.1] days; warfarin: 7.0 [6.5] days; P < .001) or unprovoked PE (rivaroxaban: 3.4 [2.3] days; warfarin: 5.1 [2.7] days; P < .001). Mean (SD) days from first dose to discharge were 2.5 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.9) (warfarin) when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001) and 2.7 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.2) (warfarin) without parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001). The rivaroxaban cohort incurred significantly lower unadjusted mean (SD) hospitalization costs (rivaroxaban: $8473 [$9105]; warfarin: $10,291 [$9185]; P < .001), confirmed by covariate adjustment with generalized linear modeling estimating predicted mean hospitalization costs of $8266 for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, $7851-$8681) and $10,511 for warfarin patients (95% CI, $10,031-$10,992; P < .001). patients with PE treated with rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower hospitalization costs by $2245 per admission compared with patients treated with warfarin, which was attributable to cost offsets from 1.71 fewer days of

  5. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  7. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif.j.khan@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rafique, Raza [Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Zafar, Waleed [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Jamshed, Arif [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhao, Yao [Rutgers University School of Business, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  8. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Atif J.; Rafique, Raza; Zafar, Waleed; Shah, Chirag; Haffty, Bruce G.; Vicini, Frank; Jamshed, Arif; Zhao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  9. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  10. Investigations of model polymers: Dynamics of melts and statics of a long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, M.; Ceperley, D.; Frisch, H.L.; Kalos, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    We report additional results on a simple model of polymers, namely the diffusion in concentrated polymer systems and the static properties of one long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains. It is found, for the polymer sizes and time scales amenable to our computer calculations, that there is as yet no evidence for a ''reptation'' regime in a melt. There is some indication of reptation in the case of a single chain moving through fixed obstacles. No statistically significant effect of the change, from excluded volume behavior of the long chain to ideal behavior as the shorter chains grow, is observed

  11. Nymphicidal and Ovipositional Efficacy of Seaweed Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh against Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab. (Pyrrhocoridae Eficacia Ninficida y Ovicida de una Alga Marina Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh contra Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab. (Pyrrhocoridae

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    Kitherian Sahayaraj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of a brown seaweed alga, Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh, against Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab., which is an economically important cotton pest in many parts of Asia. Sargassum tenerrimum has been used as a source of fertilizers and drugs, but there is no information available in the literature about its use in ecofriendly pest management. The impact of benzene (BN, chloroform (CH, and a mixture of benzene and chloroform (BNCH extracts, as well as two chromatographic fractions of BNCH (FR1 and FR2 were investigated for their insecticidal and ovipositional properties against D. cingulatus. The BE extract showed the best insecticidal activity (LC50 = 0.009%, higher than BNCH (LC50 = 0.021% and CH extracts (LC50 = 0.2481%, and all the extracts reduced the total nymphal developmental period of the pest in a dose-dependent way. Adult longevity of both males and females was reduced by the CH and BE extracts. The CH extract reduced D. cingulatus oviposition, preoviposition, and post-oviposition periods, as well as fecundity. Females emerging from the BE category could not lay eggs. All the extracts significantly reduced both total body protein and genomic DNA content. The BECH fractions, FR1 and FR2, also exhibited nymphicidal activity against the pest. However, these fractions did not significantly alter the nymphal developmental period. Results indicate that these seaweed extracts can be used as biopesticides for pest management.Investigamos el rol de una alga marina café, Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh, contra Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab., una plaga económicamente importante del algodón en muchas partes de Asia. Sargassum tenerrimum ha sido usada como fuente de fertilizantes y drogas, pero en la literatura no hay información disponible sobre su uso en manejo de plagas ecoamigable. Se investigó el impacto de extractos con benceno (BN, cloroformo (CH, y una mezcla de ambos (BNCH así como dos fracciones cromatográficas de

  12. Shorter sleep duration is associated with social impairment and comorbidities in ASD.

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    Veatch, Olivia J; Sutcliffe, James S; Warren, Zachary E; Keenan, Brendan T; Potter, Melissa H; Malow, Beth A

    2017-07-01

    Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). The mean (SD) sleep duration was 555 minutes. Sleep duration and severity of core ASD symptoms were negatively correlated, and sleep duration and IQ scores were positively correlated. Regression results indicated that more severe social impairment, primarily a failure to develop peer relationships, is the core symptom most strongly associated with short sleep duration. Furthermore, increased severity for numerous maladaptive behaviors assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist, as well as reports of attention deficit disorder, depressive disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were associated with short sleep duration. Severity scores for social/communication impairment and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) were increased, and IQ scores were decreased, for children reported to sleep ≤420 minutes per night (lower 5th percentile) compared to children sleeping ≥660 minutes (upper 95th percentile). Our results indicate that reduced amounts of sleep are related to more severe symptoms in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1221-1238. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism

  13. Within plant distribution of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae feeding and oviposition damages in cotton cultivars Distribuição vertical de botões florais com danos de alimentação e de oviposição de Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em cultivares de algodoeiro

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    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding and oviposition behavior of boll weevil in new cotton cultivars is essential for an adequate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vertical distribution of squares punctured for feeding and oviposition of the pest in the cultivars NuOPAL, DeltaOPAL, FMT-701, FMX-910 and FMX-993, and record the most and least preferred times of feeding and oviposition. The number of squares used for boll weevil feeding and oviposition were evaluated weekly in three parts of plant canopy. It was observed that, regardless the cultivar, A. grandis preferred to lay eggs in squares located in the upper part and feed on squares in the middle and upper parts. The boll weevil preferred to feed on cultivar FMT-701 in the beginning of the period of cotton flowering and fruiting, and the cultivars NuOPAL, DeltaOPAL, FMX-910 and FMX-993 throughout the whole period of flowering and fruiting. A. grandis preferred to lay eggs on cultivars NuOPAL, FMT-701 and FMX-993 at the beginning and end of flowering and fruiting of plants, while the cultivars DeltaOPAL and FMX-910 are used for oviposition throughout the period of flowering and fruiting.O conhecimento do comportamento de alimentação e de oviposição de Anthonomus grandis em cultivares recentes de algodoeiro é essencial para seu manejo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a distribuição vertical de botões florais com orifícios de alimentação e de oviposição da praga nas cultivares NuOPAL, DeltaOPAL, FMT-701, FMX-910 e FMX-993, bem como registrar as épocas de maior e menor preferência alimentar e de oviposição. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, safra 2010/2011. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais, baseadas no número de botões florais, utilizados para alimentação e para oviposição pelo bicudo-do-algodoeiro, em três regiões do dossel das plantas. Observou-se que A. grandis preferiu ovipositar em botões florais localizados no terço superior das

  14. A shorter snowfall season associated with higher air temperatures over northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Hengchun; Cohen, Judah

    2013-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity of the snowfall season (start, end, duration) over northern Eurasia (the former USSR) is analyzed from synoptic records of 547 stations from 1966 to 2000. The results find significant correlations between temperature and snowfall season at approximately 56% of stations (61% for the starting date and 56% for the ending date) with a mean snowfall season duration temperature sensitivity of −6.2 days °C −1 split over the start (2.8 days) and end periods (−3.4 days). Temperature sensitivity was observed to increase with stations’ mean seasonal air temperature, with the strongest relationships at locations of around 6 °C temperature. This implies that increasing air temperature in fall and spring will delay the onset and hasten the end of snowfall events, and reduces the snowfall season length by 6.2 days for each degree of increase. This study also clarifies that the increasing trend in snowfall season length during 1936/37–1994 over northern European Russia and central Siberia revealed in an earlier study is unlikely to be associated with warming in spring and fall seasons. (letter)

  15. Oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae, Neoneurini and Ichneumonidae, Hybrizontinae, with the description of three new European species

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    Kees van Achterberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids was observed and filmed for the first time. The movies are available from YouTube (search for Elasmosoma, Hybrizon, Kollasmosoma and Neoneurus. Two of the observed species (Neoneurus vesculus sp. n. and Kollasmosoma sentum sp. n. are new to science. A third species (Neoneurus recticalcar sp. n. is described from Slovakia and Norway. Keys to the Palaearctic species of the genera Neoneurus and Kollasmosoma are added.

  16. Dispersion and oviposition of Aedes albopictus in a Brazilian slum: Initial evidence of Asian tiger mosquito domiciliation in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Tania; Câmara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Morone, Fernanda Cristina; Gonçalves, Larissa da Silva; Saito Monteiro de Barros, Fábio; Brasil, Patrícia; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Honório, Nildimar Alves

    2018-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, originally considered as a secondary vector for arbovirus transmission, especially in areas where this species co-exist with Aedes aegypti, has been described in most regions of the world. Dispersion and domiciliation of Ae. albopictus in a complex of densely urbanized slums in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, was evidenced. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that 1) Ae. albopictus distribution in urban slums is negatively related to distance from vegetation, and 2) these vectors have taken on a domestic life style with a portion of the population feeding, ovipositing, and resting indoors. To do this, we developed an integrated surveillance proposal, aiming to detect the presence and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. The study, based on a febrile syndrome surveillance system in a cohort of infants living in the slum complex, was performed on a weekly basis between February 2014 and April 2017. A total of 8,418 adult mosquitoes (3,052 Ae. aegypti, 44 Ae. albopictus, 16 Ae. scapularis, 4 Ae. fluviatilis and 5,302 Culex quinquefasciatus) were collected by direct aspiration and 46,047 Aedes spp. eggs were collected by oviposition traps. The Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, was aspirated in its adult form (n = 44), and immature forms of this species (n = 12) were identified from the eggs collected by the ovitraps. In most collection sites, co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was observed. Key-sites, such as junkyards, thrift stores, factories, tire repair shops and garages, had the higher abundance of Ae. albopictus, followed by schools and households. We collected Ae. albopictus at up to 400 meters to the nearest vegetation cover. The log transformed (n+1) number of females Ae. albopictus captured at each collection point was inversely related to the distance to the nearest vegetation border. These results show that Ae. albopictus, a competent vector for important arboviruses and more commonly found in areas with higher

  17. Evaluation of the influence of electric nets on the behaviour of oviposition site seeking Anopheles gambiae s.s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Electric nets (e-nets) are used to analyse the flight behaviour of insects and have been used extensively to study the host-oriented flight of tsetse flies. Recently we adapted this tool to analyse the oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., orienting towards aquatic habitats and traps by surrounding an artificial pond with e-nets and collecting electrocuted mosquitoes on sticky boards on the ground next to the nets. Here we study whether e-nets themselves affect the responses of gravid An. gambiae s.s.. Methods Dual-choice experiments were carried out in 80 m2 screened semi-field systems where 200 gravid An. gambiae s.s. were released each night for 12 nights per experiment. The numbers of mosquito landing on or approaching an oviposition site were studied by adding detergent to the water in an artificial pond or surrounding the pond with a square of e-nets. We also assessed whether the supporting framework of the nets or the sticky boards used to retain electrocuted mosquitoes influenced the catch. Results Two similar detergent treated ponds presented in choice tests caught an equal proportion of the mosquitoes released, whereas a pond surrounded by e-nets caught a higher proportion than an open pond (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 - 2.7; p electric nets and the yellow boards on the approach of gravid females towards a pond suggests that the tower-like construction of the square of electric nets did not restrict the approach of females but the yellow sticky boards on the ground attract gravid females to a source of water (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.7 – 4.3; p trapping efficiency of the electric nets is increased when large yellow sticky boards are placed on the ground next to the e-nets to collect electrocuted mosquitoes, possibly because of increased visual contrast to the aquatic habitat. It is therefore important when comparing two treatments that the same trapping device is used in both. The

  18. Shorter HBIG administration is not associated to HBV recurrence when receiving combined prophylaxis after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Sabela; García-Eliz, María; Fernández, Inmaculada; Castells, Lluis; Bonacci, Martin; Mas, Antoni; Crespo, Gonzalo; Buti, María; Prieto, Martín; Forns, Xavier

    2018-04-16

    The combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and a nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) has markedly reduced the rate of hepatitis B (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT); however, the optimal duration of HBIG has not been clarified. This lack of consensus perpetuates the use of different strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated to HBV recurrence after LT in a large cohort of patients under different HBIG regimens. Retrospective multicenter analysis of HBV-related LT recipients receiving combined prophylaxis (HBIG+NA). The strategy of short-term HBIG was compared to life-long administration. HBV recurrence was defined as positive HBsAg after LT. 338 patients were analyzed. After a median follow-up period of 72 months, 37 patients (11%) developed HBV recurrence. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence and lamivudine resistance after LT were the only factors independently associated to HBV recurrence (HR 5.4[2.3-12] and 9.3[4.2-20], respectively pHBV recurrence was transient (16 patients), persistent (15) or alternant (6). The HBIG regimen did not have an impact on the rate or evolution of HBV recurrence. Overall, patient survival was good and not influenced by HBV recurrence (82% at 5 years). Fulminant liver failure, hepatitis C coinfection or HCC at LT were independent risk factors for lower survival. LT is an effective treatment for HBV-related liver disease. Since the introduction of combined prophylaxis the rate of HBV recurrence is very low. However, life-long HBIG administration does not seem necessary to reduce HBV recurrence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. BdorCSP2 is important for antifeed and oviposition-deterring activities induced by Rhodojaponin-III against Bactrocera dorsalis.

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    Xin Yi

    Full Text Available Rhodojaponin-III is a nonvolatile botanical grayanoid diterpene compound, which has antifeedant and oviposition deterrence effects against many kinds of insects. However, the molecular mechanism of the chemoreception process remains unknown. In this study, the important role of BdorCSP2 in the recognition of Rhodojaponin-III was identified. The full length cDNA encoding BdorCSP2 was cloned from legs of Bactrocera dorsalis. The results of expression pattern revealed that BdorCSP2 was abundantly expressed in the legs of adult B. dorsalis. Moreover, the expression of BdorCSP2 could be up-regulated by Rhodojaponin-III. In order to gain comprehensive understanding of the recognition process, the binding affinity between BdorCSP2 and Rhodojaponin-III was measured by fluorescence binding assay. Silencing the expression of BdorCSP2 through the ingestion of dsRNA could weaken the effect of oviposition deterrence and antifeedant of Rhodojaponin-III. These results suggested that BdorCSP2 of B. dorsalis could be involved in chemoreception of Rhodojaponin-III and played a critical role in antifeedant and oviposition behaviors induced by Rhodojaponin-III.

  20. Egg-laying by the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae on alien plants: a broadening of host range or oviposition mistakes?

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    Stefanescu, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iphiclides podalirius is an oligophagous butterfly which feeds on plants of the Rosaceae family. In 2002 and 2005 in NE Spain, we recorded for the first time oviposition on two alien plant species, Cotoneaster franchetii and Spiraea cantoniensis. To ascertain if this unusual behaviour represents a broadening of host range or, alternatively, an oviposition mistake, larval performance on the new plants was investigated in the laboratory and compared with performance on the most common host plants used in the study area. Although larval performance on common hosts differed to some extent, the use of a wide range of plants of different quality at population level may in fact respond to the so-called “spreading of risk” strategy in variable environments. On the other hand, larval performance and survival to adulthood were so low on the two new hosts that our observations probably represent a case of maladaptive oviposition behaviour. This may be due to an evolutionary lag between the newly introduced plants and the insect, although other possible explanations are also taken into account.

  1. Moderate Exercise Allows for shorter Recovery Time in Critical Limb Ischemia

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    Anne Lejay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how moderate exercise might allow for accelerated limb recovery in chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI remains to be determined. Chronic CLI was surgically induced in mice, and the effect of moderate exercise (training five times per week over a 3-week period was investigated. Tissue damages and functional scores were assessed on the 4th, 6th, 10th, 20th, and 30th day after surgery. Mice were sacrificed 48 h after the last exercise session in order to assess muscle structure, mitochondrial respiration, calcium retention capacity, oxidative stress and transcript levels of genes encoding proteins controlling mitochondrial functions (PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1 and anti-oxidant defenses markers (SOD1, SOD2, catalase. CLI resulted in tissue damages and impaired functional scores. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity were decreased in the ischemic limb of the non-exercised group (Vmax = 7.11 ± 1.14 vs. 9.86 ± 0.86 mmol 02/min/g dw, p < 0.001; CRC = 7.01 ± 0.97 vs. 11.96 ± 0.92 microM/mg dw, p < 0.001, respectively. Moderate exercise reduced tissue damages, improved functional scores, and restored mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity in the ischemic limb (Vmax = 9.75 ± 1.00 vs. 9.82 ± 0.68 mmol 02/min/g dw; CRC = 11.36 ± 1.33 vs. 12.01 ± 1.24 microM/mg dw, respectively. Exercise also enhanced the transcript levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, NRF1, as well as SOD1, SOD2, and catalase. Moderate exercise restores mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention capacity, and it has beneficial functional effects in chronic CLI, likely by stimulating reactive oxygen species-induced biogenesis and anti-oxidant defenses. These data support further development of exercise therapy even in advanced peripheral arterial disease.

  2. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids.

  3. Clathrin Heavy Chain Is Important for Viability, Oviposition, Embryogenesis and, Possibly, Systemic RNAi Response in the Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke; Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin heavy chain has been shown to be important for viability, embryogenesis, and RNA interference (RNAi) in arthropods such as Drosophila melanogaster. However, the functional roles of clathrin heavy chain in chelicerate arthropods, such as the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis, remain unknown. We previously showed that dsRNA ingestion, followed by feeding on spider mites, induced systemic and robust RNAi in M. occidentalis females. In the current study, we performed a loss-of-function analysis of the clathrin heavy chain gene in M. occidentalis using RNAi. We showed that ingestion of clathrin heavy chain dsRNA by M. occidentalis females resulted in gene knockdown and reduced longevity. In addition, clathrin heavy chain dsRNA treatment almost completely abolished oviposition by M. occidentalis females and the few eggs produced did not hatch. Finally, we demonstrated that clathrin heavy chain gene knockdown in M. occidentalis females significantly reduced a subsequent RNAi response induced by ingestion of cathepsin L dsRNA. The last finding suggests that clathrin heavy chain may be involved in systemic RNAi responses mediated by orally delivered dsRNAs in M. occidentalis. PMID:25329675

  4. Optimization of a shorter variable-acquisition time for legs to achieve true whole-body PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takuro; Miwa, Kenta; Murata, Taisuke; Miyaji, Noriaki; Wagatsuma, Kei; Motegi, Kazuki; Terauchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively. The phantoms comprised two spheres (diameters, 10 and 17 mm) containing fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose solution with sphere-to-background ratios of 4 at a background radioactivity level of 2.65 kBq/mL. All PET data were reconstructed with acquisition times ranging from 10 to 180, and 1200 s. We visually evaluated image quality and determined the coefficient of variance (CV) of the background, contrast and the quantitative %error of the hot spheres, and then determined two shorter variable-acquisition protocols for legs. Lesion detectability and quantitative accuracy determined based on maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in PET images of a patient using the proposed protocols were also evaluated. A larger phantom and a shorter acquisition time resulted in increased background noise on images and decreased the contrast in hot spheres. A visual score of ≥ 1.5 was obtained when the acquisition time was ≥ 30 s for three leg phantoms, and ≥ 120 s for the NEMA phantom. The quantitative %errors of the 10- and 17-mm spheres in the leg phantoms were ± 15 and ± 10%, respectively, in PET images with a high CV (scan mean SUV max of three lesions using the current fixed-acquisition and two proposed variable-acquisition time protocols in the clinical study were 3.1, 3.1 and 3.2, respectively, which did not significantly differ. Leg acquisition time per bed position of even 30-90

  5. A new paradigm for Aedes spp. surveillance using gravid ovipositing sticky trap and NS1 antigen test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sai Ming; Chua, Tock H; Sulaiman, Wan-Yussof; Joanne, Sylvia; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Chinna, Karuthan; Venugopalan, Balan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2017-03-21

    Dengue remains a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia and has increased 37-fold in Malaysia compared to decades ago. New strategies are urgently needed for early detection and control of dengue epidemics. We conducted a two year study in a high human density dengue-endemic urban area in Selangor, where Gravid Ovipositing Sticky (GOS) traps were set up to capture adult Aedes spp. mosquitoes. All Aedes mosquitoes were tested using the NS1 dengue antigen test kit. All dengue cases from the study site notified to the State Health Department were recorded. Weekly microclimatic temperature, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall were monitored. Aedes aegypti was the predominant mosquito (95.6%) caught in GOS traps and 23% (43/187 pools of 5 mosquitoes each) were found to be positive for dengue using the NS1 antigen kit. Confirmed cases of dengue were observed with a lag of one week after positive Ae. aegypti were detected. Aedes aegypti density as analysed by distributed lag non-linear models, will increase lag of 2-3 weeks for temperature increase from 28 to 30 °C; and lag of three weeks for increased rainfall. Proactive strategy is needed for dengue vector surveillance programme. One method would be to use the GOS trap which is simple to setup, cost effective (below USD 1 per trap) and environmental friendly (i.e. use recyclable plastic materials) to capture Ae. aegypti followed by a rapid method of detecting of dengue virus using the NS1 dengue antigen kit. Control measures should be initiated when positive mosquitoes are detected.

  6. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper; Fatores que afetam a oviposicao de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em pimentao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade, Engenharia Rural e Solos]. E-mail: lclima@aluno.feis.unesp.br; campos@bio.feis.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  7. TIA model is attainable in Wistar rats by intraluminal occlusion of the MCA for 10min or shorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan Tolvanen, A; Tatlisumak, E; Pedrono, E; Abo-Ramadan, U; Tatlisumak, T

    2017-05-15

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has received only little attention in the experimental research field. Recently, we introduced a TIA model for mice, and here we set similar principles for simulating this human condition in Wistar rats. In the model: 1) transient nature of the event is ensured, and 2) 24h after the event animals are free from any sensorimotor deficit and from any detectable lesion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals experienced varying durations of ischemia (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 25, and 30min, n=6-8pergroup) by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ischemia severity and reperfusion rates were controlled by cerebral blood flow measurements. Sensorimotor neurological evaluations and MRI at 24h differentiated between TIA and ischemic stroke. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and apoptotic cell counts revealed pathological correlates of the event. We found that already 12.5min of ischemia was long enough to induce ischemic stroke in Wistar rats. Ten min or shorter durations induced neither gross neurological deficits nor infarcts visible on MRI, but histologically caused selective neuronal necrosis. A separate group of animals with 10min of ischemia followed up to 1week after reperfusion remained free of infarction and any MRI signal change. Thus, 10min or shorter focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraluminal MCAO in Wistar rats provides a clinically relevant TIA the rat. This model is useful for studying molecular correlates of TIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Urdu translation and validation of shorter version of Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on Pakistani bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Noreen

    2017-10-01

    To translate, adapt and validate shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale on Pakistani corporate employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi from October 2014 to December 2015. The study was completed into two independent parts. In part one, the scale was translated by forward translation. Then it was pilot-tested and administered on customer services employees from commercial banks and the telecommunication sector. Data of the pilot study was analysed by using exploratory factor analysis to extract the initial factor of positive affect and negative affect scale. Part two comprised the main study. Commercial bank employees were included in the sample using convenient sampling technique. Data of the main study was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to establish construct validity of positive affect and negative affect scale. There were145 participants in the first part of the study and 495 in the second. Results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of positive affect and negative affect scale suggesting that the scale has two distinct domains, i.e. positive affect and negative affect. The shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure.

  9. Use of a novel shorter minimum caliber needle for creating endoscopic tattoos for preoperative localization: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ito, Sayo; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Kawakami, Takeshi; Wada, Takuya; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In colorectal cancer surgery, inadvertent deep injections during endoscopic tattooing can cause India ink leakage into the peritoneum, leading to complications or to poor visualization of the surgical plane. This ex vivo animal study compared the use of novel shorter, minimum caliber needles versus conventional injection needles for endoscopic tattooing. Four endoscopists used the novel needles and conventional needles to make ten endoscopic tattoos (five tattoos/needle type/endoscopist) in harvested porcine rectum using a saline test-injection method. India ink leakage and the success of the tattoo (i. e. visible, tattoos but for none of the novel needle tattoos ( P  = 0.02). Tattoos created using the novel needles were more successful than those made with the conventional needles: 18/20 (90 %) vs. 11/20 (55 %); P  = 0.01. The use of novel shorter minimum caliber needles may be safe and effective for endoscopic tattooing for preoperative localization prior to colorectal cancer surgery.

  10. Age-dependent effects of oral infection with dengue virus on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, a disease that is increasing its geographical range as well as incidence rates. Despite its public health importance, the effect of dengue virus (DENV) on some mosquito traits remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of DENV-2 infection on the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity of Ae. aegypti females. After orally-challenging Ae. aegypti females with a DENV-2 strain using a membrane feeder, we monitored the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity throughout the mosquito lifespan. We observed an age-dependent cost of DENV infection on mosquito feeding behavior and fecundity. Infected individuals took more time to ingest blood from anesthetized mice in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) weeks post-infection, and also longer overall blood-feeding times in the 3(rd) week post-infection, when females were around 20 days old. Often, infected Ae. aegypti females did not lay eggs and when they were laid, smaller number of eggs were laid compared to uninfected controls. A reduction in the number of eggs laid per female was evident starting on the 3(rd) week post-infection. DENV-2 negatively affected mosquito lifespan, since overall the longevity of infected females was halved compared to that of the uninfected control group. The DENV-2 strain tested significantly affected Ae. aegypti traits directly correlated with vectorial capacity or mosquito population density, such as feeding behavior, survival, fecundity and oviposition success. Infected mosquitoes spent more time ingesting blood, had reduced lifespan, laid eggs less frequently, and when they did lay eggs, the clutches were smaller than uninfected mosquitoes.

  11. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  12. Age-dependent effects of oral infection with dengue virus on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sylvestre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, a disease that is increasing its geographical range as well as incidence rates. Despite its public health importance, the effect of dengue virus (DENV on some mosquito traits remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of DENV-2 infection on the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity of Ae. aegypti females. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After orally-challenging Ae. aegypti females with a DENV-2 strain using a membrane feeder, we monitored the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity throughout the mosquito lifespan. We observed an age-dependent cost of DENV infection on mosquito feeding behavior and fecundity. Infected individuals took more time to ingest blood from anesthetized mice in the 2(nd and 3(rd weeks post-infection, and also longer overall blood-feeding times in the 3(rd week post-infection, when females were around 20 days old. Often, infected Ae. aegypti females did not lay eggs and when they were laid, smaller number of eggs were laid compared to uninfected controls. A reduction in the number of eggs laid per female was evident starting on the 3(rd week post-infection. DENV-2 negatively affected mosquito lifespan, since overall the longevity of infected females was halved compared to that of the uninfected control group. CONCLUSIONS: The DENV-2 strain tested significantly affected Ae. aegypti traits directly correlated with vectorial capacity or mosquito population density, such as feeding behavior, survival, fecundity and oviposition success. Infected mosquitoes spent more time ingesting blood, had reduced lifespan, laid eggs less frequently, and when they did lay eggs, the clutches were smaller than uninfected mosquitoes.

  13. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  14. At least 10% shorter C–H bonds in cryogenic protein crystal structures than in current AMBER forcefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping, E-mail: pang@mayo.edu

    2015-03-06

    High resolution protein crystal structures resolved with X-ray diffraction data at cryogenic temperature are commonly used as experimental data to refine forcefields and evaluate protein folding simulations. However, it has been unclear hitherto whether the C–H bond lengths in cryogenic protein structures are significantly different from those defined in forcefields to affect protein folding simulations. This article reports the finding that the C–H bonds in high resolution cryogenic protein structures are 10–14% shorter than those defined in current AMBER forcefields, according to 3709 C–H bonds in the cryogenic protein structures with resolutions of 0.62–0.79 Å. Also, 20 all-atom, isothermal–isobaric, 0.5-μs molecular dynamics simulations showed that chignolin folded from a fully-extended backbone formation to the native β-hairpin conformation in the simulations using AMBER forcefield FF12SB at 300 K with an aggregated native state population including standard error of 10 ± 4%. However, the aggregated native state population with standard error reduced to 3 ± 2% in the same simulations except that C–H bonds were shortened by 10–14%. Furthermore, the aggregated native state populations with standard errors increased to 35 ± 3% and 26 ± 3% when using FF12MC, which is based on AMBER forcefield FF99, with and without the shortened C–H bonds, respectively. These results show that the 10–14% bond length differences can significantly affect protein folding simulations and suggest that re-parameterization of C–H bonds according to the cryogenic structures could improve the ability of a forcefield to fold proteins in molecular dynamics simulations. - Highlights: • Cryogenic crystal structures are commonly used in computational studies of proteins. • C–H bonds in the cryogenic structures are shorter than those defined in forcefields. • A survey of 3709 C–H bonds shows that the cryogenic bonds are 10–14% shorter. • The

  15. Shorter telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from older persons with sarcopenia: results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eMarzetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs has been associated with biological age and several chronic degenerative diseases. However, the relationship between telomere length and sarcopenia, a hallmark of the aging process, is unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether PBMC telomeres obtained from sarcopenic older persons were shorter relative to non-sarcopenic peers. We further explored if PBMC telomere length was associated with frailty, a major clinical correlate of sarcopenia.Methods. Analyses were conducted in 142 persons aged >/= 65 years referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic (University Hospital. The presence of sarcopenia was established according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with bioelectrical impedance analysis used for muscle mass estimation. The frailty status was determined by both the Fried’s criteria (physical frailty, PF and a modified Rockwood’s frailty index (FI. Telomere length was measured in PBMCs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction according to the Telomere/Single copy gene ratio (T/S method.Results. Among 142 outpatients (mean age 75.0 ± 6.5 years, 59.2% women, sarcopenia was diagnosed in 23 individuals (19.3%. The PF phenotype was detected in 74 participants (52.1%. The average FI score was 0.46 ± 0.17. PBMC telomeres were shorter in sarcopenic subjects (T/S = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.18 – 0.24 relative to non-sarcopenic individuals (T/S = 0.26; 95%: CI: 0.24 – 0.28; p = 0.01, independent of age, gender, smoking habit, or comorbidity. No significant associations were determined between telomere length and either PF or FI.Conclusion. PBMC telomere length, expressed as T/S values, is shorter in older outpatients with sarcopenia. The cross-sectional assessment of PBMC telomere length is not sufficient at capturing the complex, multidimensional syndrome of frailty.

  16. A Kinetic Model Explains Why Shorter and Less Affine Enzyme-recruiting Oligonucleotides Can Be More Potent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lykke Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to RNA targets promise generality and ease of drug design. The first systemically administered antisense drug was recently approved for treatment and others are in clinical development. Chemical modifications that increase the hybridization affinity of oligonucleotides are reasoned to confer higher potency, i.e., modified oligonucleotides can be dosed at lower concentrations to achieve the same effect. Surprisingly, shorter and less affine oligonucleotides sometimes display increased potency. To explain this apparent contradiction, increased uptake or decreased propensity to form structures have been suggested as possible mechanisms. Here, we provide an alternative explanation that invokes only the kinetics behind oligonucleotide-mediated cleavage of RNA targets. A model based on the law of mass action predicts, and experiments support, the existence of an optimal binding affinity. Exaggerated affinity, and not length per se, is detrimental to potency. This finding clarifies how to optimally apply high-affinity modifications in the discovery of potent antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  17. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  18. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and shorter telomere length: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Jianghua; Huang, Pan; Li, Jiping

    2017-08-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder, which may accelerate aging. Many study have investigated the association between telomeres length and PTSD, but results from published studies are contradictory. Therefore, Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to give more precise estimate of relationship between telomere length and PTSD. We systematically reviewed the databases of PUBMED, PsycINFO, Medline(Ovid SP) and EMBASE for all articles on the association between telomere length and PTSD. Data were summarized by using random-effects in the meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among studies were examined by using Cochrane's Q statistic and I-squared. Five eligible studies containing 3851 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Shorten telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD with mean difference of -0.19( 95% CI: -0.27, -0.01; P<0.001) with I-square of 96%. The results from subgroup analysis demonstrated that shorter telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD across all gender groups, with mean difference of -0.15( 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01; P=0.04) for female, mean difference of -0.17( 95% CI: -0.19, -0.15; P<0.001) for male. Meanwhile, shorten telomere length was significantly associated with sexual assault(mean difference =-0.15, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01), childhood trauma (mean difference =-0.08, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.07), but not combat (mean difference =-0.39, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.05). Compared to the individuals without PTSD, individuals with PTSD have shorter telomere length, which has implications for early intervention and timely treatment to prevent future adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Insect Attraction versus Plant Defense: Young Leaves High in Glucosinolates Stimulate Oviposition by a Specialist Herbivore despite Poor Larval Survival due to High Saponin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as “fingerprints” that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake. PMID:24752069

  20. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insect attraction versus plant defense: young leaves high in glucosinolates stimulate oviposition by a specialist herbivore despite poor larval survival due to high saponin content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Badenes-Perez

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, glucosinolates act as "fingerprints" that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake.

  2. No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalucki, M P; Cunningham, J P; Downes, S; Ward, P; Lange, C; Meissle, M; Schellhorn, N A; Zalucki, J M

    2012-08-01

    Cotton growing landscapes in Australia have been dominated by dual-toxin transgenic Bt varieties since 2004. The cotton crop has thus effectively become a sink for the main target pest, Helicoverpa armigera. Theory predicts that there should be strong selection on female moths to avoid laying on such plants. We assessed oviposition, collected from two cotton-growing regions, by female moths when given a choice of tobacco, cotton and cabbage. Earlier work in the 1980s and 1990s on populations from the same geographic locations indicated these hosts were on average ranked as high, mid and low preference plants, respectively, and that host rankings had a heritable component. In the present study, we found no change in the relative ranking of hosts by females, with most eggs being laid on tobacco, then cotton and least on cabbage. As in earlier work, some females laid most eggs on cotton and aspects of oviposition behaviour had a heritable component. Certainly, cotton is not avoided as a host, and the implications of these finding for managing resistance to Bt cotton are discussed.

  3. The Change of the Family Life Affected by the Shorter Working Time : From the Point of View of the Home Management

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 道憲

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, the working time has been decreasing. However, Japanese working people spend more hours per year to work than those in Western countries. The policy of the shorter working time is conducted by the Japanese Government in order that the working people get more free time. This paper examines whether the shorter working time of working members in the family enrich the time use of the other members of the family. Especially, the effect of the shorter working time of husbands to wives...

  4. Elevated CD147 expression is associated with shorter overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Changting; Fang, Xiangqun

    2017-06-06

    A number of studies have reported on the prognostic role of CD147 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the results remain controversial. This study aims to investigate the impact of CD147 on the prognosis of NSCLC by means of a meta-analysis. A literature search was performed for relevant studies published before October 29, 2016. The hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as effective measures. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias examination were also conducted. Ten eligible studies with a total of 1605 patients were included in this meta-analysis. CD147 overexpression was correlated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR=1.59, 95% CI=1.32-1.91, pCD147 expression was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (OR=2.31, 95% CI=1.74-3.07, pCD147 and sex, age, differentiation, or histology was found. No evidence of significant publication bias was identified. This meta-analysis revealed that overexpression of CD147 was associated with shorter OS, the presence of lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage in NSCLC. Therefore, CD147 could serve as a potential prognostic marker for NSCLC.

  5. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Dyslexics' faster decay of implicit memory for sounds and words is manifested in their shorter neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Frenkel, Or; Ahissar, Merav

    2017-01-24

    Dyslexia is a prevalent reading disability whose underlying mechanisms are still disputed. We studied the neural mechanisms underlying dyslexia using a simple frequency-discrimination task. Though participants were asked to compare the two tones in each trial, implicit memory of previous trials affected their responses. We hypothesized that implicit memory decays faster among dyslexics. We tested this by increasing the temporal intervals between consecutive trials, and by measuring the behavioral impact and ERP responses from the auditory cortex. Dyslexics showed a faster decay of implicit memory effects on both measures, with similar time constants. Finally, faster decay of implicit memory also characterized the impact of sound regularities in benefitting dyslexics' oral reading rate. Their benefit decreased faster as a function of the time interval from the previous reading of the same non-word. We propose that dyslexics' shorter neural adaptation paradoxically accounts for their longer reading times, since it reduces their temporal window of integration of past stimuli, resulting in noisier and less reliable predictions for both simple and complex stimuli. Less reliable predictions limit their acquisition of reading expertise.

  7. Shorter duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep slow waves in EphA4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyburger, Marlène; Poirier, Gaétan; Carrier, Julie; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation. We observed that, compared with wild-type mice, knockout mice display a shorter duration of positive and negative phases of slow waves under baseline conditions and after sleep deprivation. However, the mutation did not change slow-wave density, amplitude and slope, and did not affect the sleep deprivation-dependent changes in slow-wave characteristics, suggesting that EphA4 is not involved in the response to elevated sleep pressure. Our present findings suggest a role for EphA4 in shaping cortical oscillations during sleep that is independent from sleep need. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Alternative promoter usage generates novel shorter MAPT mRNA transcripts in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huin, Vincent; Buée, Luc; Behal, Hélène; Labreuche, Julien; Sablonnière, Bernard; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie

    2017-10-03

    Alternative promoter usage is an important mechanism for transcriptome diversity and the regulation of gene expression. Indeed, this alternative usage may influence tissue/subcellular specificity, protein translation and function of the proteins. The existence of an alternative promoter for MAPT gene was considered for a long time to explain differential tissue specificity and differential response to transcription and growth factors between mRNA transcripts. The alternative promoter usage could explain partly the different tau proteins expression patterns observed in tauopathies. Here, we report on our discovery of a functional alternative promoter for MAPT, located upstream of the gene's second exon (exon 1). By analyzing genome databases and brain tissue from control individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy, we identified novel shorter transcripts derived from this alternative promoter. These transcripts are increased in patients' brain tissue as assessed by 5'RACE-PCR and qPCR. We suggest that these new MAPT isoforms can be translated into normal or amino-terminal-truncated tau proteins. We further suggest that activation of MAPT's alternative promoter under pathological conditions leads to the production of truncated proteins, changes in protein localization and function, and thus neurodegeneration.

  9. Cleavage of SNAP25 and its shorter versions by the protease domain of serotype A botulinum neurotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Mizanur

    Full Text Available Various substrates, catalysts, and assay methods are currently used to screen inhibitors for their effect on the proteolytic activity of botulinum neurotoxin. As a result, significant variation exists in the reported results. Recently, we found that one source of variation was the use of various catalysts, and have therefore evaluated its three forms. In this paper, we characterize three substrates under near uniform reaction conditions using the most active catalytic form of the toxin. Bovine serum albumin at varying optimum concentrations stimulated enzymatic activity with all three substrates. Sodium chloride had a stimulating effect on the full length synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25 and its 66-mer substrates but had an inhibitory effect on the 17-mer substrate. We found that under optimum conditions, full length SNAP25 was a better substrate than its shorter 66-mer or 17-mer forms both in terms of kcat, Km, and catalytic efficiency kcat/Km. Assay times greater than 15 min introduced large variations and significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency. In addition to characterizing the three substrates, our results identify potential sources of variations in previous published results, and underscore the importance of using well-defined reaction components and assay conditions.

  10. Shorter time since inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis in children is associated with lower mental health in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Braegger, Cp; Buehr, P; Koller, R; Nydegger, A; Spalinger, J; Heyland, K; Schibli, S; Landolt, Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems. A total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records. While the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers' mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems. Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Shorter Versus Longer Shift Durations to Mitigate Fatigue and Fatigue-Related Risks in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Related Shift Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: This study comprehensively reviewed the literature on the impact of shorter versus longer shifts on critical and important outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and related shift worker groups. Methods: Six databases (e....

  12. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  13. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  14. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  15. Psoralen-mediated virus photoinactivation in platelet concentrates: enhanced specificity of virus kill in the absence of shorter UVA wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis-Nunno, Henrietta; Robinson, Richard; Horowitz, Bernard; Ben-Hur, Ehud; Geacintov, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Treatments with psoralens and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm; PUVA) have shown efficacy for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PC). We have employed the psoralen derivative 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), and have found that platelet integrity is best preserved when rutin, a flavonoid that quenches multiple reactive oxygen species, is present during AMT/UVA treatment of PC. In this report, we examine the effects of different UVA spectra under our standard PC treatment conditions (i.e. 50 μg/mL AMT, 0.35 mM rutin and 38 J/cm 2 UVA). Added vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; ≥ 5.5 log 10 ) was completely inactivated with the simultaneous maintenance of the platelet aggregation response (> 90% of control) when a UVA light source with transmission mainly between 360 and 370 nm (narrow UVA1) was used. In contrast, with a broad-band UVA (320-400 nm; broad UVA) light source, the aggregation response was greatly compromised (< 50% of control) with only a minor increase in the rate of VSV kill. With this lamp, platelet function could be improved to about 75% of the control by adding a long-pass filter, which reduced the transmission of shorter (≤ 345 nm) UVA wavelengths (340-400 nm; UVA1). At equivalent levels of virus kill, aggregation function was always best preserved when narrow UVA1 was used for PUVA treatment. Even in the absence of AMT, and with or without rutin present, narrow UVA1 irradiation was better tolerated by platelets than was broad UVA. (author)

  16. Conditional inactivation of TNFα-converting enzyme in chondrocytes results in an elongated growth plate and shorter long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Saito

    Full Text Available TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.

  17. Sex and ancestry determine the free-running circadian period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Charmane I; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J

    2017-10-01

    The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods. Recently, in evolutionary terms, immigrants came from Europe and Africa to America ('the New World'). The Europeans were descendents of people who had lived in Europe for thousands of years with changing photoperiods (and presumably longer periods), whereas Africans had ancestors who had always lived around the equator (with shorter periods). It may have been advantageous to have a longer circadian period while living in Europe early in the evolution of humans. In our modern world, however, it is better to have a shorter period, because it helps make our circadian rhythms earlier, which is adaptive in our early-bird-dominated society. European American women had a shorter circadian period than men (24.24 versus 24.41), but there was no sex difference in African Americans (24.07 for both men and women). We speculate that selection pressures in Europe made men develop a slightly longer period than women to help them track dawn which could be useful for hunters, but less important for women as gatherers. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  19. Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barbería, F J; Carranza, J; Sánchez-Prieto, C

    2015-01-01

    Teeth in Cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. Tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. Little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environments and how these relate to life history traits to explain differences in population rates of tooth wear and longevity. We hypothesised that populations under harsh environmental conditions should be selected for more hypsodont teeth while sexual selection may maintain similar sex differences within different populations. We investigated the patterns of tooth wear in males and females of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Southern Spain and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) across Scotland, that occur in very different environments, using 10343 samples from legal hunting activities. We found higher rates of both incisor and molar wear in the Spanish compared to Scottish populations. However, Scottish red deer had larger incisors at emergence than Iberian red deer, whilst molars emerged at a similar size in both populations and sexes. Iberian and Scottish males had earlier tooth depletion than females, in support of a similar sexual selection process in both populations. However, whilst average lifespan for Iberian males was 4 years shorter than that for Iberian females and Scottish males, Scottish males only showed a reduction of 1 year in average lifespan with respect to Scottish females. More worn molars were associated with larger mandibles in both populations, suggesting that higher intake and/or greater investment in food comminution may have favoured increased body growth, before later loss of tooth efficiency due to severe wear. These results

  20. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  1. High lung cancer surgical procedure volume is associated with shorter length of stay and lower risks of re-admission and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Riaz, Sharma P; Holmberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset for this anal......It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset...... to their geographical population. Higher volume hospitals had shorter length of stay and the odds of re-admission were 15% lower in the highest hospital volume quintile compared with the lowest quintile. Mortality risks were 1% after 30 d and 3% after 90 d. Patients from hospitals in the highest volume quintile had...

  2. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  3. Transient habitats limit development time for periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) mature in 13 or 17 years, the longest development times for any non-diapausing insects. Selection may favor prolonged development since nymphs experience little mortality and individuals taking 17 years have been shown to have greater fecundity than those taking 13 years. Why don't periodical cicadas take even longer to develop? Nymphs feed on root xylem fluid and move little. Ovipositing females prefer fast-growing trees at forest edges. I hypothesized that (1) adults emerging at edges would be heavier than those from forest interiors and (2) habitat changes could limit development time. I collected newly eclosed females that had neither fed as adults nor moved from their site of development. For M. septendecim, females from edges were 4.9% heavier than those from the interior. I assumed that emergence density indicated habitat quality and measured density at eight sites in 1979, 1996, and 2013. Over three generations, variation in densities was great; densities at two sites crashed, and at one site they exploded to 579/m2 Habitat transience may limit development time because only adults can reassess habitats and reposition offspring. In conclusion, cicadas are affected by habitat characteristics, habitats change over 17 years, and cicadas may emerge, mate, and redistribute their offspring to track habitat dynamics.

  4. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding...

  5. Discrimination of Urban Spaces with Different Level of Restorativeness Based on the Original and on a Shorter Version of Hartig et al.’s Perceived Restorativeness Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Negrín

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Restorativeness is defined as the potential of the environment to re-establish certain cognitive capacities related to human information processing. The most frequently used instrument for evaluating the restorativeness of places is the Perceived Restorativeness Scale, proposed by Hartig et al. (1991. Later on, shorter versions of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale were proposed. The aim of this work is to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of the original and of a shorter Spanish version of the PRS, considering urban settings previously selected for having different level of restorativeness, according to expert’s criteria. The study involved 244 students and used a 3 × 2 mixed experimental design, with two independent variables: Restorativeness of a place (between-subjects, which was manipulated by showing pictures of settings selected with varying levels of restorativeness (high, medium, low, and length of the scale (within-subjects, which was manipulated by asking subjects to fill in both the original and a shorter version of the PRS. The order of presentation of the two scales was counterbalanced. Results show an appropriate reliability for both version of the scale. Items of being-away, fascination, and coherence of the shorter scale correlate more strongly with the corresponding factor of the original scale, compared to the others factors. Both scales produce similar values for the perceived restorativeness of the different places, except for places with low restorativeness.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of longer-term versus shorter-term provision of antibiotics in patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berende, A.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Vos, F.J.; Vogelaar, M.L.; Tromp, M.A.; Middendorp, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Evers, A.W.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Adang, E.M.M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease remains controversial. Recently, the PLEASE study did not demonstrate any additional clinical benefit of longer-term versus shorter-term antibiotic treatment. However, the economic impact of the antibiotic strategies has not

  7. The effect of shorter exposure versus prolonged exposure on treatment outcome in Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders - an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Griendt, Jolande M T M; van Dijk, Maarten K; Verdellen, Cara W J; Verbraak, Marc J P M

    2018-01-11

    Exposure and response prevention has shown to be an effective strategy and is considered a first-line intervention in the behavioural treatment of tic disorders. Prior research demonstrated significant tic reduction after 12 two hour sessions. In this open trial, the question is addressed whether, relative to these prolonged sessions, exposure sessions of shorter duration yield differential outcome for patients with tic disorders. A total of 29 patients diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder were treated with shorter exposure sessions (1 h), and these data were compared to the data from a study about prolonged exposure (2 h, n = 21). Outcome was measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Results suggest that after taking the difference in illness duration between the two groups into account, the effectiveness of shorter exposure sessions is not inferior to that of prolonged exposure. Results suggest that treatment with shorter exposure might be more efficient and more patients can be reached. Future research is needed to gain more insight into the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of behavioural treatments for tics.

  8. N-Terminal Domains in Two-Domain Proteins Are Biased to Be Shorter and Predicted to Fold Faster Than Their C-Terminal Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etai Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis of proteomes in all kingdoms of life reveals a strong tendency for N-terminal domains in two-domain proteins to have shorter sequences than their neighboring C-terminal domains. Given that folding rates are affected by chain length, we asked whether the tendency for N-terminal domains to be shorter than their neighboring C-terminal domains reflects selection for faster-folding N-terminal domains. Calculations of absolute contact order, another predictor of folding rate, provide additional evidence that N-terminal domains tend to fold faster than their neighboring C-terminal domains. A possible explanation for this bias, which is more pronounced in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, is that faster folding of N-terminal domains reduces the risk for protein aggregation during folding by preventing formation of nonnative interdomain interactions. This explanation is supported by our finding that two-domain proteins with a shorter N-terminal domain are much more abundant than those with a shorter C-terminal domain.

  9. Oviposition ecology and species composition of Aedes spp. and Aedes aegypti dynamics in variously urbanized settings in arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Utzinger, Jürg; Adja, Maurice A; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2016-09-29

    Aedes mosquito-transmitted outbreaks of dengue and yellow fever have been reported from rural and urban parts of Côte d'Ivoire. The present study aimed at assessing Aedes spp. oviposition ecology in variously urbanized settings within arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire. Aedes spp. eggs were sampled using a standard ovitrap method from January 2013 to April 2014 in different ecosystems of rural, suburban and urban areas. Emerged larvae were reared until the adult stage for species identification. Aedes spp. oviposition ecology significantly varied from rural-to-urban areas and according to the ecozones and the seasons. Species richness of Aedes spp. gradually decreased from rural (eight species) to suburban (three species) and urban (one species) areas. Conversely, emerged adult Aedes spp. mean numbers were higher in the urban (1.97 Aedes/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.44 Aedes/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.89 Aedes/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes aegypti was the only species in the urban setting (100 %), and was also the predominant species in suburban (85.5 %) and rural (63.3 %) areas. The highest Ae. aegypti mean number was observed in the urban (1.97 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.20 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.57 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes africanus (9.4 %), Ae. dendrophilus (8.0 %), Ae. metallicus (1.3 %) in the rural, and Ae. vittatus (6.5 %) and Ae. metallicus (1.2 %) in the suburban areas each represented more than 1 % of the total Aedes fauna. In all areas, Aedes species richness and abundance were higher in the peridomestic zones and during the rainy season, with stronger variations in species richness in the rural and in abundance in the urban areas. Besides, the highest Culex quinquefasciatus abundance was found in the urban areas, while Eretmapodites chrysogaster was restricted to the rural areas. Urbanization correlates with a substantially higher abundance in Aedes mosquitoes and

  10. Non-preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae for oviposition on leaves of Paraguay tea progenies (Ilex paraguariensis/ Não-preferência do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, para oviposição em folhas de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Djair Vendramim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor was evaluated under laboratory in 52 Paraguay tea progenies and one control collected in a local farm. The experiments were conducted on Paraguay tea leaf discs infested with one adult female mite/disc, incubated in a climate chamber (25±1ºC, 14h photophase for five days. Evaluations were performed daily, by counting the number of eggs laid in the period, the number of female escapes in the first 48 hours, as well as the number of eggs laid before the escaping. It was verified that discrimination by the mite occurred on two groups of progenies, in relation to the number of eggs: one group was different from the control (53.8% of the progenies and the other was identical to it (46.2% of the progenies. In the first group, 60.7% of progenies were less oviposited while a higher number of eggs/female than the control was verified in 39.3% of them. In 57.7% of progenies there was escape of some mites (10 to 40%, and in 10 of these progenies no eggs were laid. The data provide evidences that in some of the progenies evaluated there is resistance by non-preference to oviposition of the Paraguay tea red mite.A preferência para oviposição do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor, foi avaliada em condições de laboratório em 52 progênies de erva-mate e uma testemunha coletada em uma propriedade da região. Os experimentos foram realizados em discos foliares de erva-mate (2 cm de diâmetro, infestados com uma fêmea adulta do ácaro, e incubados a 25±1ºC e 14h de fotofase, durante cinco dias. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, contando-se o número de ovos depositados no período, número de fêmeas que fugiram nas primeiras 48 horas e número de ovos depositados antes da fuga. Verificou-se que houve discriminação do ácaro em dois grupos de progênies, em relação ao número de ovos, um que diferiu em relação à testemunha (53,8% de progênies e

  11. The influence of volatile semiochemicals from stink bug eggs and oviposition-damaged plants on the foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michereff, M F F; Borges, M; Aquino, M F S; Laumann, R A; Mendes Gomes, A C M; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2016-10-01

    During host selection, physical and chemical stimuli provide important cues that modify search behaviours of natural enemies. We evaluated the influence of volatiles released by eggs and egg extracts of the stink bug Euschistus heros and by soybean plants treated with the eggs and egg extracts on Telenomus podisi foraging behaviour. Responses to volatiles were evaluated in Y-tube olfactometers after exposure to (1) one egg cluster for 24 h; (2) plants with eggs laid by the stink bug, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; (3) plants with eggs laid artificially, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; and (4) plants treated with acetone or hexane extracts of eggs. Telenomus podisi was attracted to volatiles emitted by one egg cluster and to acetone extracts of one egg cluster, but not to air or acetone controls. There were no responses to odours of plants treated with eggs or egg extracts. Analysis of acetone extracts of egg clusters by gas chromatography revealed the major components were saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, including hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. Our results suggest that one egg cluster and the acetone extract of one egg cluster contain volatile compounds that can modify T. podisi foraging behaviour, and that the amounts of these compounds, probably together with some minor compounds, are important for host recognition by T. podisi. Also, the oviposition damage or egg extracts on the plant did not elicit indirect defences that attracted Telenomus podisi.

  12. AN INVESTIGATION OF INSECT OVIPOSITING REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS, ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS AND PIPER BETLE LINN LEAVES EXTRACTS TO BATROCERA CARAMBOLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  13. An Investigation of Insect Ovipositing Repellent Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ness, Acacia auriculiformis and Piper betle Linn Leaves Extracts to Batrocera carambolae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf  having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  14. Comparison of BG-Sentinel® Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer A; Larson, Ryan T; Richardson, Alec G; Cote, Noel M; Stoops, Craig A; Clark, Marah; Obenauer, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The BG-Sentinel® (BGS) trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae. aegypti was considered the dominant container-breeding species in urban northeastern Florida. Since the introduction of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti has become almost completely extirpated. In 2011, a resurgence of Ae. aegypti was detected in the urban areas of Jacksonville; thus this study initially set out to determine the extent of Ae. aegypti reintroduction to the area. We determined that the BGS captured a greater number of adult Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, while OCs did not monitor significantly different numbers of either species, even in areas where the BGS traps suggested a predominance of one species over the other. Both traps were effective at detecting Aedes spp.; however, the BGS proved more diverse by detecting over 20 other species as well. Our results show that in order to accurately determine vectorborne disease threats and the impact of control operations on these 2 species, multiple trapping techniques should be utilized when studying Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics.

  15. Description of the ova and ovipositional strategies of six sterrhine taxa from Madrid, including comparative data with other species of this subfamily (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Sterrhinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King, Gareth Edward

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Original data are presented which describe ova of the following six taxa in the Sterrhinae Meyrick, 1892: Idaea litigiosaria (Boisduval, 1840, Idaea sericeata calvaria Wehrli, 1927, Idaea ochrata albida (Zerny, 1936, Idaea incisaria (Staudinger, 1892, Idaea cervantaria (Millière, 1869 and >em>Scopula (Glossotrophia asellaria dentatolineata Wehrli, 1926. Subsequent analysis of SEM imaging provides data related to the chorion structure, as well as that associated with the strategies adopted by females at oviposition under laboratory conditions; comparative data are provided of other European sterrhines.Se presentan datos inéditos que describen los huevos de los siguientes taxones de Sterrhinae Meyrick, 1892: Idaea litigiosaria (Boisduval, 1840, Idaea sericeata calvaria Wehrli, 1927, Idaea ochrata albida (Zerny, 1936, Idaea incisaria (Staudinger, 1892, Idaea cervantaria (Millière, 1869 and Scopula (Glossotrophia asellaria dentatolineata Wehrli, 1926. Se ofrece un análisis pormenorizado de las imágenes MEB en cuanto a la estructura del corión se refiere, además de una descripción de las estrategias de la puesta adoptadas por parte de las hembras en condiciones de laboratorio. Se ofrecen datos comparativos con otras especies europeas de Sterrhinae.

  16. Patch time allocation and oviposition behavior in response to patch quality and the presence of a generalist predator in Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sheng; Ling, Meng; Fu-An, Wu; Baoping, Li

    2015-01-01

    Foraging parasitoids often must estimate local risk of predation just as they must estimate local patch value. Here, we investigate the effects a generalist predator Chlaenius bioculatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), has on the oviposition behavior and the patch residence decisions of a solitary parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in response to the varying host quality of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae (L2 and L4). M. pulchricornis attacked more L4 than on L2 hosts, with the difference in attack rate varying depending on predation treatments, greater in the presence (either actively feeding or not) of the predator than in the absence of it. The parasitoid attacked fewer L2 and L4 hosts when the predator was actively feeding than when it was not feeding or not present in the patch. M. pulchricornis decreased the patch leaving tendency with increasing rejections of hosts, but increased the tendency in response to the presence of the predator as compared with the absence of it, and furthermore, increased the patch leaving tendency when the predator was actively feeding as compared with when it was not. Our study suggests that M. pulchricornis can exploit high quality patches while minimizing predation risk, by attacking more hosts in high quality patches while reducing total patch time in response to risk of predation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  18. Algumas características da reprodução e ontogênese de Epilachna paenulata (Germar (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae Some reproductive and ontogenetic characteristics of Epilachna paenulata (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilachna paenulata (Germar, 1824 was reared feeding on pumpkin leaves (Cucurbita pepo Lourt. in laboratory conditions at temperatures of 20±0,5ºC, relative humidity of 65±0,5% and 12 hour photoperiod. Groups of fecunded and non-fecunded females were studied. The ovarioles showed four developing stages during egg production, morphologically alike for fecunded and non-fecunded females, but differing in the duration time of the stages. Each ovarium has 24 ovarioles on average, less than any other species known into the genus, and all ovarioles are physiologically active at each oviposition. The mean number of ovarioles is lower when compared with the other species of Epilachninae known. Fecunded and non-fecunded females showed a similar preoviposition period, but longer than any other species known into the genus. The interoviposition period is shorter among fecunded females than non-fecunded and among other species of the genus. The number of ovipositions and eggs per oviposition and the daily oviposition rate are higher among fecunded females than non-fecunded and any other species of the genus. Differing from other Coccinellidae species, the mean eggs width do not change between the first and second ovipositions. The eggs handling decrease the larvae viability. The differences observed in the number of eggs per oviposition, in the interoviposition periods and the daily oviposition rate between fecunded and non-fecunded females showed that mate changes the female reprodutive capacity.

  19. Aceitação e preferência de frutos para oviposição em duas populações de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae Acceptance and preference of fruits for oviposition in two Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of four host fruits, orange (Citrus sinensis L., papaya (Carica papaya L., mango (Mangifera indica L. and apple (Malus domestica Borkh on oviposition behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 was evaluated. Experiments were carried out on two C. capitata laboratory-reared populations: one with artificial diet for 10 years with periodic introduction of wild flies and other reared with artificial diet for 20 years without wild flies introduction. In acceptance experiments two pieces of a single fruit type were exposed to a group of 10 females; after 48 hours, these were changed by two new pieces of the same fruit type, and, in the end of the fourth day, the experiments were concluded. In preference experiments, two pieces of different fruits were offered to the females. These experiments were driven under the same conditions of the acceptance ones. Acceptance and preference experiments for both populations showed the following choice hierarchy: papaya > mango > orange > apple. The acceptance experiments showed no differences in the number of eggs/female/day laid in the first 48 hours and in the last 48 hours of the experiments. The amount of eggs in the two pieces of fruits offered to the females was similar. In spite of the two populations present similar behavior in relation to host hierarchy, the number of laid eggs was different, being larger for the population reared without wild flies introduction.

  20. Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to Presumed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mexican-American Men in NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48–2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52–2.62, resp.. Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006–0.79 and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006–0.24. Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.

  1. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  2. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  3. Earth Noise in the 20- to 100-Second Period Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-09

    instruments were incapable of following fluctuations of shorter periods.) Gretener (1967) obtained similar results. Both of these workers...found indica- tions that the convection eddies believed to exist were comparable to the hole diameter in vertical extent. Both Gretener (1967...Heat flow in Western Canada: geoph. J., v. 6, p. 245-261. Gretener , P. E., 1967, On the thermal instability of large diameter wells: geophysics, J32

  4. Bryophyte-Feeders in a Basal Brachyceran Lineage (Diptera: Rhagionidae: Spaniinae: Adult Oviposition Behavior and Changes in the Larval Mouthpart Morphology Accompanied with the Diet Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yume Imada

    Full Text Available Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt are described. Moreover, changes of the larval morphology associated with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding are traced by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Spania and Litoleptis (thallus-miners of thallose liverworts share a toothed form of apical mandibular sclerite with an orifice on its dorsal surface, which contrasts to those of the other members of Rhagionidae possessing a blade-like mandibular hook with an adoral groove; whereas, Ptiolina (stem borer of mosses exhibits a weak groove on the adoral surface of mandible and highly sclerotized maxilla with toothed projections. Based on the larval feeding behavior of the thallus-miners, it is inferred that the toothed mandibles with the dorsal orifice facilitate scraping plant tissue and then imbibing it with a great deal of the sap. A phylogeny indicated that the bryophyte-feeding genera formed a clade with Spaniopsis and was sister to Symphoromyia, which presumably are detritivores. This study indicates that the loss or reduction of adoral mandibular groove and mandibular brush is coincident with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding, and it is subsequently followed by the occurrence of dorsal mandibular orifice and the loss of creeping welts accompanying the evolution of thallus-mining.

  5. Urban blackbirds have shorter telomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez-Alamo, Juan Diego; Pineda-Pampliega, Javier; Thomson, Robert L.; Aguirre, Jose I.; Diez-Fernandez, Alazne; Faivre, Bruno; Figuerola, Jordi; Verhulst, Simon

    Urbanization, one of the most extreme human-induced environmental changes, represents a major challenge for many organisms. Anthropogenic habitats can have opposing effects on different fitness components, for example, by decreasing starvation risk but also health status. Assessment of the net

  6. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  7. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  8. Systemic lupus erythematosus and vitamin D deficiency are associated with shorter telomere length among African Americans: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Hoffecker

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects African American females. The causes of SLE are unknown but postulated to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the possible environmental triggers. In this study we evaluated relationships between vitamin D status, cellular aging (telomere length and anti-telomere antibodies among African American Gullah women with SLE. The study population included African American female SLE patients and unaffected controls from the Sea Island region of South Carolina. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using a nonchromatographic radioimmunoassay. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR. Anti-telomere antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Patients with SLE had significantly shorter telomeres and higher anti-telomere antibody titers compared to age- and gender-matched unaffected controls. There was a positive correlation between anti-telomere antibody levels and disease activity among patients and a significant correlation of shorter telomeres with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both patients and controls. In follow-up examination of a subset of the patients, the patients who remained vitamin D deficient tended to have shorter telomeres than those patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were repleted. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in African American patients with SLE may be beneficial in maintaining telomere length and preventing cellular aging. Moreover, anti-telomere antibody levels may be a promising biomarker of SLE status and disease activity.

  9. Long-Term Costs and Health Consequences of Issuing Shorter Duration Prescriptions for Patients with Chronic Health Conditions in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Payne, Rupert; Wilson, Edward Cf

    2018-06-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) in England spends over £9 billion on prescription medicines dispensed in primary care, of which over two-thirds is accounted for by repeat prescriptions. Recently, GPs in England have been urged to limit the duration of repeat prescriptions, where clinically appropriate, to 28 days to reduce wastage and hence contain costs. However, shorter prescriptions will increase transaction costs and thus may not be cost saving. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that shorter prescriptions are associated with lower adherence, which would be expected to lead to lower clinical benefit. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of 3-month versus 28-day repeat prescriptions from the perspective of the NHS. We adapted three previously developed UK policy-relevant models, incorporating transaction (dispensing fees, prescriber time) and drug wastage costs associated with 3-month and 28-day prescriptions in three case studies: antihypertensive medications for prevention of cardiovascular events; drugs to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes; and treatments for depression. In all cases, 3-month prescriptions were associated with lower costs and higher QALYs than 28-day prescriptions. This is driven by assumptions that higher adherence leads to improved disease control, lower costs and improved QALYs. Longer repeat prescriptions may be cost-effective compared with shorter ones. However, the quality of the evidence base on which this modelling is based is poor. Any policy rollout should be within the context of a trial such as a stepped-wedge cluster design.

  10. Interstitial lung abnormalities in treatment-naïve advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients are associated with shorter survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki, E-mail: Mizuki_Nishino@DFCI.HARVARD.EDU [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Cardarella, Stephanie [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States); Dahlberg, Suzanne E. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Araki, Tetsuro [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lydon, Christine; Jackman, David M.; Rabin, Michael S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Johnson, Bruce E. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 14% of stage IV NSCLC patients. • ILA was more common in older patients with heavier smoking history. • ILA was associated with shorter survival after adjusting for smoking and therapy. • ILA could be an additional independent marker for survival in advanced NSCLC. - Abstract: Objective: Interstitial lung diseases are associated with increased risk of lung cancer. The prevalence of ILA at diagnosis of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its impact on overall survival (OS) remain to be investigated. Materials and method: The study included 120 treatment-naïve stage IV NSCLC patients (53 males, 67 females). ILA was scored on CT prior to any systemic therapy using a 4-point scale [0 = no evidence of ILA, 1 = equivocal for ILA, 2 = suspicious for ILA, 3 = ILA] by a sequential reading method previously reported. ILA scores of 2 or 3 indicated the presence of ILA. Results: ILA was present in 17 patients (14%) with advanced NSCLC prior to any treatment (score3: n = 2, score2: n = 15). These 17 patients were significantly older (median age: 69 vs. 63, p = 0.04) and had a heavier smoking history (median: 40 vs. 15.5 pack-year, p = 0.003) than those with ILA score 0 or 1. Higher ILA scores were associated with shorter OS (p = 0.001). Median OS of the 17 patients with ILA was 7.2 months [95%CI: 2.9–9.4] compared to 14.8 months [95%CI: 11.1–18.4] in patients with ILA score 0 or 1 (p = 0.002). In a multivariate model, the presence of ILA remained significant for increased risk for death (HR = 2.09, p = 0.028) after adjusting for first-line systemic therapy (chemotherapy, p < 0.001; TKI, p < 0.001; each compared to no therapy) and pack years of smoking (p = 0.40). Conclusion: Radiographic ILA was present in 14% of treatment-naïve advanced NSCLC patients. Higher ILA scores were associated with shorter OS, indicating that ILA could be a marker of shorter survival in advanced NSCLC.

  11. NPP Krsko Periodic Safety Review action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the current, internationally accepted, safety philosophy Periodic Safety Reviews (PSRs) are comprehensive reviews aimed at the verification that an operating NPP remains safe when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain an acceptable level of safety. These reviews are complementary to the routine and special safety reviews. They are long time-scale reviews intended to deal with the cumulative effects of plant ageing, modifications, operating experience and technical developments, which are not so easily comprehended over the shorter time-scale routine of safety reviews. The review was completed in 2005 and the next period will see the implementation of the action plan including some plant upgrades. The action plan lists issues that should be implemented at NPP Krsko together with associated milestones. The milestones were assumed based on best estimate resource availability and their ends can be potentially floated. In some cases, multiple corrective measures may be postulated to provide resolution for a given safety issue. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration by decree approved the first periodic safety review and the implementation plan of activities arising from it. The entire implementation plan must be carried out by 15 October 2010. Report on the second periodic safety review must be submitted by the NEK not later than 15 December 2013. (author)

  12. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  13. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  14. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  15. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT or its shorter versions more useful to identify risky drinkers in a Chinese population? A diagnostic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H K Yip

    Full Text Available To examine the diagnostic performance of shorter versions of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, including Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-C, in identifying risky drinkers in primary care settings using conventional performance measures, supplemented by decision curve analysis and reclassification table.A cross-sectional study of adult males in general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study included only patients who reported at least sometimes drinking alcoholic beverages. Timeline follow back alcohol consumption assessment method was used as the reference standard. A Chinese translated and validated 10-item AUDIT (Ch-AUDIT was used as a screening tool of risky drinking.Of the participants, 21.7% were classified as risky drinkers. AUDIT-C has the best overall performance among the shorter versions of Ch-AUDIT. The AUC of AUDIT-C was comparable to Ch-AUDIT (0.898 vs 0.901, p-value = 0.959. Decision curve analysis revealed that when the threshold probability ranged from 15-30%, the AUDIT-C had a higher net-benefit than all other screens. AUDIT-C improved the reclassification of risky drinking when compared to Ch-AUDIT (net reclassification improvement = 0.167. The optimal cut-off of AUDIT-C was at ≥5.Given the rising levels of alcohol consumption in the Chinese regions, this Chinese translated 3-item instrument provides convenient and time-efficient risky drinking screening and may become an increasingly useful tool.

  16. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  17. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  18. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  19. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  20. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  1. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  2. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  3. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  4. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  5. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM Cymbopogon nardus AS OVIPOSITION DETERRENT AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST Helicoverpa armigera Hubner ON CHILI PEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Setiawati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is one of the key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest may reach up to 60%. Chemical treatment for con-trolling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. More environmentally safe insecticides are developed based on natural plant ingredients as their active compound such as essential oils. This study aimed to assess the potential of citronella oil for managing H. armigera on chili pepper. The experiments were conducted at the Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute from April 2009 to March 2010 and in Cirebon, West Java from November 2009 to March 2010. A field experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and replicated five times. Citronella oil was extracted by steam distillation from Cymbo-pogon  nardus. The oil was then chemically characterized by using GC-MS and its efficacy (ovicidal and feeding deterrent against H. armigera was tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The GC-MS result showed that major chemical compounds of the citronella oil used were citronella (35.97%, nerol (17.28%, citronellol (10.03%, geranyle acetate (4.44%, elemol (4.38%, limonene (3.98%, and citronnellyle acetate (3.51%. The laboratory experiment revealed that the highest concentration (4,000 ppm of citronella oil reduced egg laying by 53-66%. Ovicidal activity was concentration dependent, and egg hatchability decreased by 15-95% compared to control. The field experiment showed that treatment of citronella oil at 2.0 mL L-1 significantly reduced fruit damage by H. armigera similar to the plots treated with spinosad at the recommended dose (60 g ai ha-1. Application of citronella oil significantly reduced fruit damage by 72% and increased quality of the chili pepper. Because oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are key factors in controlling the pest, therefore this study revealed that

  6. Induction of a shorter compression phase is correlated with a deeper chest compression during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Bae, Jinkun; Kim, Eui Chung; Cho, Yun Kyung; You, Je Sung; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Ok Jun

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that there may be an interaction between duty cycle and other factors related to the quality of chest compression. Duty cycle represents the fraction of compression phase. We aimed to investigate the effect of shorter compression phase on average chest compression depth during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Senior medical students performed 12 sets of chest compressions following the guiding sounds, with three down-stroke patterns (normal, fast and very fast) and four rates (80, 100, 120 and 140 compressions/min) in random sequence. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the average chest compression depth and duty cycle among the trials. The average chest compression depth increased and the duty cycle decreased in a linear fashion as the down-stroke pattern shifted from normal to very fast (pmetronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  7. High Numbers of Stromal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Associated With a Shorter Survival Time in Cats With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobukowska, H J; Munday, J S

    2016-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are fibroblastic cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and have been identified in the stroma of numerous epithelial tumors. The presence of CAFs within the tumor stroma has been associated with a poorer prognosis in some human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Cats frequently develop oral SCCs, and although these are generally highly aggressive neoplasms, there is currently a lack of prognostic markers for these tumors. The authors investigated the prognostic value of the presence of CAFs within the stroma of oral SCC biopsy specimens from 47 cats. In addition, several epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic variables were also assessed for prognostic significance. A CAF-positive stroma was identified in 35 of 47 SCCs (74.5%), and the median survival time (ST) of cats with CAF-positive SCCs (35 days) was significantly shorter than that of cats with CAF-negative SCCs (48.5 days) (P = .031). ST was also associated with the location of the primary tumor (P = .0018): the median ST for oropharyngeal SCCs (179 days) was significantly longer than for maxillary (43.5 days; P = .047), mandibular (42 days; P = .022), and sublingual SCCs (22.5 days; P = .0005). The median ST of sublingual SCCs was also shorter compared with maxillary SCCs (P = .0017). Furthermore, a significant association was identified between site and the presence of stromal CAFs (P = .025). On the basis of this retrospective study, evaluating the tumor stroma for CAFs in feline oral SCC biopsy specimens may be of potential prognostic value. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  9. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  10. Not the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L. Queen, but the Drone Determines the Termination of the Nuptial Flight and the Onset of Oviposition - The Polemics, Abnegations, Corrections and Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woyke Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the topics concerning honey bee (Apis mellifera L. mating biology, which have not been described in the recently published book of Koeniger et al. (2014. At the beginning of natural mating, the drone becomes paralyzed. However, the muscles in the abdomen continuously contract shrinking the abdomen till mating has ended and the pair have separated. It is not the queen that ends the nuptial flight. The termination of the nuptial flight is determined by the drone, which fails to remove the mating sign of the previous drone from the sting chamber of the queen. The mating sign originates from two or more drones. The queen also does not determine the age at which she starts oviposition. It is the last drone, which tried to mate, but failed to remove the mating sign of the predecessor, that determines the age that the queen starts oviposition. The book of Koeniger et al. (2014, together with this paper, present the current knowledge of the mating biology of honey bees.

  11. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  12. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  13. The power of the kashrut: older but shorter. The impact of religious nutritional and hygienic rules on stature and life expectancy of Jewish conscripts in the early 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassenaar, V; Karel, E H

    2016-06-01

    We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818-1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather high biological standard of living. This database of 413 conscripts contains information about family structure, family rank order, height, tax income, occupation and age of death. Conscripts came from two communities: one from a particular village (Oosterhesselen) and the other was Jewish conscripts that came from the countryside of the province. Our statistical analysis shows a positive significant relationship between family size and height, which confirms the resource dilution theory. Remarkably, the sign of the relation between family size and life expectancy is inverse. Other factors such as the potato crisis and income had the expected effect on conscript heights. The community effect was strong. Jewish conscripts were much shorter than their counterparts. Access to nutrition, the specific food laws and other factors can explain this difference. An increasing sibship size had a negative impact on body height but positive effects on life expectancy when adulthood was reached. Specifically for the Jewish community was the positive effect of the death of the father on conscript height. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unclear and open for further research.

  14. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  15. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  16. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  17. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  18. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  19. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  20. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  1. Do Dysphagic Patients with an Absent Pharyngeal Swallow Have a Shorter Survival than Dysphagic Patients with Pharyngeal Swallow? Prognostic Importance of a Therapeutic Videoradiographic Swallowing Study (TVSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, M.; Olsson, R.; Ekberg, O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study survival in two groups of dysphagic patients - one group unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow (APS) and another group with pharyngeal swallow (WPS) - and to compare recommendations regarding nutrition and therapeutic strategies based on the therapeutic swallowing study. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of dysphagic patients who have undergone a therapeutic videoradiographic swallowing study (TVSS) were reviewed. Forty patients without pharyngeal swallow were matched for age and gender with 40 patients with pharyngeal swallow; altogether 80 patients were included in the study. Survival was registered at 3, 12, and 72 months after the TVSS. Results: In this study, the APS group had a significantly shorter survival time compared to the WPS group when followed-up at 12 months. In the APS group, most patients (37.5% (15/40)) died within the 3 months after TVSS. At 72 months, 62.5% (25/40) of the patients in the APS group had died. In the WPS group, 5% (2/40) had died within 3 months and 47.4% (19/40) after 12 months. At 72 months, 52.5% (21/40) of the patients in the WPS group had died. Regarding nutritional and therapeutic recommendations based on TVSS, 34/40 in the APS group were recommended no oral intake. Eighteen naso-gastric tubes were placed directly after TVSS. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, and tongue exercises (in 8 patients). In the WPS group, all patients were recommended oral intake. Diet modification was recommended in 29 patients. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, tongue exercises, supraglottic swallow, and effortful swallow (in 24 patients). Conclusion: Patients unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow had a shorter survival time than patients with pharyngeal swallow, probably due to a more severe underlying disease. Tube feeding was more frequent in the APS group. Fewer

  2. The prosurvival activity of ascites against TRAIL is associated with a shorter disease-free interval in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Denis

    2010-01-01

    associated with shorter disease-free interval. Conclusions The prosurvival activity of ascites against TRAIL is associated with shorter disease-free interval, which may be explained, at least in part, by ascites-induced cisplatin/paclitaxel resistance. Our findings suggest that ascites may contain prosurvival factors that protect against TRAIL and chemotherapy and consequently affect disease progression.

  3. Progesterone-releasing devices for cattle estrus induction and synchronization: Device optimization to anticipate shorter treatment durations and new device developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, W; Grimard, B

    2018-05-01

    Synchronization programs using progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices that allow for fixed time artificial insemination are still finding increasing application in bovine reproduction. This practice is useful for rationalizing livestock management because an increased number of cows can be inseminated in one session without the need for estrus detection. Although much of the innovation related to the design and development of intravaginal devices for use in cattle took place in the previous century, progress in understanding the physiology of the bovine estrous cycle resulted in shorter treatment durations, a trend which is still continuing. In this competitive market, with little functional differentiation between the existing devices, the shorter treatment duration prompted for optimization of the progesterone content in the device, as the cost of the drug significantly contributes to the price per unit. For CIDR ® a reduction of the progesterone content of about 30 per cent was realized. Price reduction remained an important target for further device development. Next to reduction of progesterone content, cheaper and easier to process materials like polyethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers have been explored to replace the commonly used silicone elastomers. The reengineering effort of CIDR ® demonstrated that knowledge of release kinetics and insight into gradual depletion patterns in the device is critical for optimization of drug content without compromising performance (blood levels). More recent publications related to the use of alternative polymers like EVA and polyisoprene (IP) indicated encouraging results regarding further reduction of progesterone content. The use of EVA seems most promising, because it is in principle a low-cost polymer available in many grades and this thermoplastic polymer can be processed easily by means of commonly used techniques like injection molding and extrusion. The use of thermoplastic polymers, however, requires

  4. Distinct functions of Period2 and Period3 in the mouse circadian system revealed by in vitro analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie S Pendergast

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian system, which is composed of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN as well as other oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues, controls daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. Lesions of the SCN abolish circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and transplants of fetal SCN tissue restore rhythmic behavior with the periodicity of the donor's genotype, suggesting that the SCN determines the period of the circadian behavioral rhythm. According to the model of timekeeping in the SCN, the Period (Per genes are important elements of the transcriptional/translational feedback loops that generate the endogenous circadian rhythm. Previous studies have investigated the functions of the Per genes by examining locomotor activity in mice lacking functional PERIOD proteins. Variable behavioral phenotypes were observed depending on the line and genetic background of the mice. In the current study we assessed both wheel-running activity and Per1-promoter-driven luciferase expression (Per1-luc in cultured SCN, pituitary, and lung explants from Per2(-/- and Per3(-/- mice congenic with the C57BL/6J strain. We found that the Per2(-/- phenotype is enhanced in vitro compared to in vivo, such that the period of Per1-luc expression in Per2(-/- SCN explants is 1.5 hours shorter than in Per2+/+ SCN, while the free-running period of wheel-running activity is only 11 minutes shorter in Per2(-/- compared to Per2+/+ mice. In contrast, circadian rhythms in SCN explants from Per3(-/- mice do not differ from Per3+/+ mice. Instead, the period and phase of Per1-luc expression are significantly altered in Per3(-/- pituitary and lung explants compared to Per3+/+ mice. Taken together these data suggest that the function of each Per gene may differ between tissues. Per2 appears to be important for period determination in the SCN, while Per3 participates in timekeeping in the pituitary and lung.

  5. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aiming for a shorter rheumatoid arthritis MRI protocol: can contrast-enhanced MRI replace T2 for the detection of bone marrow oedema?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stomp, Wouter; Bloem, Johan L.; Reijnierse, Monique [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Krabben, Annemarie; Heijde, Desiree van der; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Helm-van Mil, Annette H.M. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    To determine whether T1 post-gadolinium chelate images (T1Gd) can replace T2-weighted images (T2) for evaluating bone marrow oedema (BME), thereby allowing a shorter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 179 early arthritis patients and 43 advanced RA patients, wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints were examined on a 1.5-T extremity MRI system with a standard protocol (coronal T1, T2 fat-saturated and coronal and axial T1 fat-saturated after Gd). BME was scored according to OMERACT RAMRIS by two observers with and without T2 images available. Agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for semi-quantitative scores and test characteristics with T2 images as reference. Agreement between scores based on T2 and T1Gd images was excellent ICC (0.80-0.99). At bone level, sensitivity and specificity of BME on T1Gd compared to T2 were high for both patient groups and both readers (all ≥80 %). T1Gd and T2 images are equally suitable for evaluating BME. Because contrast is usually administered to assess (teno)synovitis, a short MRI protocol of T1 and T1Gd is sufficient in RA. (orig.)

  7. Disparate patterns of age-related changes in lipid peroxidation in long-lived naked mole-rats and shorter-lived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Blazej; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2006-12-01

    A key tenet of the oxidative stress theory of aging is that levels of accrued oxidative damage increase with age. Differences in damage generation and accumulation therefore may underlie the natural variation in species longevity. We compared age-related profiles of whole-organism lipid peroxidation (urinary isoprostanes) and liver lipid damage (malondialdehyde) in long living naked mole-rats [maximum lifespan (MLS) > 28.3 years] and shorter-living CB6F1 hybrid mice (MLS approximately 3.5 years). In addition, we compared age-associated changes in liver non-heme iron to assess how intracellular conditions, which may modulate oxidative processes, are affected by aging. Surprisingly, even at a young age, concentrations of both markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as of iron, were at least twofold (P naked mole tats than in mice. This refutes the hypothesis that prolonged naked mole-rat longevity is due to superior protection against oxidative stress. The age-related profiles of all three parameters were distinctly species specific. Rates of lipid damage generation in mice were maintained throughout adulthood, while accrued damage in old animals was twice that of young mice. In naked mole-rats, urinary isoprostane excretion declined by half with age (P naked mole-rats is independent of oxidative stress parameters.

  8. Shorter Exciton Lifetimes via an External Heavy-Atom Effect: Alleviating the Effects of Bimolecular Processes in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einzinger, Markus; Zhu, Tianyu; de Silva, Piotr; Belger, Christian; Swager, Timothy M; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Multiexcited-state phenomena are believed to be the root cause of two exigent challenges in organic light-emitting diodes; namely, efficiency roll-off and degradation. The development of novel strategies to reduce exciton densities under heavy load is therefore highly desirable. Here, it is shown that triplet exciton lifetimes of thermally activated delayed-fluorescence-emitter molecules can be manipulated in the solid state by exploiting intermolecular interactions. The external heavy-atom effect of brominated host molecules leads to increased spin-orbit coupling, which in turn enhances intersystem crossing rates in the guest molecule. Wave function overlap between the host and the guest is confirmed by combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. Shorter triplet exciton lifetimes are observed, while high photoluminescence quantum yields and essentially unaltered emission spectra are maintained. A change in the intersystem crossing rate ratio due to increased dielectric constants leads to almost 50% lower triplet exciton densities in the emissive layer in the steady state and results in an improved onset of the photoluminescence quantum yield roll-off at high excitation densities. Efficient organic light-emitting diodes with better roll-off behavior based on these novel hosts are fabricated, demonstrating the suitability of this concept for real-world applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Aiming for a shorter rheumatoid arthritis MRI protocol: can contrast-enhanced MRI replace T2 for the detection of bone marrow oedema?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomp, Wouter; Bloem, Johan L.; Reijnierse, Monique; Krabben, Annemarie; Heijde, Desiree van der; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Helm-van Mil, Annette H.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether T1 post-gadolinium chelate images (T1Gd) can replace T2-weighted images (T2) for evaluating bone marrow oedema (BME), thereby allowing a shorter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 179 early arthritis patients and 43 advanced RA patients, wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints were examined on a 1.5-T extremity MRI system with a standard protocol (coronal T1, T2 fat-saturated and coronal and axial T1 fat-saturated after Gd). BME was scored according to OMERACT RAMRIS by two observers with and without T2 images available. Agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for semi-quantitative scores and test characteristics with T2 images as reference. Agreement between scores based on T2 and T1Gd images was excellent ICC (0.80-0.99). At bone level, sensitivity and specificity of BME on T1Gd compared to T2 were high for both patient groups and both readers (all ≥80 %). T1Gd and T2 images are equally suitable for evaluating BME. Because contrast is usually administered to assess (teno)synovitis, a short MRI protocol of T1 and T1Gd is sufficient in RA. (orig.)

  10. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  11. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  12. Calculation of the mean differential group delay of periodically spun, randomly birefringent fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtarossa, Andrea; Griggio, Paola; Pizzinat, Anna; Palmieri, Luca

    2002-05-01

    Spinning is one of the most effective and well-known ways to reduce polarization mode dispersion of optical fibers. In spite of the popularity of spinning, a detailed theory of spin effects is still lacking. We report an analytical expression for the mean differential group delay of a randomly birefringent spun fiber. The result holds for any periodic spin function with a period shorter than the fiber's beat length.

  13. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  14. Impacto da temperatura e fotoperíodo no desenvolvimento ovariano e oviposição de traça-das-crucíferas Impact of temperature and photoperiod on ovarian development and oviposition of the Diamondback Moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Crema

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A migração é um fenômeno que pode ocorrer em algumas espécies de insetos e ela geralmente começa quando os ovários não estão desenvolvidos, ou o estão parcialmente. Para traça-das-crucíferas, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae já foi observado que a densidade larval afetou o grau de desenvolvimento ovariano. Neste trabalho foi determinado o impacto da temperatura e do fotoperíodo no desenvolovimento ovariano e na oviposição do inseto. Larvas de quarto estágio foram criadas individualmente em placas de Petri à temperaturas de 14 e 25ºC e fotofase de 8 e 14 h. As fêmeas recém-emergidas foram mortas em um freezer, dissecadas sob um microscópio e o ovário observado. Para determinar o impacto da temperatura sobre a oviposição do inseto, larvas de quarto estágio foram criadas a temperaturas de 14 e 25ºC e, quando os machos e fêmeas emergiram, casais foram colocados individualmente em placas de Petri. Foi determinado o período de pré-oviposição e o número de ovos depositados no primeiro dia. Os resultados mostraram que o grau de desenvolvimento ovariano não foi afetado pela temperatura e fotoperíodo empregados, indicando que estes fatores não afetaram o potencial migratório da espécie. Fêmeas criadas a 25ºC depositaram seus ovos dois dias após a emergência enquanto que fêmeas criadas a 14ºC o fizeram aos cinco dias, sugerindo que o período de pré-oviposição é aumentado a baixas temperaturas. O impacto destes resultados sobre a migração e dispersão da TDC são discutidos.Migration occurs in some insect species, and in many cases it commences when the ovaries are immature. Environmental conditions can affect the rate of ovarian development and oviposition of insects. In the Diamondback Moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae, the larval density affected the rate of ovarian development. In this work we determined the impact of temperatures and photoperiods on DBM ovarian

  15. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  16. Areca nut is associated with younger age of diagnosis, poor chemoradiotherapy response, and shorter overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Han Chen

    Full Text Available Areca nut chewing is carcinogenic to humans. However, little is known about the impact of areca nut chewing on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC.We retrospectively reviewed 286 ESCC patients who received surgery or preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery at our institution. Background characteristics including areca nut chewing history were analyzed. The 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model was used to test the impact of arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, on ESCC.Compared to patients without areca nut chewing history, patients with areca nut chewing history had overall a younger age of onset (Mean age: 56.75 versus 52.68 yrs, P<0.001 and significantly worse overall survival than those without areca nut chewing history (P = 0.026. Among patients who received surgery, the overall survival rates were not significantly different between those with or without areca nut chewing history. Among patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, those with areca nut chewing history had a significantly lower pathologic complete response rate (P = 0.002 and lower overall survival rate (P = 0.002 than those without. In the murine ESCC model, the incidence of esophageal invasive squamous cell carcinoma was 40% in mice exposed to concomitant 4-NQO and arecoline treatment for 8 weeks and 6% in mice exposed to 4-NQO only for 8 weeks (P = 0.037.Our results indicate that areca nut chewing history is significantly associated with younger age of onset, poor response to chemoradiotherapy, and shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, accelerates esophageal tumorigenesis in the 4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model.

  17. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Di Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa, and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa, lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA whose 5′ end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF21. The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA.

  18. Quasi-periodic luminosity variations in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.L.; Nather, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    We have identified quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves of five dwarf novae--U Gem, SS Cyg, RU Peg, KT Per, and VW Hyi-- and in the light curve of the quasi-periodic X-ray source Sco X-1. The mean periods of the quasi-periodic oscillations range from 32 s in SS Cyg to 147 s in KT Per and 165 s in Sco X-l. Their amplitudes are typically 0.005--0.0l mag. The properties of the quasi-periodic oscillations are represented well by a second-order autoregressive process. Use of this representation shows that the length of time over which the quasi-periodic oscillations maintain coherence is very short, typically 3--5 cycles of the oscillations. Thus the quasi-periodic oscillations can be distinguished from the short-period coherent oscillations in dwarf novae, which are usually interpreted as white dwarf pulsations, because t the periods of the quasi-periodic oscillations are 3--4 times longer and their coherence time is much shorter. The quasi-periodic oscillations occur in dwarf novae only during their eruptions and occur in Sco X-l only when the system is bright. The presence of the oscillations does not depend on the subclass to which a dwarf nova belongs or on the morphology of the individual eruptions. We argue that their short periods, their short coherence times, and their presence in Sco X-l require that the quasi-periodic oscillations be produced by the accretion disk, and not by the stars or by the boundary between the a accretion disk and its central star

  19. Oviposition Behavior and Survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an Ectoparasitoid of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), on Hosts Exposed to an Entomopathogenic Fungus, Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Andrew; Dunlap, Christopher A; Jackson, Mark A; Flores, Daniel; Patt, Joseph M; Sétamou, Mamoudou

    2016-10-01

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 strain of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Three interactions were evaluated under laboratory conditions at 25 °C: 1) parasitoid survival if parasitized hosts were exposed to ARSEF 3581 blastospores before or after host mummification; 2) parasitoid survival if mummies containing larva or pupa were exposed to ARSEF 3581 hyphae; 3) parasitoid oviposition on infected hosts with visible or without visible hyphae. Topical application of blastospore formulation onto the dorsal surfaces of live nymphs parasitized with second-instar wasp larva (3 d after parasitism) reduced host mummification by 50% and parasitoid emergence by 85%. However, parasitoid emergence was not affected by topical application of blastospore formulation onto mummies that contained fourth-instar wasp larva (6 d after parasitism). Parasitoid emergence was reduced by 80% if mummies containing fourth-instar wasp larva were covered with blastospore formulation colonized by fungal hyphae. In comparison, parasitoid emergence was not affected if mummies containing wasp pupa (9 d after parasitism) were covered with formulation colonized by fungal hyphae. Female parasitoids oviposited on infected hosts without visible hyphae but not on infected hosts with visible hyphae. Our findings suggest that I. fumosorosea could detrimentally affect T. radiata, if both natural enemies are simultaneously deployed for biological control of D. citri However, temporal separation of the fungus and parasitoid could reduce antagonism and enhance control of D. citri. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  1. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  2. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dik Wai Luk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH has been associated with earlier diagnosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD and time to the diagnosis of SCID.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP, and AD were selected for study.ResultsA total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57. A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27 and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine infection (n = 19 were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC was 1.05 × 109/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 109/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002 and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008, but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494. Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008 and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003. BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.ConclusionFH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of

  3. In Vitro Comparison of Holmium Lasers: Evidence for Shorter Fragmentation Time and Decreased Retropulsion Using a Modern Variable-pulse Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Roger; Penniston, Kristina L; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2017-09-01

    To compare the performance of variable- and fixed-pulse lasers on stone phantoms in vitro. Seven-millimeter stone phantoms were made to simulate calcium oxalate monohydrate stones using BegoStone plus. The in vitro setting was created with a clear polyvinyl chloride tube. For each trial, a stone phantom was placed at the open end of the tubing. The Cook Rhapsody H-30 variable-pulse laser was tested on both long- and short-pulse settings and was compared to the Dornier H-20 fixed-pulse laser; 5 trials were conducted for each trial arm. Fragmentation was accomplished with the use of a flexible ureteroscope and a 273-micron holmium laser fiber using settings of 1 J × 12 Hz. The treatment time (in minute) for complete fragmentation was recorded as was the total retropulsion distance (in centimeter) during treatment. Laser fibers were standardized for all repetitions. The treatment time was significantly shorter with the H-30 vs the H-20 laser (14.3 ± 2.5 vs 33.1 ± 8.9 minutes, P = .008). There was no difference between the treatment times using the long vs short pulse widths of the H-30 laser (14.4 ± 3.4 vs 14.3 ± 1.7 minutes, P = .93). Retropulsion differed by laser type and pulse width, H-30 long pulse (15.8 ± 5.7 cm), H-30 short pulse (54.8 ± 7.1 cm), and H-20 (33.2 ± 12.5 cm) (P laser fragmented stone phantoms in half the time of the H-20 laser regardless of the pulse width. Retropulsion effects differed between the lasers, with the H-30 causing the least retropulsion. Longer pulse widths result in less stone retropulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  5. Magnetospheric Truncation, Tidal Inspiral, and the Creation of Short-period and Ultra-short-period Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).

  6. Magnetospheric Truncation, Tidal Inspiral, and the Creation of Short-period and Ultra-short-period Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).

  7. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Romilly, Cédric; Wagner, E Gerhart H; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2016-11-08

    VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF 30 (30 kDa), and the shorter VirF 21 (21 kDa), lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF 30 and VirF 21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF 21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA) whose 5' end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF 21 The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF 30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF 21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF 21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA. Shigella spp. are a major cause of dysentery in humans. In bacteria of this genus, the activation of the invasive program involves a multitude of signals that act on all layers of the gene regulatory hierarchy. By controlling the essential genes for host cell invasion, VirF is the key regulator of the switch from the noninvasive to the invasive phenotype. Here, we show that the Shigella virF gene encodes two proteins of different sizes, VirF 30 and VirF 21 , that are functionally distinct. The major form, VirF 30 , activates the genes

  8. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  9. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  10. First-line intra-arterial versus intravenous chemotherapy in unilateral sporadic group D retinoblastoma: evidence of better visual outcomes, ocular survival and shorter time to success with intra-arterial delivery from retrospective review of 20 years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Francis L; Mosimann, Pascal; Puccinelli, Francesco; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Stathopoulos, Christina; Houghton, Susan; Bergin, Ciara; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) as salvage treatment has improved the prognosis for eye conservation in group D retinoblastoma. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of consecutive patients with advanced unilateral disease treated with either first-line intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) or first-line IAC. This is a retrospective mono-centric comparative review of consecutive patients. Sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma group D cases treated conservatively at Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital and CHUV between 1997 and 2014. From January 1997 to August 2008, IVC, combined with focal treatments, was the primary treatment approach. From September 2008 to October 2014, IAC replaced IVC as first-line therapy. 48 patients met the inclusion criteria, receiving only either IAC or IVC as primary treatment modality. Outcomes of 23 patients treated by IVC were compared with those of 25 treated by IAC; mean follow-up was 105.3 months (range 29.2-218.6) and 41.7 months (range 19.6-89.5), respectively. Treatment duration was significantly shorter in the IAC group (pchemotherapy treatment. Despite this, the results reported here imply that eyes treated with first-line IAC will have shorter treatment period, better ocular survival and visual acuity than first-line IVC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  12. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  13. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei; Chen Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases

  14. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH solution O3 P is formed in a small...

  15. The shorter the better? A follow-up analysis of 10-session psychiatric treatment including the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; Stulz, Niklaus; Berthoud, Laurent; Caspar, Franz; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    There is little research on short-term treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). While the core changes may occur only in long-term treatments, short-term treatments may enable the study of early generic processes of engagement in therapy and thus inform about effective treatment components. It was shown that a 10-session version of a psychiatric treatment was effective in reducing borderline symptoms at the end of this treatment [Kramer, U., Kolly, S., Berthoud, L., Keller, S., Preisig, M., Caspar, F., … Despland, J.-N. (2014). Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment for borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 176-186.]. Also, it was demonstrated in a randomized design that adding the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), following an individualized case formulation based on Plan Analysis, further increased general outcome after session 10 and had a positive effect on the early changes in self-esteem and alliance. The present study focuses on the follow-up period after this initial treatment, examining treatment density and outcomes after 6 months and service utilization after 12 months. Outcome was measured using the OQ-45. Results on a sub-sample of N = 40 patients with available OQ-45 data at follow-up (n = 21 for MOTR-treatment, n = 19 for comparison treatment) showed maintenance of gains over the follow-up period, which did not differ between both conditions. It appeared for this sample that MOTR treatments, while using the same number of sessions, lasted more weeks (i.e., lower treatment density, defined as the number of sessions per week), when compared to the treatments without MOTR. Density marginally predicted symptom reduction at follow-up. Patients in MOTR treatments had a greater likelihood of entering structured psychotherapy after the initial sessions than patients in the comparison

  16. How Do Earth-Sized, Short-Period Planets Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Matching theory to observation often requires creative detective work. In a new study, scientists have used a clever test to reveal clues about the birth of speedy, Earth-sized planets.Former Hot Jupiters?Artists impression of a hot Jupiter with an evaporating atmosphere. [NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech]Among the many different types of exoplanets weve observed, one unusual category is that of ultra-short-period planets. These roughly Earth-sized planets speed around their host stars at incredible rates, with periods of less than a day.How do planets in this odd category form? One popular theory is that they were previously hot Jupiters, especially massive gas giants orbiting very close to their host stars. The close orbit caused the planets atmospheres to be stripped away, leaving behind only their dense cores.In a new study, a team of astronomers led by Joshua Winn (Princeton University) has found a clever way to test this theory.Planetary radius vs. orbital period for the authors three statistical samples (colored markers) and the broader sample of stars in the California Kepler Survey. [Winn et al. 2017]Testing MetallicitiesStars hosting hot Jupiters have an interesting quirk: they typically have metallicities that are significantly higher than an average planet-hosting star. It is speculated that this is because planets are born from the same materials as their host stars, and hot Jupiters require the presence of more metals to be able to form.Regardless of the cause of this trend, if ultra-short-period planets are in fact the solid cores of former hot Jupiters, then the two categories of planets should have hosts with the same metallicity distributions. The ultra-short-period-planet hosts should therefore also be weighted to higher metallicities than average planet-hosting stars.To test this, the authors make spectroscopic measurements and gather data for a sample of stellar hosts split into three categories:64 ultra-short-period planets (orbital period shorter than a

  17. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  18. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  19. Holonomic systems for period mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingyue, E-mail: jychen@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Huang, An, E-mail: anhuang@math.harvard.edu [Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lian, Bong H., E-mail: lian@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Period mappings were introduced in the sixties [4] to study variation of complex structures of families of algebraic varieties. The theory of tautological systems was introduced recently [7,8] to understand period integrals of algebraic manifolds. In this paper, we give an explicit construction of a tautological system for each component of a period mapping. We also show that the D-module associated with the tautological system gives rise to many interesting vanishing conditions for period integrals at certain special points of the parameter space.

  20. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  1. Feeding ecology and evidence for amino acid synthesis in the periodical cicada (Magicicada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hilary; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2011-01-01

    The periodical cicadas of the genus Magicicada (including M. septendecim, M. cassini, and M. septendecula) have the longest juvenile life span of any insect, living underground for 13 or 17 years and feeding exclusively on root xylem fluids. Due to their inaccessible life cycles very little is known about cicada nutrition, despite the fact that members of Magicicada can achieve a very large biomass in woodland habitats east of the Mississippi and hence constitute a major part of the ecosystem where they occur in high densities. Live cicadas were collected at two sites in early June of 2004, during the emergence of Brood X (both M. septendecim and M. cassini were recovered). We used a combination of stable isotopic measurements (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) and multivariate statistical techniques to test for differences in resource acquisition among the cicada species and sexes collected at two locations within the 17-year periodical Brood X range. The amino acid constituents of cicada chitin and organs, plus xylem extracted from a deciduous sapling, were also analyzed. The data show that male and female cicadas have different carbon fractionations, which could reflect differential resource utilization due to oviposition in females. Several essential amino acids for the cicada were absent in xylem. Carbon-isotopic composition of all amino acids in the cicadas was distinctly different from the limited set measured in the xylem. Because of the differences in isotopic composition, we conclude that amino acids were synthesized de novo rather than incorporated directly, most likely produced by endosymbiotic bacteria. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interspecific studies of circadian genes period and timeless in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Shumaila; Pegoraro, Mirko; Nouroz, Faisal; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-03-30

    The level of rescue of clock function in genetically arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster hosts using interspecific clock gene transformation was used to study the putative intermolecular coevolution between interacting clock proteins. Among them PER and TIM are the two important negative regulators of the circadian clock feedback loop. We transformed either the D. pseudoobscura per or tim transgenes into the corresponding arrhythmic D. melanogaster mutant (per01 or tim01) and observed >50% rhythmicity but the period of activity rhythm was either longer (D. pseudoobscura-per) or shorter than 24 h (D. pseudoobscura-tim) compared to controls. By introducing both transgenes simultaneously into double mutants, we observed that the period of the activity rhythm was rescued by the pair of hemizygous transgenes (~24 h). These flies also showed a more optimal level of temperature compensation for the period. Under LD 12:12 these flies have a D. pseudoobscura like activity profile with the absence of morning anticipation as well as a very prominent earlier evening peak of activity rhythm. These observation are consistent with the view that TIM and PER form a heterospecific coevolved module at least for the circadian period of activity rhythms. However the strength of rhythmicity was reduced by having both transgenes present, so while evidence for a coevolution between PER and TIM is observed for some characters it is not for others. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    Full Text Available Using the forward period analysis (FPA, we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested.

  4. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  5. Scheduling periodic tasks with slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient

  6. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  7. Orbital periods of recurrent novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    The class of recurrent novae (RN) with thermonuclear runaways contains only three systems (T Pyx, U Sco, and V394 CrA), for which no orbital periods are known. This paper presents a series of photometric observations where the orbital periods for all three systems are discovered. T Pyx is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.08 mag and a period of 2.3783 h (with a possible alias of 2.6403 h). U Sco is found to be an eclipsing system with an eclipse amplitude of roughly 1.5 mag and an orbital period of 1.2344 days. V394 CrA is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.5 mag and a period of 0.7577 days. Thus two out of three RN with thermonuclear runaways (or five out of six for all RN) have evolved companions. 16 refs

  8. Chaos to periodicity and periodicity to chaos by periodic perturbations in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianshu; Zhu Rui

    2004-01-01

    A three-variable model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction system subject to external sinusoidal perturbations is investigated by means of frequency spectrum analysis. In the period-1 window of the model, the transitions from periodicity to chaos are observed; in the chaotic window, the transitions from chaos to periodicity are found. The former might be understood by the circle map of two coupled oscillators, and the latter is partly explained by the resonance between the main frequency of the chaos and the frequency of the external periodic perturbations

  9. Iraqi architecture in mogul period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shatha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad

  10. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  11. Modeling and designing of variable-period and variable-pole-number undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Davidyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of permanent-magnet variable-period undulator (VPU was proposed several years ago and has found few implementations so far. The VPUs have some advantages as compared with conventional undulators, e.g., a wider range of radiation wavelength tuning and the option to increase the number of poles for shorter periods. Both these advantages will be realized in the VPU under development now at Budker INP. In this paper, we present the results of 2D and 3D magnetic field simulations and discuss some design features of this VPU.

  12. The Sensitivity of Income Polarization - Time, length of accounting periods, equivalence scales, and income definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain

    This study looks at polarization and its components’ sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period. Primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  13. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  14. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  15. Commuting periodic operators and the periodic Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, J

    2004-01-01

    Commuting periodic operators (CPO) depending on the coordinate x-hat and the momentum p-hat operators are defined. The CPO are functions of the two basic commuting operators exp(i x-hat 2π/a) and exp(i/h p-hat a), with a being an arbitrary constant. A periodic Wigner function (PWF) w(x, p) is defined and it is shown that it is applicable in a normal expectation value calculation to the CPO, as done in the original Wigner paper. Moreover, this PWF is non-negative everywhere, and it can therefore be interpreted as an actual probability distribution. The PWF w(x, p) is shown to be given as an expectation value of the periodic Dirac delta function in the phase plane. (letter to the editor)

  16. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    L. (leaves, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (leaves e branches, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (leaves, Sapindus saponaria L. (leaves, S. saponaria (fruits, Solanum cernuum Vell. (leaves, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (bark, Symphytum officinale L. (leaves, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (leaves, T. catigua (branches, Trichilia pallida Sw. (leaves e T. pallida (branches, was evaluated in relation to oviposition preference of Plutella xylostella. Disks of kale leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, cultivar Georgia were immersed in each extract at a concentration of 10% (weight/volume for one minute, and afterwards, divided in four equal parts, and two parts were placed alternately with other two parts treated with distilled water, in each cage. The counting of the eggs was made after 24 hours. The results showed deterrent effect on oviposition of the pest, except for the extract of S. adstringens, which didn't differed from the water treated control. The extracts of E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (fruits and T. pallida (leaves were the most efficient, presenting 100% of deterrence.

  17. Nanopublication beyond the sciences: the PeriodO period gazetteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Golden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The information expressed in humanities datasets is inextricably tied to a wider discursive environment that is irreducible to complete formal representation. Humanities scholars must wrestle with this fact when they attempt to publish or consume structured data. The practice of “nanopublication,” which originated in the e-science domain, offers a way to maintain the connection between formal representations of humanities data and its discursive basis. In this paper we describe nanopublication, its potential applicability to the humanities, and our experience curating humanities nanopublications in the PeriodO period gazetteer.

  18. Periodic testing in operative action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larm, T.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic testing forms a remarkable part of the regular work tasks of the shift crew. Testing is generally carried out beside the daily monitoring and control work. Even remarkable plant related differences may occur in the procedures and routines used in periodic testing. The goal is still always the same, to regularly ensure that the systems and equipment are in working order according to their design. This presentation studies with examples the execution and scope of periodic testing as well as the routines and procedures used in the testing in Loviisa power plant. The presentation is based on the testing procedures of Loviisa power plant and the aim is not to compare them to the procedures of other plants. The scope of periodic testing has increased and the routines and procedures have been developed as the operation experience has increased. The assessment of the need of periodic testing and the consideration of the practical execution possibilities should be a part of the plant's planning phase as a part of the planning process. (orig.)

  19. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Department of Physics, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: thigaki@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp, E-mail: y_tatsuta@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  20. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  1. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  2. ATLAS: Adjuvant Tamoxifen Longer Against Shorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    largely tunaffected by other these 30 000 women during about 10 years of follow-up patient characteristics or treatments. were 21% (SD 3), 29% (SD 2...for both types of mosted to stop part of the eduon y epatient . most of them did stop, part of the reduction in the The right side of figure 4...patient characteristics (e.g. high/ low-risk, ER+/ER-, pre/post-menopausal) recorded at entry. Other trials of tamoxifen duration The Atlas collaboration

  3. Movement and touch make plants shorter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2017-01-01

    Plants in the greenhouse are increasingly on the move. More attention is being paid to air circulation and mobile cultivation is on the rise. Research shows that movement and touch (also as plants rub against each other) slow down growth. That can be frustrating but you can also use it to your

  4. An improved test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    I discuss two widely used methods of testing for periodicity, phase dispersion minimization and epoch-folding. Using an analysis of variance approach, I demonstrate the close relationship between these two methods. I also show that the significance test sometimes used in phase dispersion minimization is statistically inaccurate, and that the test used in epoch-folding is an approximation valid only for large sample sizes. I propose a new test statistic, applicable to either epoch-folding or PDM, which is statistically sound for all sample sizes, and which is also more sensitive to periodicity than the test statistics previously used with these two methods. (author)

  5. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Ward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality.

  6. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  7. Availability of periodically tested systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is at the present time a need in accurate models to asess the availability of periodically tested stand-by systems. This paper shows how to improve the well known 'saw-tooth curve' model in order to take into account various reliability parameters. A model is developed to assess the pointwise and the mean availabilities of periodically tested stand-by systems. Exact and approxination formulae are given. In addition, the model developed herein leads to optimize the test interval in order to minimize the mean unavailability. A safety diesel in a nuclear power plant is given as an example

  8. Selective binding of carotenoids with a shorter conjugated chain to the LH2 antenna complex and those with a longer conjugated chain to the reaction center from Rubrivivax gelatinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakitani, Yoshinori; Fujii, Ritsuko; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Kurahashi, Masahiro; Koyama, Yasushi; Harada, Jiro; Shimada, Keizo

    2007-06-19

    Rubrivivax gelatinosus having both the spheroidene and spirilloxanthin biosynthetic pathways produces carotenoids (Cars) with a variety of conjugated chains, which consist of different numbers of conjugated double bonds (n), including the C=C (m) and C=O (o) bonds. When grown under anaerobic conditions, the wild type produces Cars for which n = m = 9-13, whereas under semiaerobic conditions, it additionally produces Cars for which n = m + o = 10 + 1, 13 + 1, and 13 + 2. On the other hand, a mutant, in which the latter pathway is genetically blocked, produces only Cars for which n = 9 and 10 under anaerobic conditions and n = 9, 10, and 10 + 1 under semianaerobic conditions. Those Cars that were extracted from the LH2 complex (LH2) and the reaction center (RC), isolated from the wild-type and the mutant Rvi. gelatinosus, were analyzed by HPLC, and their structures were determined by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The selective binding of Cars to those pigment-protein complexes has been characterized as follows. (1) Cars with a shorter conjugated chain are selectively bound to LH2 whereas Cars with a longer conjugated chain to the RC. (2) Shorter chain Cars with a hydroxyl group are bound to LH2 almost exclusively. This rule holds either in the absence or in the presence of the keto group. The natural selection of shorter chain Cars by LH2 and longer chain Cars by the RC is discussed, on the basis of the results now available, in relation to the light-harvesting and photoprotective functions of Cars.

  9. Review of semiochemicals that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae Revisão dos semioquímicos que mediam a oviposição em mosquitos: uma possível ferramenta sustentável para o monitoramento e controle de Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Navarro-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice for suitable places for female mosquitoes to lay eggs is a key-factor for the survival of immature stages (eggs and larvae. This knowledge stands out in importance concerning the control of disease vectors. The selection of a place for oviposition requires a set of chemical, visual, olfactory and tactile cues that interact with the female before laying eggs, helping the localization of adequate sites for oviposition. The present paper presents a bibliographic revision on the main aspects of semiochemicals in regard to mosquitoes' oviposition, aiding the comprehension of their mechanisms and estimation of their potential as a tool for the monitoring and control of the Culicidae.A seleção de locais adequados pelas fêmeas de mosquitos para depositarem seus ovos é um fator chave para a sobrevivência de seus imaturos (ovos e larvas. O conhecimento das relações ecológicas implicadas neste processo é de grande importância quando se refere a vetores de agentes patogênicos. A determinação do local de oviposição pelas fêmeas grávidas envolve uma rede de mensagens químicas, visuais, olfativas e táteis que facilitam a localização de lugares adequados para depositarem seus ovos. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma revisão bibliográfica dos principais aspectos relacionados com semioquímicos presentes na oviposição dos mosquitos auxiliando no entendimento dos mecanismos de atuação dos mesmos e potencializando a aplicação destes semioquímicos como uma possível ferramenta de monitoramento e controle de Culicidae.

  10. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  11. Periodic and quasiperiodic revivals in periodically driven interacting quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitz, David J.; Lazarides, Achilleas; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2018-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that interparticle interactions generically destroy dynamical localization in periodically driven systems, resulting in diffusive transport and heating. In this Rapid Communication we rigorously construct a family of interacting driven systems which are dynamically localized and effectively decoupled from the external driving potential. We show that these systems exhibit tunable periodic or quasiperiodic revivals of the many-body wave function and thus of all physical observables. By numerically examining spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice we show that the analytically obtained revivals of such systems remain stable for finite systems with open boundary conditions while having a finite lifetime in the presence of static spatial disorder. We find this lifetime to be inversely proportional to the disorder strength.

  12. Cosmophysical periods in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskij, B.M.; Kislovskij, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    In social systems there are rhythms synchronised by cosmical periods. These rhythms have partly biological origin. Some natural cycles also might influence upon historical processes (as such as climatic and epidemical). The analysis of the literature shows that there is rhythmic component in European history where solar activity cycles -11 and 340 years are presented. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Genius of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Isn't it the work of a genius!' exclaimed Academician V.I. Spitsyn, USSR, a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee when talking to an Agency audience in January. His listeners shared his enthusiasm. Academician Spitsyn was referring to the first formulation a hundred years ago by Professor Dmitry I. Mendeleyev of the Periodic Law of Elements. (author)

  14. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  15. Periodic linear differential stochastic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, H.

    1975-01-01

    Periodic linear differential processes are defined and their properties are analyzed. Equivalent representations are discussed, and the solutions of related optimal estimation problems are given. An extension is presented of Kailath and Geesey’s [1] results concerning the innovations representation

  16. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  17. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  18. Autoinflammatory Diseases with Periodic Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Erdal; Bilginer, Yelda; Ozen, Seza

    2017-07-01

    One purpose of this review was to raise awareness for the new autoinflammatory syndromes. These diseases are increasingly recognized and are in the differential diagnosis of many disease states. We also aimed to review the latest recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency (HIDS/MVKD) are the more common autoinflammatory diseases that are characterized by periodic fevers and attacks of inflammation. Recently much collaborative work has been done to understand the characteristics of these patients and to develop recommendations to guide the physicians in the care of these patients. These recent recommendations will be summarized for all four diseases. FMF is the most common periodic fever disease. We need to further understand the pathogenesis and the role of single mutations in the disease. Recently, the management and treatment of the disease have been nicely reviewed. CAPS is another interesting disease associated with severe complications. Anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) treatment provides cure for these patients. TRAPS is characterized by the longest delay in diagnosis; thus, both pediatricians and internists should be aware of the characteristic features and the follow-up of these patients. HIDS/MVKD is another autoinflammatory diseases characterized with fever attacks. The spectrum of disease manifestation is rather large in this disease, and we need further research on biomarkers for the optimal management of these patients.

  19. Vertebrate fauna of the Roman period, migrations period and Medieval period in Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmanović Darko P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on current published and unpublished research results, a total of 16 vertebrate species members of mammal (Mammalia, bird (Aves and osteichthyes (Osteichthyes classes have been registered at 11 archaeological sites from the Roman Period in Vojvodina. Mammals dominate with 12 species and one genus, birds are present with 3 species, and osteichthyes with one. From the Migration Period, at 9 sites, 22 vertebrate species have been registered, of which 13 species and one genus of mammals, 4 species and one genus of birds, and 5 species from the Osteichthyes class. At 8 sites from the Medieval Period, 16 vertebrate species have been registered. Mammals are the most numerous class with 10 species and one genus, while birds are present with 4 species and one genus. Furthermore, two species of osteichthyes have also been registered.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  1. Period of an Interrupted Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley E.

    2002-11-01

    While demonstrating a classic conservation-of-energy problem to my AP Physics students, I became curious about the periodic motion that ensued for certain initial conditions. The original problem consists of releasing a mass at the end of a string from an initial position horizontal to the plane of a table. The string comes in contact with a peg some distance below the point where the string is attached at the top. One is asked to find what minimum fraction of the string's length should the peg be placed to have the mass complete a circle about the peg. However, when the mass is released from much lower heights, the system undergoes periodic motion that can be thought of as an interrupted pendulum.

  2. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  3. On nonlinear periodic drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauschke, U.; Schlueter, H.

    1990-09-01

    Nonlinear periodic drift waves are investigated on the basis of a simple perturbation scheme for both the amplitude and inverse frequency. The coefficients for the generation of the forced harmonics are derived, a nonlinear dispersion relation is suggested and a criterion for the onset of the modulational instability is obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of a standard KBM-treatment. Moreover cnoidal drift waves are suggested and compared to an experimental observation. (orig.)

  4. Long Period Seismological Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-31

    in central Asia as observed at the high-gain long- period sites. Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity...Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity of the surface wave signals from many events in the Tadzhik-Kirgiz...and receivers. A number of Interesting features can be illustrated by examining portions of three selsmograms recorded at Chiang Mai (CHO

  5. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposição de Plutella xylostella Effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, Melia azedarach (L. and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. on the development and oviposition of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalci Leite Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a CL50 e o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na biologia, oviposição e período embrionário de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Para determinação da CL50 foram utilizadas concentrações entre 0,03 e 0,8 % para amêndoas de Azadirachta indica (A. Juss. 0,5 e 7,0 % para casca de Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. e 0,5 e 12,5 % para frutos de Melia azedarach (L., obtendo-se as CL50 de 0,06; 2,17 e 2,90%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies vegetais afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto, principalmente na fase larval. Na fase de pupa, os extratos reduziram a massa e a viabilidade. Houve deformação de adultos para os extratos de A. pyrifolium e M. azedarach e o de A. indica causou maior porcentagem. Todos os extratos possuem efeito tóxico para ovos de P. xylostella, sendo dependente do aumento da concentração. Nos extratos da casca de A. pyrifolium, do fruto de M. azedarach e da amêndoa de A. indica observa-se ação ovicida quando usados na concentração letal de lagartas de primeiro ínstar da praga. Em observações do ovo de P. xylostella com auxílio de um microscópio eletrônico de varredura, verificou-se a existência de microporos onde pode ocorrer a penetração do produto ovicida, além da constatação da textura rugosa da casca do ovo que pode reter ou fixar os extratos.The effects of aqueous extracts of plants on the biology, preference for oviposition and embryonic period of Plutella xylostella were evaluated. Concentrations between 0.03 and 0.8 % for kernel of Azadirachta indica, 0.5 and 7.0% for peel of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and 0.5 and 12.5% for fruits of Melia azedarach were used, with LC50 values of 0.06; 2.17 and 2.90%, respectively, being obtained. It was verified that the aqueous extracts of all of the appraised vegetable species affected the development of the insect, mainly in the larval phase. In the pupae phase, the extracts reduced the

  6. Polar cap contraction and expansion during a period of substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikio, Anita; Pitkänen, Timo; Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Amm, Olaf

    We have studied the variations in the polar cap area and related parameters during a period of four substorms on February 18, 2004, following an extended quiet period. The measurements were obtained by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, MIRACLE magnetometers, Geotail and solar wind satellites. In addition, the event is modeled by the GUMICS-4 MHD simulation. By using the measured and modeled data, the dayside and nightside reconnection voltages are calculated. The results show a good general agreement in the polar cap boundary (PCB) location as estimated by the EISCAT radars and the GUMICS simulation. Deviations are found, too, like shorter durations of expansion phases in the simulation. Geotail measurements of the inclination angle of the magnetic field in the tail (Xgsm= -22 Re) agree with the PCB latitude variations measured by EISCAT at a different MLT. We conclude that a large polar cap corresponds to a stretched tail configuration in the near-Earth tail and a small polar cap to a more dipolar configuration. The substorm onsets took place during southward IMF. A specific feature is that the substorm expansion phases were not associated with significant contractions of the polar cap. Even though nightside reconnection voltages started to increase during expansion phases, maximum closure of open flux took place in the recovery phases. We shortly discuss implications of the observation to the definition of the recovery phase.

  7. The aeration period of a model nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharland, S.M.; Tasker, P.W.

    1987-02-01

    We have constructed a model of the evolution of oxygen in a cement backfill which includes both its depletion through the canister corrosion reactions and its migration in the cement pores. The results indicate that the duration in which mild steel waste canisters may be subject to localised corrosion is very much shorter than the intended lifetime of the repository components, provided there is no external source of oxygen. For canisters spaced 1.2m apart, the model predicts a maximum aeration period of approximately 65 years, assuming high oxygen content and diffusivity in the backfill and low leakage current on the canisters (0.01 μA cm -2 ). In such a case a reducing environment is established throughout the backfill within this period. Under conditions of more restricted oxygen transport, reducing conditions are still established within a relatively short time in the immediate vicinity of the canisters, but the oxidation potential elsewhere in the backfill is then controlled by the uniform corrosion rate of the canisters. (author)

  8. Sleep-induced periodic breathing and apnea: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M C; Gottschalk, A; Pack, A I

    1991-05-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms that lead to sleep-disordered breathing, we have developed a mathematical model that allows for dynamic interactions among the chemical control of respiration, changes in sleep-waking state, and changes in upper airway patency. The increase in steady-state arterial PCO2 accompanying sleep is shown to be inversely related to the ventilatory response to CO2. Chemical control of respiration becomes less stable during the light stage of sleep, despite a reduction in chemoresponsiveness, due to a concomitant increase in "plant gain" (i.e., responsiveness of blood gases to ventilatory changes). The withdrawal of the "wakefulness drive" during sleep onset represents a strong perturbation to respiratory control: higher magnitudes and rates of withdrawal of this drive favor instability. These results may account for the higher incidence of periodic breathing observed during light sleep and sleep onset. Periodic ventilation can also result from repetitive alternations between sleep onset and arousal. The potential for instability is further compounded if the possibility of upper airway occlusion is also included. In systems with high controller gains, instability is mediated primarily through chemoreflex overcompensation. However, in systems with depressed chemoresponsiveness, rapid sleep onset and large blood gas fluctuations trigger repetitive episodes of arousal and hyperpnea alternating with apneas that may or may not be obstructive. Between these extremes, more complex patterns can arise from the interaction between chemoreflex-mediated oscillations of shorter-cycle-duration (approximately 36 s) and longer-wavelength (approximately 60-80 s) state-driven oscillations.

  9. Long-Period Solar Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  10. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  11. Periodic dynamics in queuing networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addabbo, Tommaso [Information Engineering Department, University of Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: addabbo@dii.unisi.it; Kocarev, Ljupco [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, bul. Krste Misirkov 2, P.O. Box 428, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)], E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu

    2009-08-30

    This paper deals with state-dependent open Markovian (or exponential) queuing networks, for which arrival and service rates, as well as routing probabilities, may depend on the queue lengths. For a network of this kind, following Mandelbaum and Pats, we provide a formal definition of its associated fluid model, and we focus on the relationships which may occur between the network stochastic dynamics and the deterministic dynamics of its corresponding fluid model, particularly focusing on queuing networks whose fluid models have global periodic attractors.

  12. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  13. Forgiveness in the intertestamental period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mong Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests answers to the following questions: what are the characteristics of God�s forgiveness in the intertestamental literature and what connection do these characteristics have with the Old Testament? Important passages in the late Second Temple period that expose the characteristics of God�s forgiveness, such as certain Qumran texts (1QH 12:35�37, 1QH 13:2 and the Damascus Document 14:18�19, the writings of Philo and Josephus, the Apocrypha and the Pseudepigrapha, are investigated for this purpose.

  14. Cross-sectional Internet-based survey of Japanese permanent daytime workers' sleep and daily rest periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohide; Sasaki, Takeshi; Liu, Xinxin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; So, Rina; Matsumoto, Shun; Yamauchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2018-05-25

    This study aimed to describe the sleep quantity, sleep quality, and daily rest periods (DRPs) of Japanese permanent daytime workers. Information about the usual DRP, sleep quantity, and sleep quality (Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: PSQI-J) of 3,867 permanent daytime workers in Japan was gathered through an Internet-based survey. This information was analyzed and divided into the following eight DRP groups: <10, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and ≥16 h. The sleep durations for workers in the <10, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and ≥16 h DRP groups were found to be 5.3, 5.9, 6.1, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7, 6.7, and 6.9 h, respectively. The trend analysis revealed a significant linear trend as the shorter the DRP, the shorter was the sleep duration. The PSQI-J scores for the <10, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and ≥16 h DRP groups were 7.1, 6.7, 6.7, 6.3, 6.0 (5.999), 5.6, 5.2, and 5.2, respectively. The trend analysis revealed a significant linear trend as the shorter the DRP, the lower was the sleep quality. This study described sleep quantity, sleep quality, and DRP in Japanese daytime workers. It was found that a shorter DRP was associated with poorer sleep quantity as well as quality.

  15. Déjà-vu all over again: using simulation to evaluate the impact of shorter shelf life for red blood cells at Héma-Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John T; Hardy, Matthew; Delage, Gilles; Myhal, Geneviève

    2013-07-01

    Since the 1970s red blood cells (RBCs) have had a rated shelf life of 42 days. Recently, studies have suggested poorer patient outcomes when older blood is transfused. However, shortening the shelf life of RBCs may increase costs and lead to greater instances of outdates and shortages. A simulation method to evaluate the impact of a shorter shelf life for RBCs on a regional blood network was developed. A network model of the production and distribution system in the province of Quebec was built and validated. The model suggests that a shelf life of 21 or 28 days will have modest impact on outdate and shortage rates. A shelf life of 14 days will create significant challenges for both blood suppliers and hospitals and will result in systemwide outdate rates of 6.64% and shortage rates of 2.75%. The impact of a shorter shelf life for RBCs will disproportionately affect smaller and midsize hospitals. A shelf life of 28 or 21 days is feasible without excessive increases to systemwide outdate, shortage, or emergency ordering rates. Large hospitals will see minimal impact; smaller hospitals will see larger increases and may be unable to find inventory policies that maintain both low outdate and shortage rates. Reducing the shelf life to 14 days, or lower, results in significant challenges for suppliers and hospitals of all sizes. All hospitals will see an impact on outdate and shortage rates; overall systemwide outdate rates (6% or more) will reach levels that would currently be considered unacceptably high. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Detection of solar radio brightness oscillations with 160.01-min period from direct measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, V.A.; Moiseev, I.G.; Nesterov, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that direct measurements of the quiet Sun brightness at 8.2 and 13.5 mm wavelengths corrected for extinction in the Earth atmosphere by means of the Bouguer law reveal the 160.01-min periodic component. The relative amplitudes of variations are of approximately 6x10 -4 at the shorter wavelength and of 10 -3 at the longer one. The brightness maximum coincides with the phase of the maximal radius of the photosphere as derived from the optical data

  17. Medicaid Enrollment Gap Length and Number of Medicaid Enrollment Periods Among US Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined gap length, characteristics associated with gap length, and number of enrollment periods among Medicaid-enrolled children in the United States. Methods. We linked the 2004 National Health Interview Survey to Medicaid Analytic eXtract files for 1999 through 2008. We examined linkage-eligible children aged 5 to 13 years in the 2004 National Health Interview Survey who disenrolled from Medicaid. We generated Kaplan-Meier curves of time to reenrollment. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the effect of sociodemographic variables on time to reenrollment. We compared the percentage of children enrolled 4 or more times across sociodemographic groups. Results. Of children who disenrolled from Medicaid, 35.8%, 47.1%, 63.5%, 70.8%, and 79.1% of children had reenrolled in Medicaid by 6 months, 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Children who were younger, poorer, or of minority race/ethnicity or had lower educated parents had shorter gaps in Medicaid and were more likely to have had 4 or more Medicaid enrollment periods. Conclusions. Nearly half of US children who disenrolled from Medicaid reenrolled within 1 year. Children with traditionally high-risk demographic characteristics had shorter gaps in Medicaid enrollment and were more likely to have more periods of Medicaid enrollment. PMID:25033135

  18. Refinement of the charcoal meal study by reduction of the fasting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Helen; Ewart, Lorna; Bright, Jonathan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a shorter fasting period than the one historically employed for the charcoal meal test, could be used when measuring gastric emptying and intestinal transit within the same animal, and to ascertain whether the scientific outcome would be affected by this benefit to animal welfare. Rats and mice were fasted for 0, 3, 6 or 18 hours before the oral administration of vehicle or atropine. One hour later, the animals were orally administered a charcoal meal, then 20 minutes later, they were killed and the stomach and small intestine were removed. Intestinal transit time (the position of the charcoal front as a percentage of the total length of the small intestine) and relative gastric emptying (weight of stomach contents) were measured. Rats and mice fasted for six hours showed results for gastric emptying and intestinal transit which were similar to those obtained in animals fasted for 18 hours. Reducing the fasting period reduced the body weight loss in both species, and mice on shorter fasts could be group-housed, as hunger-induced fighting was lessened. Therefore, a fasting period of six hours was subsequently adopted for charcoal meal studies at our institution. 2011 FRAME.

  19. Superoutburst of a New Sub-Period-Minimum Dwarf Nova CSS130418 in Hercules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chochol

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multicolour photometry of a new dwarf nova CSS130418 in Hercules, which underwent superoutburst on April 18, 2013, allow to classified it as a WZ Sge-type dwarf nova. The phase light curves for different stages of superoutburst are presented. The early superhumps were used to determine the orbital period Porb = 64.84(1 minutes, which is shorter than the period minimum ~78 minutes for normal hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variables. We found the mean period of ordinary superhumps Psh = 65.559(1 minutes. The quiescent spectrum is rich in helium, showing double peaked emissionlines of H I and He I from accretion disk, so the dwarf nova is in a late stage of stellar evolution.

  20. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    incubation period is much shorter than the time needed to establish an equilibrium structure at the new lower stress. The dependence of dislocation line tension upon line length is taken into account; as a result of this, recovery rates are predicted to depend on stress to a power larger than three......A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...

  1. Periodic weather and climate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V

    2002-01-01

    Variations in meteorological parameters are largely due to periodic processes and can be forecast for several years. Many such processes are related to astronomical factors such as the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the modulation of solar irradiance by lunar and planetary motion. The Moon, Jupiter, and Venus have the strongest effect. These influences produce lines in the spectra of meteorological variations, which are combinations of the harmonics of the frequencies of revolution of the planets, the Earth, and the Moon around the Sun with the harmonics of the lunar revolution around the Earth. Due to frequency differences between the orbital and radial motions, fine spectral features of three types appear: line splitting, line-profile complications due to radial oscillations, and additional lines due to the combination of radial-oscillation frequencies with perturbation harmonics. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. The periodic table in Flatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1995-01-01

    The D-dimensional Coulomb system serves as a starting point for generating generalized atomic shells. These shells are ordered according to a generalized Madelung rule in D dimensions. This rule together with an Aufbau Prinzip is applied to produce a D-dimensional periodic table. A model is developed to rationalize the ordering of the shells predicted by the generalized Madelung rule. This model is based on the introduction of an Hamiltonian, invariant under the q-deformed algebra U q (so(D)), that breaks down the SO (D + 1) dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom in D dimensions. The D = 2 case (Flatland) is investigated with some details. It is shown that the neutral atoms and the (moderately) positive ions correspond to the values q = 0.8 and q = 1, respectively, of the deformation parameter q. (authors). 55 refs

  3. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  4. A periodic table for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  5. Solar wind plasma periodicities observed at 1 AU by IMP 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The IMP 8 spacecraft has been in Earth orbit since 1973, gathering plasma data over one complete 22-year solar cycle. These data are being examined to look for periodicities at time scales ranging from several hours to the entire span of the data set. A 1.3-year periodicity in the radial speed observed by IMP 8 and Voyager 2 has already been reported for the years from 1987 to 1993. The periodogram method, useful for unevenly sampled data such as the IMP 8 plasma data, has been used to search for other periods. It is interesting to note that the 13-year period is not present in the out-of-the-ecliptic component of the velocity (Vz), although a 1-year period is very obvious both visually and on the periodogram. Both components show a very strong peak associated with the 11-year solar cycle variation. This work will be extended to the thermal speed (a measure of the wind's temperature) and density, although the frequent correlations between these parameters and the velocity are expected to cause similar results. Additionally, the fine resolution data will be examined for shorter time periods than are visible using the hourly average data which are appropriate for longer periods. A comparison with periods observed at other spacecraft may also be made.

  6. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in the Most Powerful Solar Flare of Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, Dmitrii Y.; Pugh, Chloe E.; Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2018-05-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are common in solar flares and are now regularly observed in stellar flares. We present the detection of two different types of QPP signals in the thermal emission light curves of the X9.3-class solar flare SOL2017-09-06T12:02, which is the most powerful flare of Cycle 24. The period of the shorter-period QPP drifts from about 12 to 25 s during the flare. The observed properties of this QPP are consistent with a sausage oscillation of a plasma loop in the flaring active region. The period of the longer-period QPP is about 4 to 5 minutes. Its properties are compatible with standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations, which are often detected in coronal loops. For both QPP signals, other mechanisms such as repetitive reconnection cannot be ruled out, however. The studied solar flare has an energy in the realm of observed stellar flares, and the fact that there is evidence of a short-period QPP signal typical of solar flares along with a long-period QPP signal more typical of stellar flares suggests that the different ranges of QPP periods typically observed in solar and stellar flares is likely due to observational constraints, and that similar physical processes may be occurring in solar and stellar flares.

  7. OVIPOSITION AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ALKALOIDAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1000 ppm concentration and ovicidal activity at 25-100 ppm concentration against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Water treated with alkaloidal extract at 1000ppm received significantly more egg rafts of vector mosquitoes ...

  8. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Auer, Sonya K; Bassar, Ronald D; Niklison, Alina M; Lloyd, Penn

    2007-11-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized.

  9. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Niklison, Alina M.; Lloyd, P.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  10. State updating and calibration period selection to improve dynamic monthly streamflow forecasts for an environmental flow management application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Matthew S.; McInerney, David; Humphrey, Greer; Thyer, Mark A.; Maier, Holger R.; Dandy, Graeme C.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2018-02-01

    Monthly to seasonal streamflow forecasts provide useful information for a range of water resource management and planning applications. This work focuses on improving such forecasts by considering the following two aspects: (1) state updating to force the models to match observations from the start of the forecast period, and (2) selection of a shorter calibration period that is more representative of the forecast period, compared to a longer calibration period traditionally used. The analysis is undertaken in the context of using streamflow forecasts for environmental flow water management of an open channel drainage network in southern Australia. Forecasts of monthly streamflow are obtained using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model combined with a post-processor error model for uncertainty analysis. This model set-up is applied to two catchments, one with stronger evidence of non-stationarity than the other. A range of metrics are used to assess different aspects of predictive performance, including reliability, sharpness, bias and accuracy. The results indicate that, for most scenarios and metrics, state updating improves predictive performance for both observed rainfall and forecast rainfall sources. Using the shorter calibration period also improves predictive performance, particularly for the catchment with stronger evidence of non-stationarity. The results highlight that a traditional approach of using a long calibration period can degrade predictive performance when there is evidence of non-stationarity. The techniques presented can form the basis for operational monthly streamflow forecasting systems and provide support for environmental decision-making.

  11. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  12. Toward 2D Seismic Wavefield Monitoring: Seismic Gradiometry for Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Nishida, K.; Takagi, R.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km. We can observe long-period seismic wave propagation as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength. In contrast, short-period waves are quite incoherent at stations, however, their envelope shapes resemble at neighbor stations. Therefore, we may be able to extract seismic wave energy propagation by seismogram envelope analysis. We attempted to characterize seismic waveform at long-period and its envelope at short-period as 2D wavefield by applying seismic gradiometry. We applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50s) dataset prepared by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout. Wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are estimated by using data at nearby stations. The slowness vector, the radiation pattern and the geometrical spreading are extracted from estimated velocity, displacement and its spatial derivatives. For short-periods at shorter than 1 s, seismogram envelope shows temporal and spatial broadening through scattering by medium heterogeneity. It is expected that envelope shape may be coherent among nearby stations. Based on this idea, we applied the same method to the time-integration of seismogram envelope to estimate its spatial derivatives. Together with seismogram envelope, we succeeded in estimating the slowness vector from the seismogram envelope as well as long-period waveforms by synthetic test, without using phase information. Our preliminarily results show that the seismic gradiometry suits the Hi-net to extract wave propagation characteristics both at long and short periods. This method is appealing that it can estimate waves at homogeneous grid to monitor seismic wave as a wavefield. It is promising to obtain phase velocity variation from direct waves, and to grasp wave

  13. Laser-induced atomic assembling of periodic layered nanostructures of silver nanoparticles in fluoro-polymer film matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, V N; Minaev, N V; Timashev, P S; Yusupov, V I; Rybaltovsky, A O; Firsov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Fluorinated acrylic polymer (FAP) films have been impregnated with silver precursor (Ag(hfac)COD) by supercritical fluid technique and next irradiated with laser (λ = 532 nm). Laser-chemically reduced Ag atoms have been assembled into massifs of Ag nanoparticles (3 – 8 nm) in FAP/Ag(hfac)COD films matrix in the form of periodic layered nanostructures (horizontal to film surface) with unexpectedly short period (90 – 180 nm). The wavelet analysis of TEM images reveals the existence of even shorter-period structures in such films. Photolysis with non-coherent light or pyrolysis of FAP/Ag(hfac)COD film results in formation of Ag nanoparticles massifs but free of any periodic nanoparticle assemblies. Our interpretation of the observed effect of laser formation of short-period nano-sized Ag nanoparticle assemblies is based on self-enhanced interference process in the course of modification of optical properties of film

  14. Periodic thermodynamics of laser-driven molecular motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dan; Zheng Wenwei; Wang Zhisong

    2008-01-01

    Operation of a laser-driven nano-motor inevitably generates a non-trivial amount of heat, which can possibly lead to instability or even hinder the motor's continual running. This work quantitatively examines the overheating problem for a recently proposed laser-operated molecular locomotive. We present a single-molecule cooling theory, in which molecular details of the locomotive system are explicitly treated. This theory is able to quantitatively predict cooling efficiency for various candidates of molecular systems for the locomotive, and also suggests concrete strategies for improving the locomotive's cooling. It is found that water environment is able to cool the hot locomotive down to room temperature within 100 picoseconds after photon absorption. This cooling time is a few orders of magnitude shorter than the typical time for laser operation, effectively preventing any overheating for the nano-locomotive. However, when the cooling is less effective in non-aqueous environment, residual heat may build up. A continuous running of the motor will then lead to a periodic thermodynamics, which is a common character of many laser-operated nano-devices

  15. The development and validation of a shorter version of the Canadian Health Care Evaluation Project Questionnaire (CANHELP Lite): a novel tool to measure patient and family satisfaction with end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G; Cohen, S Robin

    2013-08-01

    The recently developed Canadian Health Care Evaluation Project (CANHELP) questionnaire, which can be used to assess both patient and family satisfaction with end-of-life care, takes 40-60 minutes to complete. The length of the interview may limit its uptake and clinical utility; a shorter version would make its use more feasible. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a shorter version of the CANHELP questionnaire. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of patients with advanced medical diseases and their family members. Participants completed the long version of CANHELP, a global rating of satisfaction with care (GRS), the FAMCARE scale (family members only), and a quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire. We reduced the items on the long version based on their relationship to the GRS, the frequency of missing data, the distribution of responses, the redundancy of the items, and focus groups with frontline users. With the remaining items, we assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and evaluated construct validity by describing the correlation of the new CANHELP Lite with the full version of CANHELP, GRS, FAMCARE, and the QOL questionnaire scores. A total of 363 patients and 193 family members participated in this study. The patient version was reduced from 37 items to 20 items and the caregiver version was reduced from 38 items to 21 items. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.68 to 0.93 for all domains of both the patient and caregiver questionnaires. We observed a high degree of correlation between CANHELP Lite domains and overall scores and the same domains and overall scores for the full version of CANHELP. In addition, we observed moderate to strong correlation between the CANHELP Lite overall satisfaction scores and the GRS questions. There was moderate correlation between the overall family member CANHELP Lite score and overall FAMCARE score (r = 0.45) and this was similar to the correlation between the full version of

  16. Crystallography beyond periodic Crystal perfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez-Rams, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of the quasi-crystals [D. Schechtman et. Al., Phys.] Rev. Lett. [53, 1951-1953 (1984)] made very narrow definition of the crystalline state based on the periodicity of a local arrangement of atoms. Since the definition of this State has been a matter of much controversy [G.R. Desiraju, Nature 423, 485 (2003); S. van Smaalen, IUCR Aperiodic Commission Reports. August 7, 2002; International Union of Crystallography. Report of the Executive Committee for 1991; ACTA Cryst. A48, 922-946 (1992)]. We will make a presentation of the current time of the crystallography in this regard from the conceptual point of view. We show the use of the formalism of algorithmic complexity or Kolmogorov [M. Li and P. Vitanyi, An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1993), W.H. Zurek, Phys.] Rev. 40, 4731 (1989); Nature 341, 119-124 (1989)] provides a different perspective on the nature of the Crystallographic order. Infinite crystals can be considered solid with zero algorithmic complexities by atom. Show statistical analysis of inorganic compounds [J.L.C. Daams et al., Atlas of Crystal Structure Types for Intermetallic Phases (ASM International, Ohio, 1991), Fachinformationszentrum/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database, Karlsruhe (2003) icsd.fkf.mpg.de] demonstrating that the minimization of complexity is a trend in the crystalline arrangement. We will then compare the degree of disorder of some typical solids according to their algorithmic complexity. Finally, space diffraction will be studied from this same perspective and will be discussed that zero algorithmic complexities by point in space of diffraction does not necessarily imply the same thing for the Atomic arrangement. The discrete portion of the diffraction pattern is a fingerprint of the underlying order but not the actual existence of long-range order. Experimental results will be showcased [E. Estévez-Rams et al., Physical Review B, 63 (2001

  17. Highly efficient pulsed power supply system with a two-stage LC generator and a step-up transformer for fast capillary discharge soft x-ray laser at shorter wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Takahashi, Shnsuke; Komatsu, Takanori; Song, Inho; Watanabe, Masato; Hotta, Eiki

    2010-01-01

    Highly efficient and compact pulsed power supply system for a capillary discharge soft x-ray laser (SXRL) has been developed. The system consists of a 2.2 μF two-stage LC inversion generator, a 2:54 step-up transformer, a 3 nF water capacitor, and a discharge section with a few tens of centimeter length capillary. Adoption of the pulsed transformer in combination with the LC inversion generator enables us to use only one gap switch in the circuit for charging the water capacitor up to about 0.5 MV. Furthermore, step-up ratio of a water capacitor voltage to a LC inversion generator initial charging voltage is about 40 with energy transfer efficiency of about 50%. It also leads to good reproducibility of a capillary discharge which is necessary for lasing a SXRL stably. For the study of the possibility of lasing a SXRL at shorter wavelength in a small laboratory scale, high-density and high-temperature plasma column suitable for the laser can be generated relatively easily with this system.

  18. Periodic precursors of nonlinear dynamical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yu; Dong Shihai; Lozada-Cassou, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the resonant response of a nonlinear system to external periodic perturbations. We show by numerical simulation that the periodic resonance curve may anticipate the dynamical instability of the unperturbed nonlinear periodic system, at parameter values far away from the bifurcation points. In the presence of noise, the buried intrinsic periodic dynamics can be picked out by analyzing the system's response to periodic modulation of appropriate intensity

  19. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  20. Effect of Temperature on Feeding Period of Larval Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Eastern Fence Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Lebrun, Roger A; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2014-11-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bosc & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  1. Minimization of Dead-Periods in MRI Pulse Sequences for Imaging Oblique Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Ergin; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of breath-hold MR cardiac imaging techniques, the minimization of TR and TE for oblique planes has become a critical issue. The slew rates and maximum currents of gradient amplifiers limit the minimum possible TR and TE by adding dead-periods to the pulse sequences. We propose a method of designing gradient waveforms that will be applied to the amplifiers instead of the slice, readout, and phase encoding waveforms. Because this method ensures that the gradient amplifiers will always switch at their maximum slew rate, it results in the minimum possible dead-period for given imaging parameters and scan plane position. A GRASS pulse sequence has been designed and ultra-short TR and TE values have been obtained with standard gradient amplifiers and coils. For some oblique slices, we have achieved shorter TR and TE values than those for nonoblique slices. PMID:7869900

  2. Padrão de oviposição e tabela de vida da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae Oviposition pattern and life table of South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A traça-do-tomateiro apresentou maior oviposição ao colonizar tomateiros cultivados em sistema convencional em relação ao orgânico em estudos prévios realizados no campo. Visando confirmar e entender o padrão observado no campo, aspectos bioecológicos como oviposição e mortalidade de imaturos foram comparados em condições semi-controladas de casa de vegetação com plantas cultivadas em vasos com solo proveniente do sistema orgânico e convencional. Adultos da traça-do-tomateiro foram liberados na casa de vegetação e após 24h, as plantas infestadas foram transferidas para outra casa de vegetação, para acompanhamento de coortes horizontais. Os ovos naturalmente depositados pela traça-do-tomateiro foram localizados na planta e demarcados. Em seguida, a folha foi ensacada. Diariamente as plantas foram observadas, registrando a fase de desenvolvimento do inseto e a ocorrência de morte, até que todos os insetos completassem seu ciclo de vida. A oviposição pela traça-do-tomateiro em plantas com solos oriundos do sistema convencional foi duas vezes maior do que em plantas com solos do sistema orgânico. A curva de sobrevivência da fase imatura e a tabela de vida da traça-do-tomateiro em casa de vegetação mostraram que a sobrevivência em plantas com solo orgânico e convencional não apresentaram diferenças. Assim as diferenças no comportamento de padrão de oviposição observadas a campo provavelmente não estão relacionadas com o desempenho da progênie e podem ser influenciado pelo ambiente proporcionado pelo sistema orgânico de produção.The tomato pinworm presented higher oviposition when colonizing tomato plants cropped in conventional system than in organic system, in previous field studies. Aiming to confirm and to understand the observed pattern in the field, bioecological processes, such as oviposition and mortality of immatures, were compared on ploted plants in soil from organic and conventional systems in

  3. Periodic Poisson Solver for Particle Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohlus, M.; Henning, C.

    2015-05-01

    A method is described to solve the Poisson problem for a three dimensional source distribution that is periodic into one direction. Perpendicular to the direction of periodicity a free space (or open) boundary is realized. In beam physics, this approach allows to calculate the space charge field of a continualized charged particle distribution with periodic pattern. The method is based on a particle mesh approach with equidistant grid and fast convolution with a Green's function. The periodic approach uses only one period of the source distribution, but a periodic extension of the Green's function. The approach is numerically efficient and allows the investigation of periodic- and pseudo-periodic structures with period lengths that are small compared to the source dimensions, for instance of laser modulated beams or of the evolution of micro bunch structures. Applications for laser modulated beams are given.

  4. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  5. Unstable periodic orbits and chaotic economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, K.; Saiki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically find many unstable periodic solutions embedded in a chaotic attractor in a macroeconomic growth cycle model of two countries with different fiscal policies, and we focus on a special type of the unstable periodic solutions. It is confirmed that chaotic behavior represented by the model is qualitatively and quantitatively related to the unstable periodic solutions. We point out that the structure of a chaotic solution is dissolved into a class of finite unstable periodic solutions picked out among a large number of periodic solutions. In this context it is essential for the unstable periodic solutions to be embedded in the chaotic attractor

  6. Shorter dialysis session length was not associated with lower mental health and physical functioning in elderly hemodialysis patients: Results from the Japan Dialysis Outcome and Practice Patterns Study (J-DOPPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kitagawa

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is often prioritized over long-term survival in elderly patients. Although a longer dialysis session length (DSL has been shown to reduce mortality, its effects on improving the HRQOL are unknown.Using data from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (J-DOPPS, patients aged ≥ 65 years on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled. DSL was categorized as short (240 minutes. The primary outcomes were changes in mental health (ΔMH and physical functioning (ΔPF scores assessed using the Japanese version of SF-12, in one year. The differences in the ΔMH and ΔPF among the three groups were assessed via regression (beta coefficients derived using a linear regression model.Of 1,187 patients at baseline, 319 (26.9% had a short length, 686 (57.8% a medium length, and 182 (15.3% a long length. We assessed the ΔMH data from 793 patients and the ΔPF data from 738. No significant differences in the ΔMH were noted for the short or long groups compared with the medium group (score difference: 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.17 to 4.69 for short; score difference: -1.15, 95% CI: -6.17 to 3.86 for long. Similarly, no significant differences were noted for these groups versus the medium group in ΔPF either (score difference: -1.43, 95% CI: -6.73 to 3.87 for short; score difference: -1.71, 95% CI: -7.63 to 4.22 for long.A shorter DSL might have no adverse effects on MH or PF for elderly patients.

  7. Impact of Dose Reductions, Delays Between Chemotherapy Cycles, and/or Shorter Courses of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients: a Single-Center Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouros, Joseph; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Kouvatseas, George; Rapti, Anna; Stamoulis, George; Bisvikis, Anastasios; Res, Helen; Samantas, Epameinondas

    2015-12-01

    Most stage II or III colorectal cancer patients are receiving nowadays a 4 to 6-month course of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, delays between cycles, reductions in the doses of chemotherapy drugs, or even permanent omissions of chemotherapy cycles might take place due to side effects or patient's preference. We examined the impact of these treatment modifications on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively collected data from colorectal cancer patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy in our Department. Patients were categorized in five groups based on whether they had or not delays between chemotherapy cycles, dose reductions, and permanent omissions of chemotherapy cycles. Three-year RFS and OS of the five different groups were compared using the log-rank test and the Sidak approach. Five hundred and eight patients received treatment. Twenty seven percent of the patients had the full course of chemotherapy; the others had delays, dose reductions, or early termination of the treatment. No statistically significant differences were observed in 3-year RFS and OS between the five groups. A trend for worse RFS was noticed with early termination of treatment. A similar trend was also noticed for OS but only for stage II patients. In colorectal cancer patients, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, delays between chemotherapy cycles, dose reductions of chemotherapy drugs, or even early termination of the treatment course do not seem to have a negative impact in 3-year RFS and OS; however, due to the trend of worse RFS in patients receiving shorter courses of chemotherapy, further studies are needed.

  8. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A K

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression.

  9. Periodic solutions of nonlinear vibrating beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Berkovits

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove new existence and multiplicity results for periodic semilinear beam equation with a nonlinear time-independent perturbation in case the period is not prescribed. Since the spectrum of the linear part varies with the period, the solvability of the equation depends crucially on the period which can be chosen as a free parameter. Since the period of the external forcing is generally unknown a priori, we consider the following natural problem. For a given time-independent nonlinearity, find periods T for which the equation is solvable for any T-periodic forcing. We will also deal with the existence of multiple solutions when the nonlinearity interacts with the spectrum of the linear part. We show that under certain conditions multiple solutions do exist for any small forcing term with suitable period T. The results are obtained via generalized Leray-Schauder degree and reductions to invariant subspaces.

  10. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide to form a substance consisting of not less than 60 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240 Food... Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in...

  11. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1) For all SCF turnaround Periodicals properly...

  12. 27 CFR 70.244 - Payroll period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll period. 70.244... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.244 Payroll period. For purpose of determining the... established calendar period regularly used by the employer or other person levied upon for payroll or payment...

  13. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  14. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of an...

  15. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant...

  16. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus...

  17. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142) for...

  18. North–South Asymmetry in Rieger-type Periodicity during Solar Cycles 19–23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgenashvili, Eka; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis; Dikpati, Mausumi; McIntosh, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    Rieger-type periodicity has been detected in different activity indices over many solar cycles. It was recently shown that the periodicity correlates with solar activity having a shorter period during stronger cycles. Solar activity level is generally asymmetric between northern and southern hemispheres, which could suggest the presence of a similar behavior in the Rieger-type periodicity. We analyze the sunspot area/number and the total magnetic flux data for northern and southern hemispheres during solar cycles 19–23, which had remarkable north–south asymmetry. Using wavelet analysis of sunspot area and number during the north-dominated cycles (19–20), we obtained the periodicity of 160–165 days in the stronger northern hemisphere and 180–190 days in the weaker southern hemisphere. On the other hand, south-dominated cycles (21–23) display the periodicity of 155–160 days in the stronger southern hemisphere and 175–188 days in the weaker northern hemisphere. Therefore, the Rieger-type periodicity has the north–south asymmetry in sunspot area/number data during solar cycles with strong hemispheric asymmetry. We suggest that the periodicity is caused by magnetic Rossby waves in the internal dynamo layer. Using the dispersion relation of magnetic Rossby waves and observed Rieger periodicity, we estimated the magnetic field strength in the layer as 45–49 kG in more active hemispheres (north during cycles 19–20 and south during cycles 21–23) and 33–40 kG in weaker hemispheres. The estimated difference in the hemispheric field strength is around 10 kG, which provides a challenge for dynamo models. Total magnetic flux data during cycles 20–23 reveals no clear north–south asymmetry, which needs to be explained in the future.

  19. Tropical temperature altitude amplification in the hiatus period (1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducić Vladan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1998-2012 there was a stagnation in temperature rise, despite the GHGs radiation forcing is increased (hiatus period. According to Global Circulation Models simulations, expected response on the rise of GHGs forcing is tropical temperature altitude amplification - temperature increases faster in higher troposphere than in lower troposphere. In this paper, two satellite data sets, UAH MSU and RSS, were used to test altitude temperature amplification in tropic (20°N-20°S in the hiatus period. We compared data from satellite data sets from lower troposphere (TLT and middle troposphere (TMT in general and particularly for land and ocean (for UAH MSU. The results from both satellite measurements showed the presence of hiatus, i.e. slowdown of the temperature rise in the period 1998-2012 compared to period 1979-2012 (UAH MSU and temperature fall for RSS data. Smaller increase, i.e. temperature fall over ocean showed that hiatus is an ocean phenomenon above all. Data for UAH MSU showed that temperature altitude amplification in tropic was not present either for period 1979-2012, or 1998-2012. RSS data set also do not show temperature altitude amplification either for longer (1979-2012, or for shorter period (1998-2012. RSS data for successive 15-year periods from 1979-1993 till 1998-2012 does not show tropical temperature altitude amplification and in one case negative trend is registered in TLT and in two cases in TMT. In general, our results do not show presence of temperature altitude amplification in tropic in the hiatus period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007

  20. North–South Asymmetry in Rieger-type Periodicity during Solar Cycles 19–23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgenashvili, Eka; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Kukhianidze, Vasil [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory at Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Dikpati, Mausumi; McIntosh, Scott W., E-mail: Eka.gurgenashvili.1@iliauni.edu.ge [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Rieger-type periodicity has been detected in different activity indices over many solar cycles. It was recently shown that the periodicity correlates with solar activity having a shorter period during stronger cycles. Solar activity level is generally asymmetric between northern and southern hemispheres, which could suggest the presence of a similar behavior in the Rieger-type periodicity. We analyze the sunspot area/number and the total magnetic flux data for northern and southern hemispheres during solar cycles 19–23, which had remarkable north–south asymmetry. Using wavelet analysis of sunspot area and number during the north-dominated cycles (19–20), we obtained the periodicity of 160–165 days in the stronger northern hemisphere and 180–190 days in the weaker southern hemisphere. On the other hand, south-dominated cycles (21–23) display the periodicity of 155–160 days in the stronger southern hemisphere and 175–188 days in the weaker northern hemisphere. Therefore, the Rieger-type periodicity has the north–south asymmetry in sunspot area/number data during solar cycles with strong hemispheric asymmetry. We suggest that the periodicity is caused by magnetic Rossby waves in the internal dynamo layer. Using the dispersion relation of magnetic Rossby waves and observed Rieger periodicity, we estimated the magnetic field strength in the layer as 45–49 kG in more active hemispheres (north during cycles 19–20 and south during cycles 21–23) and 33–40 kG in weaker hemispheres. The estimated difference in the hemispheric field strength is around 10 kG, which provides a challenge for dynamo models. Total magnetic flux data during cycles 20–23 reveals no clear north–south asymmetry, which needs to be explained in the future.

  1. TRANSITING PLANETS WITH LSST. II. PERIOD DETECTION OF PLANETS ORBITING 1 M{sub ⊙} HOSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacklin, Savannah [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Lund, Michael B.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will photometrically monitor ∼10{sup 9} stars for 10 years. The resulting light curves can be used to detect transiting exoplanets. In particular, as demonstrated by Lund et al., LSST will probe stellar populations currently undersampled in most exoplanet transit surveys, including out to extragalactic distances. In this paper we test the efficiency of the box-fitting least-squares (BLS) algorithm for accurately recovering the periods of transiting exoplanets using simulated LSST data. We model planets with a range of radii orbiting a solar-mass star at a distance of 7 kpc, with orbital periods ranging from 0.5 to 20 days. We find that standard-cadence LSST observations will be able to reliably recover the periods of Hot Jupiters with periods shorter than ∼3 days; however, it will remain a challenge to confidently distinguish these transiting planets from false positives. At the same time, we find that the LSST deep-drilling cadence is extremely powerful: the BLS algorithm successfully recovers at least 30% of sub-Saturn-size exoplanets with orbital periods as long as 20 days, and a simple BLS power criterion robustly distinguishes ∼98% of these from photometric (i.e., statistical) false positives.

  2. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher

    2017-11-14

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. A highly specific test for periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansmann, Gerrit, E-mail: gansmann@uni-bonn.de [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  4. A highly specific test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series

  5. The power of the Kashrut: older but shorter : The impact of religious nutritional and hygienic rules on stature and life expectancy of Jewish conscripts in the early 19th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassenaar, V.; Karel, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. Subjects/Methods: We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818–1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather

  6. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  7. Return periods of losses associated with European windstorm series in a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karremann, Melanie K; Pinto, Joaquim G; Reyers, Mark; Klawa, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Possible future changes of clustering and return periods (RPs) of European storm series with high potential losses are quantified. Historical storm series are identified using 40 winters of reanalysis. Time series of top events (1, 2 or 5 year return levels (RLs)) are used to assess RPs of storm series both empirically and theoretically. Additionally, 800 winters of general circulation model simulations for present (1960–2000) and future (2060–2100) climate conditions are investigated. Clustering is identified for most countries, and estimated RPs are similar for reanalysis and present day simulations. Future changes of RPs are estimated for fixed RLs and fixed loss index thresholds. For the former, shorter RPs are found for Western Europe, but changes are small and spatially heterogeneous. For the latter, which combines the effects of clustering and event ranking shifts, shorter RPs are found everywhere except for Mediterranean countries. These changes are generally not statistically significant between recent and future climate. However, the RPs for the fixed loss index approach are mostly beyond the range of pre-industrial natural climate variability. This is not true for fixed RLs. The quantification of losses associated with storm series permits a more adequate windstorm risk assessment in a changing climate. (letter)

  8. Discrete symmetries in periodic-orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of periodic-orbit theory to systems which possess a discrete symmetry is considered. A semiclassical expression for the symmetry-projected Green's function is obtained; it involves a sum over classical periodic orbits on a symmetry-reduced phase space, weighted by characters of the symmetry group. These periodic orbits correspond to trajectories on the full phase space which are not necessarily periodic, but whose end points are related by symmetry. If the symmetry-projected Green's functions are summed, the contributions of the unperiodic orbits cancel, and one recovers the usual periodic-orbit sum for the full Green's function. Several examples are considered, including the stadium billiard, a particle in a periodic potential, the Sinai billiard, the quartic oscillator, and the rotational spectrum of SF 6

  9. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P

    2009-01-01

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  10. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P, E-mail: tillmann.kubis@wsi.tum.d [Walter Schottky Institute, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  11. Southern hemisphere searches for short period pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchester, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two searches of the southern sky for short period pulsars are briefly described. The first, made using the 64-m telescope at Parkes, is sensitive to pulsars with periods greater than about 10 ms and the second, made using the Molonglo radio telescope, has sensitivity down to periods of about 1.5 ms. Four pulsars were found in the Parkes survey and none in the Molonglo survey, although analysis of the latter is as yet incomplete. 10 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  12. Long-Period Variability in o Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, Margarita

    2009-02-01

    We carried out a new and sensitive search for long-period variability in the prototype of the Mira class of long-period pulsating variables, o Ceti (Mira A), the closest and brightest Mira variable. We conducted this search using an unbroken light curve from 1902 to the present, assembled from the visual data archives of five major variable star observing organizations from around the world. We applied several time-series analysis techniques to search for two specific kinds of variability: long secondary periods (LSPs) longer than the dominant pulsation period of ~333 days, and long-term period variation in the dominant pulsation period itself. The data quality is sufficient to detect coherent periodic variations with photometric amplitudes of 0.05 mag or less. We do not find evidence for coherent LSPs in o Ceti to a limit of 0.1 mag, where the amplitude limit is set by intrinsic, stochastic, low-frequency variability of approximately 0.1 mag. We marginally detect a slight modulation of the pulsation period similar in timescale to that observed in the Miras with meandering periods, but with a much lower period amplitude of ±2 days. However, we do find clear evidence of a low-frequency power-law component in the Fourier spectrum of o Ceti's long-term light curve. The amplitude of this stochastic variability is approximately 0.1 mag at a period of 1000 days, and it exhibits a turnover for periods longer than this. This spectrum is similar to the red noise spectra observed in red supergiants.

  13. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathsen, Curtis

    2001-01-01

    .... This descriptive study was conducted to determine which surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when receiving epidural analgesia in the postoperative period...

  14. Project 2nd Periodic Report - Section 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Mark; Knowles, Emma; Johnstone, Cameron

    The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive.......The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive....

  15. Periodic Continuing Disability Review Case Backlog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) conducts periodic CDRs to ensure that only those beneficiaries who remain disabled continue to receive monthly benefits. The...

  16. The role of latency period in quality management for free-breathing coronary wall MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Liu, Ying; Bi, Xiaoming; Lu, Biao; Li, Debiao; Carr, James C

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the latency period on the performance of free-breathing coronary wall MRI. With the approval of IRB, 70 participants were recruited for coronary wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and provided written informed consent. In 35 subjects, right coronary segments (RCA1-3) were imaged first; in the remaining subjects, the left coronary segments (LM and LAD1-3) were imaged first. The images were classified into groups; group 1 contained right coronary images from the subjects whose right coronary segments were imaged first and left coronary images from the subjects whose left coronary segments were imaged first. Group 2 contained the other coronary segments. The image scores (ranked1-3), latency periods, drift of the position of the navigator (NAV), scan efficiency were compared between image groups. Image group 1 has higher scores (1.66 ± 0.55 vs. 1.46 ± 0.51), shorter latency periods (32.04 ± 4.24 vs. 44.22 ± 5.57 min), lower drift in the location of the NAV (1.90 ± 1.27 mm vs. 2.61 ± 1.71 mm) and higher scan efficiency (32.7 ± 7.6 vs. 29.9 ± 7.9%) than group 2. Long latency periods have a significantly negative impact on the image quality of coronary wall MRI.

  17. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. (a) Annual income limitations; old-law pension. Where the right to old-law pension is payable under section...

  18. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall maintain...

  19. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that for...

  20. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following the...