WorldWideScience

Sample records for shorter legibility distance

  1. Designing legible fonts for distance reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews existing knowledge on distance legibility of fonts, and finds that for optimal distance reading, letters and numbers benefit from relative wide shapes, open inner counters and a large x-height; fonts should further be widely spaced, and the weight should not be too heavy or t...

  2. The effects of age, viewing distance, display type, font type, colour contrast and number of syllables on the legibility of Korean characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Lee, Inseok; Jung, Myung-Chul; Song, Young-Woong

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of age (20s and 60s), viewing distance (50 cm, 200 cm), display type (paper, monitor), font type (Gothic, Ming), colour contrast (black letters on white background, white letters on black background) and number of syllables (one, two) on the legibility of Korean characters by using the four legibility measures (minimum letter size for 100% correctness, maximum letter size for 0% correctness, minimum letter size for the least discomfort and maximum letter size for the most discomfort). Ten subjects in each age group read the four letters presented on a slide (letter size varied from 80 pt to 2 pt). Subjects also subjectively rated the reading discomfort of the letters on a 4-point scale (1 = no discomfort, 4 = most discomfort). According to the ANOVA procedure, age, viewing distance and font type significantly affected the four dependent variables (p fonts were smaller than the Ming fonts. Monitors were smaller than paper for correctness and maximum letter size for the most discomfort. From a comparison of the results for correctness and discomfort, people generally preferred larger letter sizes to those that they could read. The findings of this study may provide basic information for setting a global standard of letter size or font type to improve the legibility of characters written in Korean. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Results obtained in this study will provide basic information and guidelines for setting standards of letter size and font type to improve the legibility of characters written in Korean. Also, the results might offer useful information for people who are working on design of visual displays.

  3. Prenatal paracetamol exposure is associated with shorter anogenital distance in male infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.G.; Thankamony, A.; Hughes, I.A.; Ong, K.K.; Dunger, D.B.; Acerini, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8–14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8–14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW. Animal and human xenograft studies have demonstrated that paracetamol reduces foetal testicular testosterone production, consistent with reported epidemiological associations between prenatal paracetamol exposure and cryptorchidism. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study (Cambridge Baby Growth Study), with recruitment of pregnant women at ~12 post-menstrual weeks of gestation from a single UK maternity unit between 2001 and 2009, and 24 months of infant follow-up. Of 2229 recruited women, 1640 continued with the infancy study after delivery, of whom 676 delivered male infants and completed a medicine consumption questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Mothers self-reported medicine consumption during pregnancy by a questionnaire administered during the perinatal period. Infant AGD (measured from 2006 onwards), penile length and testicular descent were assessed at 0, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, and age-specific Z scores were calculated. Associations between paracetamol intake during three gestational periods (14 weeks) and these outcomes were tested by linear mixed models. Two hundred and twenty-five (33%) of six hundred and eighty-one male infants were exposed to paracetamol during pregnancy, of whom sixty-eight were reported to be exposed during 8–14 weeks. AGD measurements were available for 434 male infants. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Paracetamol exposure during 8–14

  4. Serifs and font legibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, Aries; Cho, Jianna

    2015-01-01

    Using lower-case fonts varying only in serif size (0%, 5%, and 10% cap height), we assessed legibility using size thresholds and reading speed. Five percentage serif fonts were slightly more legible than sans serif, but the average inter-letter spacing increase that serifs themselves impose, predicts greater enhancement than we observed. RSVP and continuous reading speeds showed no effect of serifs. When text is small or distant, serifs may, then, produce a tiny legibility increase due to the concomitant increase in spacing. However, our data exhibited no difference in legibility between typefaces that differ only in the presence or absence of serifs. PMID:16099015

  5. Legibility Evaluation with Oculomotor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Saito, Masao

    Web page legibility is important because of WWW dissemination and color combinations between a foreground and a background are the crucial factors to provide sufficient legibility. In our previous studies, the visibilities of several web-safe color combinations were examined using a psychological method. In those studies, simple stimuli were used because of experimental restriction. In this study, legibility of sentences on Web sites was examined using a psychophisiological method by oculomotor and the effect of the achromatic color combinations, that is contrast, was examined with calculated reading time. The presentation stimuli were positive coloration whose font color luminance is lower than background color, and negative coloration whose font color luminance is higher than background color. And the number of characters per line in each page was arranged in the same number, and the four achromatic colors that is, the contrast between the background color and font color are 92.5, 75.0, 50.0 and 25.0 percent, were examined. As the results, it was shown that reading time of became long when the contrast. However, in the negative coloration, there were great differences between individuals. Therefore, considering web accessibility, the legibility is found to be useful for using a positive coloration.

  6. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  7. The legibility of letters and words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The saying made famous by Mathew Carter that "type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters”, highlights the fact that although a typeface consists of a number of letters it is when the letters are assembled in a word that they become type. However, research indicates...... that what makes letters legible in isolation is not necessarily the same as what makes them legible in words. Is it possible to create a typeface where both letters and words have a high level of legibility or are those factors so different that they cannot be combined? Through a literature review...... on relevant experimental investigations, I will in this talk present examples of when the legibility findings on letters and words correlate and when they differ....

  8. Circadian rhythms in handwriting kinematics and legibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Isabelle; Gordijn, Marijke; Häussler, Andreas; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the circadian rhythmicity in handwriting kinematics and legibility and to compare the performance between Dutch and German writers. Two subject groups underwent a 40 h sleep deprivation protocol under Constant Routine conditions either in Groningen (10 Dutch subjects) or in Berlin (9 German subjects). Both groups wrote every 3h a test sentence of similar structure in their native language. Kinematic handwriting performance was assessed with a digitizing tablet and evaluated by writing speed, writing fluency, and script size. Writing speed (frequency of strokes and average velocity) revealed a clear circadian rhythm, with a parallel decline during night and a minimum around 3:00 h in the morning for both groups. Script size and movement fluency did not vary with time of day in neither group. Legibility of handwriting was evaluated by intra-individually ranking handwriting specimens of the 13 sessions by 10 German and 10 Dutch raters. Whereas legibility ratings of the German handwriting specimens deteriorated during night in parallel with slower writing speed, legibility of the Dutch handwriting deteriorated not until the next morning. In conclusion, the circadian rhythm of handwriting kinematics seems to be independent of script language at least among the two tested western countries. Moreover, handwriting legibility is also subject to a circadian rhythm which, however, seems to be influenced by variations in the assessment protocol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Circadian rhythms in handwriting kinematics and legibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasper, Isabelle; Gordijn, Marijke; Haeussler, Andreas; Hermsdoerfer, Joachim

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the circadian rhythmicity in handwriting kinematics and legibility and to compare the performance between Dutch and German writers. Two subject groups underwent a 40 h sleep deprivation protocol under Constant Routine conditions either in Groningen (10

  10. Typeface legibility: when to use what

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Designers often assume that typeface legibility is defined by a simple set of parameters that works no matter the situation in which the typeface will be applied. That is not true. Different reading situations set different demands to the typeface in question. Whether we talk signage, screen...

  11. 17 CFR 232.308 - Type size and font; legibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type size and font; legibility. 232.308 Section 232.308 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 232.308 Type size and font; legibility. Provisions relating to type size, font and other legibility...

  12. Predicting Handwriting Legibility in Taiwanese Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-I; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni

    This study investigates handwriting characteristics and potential predictors of handwriting legibility among typically developing elementary school children in Taiwan. Predictors of handwriting legibility included visual-motor integration (VMI), visual perception (VP), eye-hand coordination (EHC), and biomechanical characteristics of handwriting. A total of 118 children were recruited from an elementary school in Taipei, Taiwan. A computerized program then assessed their handwriting legibility. The biomechanics of handwriting were assessed using a digitizing writing tablet. The children's VMI, VP, and EHC were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Results indicated that predictive factors of handwriting legibility varied in different age groups. VMI predicted handwriting legibility for first-grade students, and EHC and stroke force predicted handwriting legibility for second-grade students. Kinematic factors such as stroke velocity were the only predictor for children in fifth and sixth grades. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. 17 CFR 230.420 - Legibility of prospectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... size, type size and font, bold-face type, italics and red ink, by presenting all required information... data included therein shall be in roman type at least as large and as legible as 10-point modern type... rule 482 (17 CFR 230.482) may be in roman type at least as large and as legible as 8-point modern type...

  14. Reading Arabic : legibility studies for the Arabic script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    What is the cost of visual complexity? This dissertation sets out to determine the effect of the complexity of word formation on the legibility of Arabic and the role that vocalization plays in reading. This is carried out via a holistic approach to legibility research that combines the visual

  15. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  16. Legibility of Sans Serif Type for Use as Body Copy in Computer Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Joel

    A study examined type legibility on computer screens to determine type styles and type sizes that are most legible. Subjects, 107 college students, tested legibility of Helvetica type in 3 different sizes and 3 different faces. Results indicated no significant differences for legibility of Helvetica 12, 10, and 9 point type in the normal typeface…

  17. 27 CFR 4.63 - Legibility of mandatory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.63 Legibility of... written, printed, or graphic advertisement shall be in lettering or type size sufficient to be conspicuous...

  18. Legibility in Children's Books: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Lynne; Nisbet, John

    This book reviews the research in the field of typography as it affects children's books and sets it in the context of research on reading. The contents include five chapters: "Problems of Definition and Measurement" discusses the various measures of legibility used in research studies. "The Reading Process" examines three…

  19. Assessment of legibility and completeness of handwritten and electronic prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrak, Ahmed I; Al Rashidi, Eman Abdulrahman; Fatani, Rwaa Kamil; Al Ageel, Shoog Ibrahim; Mohammed, Rafiuddin

    2014-12-01

    To assess the legibility and completeness of handwritten prescriptions and compare with electronic prescription system for medication errors. Prospective study. King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Handwritten prescriptions were received from clinical units of Medicine Outpatient Department (MOPD), Primary Care Clinic (PCC) and Surgery Outpatient Department (SOPD) whereas electronic prescriptions were collected from the pediatric ward. The handwritten prescription was assessed for completeness by the checklist designed according to the hospital prescription and evaluated for legibility by two pharmacists. The comparison between handwritten and electronic prescription errors was evaluated based on the validated checklist adopted from previous studies. Legibility and completeness of prescriptions. 398 prescriptions (199 handwritten and 199 e-prescriptions) were assessed. About 71 (35.7%) of handwritten and 5 (2.5%) of electronic prescription errors were identified. A significant statistical difference (P prescriptions in omitted dose and omitted route of administration category of error distribution. The rate of completeness in patient identification in handwritten prescriptions was 80.97% in MOPD, 76.36% in PCC and 85.93% in SOPD clinic units. Assessment of medication prescription completeness was 91.48% in MOPD, 88.48% in PCC, and 89.28% in SOPD. This study revealed a high incidence of prescribing errors in handwritten prescriptions. The use of e-prescription system showed a significant decline in the incidence of errors. The legibility of handwritten prescriptions was relatively good whereas the level of completeness was very low.

  20. The Effect of Text Typographical Features on Legibility, Comprehension, and Retrieval of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Mohammadi, Elham

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the relationship between font type, font size, and line spacing and legibility, as measured by speed of reading, comprehension, and recalling. Instruments for testing legibility and reading comprehension were presented in eight typographical styles in print. The study tested 90 students for legibility and 76…

  1. The effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    This study explored and identified the effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility. A total of 108 participants took part in the experiment. As designed, legibility was measured as a function of the following independent variables: four levels of luminance contrast, sixteen target/background colour combinations, two fonts, and three search times. The results showed that a luminance contrast of 18:1 provided readers with the best legibility. Yellow on black, yellow on blue, and white on blue were the three most legible colour combinations. One of this study's unique findings was that colour combinations may play an even more important role than luminance contrast in the overall legibility of brand icon design. The 12-s search time corresponded with the highest legibility. Arial font was more legible than Times New Roman. These results provide some guidance for brand icon and product advertisement design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Tool for Assessing the Text Legibility of Digital Human Machine Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    A tool intended to aid qualified professionals in the assessment of the legibility of text presented on a digital display is described. The assessment of legibility is primarily for the purposes of designing and analyzing human machine interfaces in accordance with NUREG-0700 and MIL-STD 1472G. The tool addresses shortcomings of existing guidelines by providing more accurate metrics of text legibility with greater sensitivity to design alternatives.

  3. Evaluation of the Legibility of Broken Lines for Partial Sight

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 秀之

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the legibility of broken lines for persons with partial sight. The subjects were 10 persons with simulated partial sight, and 4 persons with partial sight. The simulation was obtained using filters and convex lenses. The 30 kind of broken lines was evaluated by the original test that the subjects were read directions of the broken lines in distinction from solid lines. The thickness of lines varied from 0.1mm. to 0.7mm. in 4 steps. The results...

  4. [Consensus on the legibility criteria of health education leaflets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Cantalejo, I; Simón-Lorda, P; Jiménez, M Melguizo; Ruiz, A Molina

    2011-01-01

    To identify the most relevant aspects that guarantee the readability, clarity and simplicity of written health education materials. Delphi methodology in order to reach a state of consensus among health education experts on criteria of legibility in the design and publication of informative material and literature. Seventeen experts reached agreement on the principal recommendations for ensuring the legibility of health education materials. They were as follows: a) text content and layout: to structure the text using a title or subtitle, message explanation and conclusion; b) text construction: to use simple and concise sentences, diagrams and examples, and graphically highlighting the principal ideas; c) lexical comprehension: to use simple words and avoid technical language and abbreviations; d) typography: to use an easy-to-read font. There is a high degree of consensus regarding the way health education materials should be drawn up. This list of recommendations could be used as an instrument for reviewing and improving the design of health education materials. In general, it is recommended to identify the users of the leaflets and involve them in the writing and design.

  5. Legibility Evaluation Using Point-of-regard Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Saito, Masao

    Web site visibility has become important because of the rapid dissemination of World Wide Web, and combinations of foreground and background colors are crucial in providing high visibility. In our previous studies, the visibilities of several web-safe color combinations were examined using a psychological method. In those studies, simple stimuli were used because of experimental restriction. In this paper, legibility of sentences on web sites was examined using a psychophisiological method, point-of-regard measurement, to obtain other practical data. Ten people with normal color sensations ranging from ages 21 to 29 were recruited. The number of characters per line in each page was arranged in the same number, and the four representative achromatic web-safe colors, that is, #000000, #666666, #999999 and #CCCCCC, were examined. The reading time per character and the gaze time per line were obtained from point-of-regard measurement, and the normalized with the reading time and the gaze time of the three colors were calculated and compared. As the results, it was shown that the time of reading and gaze become long at the same ratio when the contrast decreases by point-of-regard measurement. Therefore, it was indicated that the legibility of color combinations could be estimated by point-of-regard measurement.

  6. Reading the landscape: Legible environments and hominin dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiducci, Dario; Burke, Ariane

    2016-05-06

    Wayfinding, or the ability to plan and navigate a course over the landscape, is a subject of investigation in geography, neurophysiology, psychology, urban planning, and landscape design. With the prevalence of GPS-assisted navigation systems, or "wayfinders," computer scientists are also increasingly interested in understanding how people plan their movements and guide others. However, the importance of wayfinding as a process that regulates human mobility has only recently been incorporated into archeological research design. Hominin groups were able to disperse widely during the course of prehistory. The scope of these dispersals speaks to the innate navigation abilities of hominins. Their long-term success must have depended on an ability to communicate spatial information effectively. Here, we consider the extent to which some landscapes may have been more conducive to wayfinding than others. We also describe a tool we have created for quantifying landscape legibility (sensu Gollege), a complex and under-explored concept in archeology, with a view to investigating the impact of landscape structure on human wayfinding and thus, patterns of dispersal during prehistory. To this end, we have developed a method for quantifying legibility using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and apply it to a test case in prehistoric Iberia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of pencil grasp on the speed and legibility of handwriting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Heidi; Carnahan, Heather; Kushki, Azadeh; Polatajko, Helene; Missiuna, Cheryl; Chau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Pencil grasps other than the dynamic tripod may be functional for handwriting. This study examined the impact of grasp on handwriting speed and legibility. We videotaped 120 typically developing fourth-grade students while they performed a writing task. We categorized the grasps they used and evaluated their writing for speed and legibility using a handwriting assessment. Using linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between grasp and handwriting. We documented six categories of pencil grasp: four mature grasp patterns, one immature grasp pattern, and one alternating grasp pattern. Multiple linear regression results revealed no significant effect for mature grasp on either legibility or speed. Pencil grasp patterns did not influence handwriting speed or legibility in this sample of typically developing children. This finding adds to the mounting body of evidence that alternative grasps may be acceptable for fast and legible handwriting. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. On writing legibly: Processing fluency systematically biases evaluations of handwritten material

    OpenAIRE

    Greifeneder, Rainer; Alt, Alexander; Bottenberg, Konstantin; Seele, Tim; Zelt, Sarah; Wagener, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of handwritten essays or exams are often suspected of being biased, such as by mood states or individual predilections. Although most of these influences are unsystematic, at least one bias is problematic because it systematically affects evaluations of handwritten materials. Three experiments revealed that essays in legible as compared to less legible handwriting were evaluated more positively. This robust finding was related to a basic judgmental mechanism that builds on the flu...

  9. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  10. Auditing The Completeness and Legibility of Computerized Radiological Request Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Househ, Mowafa; Saddik, Basema

    2017-11-04

    Certain Saudi healthcare organizations transfer outpatients to medical imaging departments for radiological examinations in a manual process that relies on the use of paper-based forms. With the increased implementation of electronic medical records in Saudi Hospitals, little is known about the completeness and legibility of information captured in  electronic-based medical imaging forms. The purpose of this study is to audit the completeness and legibility of medical imaging paper-based forms in comparison with electronic-based medical imaging forms. As a secondary objective, we also examined the number of errors found on the forms.An observational retrospective cross-sectional study was utilized to audit the completeness and legibility of both paper and electronic forms collected between March 1 and May 15, 2015. The study measured the association among categorical variables using Chi-Square analysis. The results of this investigation show a significant association between form completion and type of record (i.e., paper vs. electronic) where electronic-based systems were found to be more complete than paper-based records. Electrnoic based records were also found to improve form legibility, promote user adherence to complete the forms and minimize entry errors. In conclusion, electronic-based medical imaging forms are more complete and legible than paper based forms. Future studies should evaluate other hospitals and compare both legibility and completeness of electronic-based medical imaging forms and conduct usability evaluation studies with users to explore the impacts of system design on both completeness and legibility of electronic forms, in general, but more specifically, electronic-based medical imaging forms.

  11. The effect of fine motor skills on handwriting legibility in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.

  12. LEGIBILITY OF NEIGHBORHOOD PARKS AND ITS IMPACT ON SOCIAL INTERACTION IN A PLANNED RESIDENTIAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Moulay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood parks are designed to provide opportunities for leisure and communal activities for the residents. However, studies have indicated that social interactions in these spaces are not at a satisfactory level. In the urban design context, a good public space should be legible to the observers. Legibility refers to the apparent clarity of the cityscape that directs people’s movement, pattern of activities and form of interaction in public spaces. This paper discusses park’s legibility and its impact on social interaction within a neighbourhood. The results presented are based on a questionnaire survey and a mental mapping exercise conducted with residents in the city of Putrajaya, Malaysia. The results demonstrate a strong relationship between the park’s legibility and the social interactions among the park users. A clear structure of the setting and fewer sight obstacles found within the parks influence residents’ pattern and the Intensity of outdoor activities. The findings contribute to the development of legible environments in neighbourhood park design, its positive impact on social interaction, and social bonding among the residents.

  13. Towards a better understanding of the legibility bias in performance assessments: the case of gender-based inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifeneder, Rainer; Zelt, Sarah; Seele, Tim; Bottenberg, Konstantin; Alt, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Handwriting legibility systematically biases evaluations in that highly legible handwriting results in more positive evaluations than less legible handwriting. Because performance assessments in educational contexts are not only based on computerized or multiple choice tests but often include the evaluation of handwritten work samples, understanding the causes of this bias is critical. This research was designed to replicate and extend the legibility bias in two tightly controlled experiments and to explore whether gender-based inferences contribute to its occurrence. A total of 132 students from a German university participated in one pre-test and two independent experiments. Participants were asked to read and evaluate several handwritten essays varying in content quality. Each essay was presented to some participants in highly legible handwriting and to other participants in less legible handwriting. In addition, the assignment of legibility to participant group was reversed from essay to essay, resulting in a mixed-factor design. The legibility bias was replicated in both experiments. Results suggest that gender-based inferences do not account for its occurrence. Rather it appears that fluency from legibility exerts a biasing impact on evaluations of content and author abilities. The legibility bias was shown to be genuine and strong. By refuting a series of alternative explanations, this research contributes to a better understanding of what underlies the legibility bias. The present research may inform those who grade on what to focus and thus help to better allocate cognitive resources when trying to reduce this important source of error. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The effects of visual crowding, text size, and positional uncertainty on text legibility at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobres, Jonathan; Wolfe, Benjamin; Chahine, Nadine; Reimer, Bryan

    2018-07-01

    Reading at a glance, once a relatively infrequent mode of reading, is becoming common. Mobile interaction paradigms increasingly dominate the way in which users obtain information about the world, which often requires reading at a glance, whether from a smartphone, wearable device, or in-vehicle interface. Recent research in these areas has shown that a number of factors can affect text legibility when words are briefly presented in isolation. Here we expand upon this work by examining how legibility is affected by more crowded presentations. Word arrays were combined with a lexical decision task, in which the size of the text elements and the inter-line spacing (leading) between individual items were manipulated to gauge their relative impacts on text legibility. In addition, a single-word presentation condition that randomized the location of presentation was compared with previous work that held position constant. Results show that larger text was more legible than smaller text. Wider leading significantly enhanced legibility as well, but contrary to expectations, wider leading did not fully counteract decrements in legibility at smaller text sizes. Single-word stimuli presented with random positioning were more difficult to read than stationary counterparts from earlier studies. Finally, crowded displays required much greater processing time compared to single-word displays. These results have implications for modern interface design, which often present interactions in the form of scrollable and/or selectable lists. The present findings are of practical interest to the wide community of graphic designers and interface engineers responsible for developing our interfaces of daily use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Legibility of Typefaces for Readers with Low Vision: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Minda, Elizabeth; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Strong, J. Graham; Campbell, Kent A.; Gold, Deborah; Pretty, Lisa; Wilmot, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the research evidence on the effects of the characteristics of typefaces on the legibility of text for adult readers with low vision. The review revealed that research has not produced consistent findings and thus that there is a need to develop standards and guidelines that are informed by evidence.…

  16. A Comparison of Two Instruments for the Assessment of Legibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the utility of a rating and visual analogue scale for the assessment of legibility in prescriptions Methods: A sample of fifty randomly selected ... Conclusion: The findings support the utility of both instruments in the assessment of handwriting but suggest that there may be important differences between ...

  17. Legibility of USP pictograms by clients of community pharmacies in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria Augusta

    2013-02-01

    Effective and safe use of medicines depends on patients' good understanding of the pharmacotherapy. Pictograms are a communication tool, as complement of verbal/written information, to facilitate drug use and, avoiding errors, being useful for drug effectiveness and safety. To assess the ability of pharmacy's clients, in understanding USP pictograms, establishing the relationship with their socio demographic profiles. The study was developed in community pharmacies, in Lisbon region. Cross sectional study, carried out in pharmacies in Lisbon. A structured questionnaire was used in pharmacies clients of 18 years old and above. Legibility of fifteen USP pictograms was studied using ISO and ANSI criteria. Correlation between the legibility of pictograms and pharmacies clients' demographic profile (age, gender, scholarship, frequency of medicines use) was evaluated. SPSS data base version 18 was used for descriptive analysis. Legibility of fifteen United States Pharmacopeia (USP) pictograms and, its relationship with clients' demographic data (scholarship degree, age, frequency of medicines use and, gender) was studied. From 751 responders, ten pictograms were legible by ISO and seven by ANSI. More than 30 % of the responders weren't able to understand five of the pictograms. It was found statistically significant relationships between some the understanding of some pictograms and clients' scholarships degree, age and frequency of medicines use. It was found that not all the fifteen tested USP pictograms were correctly comprehended by Portuguese pharmacies' clients, having found correlations with scholarship degree, daily use of medicines and age group, for some pictograms. To ensure the effectiveness of USP pictograms it is advisable to test patients' comprehension, before their use in general practice.

  18. Legibility difference between e-books and paper books by using an eye tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Yong; Min, Seung-Nam; Subramaniyam, Murali; Cho, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in legibility between e-books and paper books by using an eye tracker. Eight male and eight female subjects free of eye disease participated in the experiment. The experiment was conducted using a 2 × 3 within-subject design. The book type (e-book, paper book) and font size (8 pt, 10 pt, 12 pt) were independent variables, and fixation duration time, saccade length, blink rate and subjective discomfort were dependent variables. In the results, all dependent variables showed that reading paper books provided a better experience than reading e-books did. These results indicate that the legibility of e-books needs further improvement, considering fixation duration time, saccade movement, eye fatigue, device and so on. This study evaluated the legibility difference between e-books and paper books from the viewpoint of readability, eye fatigue and subjective discomfort by using an eye tracker. The results showed that paper books provided a better experience than e-books. This indicates that the readability of e-books needs further improvement in relation to paper books.

  19. Implications of shorter cells in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Further studies on the beam-stay-clear requirements in PEP led to the conclusion that the vertical aperture needed to be enlarged. There are two main reasons for that: Observations at SPEAR indicate that the aperture should be large enough for a fully coupled beam. Full coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron oscillations occurs not only occasionally when the energy, tune or betatron function at the interaction point is changed but also due to the beam/endash/beam effect of two strong colliding beams. The second reason for an increased aperture requirement is the nonlinear perturbation of the particle trajectories by the sextupoles. This perturbation increases a fully coupled beam by another 50% to 80%. Both effects together with a +-5 mm allowance for closed orbit perturbation result in a vertical beam-stay-clear in the bending magnets of +-4.8 to +-5.6 cm, compared to the present +-2.0 cm. This beam-stay-clear, together with additional space for vacuum chamber, etc., leads to very costly bending magnets. In this note, a shorter cell length is proposed which would reduce considerably the vertical beam-stay-clear requirements in the bending magnets. 7 figs

  20. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  1. Legibility Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    out as they do, and the external validity suffers. By applying a method of integrating design practice with academic research, I have designed a new typeface family that addresses this problem of multiple typographical variables. At its current stage, the typeface family Neutral Test has seven members...... where the test material is based on the different members of Neutral Test, the researcher will thus be able to identify the specific stylistic feature that causes a given difference in performance....

  2. Relationships between Fine-Motor, Visual-Motor, and Visual Perception Scores and Handwriting Legibility and Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheryl; Guiltner, Val; Sollereder, Patti; Cui, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Occupational therapists assess fine motor, visual motor, visual perception, and visual skill development, but knowledge of the relationships between scores on sensorimotor performance measures and handwriting legibility and speed is limited. Ninety-nine students in grades three to six with learning and/or behavior problems completed the Upper-Limb…

  3. Shorter anogenital distance predicts poorer semen quality in young men in Rochester, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Stahlhut, Richard W; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    count (p-values, 0.002-0.048). Men with AGD(AS) below (vs. above) the median were 7.3 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 2.5-21.6) to have a low sperm concentration (... percentiles of (adjusted) AGD(AS). CONCLUSIONS: In our population, AGD(AS) was a strong correlate of all semen parameters and a predictor of low sperm concentration. In animals, male AGD at birth reflects androgen levels during the masculinization programming window and predicts adult AGD and reproductive...

  4. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising periods in emergencies. In emergency situations where prompt...

  5. The Napoleon Complex: When Shorter Men Take More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jill E P; Blaker, Nancy M; Van Vugt, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by an evolutionary psychological perspective on the Napoleon complex, we hypothesized that shorter males are more likely to show indirect aggression in resource competitions with taller males. Three studies provide support for our interpretation of the Napoleon complex. Our pilot study shows that men (but not women) keep more resources for themselves when they feel small. When paired with a taller male opponent (Study 1), shorter men keep more resources to themselves in a game in which they have all the power (dictator game) versus a game in which the opponent also has some power (ultimatum game). Furthermore, shorter men are not more likely to show direct, physical aggression toward a taller opponent (Study 2). As predicted by the Napoleon complex, we conclude that (relatively) shorter men show greater behavioral flexibility in securing resources when presented with cues that they are physically less competitive. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. URABN LEGIBILITY AND SHAPING THE IMAGE OF DOHA: Visual Analysis of the Environmental Graphics of the 15th. Asian Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Hasanin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores urban legibility and the associated elements that contribute to the image of the city. It investigates the graphics of the 15th. Asian Games that took place in Doha, December 2006, while placing emphasis on environmental graphics as a vehicle for shaping our indoor and outdoor visual environment. Utilizing the concept of environmental quality and its underlying notion of legibility, the paper analytically describes the environmental graphics of the games event and preliminarily measures Doha residents’ reactions to graphics-based urban settings within the city. The results of performing these procedures reveal that environmental graphics can contribute in shaping the memory of city images and can help establish associations between people past, present and future experience of urban scenes. such results call for including environmental graphics in the work of architects and urban designers toward shaping better memorable images of cities.

  7. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  8. The relevance and legibility of radio/TV weather reports to the Austrian public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, A. G.; Holzer, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    The communicative quality of media weather reports, especially warnings, can be evaluated by user research. It is an interdisciplinary field, still uncoordinated after 35 years. The authors suggest to shift from a cognitive learning model to news processing, qualitative discourse and usability models as the media audience is in an edutainment situation where it acts highly selective. A series of field surveys 2008-2011 tested the relevance and legibility of Austrian radio and television weather reports on fair weather and in warning situations. 247 laypeople heard/saw original, mostly up-to-date radio/TV weather reports and recalled personally relevant data. Also, a questionnaire on weather knowledge was answered by 237 Austrians. Several research hypotheses were tested. The main results were (a) a relatively high level of meteorological knowledge of the general population, with interest and participation of German-speaking migrants, (b) a pluralistic media usage with TV, radio and internet as the leading media, (c) higher interest and attention (also for local weather) after warnings, but a risk of more false recalls after long warnings, (d) more recall problems with radio messages and a wish that the weather elements should always appear in the same order to faciliate processing for the audience. In their narrow time windows, radio/TV weather reports should concentrate on main features (synoptic situation, tomorrow's temperature and precipitation, possible warnings), keep a verbal “speed limit” and restrict show elements to serve the active, selective, multioptional, multicultural audience.

  9. modelling distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Love

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance predicting functions may be used in a variety of applications for estimating travel distances between points. To evaluate the accuracy of a distance predicting function and to determine its parameters, a goodness-of-fit criteria is employed. AD (Absolute Deviations, SD (Squared Deviations and NAD (Normalized Absolute Deviations are the three criteria that are mostly employed in practice. In the literature some assumptions have been made about the properties of each criterion. In this paper, we present statistical analyses performed to compare the three criteria from different perspectives. For this purpose, we employ the ℓkpθ-norm as the distance predicting function, and statistically compare the three criteria by using normalized absolute prediction error distributions in seventeen geographical regions. We find that there exist no significant differences between the criteria. However, since the criterion SD has desirable properties in terms of distance modelling procedures, we suggest its use in practice.

  10. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroni, P; Pifferi, A; Torricelli, A; Spinelli, L; Danesini, G M; Cubeddu, R

    2004-01-01

    The detection of tumours with time-resolved transmittance imaging relies essentially on blood absorption. Previous theoretical and phantom studies have shown that both contrast and spatial resolution of optical images are affected by the optical properties of the background medium, and high absorption and scattering are generally beneficial. Based on these observations, wavelengths shorter than presently used (680-780 nm) could be profitable for optical mammography. A study was thus performed analysing time-resolved transmittance images at 637, 656, 683 and 785 nm obtained from 26 patients bearing 16 tumours and 15 cysts. The optical contrast proved to increase upon decreasing wavelengths for the detection of cancers in late-gated intensity images, with higher gain in contrast for lesions of smaller size (<1.5 cm diameter). For cysts either a progressive increase or decrease in contrast with wavelength was observed in scattering images

  11. The risk of shorter fasting time for pediatric deep sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mathew; Birisci, Esma; Anderson, Jordan E; Anliker, Christina M; Bryant, Micheal A; Downs, Craig; Dalabih, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics calls for prolonged fasting times before performing pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). PSA is increasingly provided to children outside of the operating theater by sedation trained pediatric providers and does not require airway manipulation. We investigated the safety of a shorter fasting time compared to a longer and guideline compliant fasting time. We tried to identify the association between fasting time and sedation-related complications. This is a prospective observational study that included children 2 months to 18 years of age and had an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of I or II, who underwent deep sedation for elective procedures, performed by pediatric critical care providers. Procedures included radiologic imaging studies, electroencephalograms, auditory brainstem response, echocardiograms, Botox injections, and other minor surgical procedures. Subjects were divided into two groups depending on the length of their fasting time (4-6 h and >6 h). Complication rates were calculated and compared between the three groups. In the studied group of 2487 subjects, 1007 (40.5%) had fasting time of 4-6 h and the remaining 1480 (59.5%) subjects had fasted for >6 h. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the studied complications between the two groups. This study found no difference in complication rate in regard to the fasting time among our subjects cohort, which included only healthy children receiving elective procedures performed by sedation trained pediatric critical care providers. This suggests that using shorter fasting time may be safe for procedures performed outside of the operating theater that does not involve high-risk patients or airway manipulation.

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Screen Size and Resolution on the Legibility of Graphics in Automated Job Performance Aids. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Daniel J.

    Designed to assess the effect of alternative display (CRT) screen sizes and resolution levels on user ability to identify and locate printed circuit (PC) board points, this study is the first in a protracted research program on the legibility of graphics in computer-based job aids. Air Force maintenance training pipeline students (35 male and 1…

  13. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  14. A tentative theory of large distance physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedan, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical mechanism is devised to determine the large distance physics of spacetime. It is a two dimensional nonlinear model, the lambda model, set to govern the string world surface in an attempt to remedy the failure of string theory, as it stands. The lambda model is formulated to cancel the infrared divergent effects of handles at short distance on the world surface. The target manifold is the manifold of background spacetimes. The coupling strength is the spacetime coupling constant. The lambda model operates at 2d distance Δ -1 , very much shorter than the 2d distance μ -1 where the world surface is seen. A large characteristic spacetime distance L is given by L 2 ln(Δ/μ). Spacetime fields of wave number up to 1=L are the local coordinates for the manifold of spacetimes. The distribution of fluctuations at 2d distances shorter than Δ -1 gives the a priori measure on the target manifold, the manifold of spacetimes. If this measure concentrates at a macroscopic spacetime, then, nearby, it is a measure on the spacetime fields. The lambda model thereby constructs a spacetime quantum field theory, cutoff at ultraviolet distance L, describing physics at distances larger than L. The lambda model also constructs an effective string theory with infrared cutoff L, describing physics at distances smaller than L. The lambda model evolves outward from zero 2d distance, Δ -1 = 0, building spacetime physics starting from L ∞ and proceeding downward in L. L can be taken smaller than any distance practical for experiments, so the lambda model, if right, gives all actually observable physics. The harmonic surfaces in the manifold of spacetimes are expected to have novel nonperturbative effects at large distances. (author)

  15. Shorter Ground Contact Time and Better Running Economy: Evidence From Female Kenyan Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooses, Martin; Haile, Diresibachew W; Ojiambo, Robert; Sang, Meshack; Mooses, Kerli; Lane, Amy R; Hackney, Anthony C

    2018-06-25

    Mooses, M, Haile, DW, Ojiambo, R, Sang, M, Mooses, K, Lane, AR, and Hackney, AC. Shorter ground contact time and better running economy: evidence from female Kenyan runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previously, it has been concluded that the improvement in running economy (RE) might be considered as a key to the continued improvement in performance when no further increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max is observed. To date, RE has been extensively studied among male East African distance runners. By contrast, there is a paucity of data on the RE of female East African runners. A total of 10 female Kenyan runners performed 3 × 1,600-m steady-state run trials on a flat outdoor clay track (400-m lap) at the intensities that corresponded to their everyday training intensities for easy, moderate, and fast running. Running economy together with gait characteristics was determined. Participants showed moderate to very good RE at the first (202 ± 26 ml·kg·km) and second (188 ± 12 ml·kg·km) run trials, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationship between ground contact time (GCT) and RE at the second run (r = 0.782; p = 0.022), which represented the intensity of anaerobic threshold. This study is the first to report the RE and gait characteristics of East African female athletes measured under everyday training settings. We provided the evidence that GCT is associated with the superior RE of the female Kenyan runners.

  16. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  17. Analytic processing of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin

    2018-01-01

    How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  19. Shorter height is related to lower cardiovascular disease risk – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Western studies have shown a negative correlation between height and cardiovascular disease. However, these correlations do not prove causation. This review provides a variety of studies showing short people have little to no cardiovascular disease. When shorter people are compared to taller people, a number of biological mechanisms evolve favoring shorter people, including reduced telomere shortening, lower atrial fibrillation, higher heart pumping efficiency, lower DNA damage, lower risk of blood clots, lower left ventricular hypertrophy and superior blood parameters. The causes of increased heart disease among shorter people in the developed world are related to lower income, excessive weight, poor diet, lifestyle factors, catch-up growth, childhood illness and poor environmental conditions. For short people in developed countries, the data indicate that a plant-based diet, leanness and regular exercise can substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Effect of pencil grasp on the speed and legibility of handwriting after a 10-minute copy task in Grade 4 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Heidi; Carnahan, Heather; Kushki, Azadeh; Polatajko, Helene; Missiuna, Cheryl; Chau, Tom

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the impact of common pencil grasp patterns on the speed and legibility of handwriting after a 10-minute copy task, intended to induce muscle fatigue, in typically developing children and in those non-proficient in handwriting. A total of 120 Grade 4 students completed a standardised handwriting assessment before and after a 10-minute copy task. The students indicated the perceived difficulty of the handwriting task at baseline and after 10 minutes. The students also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their handwriting proficiency upon completion. The majority of the students rated higher effort after the 10-minute copy task than at baseline (rank sum: P = 0.00001). The effort ratings were similar for the different grasp patterns (multiple linear regression: F = 0.37, P = 0.895). For both typically developing children and those with handwriting issues, the legibility of the writing samples decreased after the 10-minute copy task but the speed of writing increased. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The quality of the handwriting decreased after the 10-minute copy task; however, there was no difference in the quality or speed scores among the different pencil grasps before and after the copy task. The dynamic tripod pencil grasp did not offer any advantage over the lateral tripod or the dynamic or lateral quadrupod pencil grasps in terms of quality of handwriting after a 10-minute copy task. These four pencil grasp patterns performed equivalently. Our findings question the practice of having students adopt the dynamic tripod pencil grasp. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  2. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  3. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  4. Brownian distance covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...

  5. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  6. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  7. YAOPBM-II: extension to higher degrees and to shorter time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    In 2005, I presented a new fitting methodology (Yet AnOther Peak Bagging Method -YAOPBM), derived for very-long time series (2088-day-long) and applied it to low degree modes, {iota} {<=} 25. That very-long time series was also sub-divided into shorter segments (728-day-long) that were each fitted over the same range of degrees, to estimate changes with solar activity levels. I present here the extension of this method in several 'directions': a) to substantially higher degrees ({iota} {<=} 125); b) to shorter time series (364- and 182-day-long); and c) to additional 728-day-long segments, covering now some 10 years of observations. I discuss issues with the fitting, namely the leakage matrix, and the f- and p1 mode at very low frequencies, and I present some of the characteristics of the observed temporal changes.

  8. Is equity confined to the shorter term projects - and if not, what does it need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryan, T.

    1996-01-01

    There are two types of equity investor generally found in shorter term energy projects: energy project developers or sponsors who view a given project as buying or building a business; and financial investors who have viewed an investment as buying a stream of cash flows. This article examines the objectives and needs of these two investor groups, and discusses the principal issues which govern their respective decision-making process. (author)

  9. How do shorter working hours affect employee wellbeing? : Shortening working time in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lahdenperä, Netta

    2017-01-01

    The way work is done is dramatically changing due to digital breakthroughs. Generation Y is entering the workforce with a changed attitude towards work as organizations are increasing their focus towards employee wellbeing. Organizations who adopt the new model of work and understand the importance of the wellbeing of their staff are leading the transition to a more efficient business, better working life and a healthier planet. The thesis explores the numerous effects of shorter working...

  10. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  11. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  12. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  13. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  14. An investigation and comparison of speech recognition software for determining if bird song recordings contain legible human voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D. Hunt

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to test the effectiveness of using readily available speech recognition API services to determine if recordings of bird song had inadvertently recorded human voices. A mobile phone was used to record a human speaking at increasing distances from the phone in an outside setting with bird song occurring in the background. One of the services was trained with sample recordings and each service was compared for their ability to return recognized words. The services from Google and IBM performed similarly and the Microsoft service, that allowed training, performed slightly better. However, all three services failed to perform at a level that would enable recordings with recognizable human speech to be deleted in order to maintain full privacy protection.

  15. Perception of Egocentric Distance during Gravitational Changes in Parabolic Flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Clément

    Full Text Available We explored the effect of gravity on the perceived representation of the absolute distance of objects to the observers within the range from 1.5-6 m. Experiments were performed on board the CNES Airbus Zero-G during parabolic flights eliciting repeated exposures to short periods of microgravity (0 g, hypergravity (1.8 g, and normal gravity (1 g. Two methods for obtaining estimates of perceived egocentric distance were used: verbal reports and visually directed motion toward a memorized visual target. For the latter method, because normal walking is not possible in 0 g, blindfolded subjects translated toward the visual target by pulling on a rope with their arms. The results showed that distance estimates using both verbal reports and blind pulling were significantly different between normal gravity, microgravity, and hypergravity. Compared to the 1 g measurements, the estimates of perceived distance using blind pulling were shorter for all distances in 1.8 g, whereas in 0 g they were longer for distances up to 4 m and shorter for distances beyond. These findings suggest that gravity plays a role in both the sensorimotor system and the perceptual/cognitive system for estimating egocentric distance.

  16. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  18. Physical activity during video capsule endoscopy correlates with shorter bowel transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Peter P; Peck, Joshua; Murphy, Christopher; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2017-09-01

     Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is limited by reliance on bowel motility for propulsion, and lack of physical activity has been proposed as a cause of incomplete studies. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between physical activity and VCE bowel transit.  Ambulatory outpatients receiving VCE were eligible for the study. A pedometer was attached at the time of VCE ingestion and step count was recorded at the end of the procedure. VCE completion was assessed by logistic regression models, which included step count (500 steps as one unit). Total transit time was analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. The hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) indicated the "hazard" of completion, such that HRs > 1 indicated a reduced transit time.  A total of 100 patients were included. VCE was completed in 93 patients (93 %). The median step count was 2782 steps. Step count was not significantly associated with VCE completion (odds ratio 1.45, 95 %CI 0.84, 2.49). Pedometer step count was significantly associated with shorter total, gastric, and small-bowel transit times (HR 1.09, 95 %CI 1.03, 1.16; HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.00, 1.11; HR 1.07, 95 %CI 1.01, 1.14, respectively). Higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with VCE completion (HR 1.87, 95 %CI 1.18, 2.97) and shorter bowel transit times (HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.02, 1.08).  Increased physical activity during outpatient VCE was associated with shorter bowel transit times but not with study completion. In addition, BMI was a previously unreported clinical characteristic associated with VCE completion and should be included as a variable of interest in future studies.

  19. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-03

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.

  20. Reemission spectra and inelastic processes at interaction of attosecond and shorter duration electromagnetic pulses with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, D.N.; Matveev, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Inelastic processes and the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by atoms have been considered within the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation in the sudden perturbation approximation. A method of calculations with the exact inclusion of spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and the momenta of photons in the reemission processes has been developed. The probabilities of inelastic processes and spectra of reemission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by one- and many-electron atoms have been calculated. The results have been presented in the form of analytical formulas.

  1. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  2. Distance-transitive graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

  3. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  4. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  5. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  6. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Applicability of the shorter ‘Bangladesh regimen’ in high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sotgiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the recent introduction of two new drugs (delamanid and bedaquiline and a few repurposed compounds to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB, clinicians are facing increasing problems in designing effective regimens in severe cases. Recently a 9 to 12-month regimen (known as the ‘Bangladesh regimen’ proved to be effective in treating MDR-TB cases. It included an initial phase of 4 to 6 months of kanamycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, high-dose isoniazid, and ethambutol, followed by 5 months of moxifloxacin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. However, recent evidence from Europe and Latin America identified prevalences of resistance to the first-line drugs in this regimen (ethambutol and pyrazinamide exceeding 60%, and of prothionamide exceeding 50%. Furthermore, the proportions of resistance to the two most important pillars of the regimen – quinolones and kanamycin – were higher than 40%. Overall, only 14 out of 348 adult patients (4.0% were susceptible to all of the drugs composing the regimen, and were therefore potentially suitable for the ‘shorter regimen’. A shorter, cheaper, and well-tolerated MDR-TB regimen is likely to impact the number of patients treated and improve adherence if prescribed to the right patients through the systematic use of rapid MTBDRsl testing.

  8. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  9. Are Shorter Versions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Doable? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a well-established assessment tool for measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia. Researchers and clinicians have been interested in the development of a short version of the PANSS that could reduce the burden of its administration for patients and raters. The author presents a comprehensive overview of existing brief PANSS measures, including their strengths and limitations, and discusses some possible next steps. There are two available scales that offer a reduced number of original PANSS items: PANSS-14 and PANSS-19; and two shorter versions that include six items: Brief PANSS and PANSS-6. The PANSS-6 has been tested quite extensively in established trials and appears to demonstrate high sensitivity to change and an established cut off definition for remission. Prospective testing in new antipsychotic treatment trials is still required for these shorter versions of PANSS. In addition, they need to be supplemented with interview guides, as well as provide conversion formulas to translate total scores from the short PANSS versions to the PANSS-30. Both short versions of the PANSS are essentially designed to evaluate response to antipsychotic treatment. Future PANSS scale development needs to address specific measurement of treatment-responsive positive symptoms by including treatment-sensitive items, as well as illness-phase specific PANSS tools.

  10. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  11. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  12. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  13. Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, L; Christiansen, L; Nybo, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether the frequency of carriers of mutations in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis diminishes with age as an indication that HFE mutations are associated with increased mortality. It is of value in the debate concerning screening for hereditary...... hemochromatosis to determine the significance of heterozygosity. METHODS: Genotyping for mutations in exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in 1784 participants aged 45 to 100 years from 4 population-based studies: all 183 centenarians from the Danish Centenarian Study, 601...... in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy....

  14. Shorter Decentralized Attribute-Based Encryption via Extended Dual System Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE is a special form of multiauthority ABE systems, in which no central authority and global coordination are required other than creating the common reference parameters. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized ABE in prime-order groups by using extended dual system groups. We formulate some assumptions used to prove the security of our scheme. Our proposed scheme is fully secure under the standard k-Lin assumption in random oracle model and can support any monotone access structures. Compared with existing fully secure decentralized ABE systems, our construction has shorter ciphertexts and secret keys. Moreover, fast decryption is achieved in our system, in which ciphertexts can be decrypted with a constant number of pairings.

  15. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  16. Hereditary angioedema attacks resolve faster and are shorter after early icatibant treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maurer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE are unpredictable and, if affecting the upper airway, can be lethal. Icatibant is used for physician- or patient self-administered symptomatic treatment of HAE attacks in adults. Its mode of action includes disruption of the bradykinin pathway via blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor. Early treatment is believed to shorten attack duration and prevent severe outcomes; however, evidence to support these benefits is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of timing of icatibant administration on the duration and resolution of HAE type I and II attacks. METHODS: The Icatibant Outcome Survey is an international, prospective, observational study for patients treated with icatibant. Data on timings and outcomes of icatibant treatment for HAE attacks were collected between July 2009-February 2012. A mixed-model of repeated measures was performed for 426 attacks in 136 HAE type I and II patients. RESULTS: Attack duration was significantly shorter in patients treated <1 hour of attack onset compared with those treated ≥ 1 hour (6.1 hours versus 16.8 hours [p<0.001]. Similar significant effects were observed for <2 hours versus ≥ 2 hours (7.2 hours versus 20.2 hours [p<0.001] and <5 hours versus ≥ 5 hours (8.0 hours versus 23.5 hours [p<0.001]. Treatment within 1 hour of attack onset also significantly reduced time to attack resolution (5.8 hours versus 8.8 hours [p<0.05]. Self-administrators were more likely to treat early and experience shorter attacks than those treated by a healthcare professional. CONCLUSION: Early blockade of the bradykinin B(2 receptor with icatibant, particularly within the first hour of attack onset, significantly reduced attack duration and time to attack resolution.

  17. Smoking Topography among Korean Smokers: Intensive Smoking Behavior with Larger Puff Volume and Shorter Interpuff Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Yu, Sol

    2018-05-18

    The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15.0 (13.0⁻19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0⁻21.0) as the median (Interquartile range)), but had a significantly larger puff volume (62.7 (52.7⁻75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0⁻64.2) mL); p = 0.012). The interpuff interval was similar between men and women (8.9 (6.5⁻11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2⁻11.0) s; p = 0.122) but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association ( p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level and nicotine addiction level. An understanding of the difference of topography measures, particularly the larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers, may help to overcome a potential underestimation of internal doses of hazardous byproducts of smoking.

  18. ATM/RB1 mutations predict shorter overall survival in urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Grivas, Petros; Emamekhoo, Hamid; Mendiratta, Prateek; Ali, Siraj; Hsu, JoAnn; Vasekar, Monali; Drabick, Joseph J; Pal, Sumanta; Joshi, Monika

    2018-03-30

    Mutations of DNA repair genes, e.g. ATM/RB1 , are frequently found in urothelial cancer (UC) and have been associated with better response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further external validation of the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations in UC can inform clinical decision making and trial designs. In the discovery dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 24% of patients and were associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 2.67, 95% CI, 1.45-4.92, p = 0.002). There was a higher mutation load in patients carrying ATM/RB1 mutations (median mutation load: 6.7 versus 5.5 per Mb, p = 0.072). In the validation dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 22.2% of patients and were non-significantly associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI, 0.97-3.59, p = 0.06) and higher mutation load (median mutation load: 8.1 versus 7.2 per Mb, p = 0.126). Exome sequencing data of 130 bladder UC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed as a discovery cohort to determine the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations. Results were validated in an independent cohort of 81 advanced UC patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare overall survival (OS). ATM/RB1 mutations may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in unselected UC patients and may correlate with higher mutational load. Further studies are required to determine factors that can further stratify prognosis and evaluate predictive role of ATM/RB1 mutation status to immunotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  19. Marital disruption is associated with shorter salivary telomere length in a probability sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Robustelli, Briana L; Sbarra, David A

    2016-05-01

    Marital disruption (i.e., marital separation, divorce) is associated with a wide range of poor mental and physical health outcomes, including increased risk for all-cause mortality. One biological intermediary that may help explain the association between marital disruption and poor health is accelerated cellular aging. This study examines the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length in a United States probability sample of adults ≥50 years of age. Participants were 3526 individuals who participated in the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Telomere length assays were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on DNA extracted from saliva samples. Health and lifestyle factors, traumatic and stressful life events, and neuroticism were assessed via self-report. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between predictor variables and salivary telomere length. Based on their marital status data in the 2006 wave, people who were separated or divorced had shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or had never been married, and the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length was not moderated by gender or neuroticism. Furthermore, the association between marital disruption and salivary telomere length remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, neuroticism, cigarette use, body mass, traumatic life events, and other stressful life events. Additionally, results revealed that currently married adults with a history of divorce evidenced shorter salivary telomeres than people who were continuously married or never married. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere shortening, may be one pathway through which marital disruption is associated with morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A shorter and more specific oral sensitization-based experimental model of food allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Elvira; Cueto-Sola, Margarita; Utrilla, Pilar; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Judith; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Xaus, Jordi; Gálvez, Julio; Comalada, Mònica

    2012-07-31

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in children. Experimental animal models have become critical tools with which to perform research on new therapeutic approaches and on the molecular mechanisms involved. However, oral food allergen sensitization in mice requires several weeks and is usually associated with unspecific immune responses. To overcome these inconveniences, we have developed a new food allergy model that takes only two weeks while retaining the main characters of allergic response to food antigens. The new model is characterized by oral sensitization of weaned Balb/c mice with 5 doses of purified cow's milk protein (CMP) plus cholera toxin (CT) for only two weeks and posterior challenge with an intraperitoneal administration of the allergen at the end of the sensitization period. In parallel, we studied a conventional protocol that lasts for seven weeks, and also the non-specific effects exerted by CT in both protocols. The shorter protocol achieves a similar clinical score as the original food allergy model without macroscopically affecting gut morphology or physiology. Moreover, the shorter protocol caused an increased IL-4 production and a more selective antigen-specific IgG1 response. Finally, the extended CT administration during the sensitization period of the conventional protocol is responsible for the exacerbated immune response observed in that model. Therefore, the new model presented here allows a reduction not only in experimental time but also in the number of animals required per experiment while maintaining the features of conventional allergy models. We propose that the new protocol reported will contribute to advancing allergy research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  2. Einstein at a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambourne, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines the challenges and rewards that can arise when the teaching of Einsteinian physics has to be accomplished by means of distance education. The discussion is mainly based on experiences gathered over the past 35 years at the UK Open University, where special and general relativity, relativistic cosmology and other aspects of Einsteinian physics, have been taught at a variety of levels, and using a range of techniques, to students studying at a distance.

  3. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  4. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  5. Minimally invasive oesophagectomy more expensive than open despite shorter length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamija, Anish; Dhamija, Ankit; Hancock, Jacquelyn; McCloskey, Barbara; Kim, Anthony W; Detterbeck, Frank C; Boffa, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) approach offers a number of advantages over open approaches including reduced discomfort, shorter length of stay and a faster recovery to baseline status. On the other hand, minimally invasive procedures typically are longer and consume greater disposable instrumentation, potentially resulting in a greater overall cost. The objective of this study was to compare costs associated with various oesophagectomy approaches for oesophageal cancer. An institutional Resource Information Management System (RIMS) was queried for cost data relating to hospital expenditures (as opposed to billings or collections). The RIMS was searched for patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer between 2003 and 2012 via minimally invasive, open transthoracic (OTT) (including Ivor Lewis, modified McKeown or thoracoabdominal) or transhiatal approaches. Patients that were converted from minimally invasive to open, or involved hybrid procedures, were excluded. A total of 160 oesophagectomies were identified, including 61 minimally invasive, 35 open transthoracic and 64 transhiatal. Costs on the day of surgery averaged higher in the MIO group ($12 476 ± 2190) compared with the open groups, OTT ($8202 ± 2512, P < 0.0001) or OTH ($5809 ± 2575, P < 0.0001). The median costs associated with the entire hospitalization also appear to be higher in the MIO group ($25 935) compared with OTT ($24 440) and OTH ($15 248). The average length of stay was lowest in the MIO group (11 ± 9 days) compared with OTT (19 ± 18 days, P = 0.006) and OTH (18 ± 28 days P = 0.07). The operative mortality was similar in the three groups (MIO = 3%, OTT = 9% and OTH = 3%). The operating theatre costs associated with minimally invasive oesophagectomy are significantly higher than OTT or OTH approaches. Unfortunately, a shorter hospital stay after MIO does not consistently offset higher surgical expense, as total hospital costs trend higher in the MIO patients. In

  6. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brandt

    Full Text Available Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  7. Risky family processes prospectively forecast shorter telomere length mediated through negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... blood. RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA......-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required...

  9. Gain of chromosome arm 1q in atypical meningioma correlates with shorter progression-free survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aims: Atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas have moderately high recurrence rates; even for completely resected tumours, approximately one-third will recur. Post-operative radiotherapy (RT) may aid local control and improve survival, but carries the risk of side effects. More accurate prediction of recurrence risk is therefore needed for patients with atypical meningioma. Previously, we used high-resolution array CGH to identify genetic variations in 47 primary atypical meningiomas and found that approximately 60% of tumors show gain of 1q at 1q25.1 and 1q25.3 to 1q32.1 and that 1q gain appeared to correlate with shorter progression-free survival. This study aimed to validate and extend these findings in an independent sample. Methods: 86 completely resected atypical meningiomas (with 25 recurrences) from two neurosurgical centres in Ireland were identified and clinical follow up was obtained. Utilizing a dual-colour interphase FISH assay, 1q gain was assessed using BAC probes directed against 1q25.1 and 1q32.1. Results: The results confirm the high prevalence of 1q gain at these loci in atypical meningiomas. We further show that gain at 1q32.1 and age each correlate with progression-free survival in patients who have undergone complete surgical resection of atypical meningiomas. Conclusions: These independent findings suggest that assessment of 1q copy number status can add clinically useful information for the management of patients with atypical meningiomas.

  10. Greater reproductive investment, but shorter lifespan, in agrosystem than in natural-habitat toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global amphibian decline is due to several factors: habitat loss, anthropization, pollution, emerging diseases, and global warming. Amphibians, with complex life cycles, are particularly susceptible to habitat alterations, and their survival may be impaired in anthropized habitats. Increased mortality is a well-known consequence of anthropization. Life-history theory predicts higher reproductive investment when mortality is increased. In this work, we compared age, body size, and different indicators of reproductive investment, as well as prey availability, in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita from agrosystems and adjacent natural pine groves in Southwestern Spain. Mean age was lower in agrosystems than in pine groves, possibly as a consequence of increased mortality due to agrosystem environmental stressors. Remarkably, agrosystem toads were larger despite being younger, suggesting accelerated growth rate. Although we detected no differences in prey availability between habitats, artificial irrigation could shorten aestivation in agrosystems, thus increasing energy trade. Moreover, agrosystem toads exhibited increased indicators of reproductive investment. In the light of life-history theory, agrosystem toads might compensate for lesser reproductive events—due to shorter lives—with a higher reproductive investment in each attempt. Our results show that agrosystems may alter demography, which may have complex consequences on both individual fitness and population stability.

  11. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  12. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...

  13. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  14. Fast Computing for Distance Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Xiaoming; Szekely, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O($n^2$) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be...

  15. The Effect of Shorter Treatment Regimens for Hepatitis C on Population Health and Under Fixed Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jake R; Kim, Arthur Y; Naggie, Susanna; Linas, Benjamin P

    2018-01-01

    Direct acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies are highly effective but costly. Wider adoption of an 8-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment regimen could result in significant savings, but may be less efficacious compared with a 12-week regimen. We evaluated outcomes under a constrained budget and cost-effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks of therapy in treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, genotype 1 HCV-infected black and nonblack individuals and considered scenarios of IL28B and NS5A resistance testing to determine treatment duration in sensitivity analyses. We developed a decision tree to use in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the cost-effectiveness of recommended treatment durations and the population health effect of these strategies given a constrained budget. Outcomes included the total number of individuals treated and attaining sustained virologic response (SVR) given a constrained budget and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We found that treating eligible (treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic, HCV-RNA budget among both black and nonblack individuals, and our results suggested that NS5A resistance testing is cost-effective. Eight-week therapy provides good value, and wider adoption of shorter treatment could allow more individuals to attain SVR on the population level given a constrained budget. This analysis provides an evidence base to justify movement of the 8-week regimen to the preferred regimen list for appropriate patients in the HCV treatment guidelines and suggests expanding that recommendation to black patients in settings where cost and relapse trade-offs are considered.

  16. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todor, D.

    2015-01-01

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  17. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  18. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todor, D. [Virginia Commonwealth University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  19. Are Shorter Article Titles More Attractive for Citations? Cross-sectional Study of 22 Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Methods Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n = 9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters’ Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. Results The slope of the regression line for some journals (n = 6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative – none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), significantly different from 0 (P articles with longer titles received more citations – Spearman ρ = 0.266 – when titles were measured in characters, and ρ = 0.244 when titles were measured in words (P 10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor <10 (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). Conclusion Longer titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title. PMID:20401960

  20. Shorter exposures to harder X-rays trigger early apoptotic events in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJia Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and

  1. Hypermetabolism in ALS is associated with greater functional decline and shorter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Frederik J; Ioannides, Zara A; van Eijk, Ruben P A; Heggie, Susan; Thorpe, Kathryn A; Ceslis, Amelia; Heshmat, Saman; Henders, Anjali K; Wray, Naomi R; van den Berg, Leonard H; Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A; Ngo, Shyuan T

    2018-04-29

    To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls. Longitudinal changes in clinical parameters between hypermetabolic and normometabolic patients with ALS were determined for up to 12 months following metabolic assessment. Survival was monitored over a 30-month period following metabolic assessment. Hypermetabolism was more prevalent in patients with ALS than controls (41% vs 12%, adjusted OR=5.4; pALS. Mean lower motor neuron score (SD) was greater in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (4 (0.3) vs 3 (0.7); p=0.04). In the 12 months following metabolic assessment, there was a greater change in Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale score in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (-0.68 points/month vs -0.39 points/month; p=0.01). Hypermetabolism was inversely associated with survival. Overall, hypermetabolism increased the risk of death during follow-up to 220% (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.4, p=0.03). Hypermetabolic patients with ALS have a greater level of lower motor neuron involvement, faster rate of functional decline and shorter survival. The metabolic index could be important for informing prognosis in ALS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot's number of degrees of freedom. In addition

  3. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  4. The Euclidean distance degree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.; Zhi, L.; Watt, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest

  5. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  6. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  7. Prospect of Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz

    2015-01-01

    Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…

  8. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  9. Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs for Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin for Venous Thrombosis Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Bookhart, Brahim; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-06

    % confidence interval, $8035-$8739]; warfarin $10 275 [95% confidence interval, $9842-$10 708]). Rivaroxaban was associated with significantly shorter hospital LOS and lower hospitalization costs compared with warfarin. © 2016 The Authors, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, and Truven Health Analytics. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Pulmonary Embolism Inpatients Treated With Rivaroxaban Had Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs Compared With Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Crivera, Concetta; Bookhart, Brahim; Schein, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Using real-world data, this study compares inpatient length of stay (LOS) and costs for patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) initiating treatment with oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus warfarin. Hospitalizations from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database were selected from November 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013, for adults with a primary diagnosis of PE initiating treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Warfarin patients were matched 1:1 to rivaroxaban patients using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, treatment patterns, and hospitalization costs were evaluated. Matched cohorts included 751 rivaroxaban-treated patients and 751 warfarin-treated patients. Adjusted mean LOS was 3.77 days for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, 3.66-3.87 days) and 5.48 days for warfarin patients (95% CI, 5.33-5.63 days; P < .001). Mean (SD) LOS was shorter for patients taking rivaroxaban whether admission was for provoked PE (rivaroxaban: 5.2 [5.1] days; warfarin: 7.0 [6.5] days; P < .001) or unprovoked PE (rivaroxaban: 3.4 [2.3] days; warfarin: 5.1 [2.7] days; P < .001). Mean (SD) days from first dose to discharge were 2.5 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.9) (warfarin) when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001) and 2.7 (1.7) (rivaroxaban) and 4.0 (2.2) (warfarin) without parenteral anticoagulants (P < .001). The rivaroxaban cohort incurred significantly lower unadjusted mean (SD) hospitalization costs (rivaroxaban: $8473 [$9105]; warfarin: $10,291 [$9185]; P < .001), confirmed by covariate adjustment with generalized linear modeling estimating predicted mean hospitalization costs of $8266 for rivaroxaban patients (95% CI, $7851-$8681) and $10,511 for warfarin patients (95% CI, $10,031-$10,992; P < .001). patients with PE treated with rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower hospitalization costs by $2245 per admission compared with patients treated with warfarin, which was attributable to cost offsets from 1.71 fewer days of

  11. Distance between images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Le Moigne, J.; Packer, C. V.

    1992-01-01

    Comparing two binary images and assigning a quantitative measure to this comparison finds its purpose in such tasks as image recognition, image compression, and image browsing. This quantitative measurement may be computed by utilizing the Hausdorff distance of the images represented as two-dimensional point sets. In this paper, we review two algorithms that have been proposed to compute this distance, and we present a parallel implementation of one of them on the MasPar parallel processor. We study their complexity and the results obtained by these algorithms for two different types of images: a set of displaced pairs of images of Gaussian densities, and a comparison of a Canny edge image with several edge images from a hierarchical region growing code.

  12. THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2009-01-01

    A database can be accessed on the Web at http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu that was developed to promote access to information related to galaxy distances. The database has three functional components. First, tables from many literature sources have been gathered and enhanced with links through a distinct galaxy naming convention. Second, comparisons of results both at the levels of parameters and of techniques have begun and are continuing, leading to increasing homogeneity and consistency of distance measurements. Third, new material is presented arising from ongoing observational programs at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, radio telescopes at Green Bank, Arecibo, and Parkes and with the Hubble Space Telescope. This new observational material is made available in tandem with related material drawn from archives and passed through common analysis pipelines.

  13. Distance to Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Capachi, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Distance to Cure A three-part television series by Casey Capachi www.distancetocure.com   Abstract   How far would you go for health care? This three-part television series, featuring two introductory segments between each piece, focuses on the physical, cultural, and political obstacles facing rural Native American patients and the potential of health technology to break down those barriers to care.   Part one,Telemedici...

  14. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.

  15. Terminology report respect distance. The Use of the term respect distance in Posiva and SKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampinen, H.

    2007-09-01

    that are shorter than 3 km the margin for construction is applied. The term in question is not fixed in SKB's use and might thus change in future. In Posiva and SKB the respect distances are applied from the boundary of the modelled deformation zone. The difference between the two approaches is that in SKB the transition zone is included within the zone width and in Posiva the influence zone is not. Drillholes / boreholes are considered unrelated to the respect distances discussed in other forums in SKB and Posiva. For describing the distance to such holes, required from long-term safety aspect, the term restricted radius is proposed. An important issue regarding future work with respect distances is to differentiate between 'requirement', that is, what condition is really not acceptable, and 'criterion', that is, what practically demonstrable rule should be applied to try to meet the requirement. (orig.)

  16. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  17. Investigations of model polymers: Dynamics of melts and statics of a long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, M.; Ceperley, D.; Frisch, H.L.; Kalos, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    We report additional results on a simple model of polymers, namely the diffusion in concentrated polymer systems and the static properties of one long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains. It is found, for the polymer sizes and time scales amenable to our computer calculations, that there is as yet no evidence for a ''reptation'' regime in a melt. There is some indication of reptation in the case of a single chain moving through fixed obstacles. No statistically significant effect of the change, from excluded volume behavior of the long chain to ideal behavior as the shorter chains grow, is observed

  18. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  19. Distance Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    whereBψ is any Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. From (Hall & Willett, 2015) we have: Theorem 1. G` = max θ∈Θ,`∈L ‖∇f(θ)‖ φmax = 1...Kullback-Liebler divergence between an initial guess of the matrix that parameterizes the Mahalanobis distance and a solution that satisfies a set of...Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. M̂0, µ̂0 are initialized to some initial value. In [18] a closed-form algorithm for solving

  20. PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya.   Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance

  1. Distance collaborations with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  2. Optimizing distance-based methods for large data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Tobias; Brenner, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Distance-based methods for measuring spatial concentration of industries have received an increasing popularity in the spatial econometrics community. However, a limiting factor for using these methods is their computational complexity since both their memory requirements and running times are in {{O}}(n^2). In this paper, we present an algorithm with constant memory requirements and shorter running time, enabling distance-based methods to deal with large data sets. We discuss three recent distance-based methods in spatial econometrics: the D&O-Index by Duranton and Overman (Rev Econ Stud 72(4):1077-1106, 2005), the M-function by Marcon and Puech (J Econ Geogr 10(5):745-762, 2010) and the Cluster-Index by Scholl and Brenner (Reg Stud (ahead-of-print):1-15, 2014). Finally, we present an alternative calculation for the latter index that allows the use of data sets with millions of firms.

  3. The distance effect in numerical memory-updating tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments examined the role of numerical distance in updating numerical information in working memory. In the first experiment, participants had to memorize a new number only when it was smaller than a previously memorized number. In the second experiment, updating was based on an external signal, which removed the need to perform any numerical comparison. In both experiments, distance between the memorized number and the new one was manipulated. The results showed that smaller distances between the new and the old information led to shorter updating times. This graded facilitation suggests that the process by which information is substituted in the focus of attention involves maintaining the shared features between the new and the old number activated and selecting other new features to be activated. Thus, the updating cost may be related to amount of new features to be activated in the focus of attention.

  4. Opinión de los pacientes sobre la legibilidad de los folletos de Educación para la Salud Opinion of the patients about legible health education leaflets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Mª Barrio-Cantalejo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: los Servicios de salud normalmente proporcionan a los pacientes folletos u otros documentos relacionados con tratamientos. Este material no está escrito con mucha legibilidad y los pacientes tienen dificultad en entenderlos. Objetivos: determinar la opinión de los lectores en relación a los requisitos que deberían ser encontrados en este material para asegurar la legibilidad. Metodología: metodología cualitativa de entrevistas semiestructuradas. 24 participantes fueron entrevistados con preguntas abiertas. Los participantes tenían un bajo nivel académico. Resultados: ocho categorías fueron identificadas en los folletos que debían encontrarse para aumentar la legibilidad: escribir como se habla, interés por el tema, estilo directo, ordenar las ideas, mensajes afirmativos, imágenes, amplios márgenes, letra grande y clara. Conclusiones: los profesionales sanitarios y los escritores de folletos educativos deberían involucrar a los pacientes en el proceso de diseño del material educativo.Introduction: Healthcare Service usually provides patients with leaflets relating to treatment. Often, this material is written not very legible and patients have difficulty understanding it. Aims: This study aims to determine the opinion of readers in relation to the requisites that should be met by this material in order to ensure legibility. Design: Qualitative method of semi-structured interviews. Method: Twelve interviews were conducted. Open-ended questions were asked in each interview. Participants had a low academic level, poor reading habits, but they usually were capable of read. Finding: Eight categories were identified that describe the opinion of the participants in relation to the requisites that the leaflets must meet in order to improve legibility: Writing like speaking, interest in the subject, direct style, order of the ideas, affirmative messages, images and clear fonts. Conclusions: Health professionals and writers of

  5. Interactive Distance Learning in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…

  6. Distance covariance for stochastic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsui, Muneya; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    The distance covariance of two random vectors is a measure of their dependence. The empirical distance covariance and correlation can be used as statistical tools for testing whether two random vectors are independent. We propose an analog of the distance covariance for two stochastic processes...

  7. DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

  8. Measuring sidewalk distances using Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Ian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is an important determinant of health. Walking is the most common physical activity performed by adults and the presence of sidewalks along roads is a determinant of walking. Geographic information systems (GIS can be used to measure sidewalks; however, GIS sidewalk data are difficult to access. The purpose of this study was to present a new GIS method for measuring the distance and coverage of sidewalks along roadways. Methods The new method contains three stages. Stage 1 involves calculating the distance of all road segments within the region of interest (e.g., neighborhood, extracting geospatial information on these road segments, and saving this information as a Google Earth file. This stage was performed in ArcGIS software. Stage 2 involves opening the extracted road segment geospatial data in Google Earth, visually examining road segments to see if they contain sidewalks, and deleting road segments without sidewalks. Stage 3 involves importing the modified road geospatial data into ArcGIS and calculating the length of road segments with sidewalks. The new method was tested in 315 sites across Canada. Each site consisted of a one km radius circular buffer surrounding a school. Results A detailed, step-by-step protocol is provided in the paper. The length of road segments with sidewalks in the testing sites ranged from 0.00 to 55.05 km (median 16.20 km. When expressed relative to the length of all road segments, the length of road segments with sidewalks ranged from 0% to 100% (median 53%. By comparison to urban testing sites, rural sites had shorter sidewalk lengths and a smaller proportion of the roads had sidewalk coverage. Conclusion This study provides a new GIS protocol that researchers can use to measure the distance and coverage of sidewalks along roadways.

  9. Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung Mogensen, Djamilla; Bergkvist Pihl, Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal candidiasis is frequent among pregnant women and it is treated with anti-fungal medication (conazoles). Conazoles have anti-androgenic properties and prenatal exposure in rodents is associated with a shorter (less masculine) anogenital distance (AGD) in male offspring. To our...

  10. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Physiological responses at short distances from a parametric speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soomin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, parametric speakers have been used in various circumstances. In our previous studies, we verified that the physiological burden of the sound of parametric speaker set at 2.6 m from the subjects was lower than that of the general speaker. However, nothing has yet been demonstrated about the effects of the sound of a parametric speaker at the shorter distance between parametric speakers the human body. Therefore, we studied this effect on physiological functions and task performance. Nine male subjects participated in this study. They completed three consecutive sessions: a 20-minute quiet period as a baseline, a 30-minute mental task period with general speakers or parametric speakers, and a 20-minute recovery period. We measured electrocardiogram (ECG photoplethysmogram (PTG, electroencephalogram (EEG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Four experiments, one with a speaker condition (general speaker and parametric speaker, the other with a distance condition (0.3 m and 1.0 m, were conducted respectively at the same time of day on separate days. To examine the effects of the speaker and distance, three-way repeated measures ANOVA (speaker factor x distance factor x time factor were conducted. In conclusion, we found that the physiological responses were not significantly different between the speaker condition and the distance condition. Meanwhile, it was shown that the physiological burdens increased with progress in time independently of speaker condition and distance condition. In summary, the effects of the parametric speaker at the 2.6 m distance were not obtained at the distance of 1 m or less.

  12. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing...... of understanding mobility at a conceptual level, and distance matters to people's manifest mobility: how they travel and how far they travel are central elements of their movements. Therefore leisure mobility (indeed all mobility) is the activity of relating across distance, either through actual corporeal...... metric representation. These representations are the focus for this research. Research Aim and Questions The aim of this research is thus to explore how distance is being represented within the context of leisure mobility. Further the aim is to explore how or whether distance is being consumed...

  13. Distance : between deixis and perspectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...

  14. Optimization of a shorter variable-acquisition time for legs to achieve true whole-body PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takuro; Miwa, Kenta; Murata, Taisuke; Miyaji, Noriaki; Wagatsuma, Kei; Motegi, Kazuki; Terauchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively. The phantoms comprised two spheres (diameters, 10 and 17 mm) containing fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose solution with sphere-to-background ratios of 4 at a background radioactivity level of 2.65 kBq/mL. All PET data were reconstructed with acquisition times ranging from 10 to 180, and 1200 s. We visually evaluated image quality and determined the coefficient of variance (CV) of the background, contrast and the quantitative %error of the hot spheres, and then determined two shorter variable-acquisition protocols for legs. Lesion detectability and quantitative accuracy determined based on maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in PET images of a patient using the proposed protocols were also evaluated. A larger phantom and a shorter acquisition time resulted in increased background noise on images and decreased the contrast in hot spheres. A visual score of ≥ 1.5 was obtained when the acquisition time was ≥ 30 s for three leg phantoms, and ≥ 120 s for the NEMA phantom. The quantitative %errors of the 10- and 17-mm spheres in the leg phantoms were ± 15 and ± 10%, respectively, in PET images with a high CV (scan mean SUV max of three lesions using the current fixed-acquisition and two proposed variable-acquisition time protocols in the clinical study were 3.1, 3.1 and 3.2, respectively, which did not significantly differ. Leg acquisition time per bed position of even 30-90

  15. THE DISTANCE TO M104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.

  16. THE DISTANCE TO M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  17. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  19. Social Distance and Intergenerational Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, I. Jane; Booth, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to a sample of adults to assess the extent of social distance between people of different ages. The findings suggest that the greater the age difference (younger or older) between people, the greater the social distance they feel. (Author)

  20. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  1. Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2004-01-01

    Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

  2. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  3. Cognitive Styles and Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    1999-01-01

    Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…

  4. Distance Learning: Practice and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account…

  5. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  6. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  7. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo AG.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. Methods: AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. Results: The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. Conclusions: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. Citation: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101–107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163 PMID:25353625

  8. TIA model is attainable in Wistar rats by intraluminal occlusion of the MCA for 10min or shorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan Tolvanen, A; Tatlisumak, E; Pedrono, E; Abo-Ramadan, U; Tatlisumak, T

    2017-05-15

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has received only little attention in the experimental research field. Recently, we introduced a TIA model for mice, and here we set similar principles for simulating this human condition in Wistar rats. In the model: 1) transient nature of the event is ensured, and 2) 24h after the event animals are free from any sensorimotor deficit and from any detectable lesion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals experienced varying durations of ischemia (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 25, and 30min, n=6-8pergroup) by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ischemia severity and reperfusion rates were controlled by cerebral blood flow measurements. Sensorimotor neurological evaluations and MRI at 24h differentiated between TIA and ischemic stroke. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and apoptotic cell counts revealed pathological correlates of the event. We found that already 12.5min of ischemia was long enough to induce ischemic stroke in Wistar rats. Ten min or shorter durations induced neither gross neurological deficits nor infarcts visible on MRI, but histologically caused selective neuronal necrosis. A separate group of animals with 10min of ischemia followed up to 1week after reperfusion remained free of infarction and any MRI signal change. Thus, 10min or shorter focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraluminal MCAO in Wistar rats provides a clinically relevant TIA the rat. This model is useful for studying molecular correlates of TIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Urdu translation and validation of shorter version of Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on Pakistani bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Noreen

    2017-10-01

    To translate, adapt and validate shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale on Pakistani corporate employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi from October 2014 to December 2015. The study was completed into two independent parts. In part one, the scale was translated by forward translation. Then it was pilot-tested and administered on customer services employees from commercial banks and the telecommunication sector. Data of the pilot study was analysed by using exploratory factor analysis to extract the initial factor of positive affect and negative affect scale. Part two comprised the main study. Commercial bank employees were included in the sample using convenient sampling technique. Data of the main study was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to establish construct validity of positive affect and negative affect scale. There were145 participants in the first part of the study and 495 in the second. Results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of positive affect and negative affect scale suggesting that the scale has two distinct domains, i.e. positive affect and negative affect. The shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure.

  10. Use of a novel shorter minimum caliber needle for creating endoscopic tattoos for preoperative localization: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ito, Sayo; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Kawakami, Takeshi; Wada, Takuya; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In colorectal cancer surgery, inadvertent deep injections during endoscopic tattooing can cause India ink leakage into the peritoneum, leading to complications or to poor visualization of the surgical plane. This ex vivo animal study compared the use of novel shorter, minimum caliber needles versus conventional injection needles for endoscopic tattooing. Four endoscopists used the novel needles and conventional needles to make ten endoscopic tattoos (five tattoos/needle type/endoscopist) in harvested porcine rectum using a saline test-injection method. India ink leakage and the success of the tattoo (i. e. visible, tattoos but for none of the novel needle tattoos ( P  = 0.02). Tattoos created using the novel needles were more successful than those made with the conventional needles: 18/20 (90 %) vs. 11/20 (55 %); P  = 0.01. The use of novel shorter minimum caliber needles may be safe and effective for endoscopic tattooing for preoperative localization prior to colorectal cancer surgery.

  11. Tracking frequency laser distance gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components

  12. Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazelle E Benefield

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders

  13. Equivalence of massive propagator distance and mathematical distance on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filk, T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the assignment of distance according to the massive propagator method and according to the mathematical definition (length of minimal path) on arbitrary graphs with a bound on the degree leads to equivalent large scale properties of the graph. Especially, the internal scaling dimension is the same for both definitions. This result holds for any fixed, non-vanishing mass, so that a really inequivalent definition of distance requires the limit m → 0

  14. Long-distance multipartite quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, T.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses two long-distance free-space experiments based on multi-photon polarization entanglement. The highlighted measurements were performed between the Canary Islands La Palma and Tenerife, featuring a 143 km horizontal free-space quantum channel. Based on the superposition principle, quantum entanglement constitutes the key building block in quantum information sciences. Its nonclassical correlations lay the ground for exciting new protocols like quantum cryptography, quantum computation or quantum teleportation. Our first experiment targeted on the teleportation of entanglement, also known as entanglement swapping, where the entanglement from two polarization entangled photon pairs 0-1 and 2-3 is swapped onto photons 1-2 and 0-3. This feature constitutes the fundamental resource for so-called quantum repeaters. In the future such devices could be used to subdivide large distances into shorter links and finally extend the entanglement over the whole range by entanglement swapping. In the second experiment we realized four-photon entanglement in the form of a GHZ-state, named after the researchers Daniel Greenberger, Michael Horne and Anton Zeilinger. At the base station on La Palma we employed two sources for polarization-entanglement, generating photon pairs of 808 nm wavelength by spontaneous parametric down-conversion of femtosecond pulsed laser light. In both experiments one of the four photons per pulse was transmitted over a 143 km free-space link to the receiver station on Tenerife, whereas the remaining three photons were measured locally on La Palma. Long term atmospheric turbulences in the near-ground quantum channel were compensated by means of a bi-directional closed-loop tracking of the transceiver telescopes. Despite an average link attenuation of around 30 dB over the 143 km free-space channel, we successfully showed entanglement swapping with a statistical significance of more than 6 standard deviations. Moreover we faithfully

  15. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others

  16. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  17. At least 10% shorter C–H bonds in cryogenic protein crystal structures than in current AMBER forcefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping, E-mail: pang@mayo.edu

    2015-03-06

    High resolution protein crystal structures resolved with X-ray diffraction data at cryogenic temperature are commonly used as experimental data to refine forcefields and evaluate protein folding simulations. However, it has been unclear hitherto whether the C–H bond lengths in cryogenic protein structures are significantly different from those defined in forcefields to affect protein folding simulations. This article reports the finding that the C–H bonds in high resolution cryogenic protein structures are 10–14% shorter than those defined in current AMBER forcefields, according to 3709 C–H bonds in the cryogenic protein structures with resolutions of 0.62–0.79 Å. Also, 20 all-atom, isothermal–isobaric, 0.5-μs molecular dynamics simulations showed that chignolin folded from a fully-extended backbone formation to the native β-hairpin conformation in the simulations using AMBER forcefield FF12SB at 300 K with an aggregated native state population including standard error of 10 ± 4%. However, the aggregated native state population with standard error reduced to 3 ± 2% in the same simulations except that C–H bonds were shortened by 10–14%. Furthermore, the aggregated native state populations with standard errors increased to 35 ± 3% and 26 ± 3% when using FF12MC, which is based on AMBER forcefield FF99, with and without the shortened C–H bonds, respectively. These results show that the 10–14% bond length differences can significantly affect protein folding simulations and suggest that re-parameterization of C–H bonds according to the cryogenic structures could improve the ability of a forcefield to fold proteins in molecular dynamics simulations. - Highlights: • Cryogenic crystal structures are commonly used in computational studies of proteins. • C–H bonds in the cryogenic structures are shorter than those defined in forcefields. • A survey of 3709 C–H bonds shows that the cryogenic bonds are 10–14% shorter. • The

  18. Shorter telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from older persons with sarcopenia: results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eMarzetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs has been associated with biological age and several chronic degenerative diseases. However, the relationship between telomere length and sarcopenia, a hallmark of the aging process, is unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether PBMC telomeres obtained from sarcopenic older persons were shorter relative to non-sarcopenic peers. We further explored if PBMC telomere length was associated with frailty, a major clinical correlate of sarcopenia.Methods. Analyses were conducted in 142 persons aged >/= 65 years referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic (University Hospital. The presence of sarcopenia was established according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with bioelectrical impedance analysis used for muscle mass estimation. The frailty status was determined by both the Fried’s criteria (physical frailty, PF and a modified Rockwood’s frailty index (FI. Telomere length was measured in PBMCs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction according to the Telomere/Single copy gene ratio (T/S method.Results. Among 142 outpatients (mean age 75.0 ± 6.5 years, 59.2% women, sarcopenia was diagnosed in 23 individuals (19.3%. The PF phenotype was detected in 74 participants (52.1%. The average FI score was 0.46 ± 0.17. PBMC telomeres were shorter in sarcopenic subjects (T/S = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.18 – 0.24 relative to non-sarcopenic individuals (T/S = 0.26; 95%: CI: 0.24 – 0.28; p = 0.01, independent of age, gender, smoking habit, or comorbidity. No significant associations were determined between telomere length and either PF or FI.Conclusion. PBMC telomere length, expressed as T/S values, is shorter in older outpatients with sarcopenia. The cross-sectional assessment of PBMC telomere length is not sufficient at capturing the complex, multidimensional syndrome of frailty.

  19. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  20. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  1. Distance Education in Technological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, “Distance Education in Technological Age”. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study

  2. A Kinetic Model Explains Why Shorter and Less Affine Enzyme-recruiting Oligonucleotides Can Be More Potent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lykke Pedersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to RNA targets promise generality and ease of drug design. The first systemically administered antisense drug was recently approved for treatment and others are in clinical development. Chemical modifications that increase the hybridization affinity of oligonucleotides are reasoned to confer higher potency, i.e., modified oligonucleotides can be dosed at lower concentrations to achieve the same effect. Surprisingly, shorter and less affine oligonucleotides sometimes display increased potency. To explain this apparent contradiction, increased uptake or decreased propensity to form structures have been suggested as possible mechanisms. Here, we provide an alternative explanation that invokes only the kinetics behind oligonucleotide-mediated cleavage of RNA targets. A model based on the law of mass action predicts, and experiments support, the existence of an optimal binding affinity. Exaggerated affinity, and not length per se, is detrimental to potency. This finding clarifies how to optimally apply high-affinity modifications in the discovery of potent antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  3. Distance Education in Technological Age

    OpenAIRE

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-01-01

    Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor), New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode...

  4. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  5. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and shorter telomere length: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Jianghua; Huang, Pan; Li, Jiping

    2017-08-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder, which may accelerate aging. Many study have investigated the association between telomeres length and PTSD, but results from published studies are contradictory. Therefore, Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to give more precise estimate of relationship between telomere length and PTSD. We systematically reviewed the databases of PUBMED, PsycINFO, Medline(Ovid SP) and EMBASE for all articles on the association between telomere length and PTSD. Data were summarized by using random-effects in the meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among studies were examined by using Cochrane's Q statistic and I-squared. Five eligible studies containing 3851 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Shorten telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD with mean difference of -0.19( 95% CI: -0.27, -0.01; P<0.001) with I-square of 96%. The results from subgroup analysis demonstrated that shorter telomere length was significantly associated with PTSD across all gender groups, with mean difference of -0.15( 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01; P=0.04) for female, mean difference of -0.17( 95% CI: -0.19, -0.15; P<0.001) for male. Meanwhile, shorten telomere length was significantly associated with sexual assault(mean difference =-0.15, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01), childhood trauma (mean difference =-0.08, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.07), but not combat (mean difference =-0.39, 95% CI: -0.83, 0.05). Compared to the individuals without PTSD, individuals with PTSD have shorter telomere length, which has implications for early intervention and timely treatment to prevent future adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Distance reporting in digital pathology: A study on 950 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vodovnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased workload, case complexity, financial constraints, and staffing shortages justify wider implementations of digital pathology. One of its main advantages is distance reporting. Aim: A feasibility study was conducted at our institution in order to achieve comprehensive pathology services available by distance. Methods: One senior pathologist reported 950 cases (3,650 slides by distance during 19 weeks. Slides were scanned by ScanScope AT Turbo (Aperio and digital images accessed through SymPathy (Tieto on a 14" laptop. Mobile phone, mobile broadband, broadband over Wi-Fi and broadband were used for internet connections along with a virtual private network technology (VPN. Lync (Microsoft was tested for one case consultation and resident′s teaching session. Larger displays were accessed when available. Effects of ergonomics and working flexibility on the user experience were observed. Details on network speed, frequency of technical issues, data usage, scanning, and turnaround, were collected and evaluated. Turnaround was compared to in-office microscopic reporting, measured from the registration to sign off. Results: Network speeds varied 1-80 Mbps (median download speed 8-65 Mbps. 20 Mbps were satisfactory for the instant upload of digital images. VPN, image viewer, and laptop failed on two occasions each. An estimated data usage per digital image was 10 MB (1-50 MB. Two cases (15 slides were deferred to microscopic slides (0.21/0.41% due to scanty material and suboptimal slide quality. Additional nine cases (15 slides needed to be rescanned for various reasons (0.95/0.41%. Average turnaround was shorter, and the percentage of cases reported up to 3 days higher (3.13 days/72.25% comparing with in-office microscopic reporting (3.90 days/40.56%. Larger displays improved the most user experience at magnifications over Χ20. Conclusions: Existing IT solutions at our institution allow efficient and reliable distance reporting

  7. Measuring distances between complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Roberto F.S.; Miranda, Jose G.V.; Pinho, Suani T.R.; Lobao, Thierry Petit

    2008-01-01

    A previously introduced concept of higher order neighborhoods in complex networks, [R.F.S. Andrade, J.G.V. Miranda, T.P. Lobao, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 046101] is used to define a distance between networks with the same number of nodes. With such measure, expressed in terms of the matrix elements of the neighborhood matrices of each network, it is possible to compare, in a quantitative way, how far apart in the space of neighborhood matrices two networks are. The distance between these matrices depends on both the network topologies and the adopted node numberings. While the numbering of one network is fixed, a Monte Carlo algorithm is used to find the best numbering of the other network, in the sense that it minimizes the distance between the matrices. The minimal value found for the distance reflects differences in the neighborhood structures of the two networks that arise only from distinct topologies. This procedure ends up by providing a projection of the first network on the pattern of the second one. Examples are worked out allowing for a quantitative comparison for distances among distinct networks, as well as among distinct realizations of random networks

  8. Computing Distances between Probabilistic Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tracol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present relaxed notions of simulation and bisimulation on Probabilistic Automata (PA, that allow some error epsilon. When epsilon is zero we retrieve the usual notions of bisimulation and simulation on PAs. We give logical characterisations of these notions by choosing suitable logics which differ from the elementary ones, L with negation and L without negation, by the modal operator. Using flow networks, we show how to compute the relations in PTIME. This allows the definition of an efficiently computable non-discounted distance between the states of a PA. A natural modification of this distance is introduced, to obtain a discounted distance, which weakens the influence of long term transitions. We compare our notions of distance to others previously defined and illustrate our approach on various examples. We also show that our distance is not expansive with respect to process algebra operators. Although L without negation is a suitable logic to characterise epsilon-(bisimulation on deterministic PAs, it is not for general PAs; interestingly, we prove that it does characterise weaker notions, called a priori epsilon-(bisimulation, which we prove to be NP-difficult to decide.

  9. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  10. The Change of the Family Life Affected by the Shorter Working Time : From the Point of View of the Home Management

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 道憲

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, the working time has been decreasing. However, Japanese working people spend more hours per year to work than those in Western countries. The policy of the shorter working time is conducted by the Japanese Government in order that the working people get more free time. This paper examines whether the shorter working time of working members in the family enrich the time use of the other members of the family. Especially, the effect of the shorter working time of husbands to wives...

  11. Euclidean distance geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberti, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry:  theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica®, enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several.  Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.

  12. Geodesic distance in planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy

  13. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adaptive distance protection methodology has good selectivity and sensitivity. What is more, this system also has......Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme...

  14. Elevated CD147 expression is associated with shorter overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Changting; Fang, Xiangqun

    2017-06-06

    A number of studies have reported on the prognostic role of CD147 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the results remain controversial. This study aims to investigate the impact of CD147 on the prognosis of NSCLC by means of a meta-analysis. A literature search was performed for relevant studies published before October 29, 2016. The hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as effective measures. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias examination were also conducted. Ten eligible studies with a total of 1605 patients were included in this meta-analysis. CD147 overexpression was correlated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR=1.59, 95% CI=1.32-1.91, pCD147 expression was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (OR=2.31, 95% CI=1.74-3.07, pCD147 and sex, age, differentiation, or histology was found. No evidence of significant publication bias was identified. This meta-analysis revealed that overexpression of CD147 was associated with shorter OS, the presence of lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage in NSCLC. Therefore, CD147 could serve as a potential prognostic marker for NSCLC.

  15. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Dyslexics' faster decay of implicit memory for sounds and words is manifested in their shorter neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Frenkel, Or; Ahissar, Merav

    2017-01-24

    Dyslexia is a prevalent reading disability whose underlying mechanisms are still disputed. We studied the neural mechanisms underlying dyslexia using a simple frequency-discrimination task. Though participants were asked to compare the two tones in each trial, implicit memory of previous trials affected their responses. We hypothesized that implicit memory decays faster among dyslexics. We tested this by increasing the temporal intervals between consecutive trials, and by measuring the behavioral impact and ERP responses from the auditory cortex. Dyslexics showed a faster decay of implicit memory effects on both measures, with similar time constants. Finally, faster decay of implicit memory also characterized the impact of sound regularities in benefitting dyslexics' oral reading rate. Their benefit decreased faster as a function of the time interval from the previous reading of the same non-word. We propose that dyslexics' shorter neural adaptation paradoxically accounts for their longer reading times, since it reduces their temporal window of integration of past stimuli, resulting in noisier and less reliable predictions for both simple and complex stimuli. Less reliable predictions limit their acquisition of reading expertise.

  17. Shorter duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep slow waves in EphA4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyburger, Marlène; Poirier, Gaétan; Carrier, Julie; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation. We observed that, compared with wild-type mice, knockout mice display a shorter duration of positive and negative phases of slow waves under baseline conditions and after sleep deprivation. However, the mutation did not change slow-wave density, amplitude and slope, and did not affect the sleep deprivation-dependent changes in slow-wave characteristics, suggesting that EphA4 is not involved in the response to elevated sleep pressure. Our present findings suggest a role for EphA4 in shaping cortical oscillations during sleep that is independent from sleep need. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Alternative promoter usage generates novel shorter MAPT mRNA transcripts in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huin, Vincent; Buée, Luc; Behal, Hélène; Labreuche, Julien; Sablonnière, Bernard; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie

    2017-10-03

    Alternative promoter usage is an important mechanism for transcriptome diversity and the regulation of gene expression. Indeed, this alternative usage may influence tissue/subcellular specificity, protein translation and function of the proteins. The existence of an alternative promoter for MAPT gene was considered for a long time to explain differential tissue specificity and differential response to transcription and growth factors between mRNA transcripts. The alternative promoter usage could explain partly the different tau proteins expression patterns observed in tauopathies. Here, we report on our discovery of a functional alternative promoter for MAPT, located upstream of the gene's second exon (exon 1). By analyzing genome databases and brain tissue from control individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy, we identified novel shorter transcripts derived from this alternative promoter. These transcripts are increased in patients' brain tissue as assessed by 5'RACE-PCR and qPCR. We suggest that these new MAPT isoforms can be translated into normal or amino-terminal-truncated tau proteins. We further suggest that activation of MAPT's alternative promoter under pathological conditions leads to the production of truncated proteins, changes in protein localization and function, and thus neurodegeneration.

  19. Cleavage of SNAP25 and its shorter versions by the protease domain of serotype A botulinum neurotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Mizanur

    Full Text Available Various substrates, catalysts, and assay methods are currently used to screen inhibitors for their effect on the proteolytic activity of botulinum neurotoxin. As a result, significant variation exists in the reported results. Recently, we found that one source of variation was the use of various catalysts, and have therefore evaluated its three forms. In this paper, we characterize three substrates under near uniform reaction conditions using the most active catalytic form of the toxin. Bovine serum albumin at varying optimum concentrations stimulated enzymatic activity with all three substrates. Sodium chloride had a stimulating effect on the full length synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25 and its 66-mer substrates but had an inhibitory effect on the 17-mer substrate. We found that under optimum conditions, full length SNAP25 was a better substrate than its shorter 66-mer or 17-mer forms both in terms of kcat, Km, and catalytic efficiency kcat/Km. Assay times greater than 15 min introduced large variations and significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency. In addition to characterizing the three substrates, our results identify potential sources of variations in previous published results, and underscore the importance of using well-defined reaction components and assay conditions.

  20. Shorter time since inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis in children is associated with lower mental health in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Braegger, Cp; Buehr, P; Koller, R; Nydegger, A; Spalinger, J; Heyland, K; Schibli, S; Landolt, Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems. A total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records. While the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers' mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems. Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

  2. Shorter Versus Longer Shift Durations to Mitigate Fatigue and Fatigue-Related Risks in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Related Shift Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: This study comprehensively reviewed the literature on the impact of shorter versus longer shifts on critical and important outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and related shift worker groups. Methods: Six databases (e....

  3. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  4. Steiner Distance in Graphs--A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    For a connected graph $G$ of order at least $2$ and $S\\subseteq V(G)$, the \\emph{Steiner distance} $d_G(S)$ among the vertices of $S$ is the minimum size among all connected subgraphs whose vertex sets contain $S$. In this paper, we summarize the known results on the Steiner distance parameters, including Steiner distance, Steiner diameter, Steiner center, Steiner median, Steiner interval, Steiner distance hereditary graph, Steiner distance stable graph, average Steiner distance, and Steiner ...

  5. Partial distance correlation with methods for dissimilarities

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation are scalar coefficients that characterize independence of random vectors in arbitrary dimension. Properties, extensions, and applications of distance correlation have been discussed in the recent literature, but the problem of defining the partial distance correlation has remained an open question of considerable interest. The problem of partial distance correlation is more complex than partial correlation partly because the squared distance covari...

  6. In Vitro Comparison of Holmium Lasers: Evidence for Shorter Fragmentation Time and Decreased Retropulsion Using a Modern Variable-pulse Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Roger; Penniston, Kristina L; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2017-09-01

    To compare the performance of variable- and fixed-pulse lasers on stone phantoms in vitro. Seven-millimeter stone phantoms were made to simulate calcium oxalate monohydrate stones using BegoStone plus. The in vitro setting was created with a clear polyvinyl chloride tube. For each trial, a stone phantom was placed at the open end of the tubing. The Cook Rhapsody H-30 variable-pulse laser was tested on both long- and short-pulse settings and was compared to the Dornier H-20 fixed-pulse laser; 5 trials were conducted for each trial arm. Fragmentation was accomplished with the use of a flexible ureteroscope and a 273-micron holmium laser fiber using settings of 1 J × 12 Hz. The treatment time (in minute) for complete fragmentation was recorded as was the total retropulsion distance (in centimeter) during treatment. Laser fibers were standardized for all repetitions. The treatment time was significantly shorter with the H-30 vs the H-20 laser (14.3 ± 2.5 vs 33.1 ± 8.9 minutes, P = .008). There was no difference between the treatment times using the long vs short pulse widths of the H-30 laser (14.4 ± 3.4 vs 14.3 ± 1.7 minutes, P = .93). Retropulsion differed by laser type and pulse width, H-30 long pulse (15.8 ± 5.7 cm), H-30 short pulse (54.8 ± 7.1 cm), and H-20 (33.2 ± 12.5 cm) (P laser fragmented stone phantoms in half the time of the H-20 laser regardless of the pulse width. Retropulsion effects differed between the lasers, with the H-30 causing the least retropulsion. Longer pulse widths result in less stone retropulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Paradigm for Supergranulation Derived from Large-Distance Time-Distance Helioseismology: Pancakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Thomas L.; Hanasoge, Shravan M.

    2012-01-01

    With large separations (10-24 deg heliocentric), it has proven possible to cleanly separate the horizontal and vertical components of supergranular flow with time-distance helioseismology. These measurements require very broad filters in the k-$\\omega$ power spectrum as apparently supergranulation scatters waves over a large area of the power spectrum. By picking locations of supergranulation as peaks in the horizontal divergence signal derived from f-mode waves, it is possible to simultaneously obtain average properties of supergranules and a high signal/noise ratio by averaging over many cells. By comparing ray-theory forward modeling with HMI measurements, an average supergranule model with a peak upflow of 240 m/s at cell center at a depth of 2.3 Mm and a peak horizontal outflow of 700 m/s at a depth of 1.6 Mm. This upflow is a factor of 20 larger than the measured photospheric upflow. These results may not be consistent with earlier measurements using much shorter separations (<5 deg heliocentric). With a 30 Mm horizontal extent and a few Mm in depth, the cells might be characterized as thick pancakes.

  8. Gesture Interaction at a Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore, from a perspective of human behavior, which gestures are suited to control large display surfaces from a short distance away; why that is so; and, equally important, how such an interface can be made a reality. A well-known example of the type of interface that is

  9. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  10. Distance Education Technologies in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 schools ... Mobile Technology in Non-formal Distance Education 192 ..... in the design and application of e-learning strategies, the need to standardise and ...... library providing access to over 20,000 journals and thesis databases, and 6,000 ...

  11. Video surveillance using distance maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2006-02-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors. To obtain fully controlled test environments, an artificial development center for robot navigation is introduced in which several parameters can be set (e.g., number of objects, trajectories and type and amount of noise). In the videos, for each following frame, movement of stationary objects is detected and pixels of moving objects are located from which moving objects are identified in a robust way. An Exact Euclidean Distance Map (E2DM) is utilized to determine accurately the distances between moving and stationary objects. Together with the determined distances between moving objects and the detected movement of stationary objects, this provides the input for detecting unwanted situations in the scene. Further, each intelligent object (e.g., a robot), is provided with its E2DM, allowing the object to plan its course of action. Timing results are specified for each program block of the processing chain for 20 different setups. So, the current paper presents extensive, experimentally controlled research on real-time, accurate, and robust motion detection for video surveillance, using E2DMs, which makes it a unique approach.

  12. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  13. Student Monitoring in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a computerized monitoring system for distance education students at Athabasca University designed to solve the problems of tracking student performance. A pilot project for tutors is described which includes an electronic conferencing system and electronic mail, and an evaluation currently in progress is briefly discussed. (LRW)

  14. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  15. Feasibility of a shorter Goal Attainment Scaling method for a pediatric spasticity clinic - The 3-milestones GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny-Pacini, A; Pauly, F; Hiebel, J; Godon, S; Isner-Horobeti, M-E; Chevignard, M

    2017-07-01

    Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a method for writing personalized evaluation scales to quantify progress toward defined goals. It is useful in rehabilitation but is hampered by the experience required to adequately "predict" the possible outcomes relating to a particular goal before treatment and the time needed to describe all 5 levels of the scale. Here we aimed to investigate the feasibility of using GAS in a clinical setting of a pediatric spasticity clinic with a shorter method, the "3-milestones" GAS (goal setting with 3 levels and goal rating with the classical 5 levels). Secondary aims were to (1) analyze the types of goals children's therapists set for botulinum toxin treatment and (2) compare the score distribution (and therefore the ability to predict outcome) by goal type. Therapists were trained in GAS writing and prepared GAS scales in the regional spasticity-management clinic they attended with their patients and families. The study included all GAS scales written during a 2-year period. GAS score distribution across the 5 GAS levels was examined to assess whether the therapist could reliably predict outcome and whether the 3-milestones GAS yielded similar distributions as the original GAS method. In total, 541 GAS scales were written and showed the expected score distribution. Most scales (55%) referred to movement quality goals and fewer (29%) to family goals and activity domains. The 3-milestones GAS method was feasible within the time constraints of the spasticity clinic and could be used by local therapists in cooperation with the hospital team. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Psoralen-mediated virus photoinactivation in platelet concentrates: enhanced specificity of virus kill in the absence of shorter UVA wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis-Nunno, Henrietta; Robinson, Richard; Horowitz, Bernard; Ben-Hur, Ehud; Geacintov, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Treatments with psoralens and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm; PUVA) have shown efficacy for virus sterilization of platelet concentrates (PC). We have employed the psoralen derivative 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT), and have found that platelet integrity is best preserved when rutin, a flavonoid that quenches multiple reactive oxygen species, is present during AMT/UVA treatment of PC. In this report, we examine the effects of different UVA spectra under our standard PC treatment conditions (i.e. 50 μg/mL AMT, 0.35 mM rutin and 38 J/cm 2 UVA). Added vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; ≥ 5.5 log 10 ) was completely inactivated with the simultaneous maintenance of the platelet aggregation response (> 90% of control) when a UVA light source with transmission mainly between 360 and 370 nm (narrow UVA1) was used. In contrast, with a broad-band UVA (320-400 nm; broad UVA) light source, the aggregation response was greatly compromised (< 50% of control) with only a minor increase in the rate of VSV kill. With this lamp, platelet function could be improved to about 75% of the control by adding a long-pass filter, which reduced the transmission of shorter (≤ 345 nm) UVA wavelengths (340-400 nm; UVA1). At equivalent levels of virus kill, aggregation function was always best preserved when narrow UVA1 was used for PUVA treatment. Even in the absence of AMT, and with or without rutin present, narrow UVA1 irradiation was better tolerated by platelets than was broad UVA. (author)

  17. Conditional inactivation of TNFα-converting enzyme in chondrocytes results in an elongated growth plate and shorter long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Saito

    Full Text Available TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.

  18. Moral distance in dictator games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aguiar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

  19. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies con......, but corporate governance and fiduciary behavior more generally....... on differences among the industrial foundations themselves. We work with a rich data set comprising 113 foundation-owned Danish companies over the period 2003-2008. We focus in particular on a composite structural factor that we term “managerial distance.” We propose this as a measure of the extent to which......-seeking outside owners of the company. Consistent with this hypothesis, our empirical analysis shows a positive, significant, and robust association between managerial distance and the economic performance of foundation owned companies. The findings appear to illuminate not just foundation governance...

  20. Determining distances using asteroseismic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Victor Silva; Casagrande, L.; Basu, Sarbina

    2013-01-01

    Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification of the r......Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification...... fluxes, and thus distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. Applying our method to a sample of solar-like oscillators in the {\\it Kepler} field that have accurate {\\it Hipparcos} parallaxes, we find agreement in our distance determinations to better than 5%. Comparison with measurements...

  1. On the center of distances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, S.; Walczyńska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2018), s. 687-698 ISSN 2199-675X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cantorval center of distances von Neumann's theorem * set of subsums Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40879-017-0199-4

  2. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  3. Modelling long-distance seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Tewlsbury, Joshua, J.; Bolker, Benjamin, M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance seed dispersal is difficult to measure, yet key to understanding plant population dynamics and community composition. 2. We used a spatially explicit model to predict the distribution of seeds dispersed long distances by birds into habitat patches of different shapes. All patches were the same type of habitat and size, but varied in shape. They occurred in eight experimental landscapes, each with five patches of four different shapes, 150 m apart in a matrix of mature forest. The model was parameterized with smallscale movement data collected from field observations of birds. In a previous study we validated the model by testing its predictions against observed patterns of seed dispersal in real landscapes with the same types and spatial configuration of patches as in the model. 3. Here we apply the model more broadly, examining how patch shape influences the probability of seed deposition by birds into patches, how dispersal kernels (distributions of dispersal distances) vary with patch shape and starting location, and how movement of seeds between patches is affected by patch shape. 4. The model predicts that patches with corridors or other narrow extensions receive higher numbers of seeds than patches without corridors or extensions. This pattern is explained by edgefollowing behaviour of birds. Dispersal distances are generally shorter in heterogeneous landscapes (containing patchy habitat) than in homogeneous landscapes, suggesting that patches divert the movement of seed dispersers, ‘holding’ them long enough to increase the probability of seed defecation in the patches. Dispersal kernels for seeds in homogeneous landscapes were smooth, whereas those in heterogenous landscapes were irregular. In both cases, long-distance (> 150 m) dispersal was surprisingly common, usually comprising approximately 50% of all dispersal events. 5. Synthesis . Landscape heterogeneity has a large influence on patterns of long-distance seed dispersal. Our

  4. Utilization of the emergency room: impact of geographic distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the distance Mississippi patients must travel to access hospital-based emergency rooms (ERs and to determine whether an association exists between geographic distance and ER utilization. To that end, great circle distances between Census Block Group Centroid Points and 89 hospitals with emergency departments were calculated for the State of Mississippi. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics of each block group came from the 2000 US Census data. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test if there was any association between ER utilization and travel distance. Compared to the national benchmark of 35.7%, more than one in two (56.7%, or 1,612,762 Mississippians visited ERs in 2003 with an estimated 6.1 miles per person annual travel for this purpose. The majority of the target population (54.9% was found to live within 5 miles of hospitals with ERs. Logistic analyses revealed that block groups associated with less miles traveled to hospitals with ERs had a higher proportion of African Americans, impoverished people, female householders, people with more than 12 years education, people older than 65 years, people with high median house values, and people without employment. Twenty-nine of the 89 hospitals (33% providing ER care in Mississippi were found to be in areas with above-average ER utilization rates. These hospitals served a smaller geographical area (28% of the total but had a greater proportion of visitors (57% and served a higher percentage (37% of the state population. People in areas served by the less utilized ERs traveled more miles to be cared for (7.1 miles vs 5.4 miles; p<0.0001. Logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter distances were associated with increased use of the ERs, even after controlling for socio-demographic factors. The conclusion is that Mississippi ERs are typically located in block groups with higher percentages of disadvantaged residents and that

  5. Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barbería, F J; Carranza, J; Sánchez-Prieto, C

    2015-01-01

    Teeth in Cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. Tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. Little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environments and how these relate to life history traits to explain differences in population rates of tooth wear and longevity. We hypothesised that populations under harsh environmental conditions should be selected for more hypsodont teeth while sexual selection may maintain similar sex differences within different populations. We investigated the patterns of tooth wear in males and females of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Southern Spain and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) across Scotland, that occur in very different environments, using 10343 samples from legal hunting activities. We found higher rates of both incisor and molar wear in the Spanish compared to Scottish populations. However, Scottish red deer had larger incisors at emergence than Iberian red deer, whilst molars emerged at a similar size in both populations and sexes. Iberian and Scottish males had earlier tooth depletion than females, in support of a similar sexual selection process in both populations. However, whilst average lifespan for Iberian males was 4 years shorter than that for Iberian females and Scottish males, Scottish males only showed a reduction of 1 year in average lifespan with respect to Scottish females. More worn molars were associated with larger mandibles in both populations, suggesting that higher intake and/or greater investment in food comminution may have favoured increased body growth, before later loss of tooth efficiency due to severe wear. These results

  6. Support Services for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Frieden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation and operation of a distance education support infrastructure requires the collaboration of virtually all administrative departments whose activities deal with students and faculty, and all participating academic departments. Implementation can build on where the institution is and design service-oriented strategies that strengthen institutional support and commitment. Issues to address include planning, faculty issues and concerns, policies and guidelines, approval processes, scheduling, training, publicity, information-line operations, informational materials, orientation and registration processes, class coordination and support, testing, evaluations, receive site management, partnerships, budgets, staffing, library and e-mail support, and different delivery modes (microwave, compressed video, radio, satellite, public television/cable, video tape and online. The process is ongoing and increasingly participative as various groups on campus begin to get involved with distance education activities. The distance education unit must continuously examine and revise its processes and procedures to maintain the academic integrity and service excellence of its programs. It’s a daunting prospect to revise the way things have been done for many years, but each department has an opportunity to respond to new ways of serving and reaching students.

  7. Teaching Chemistry via Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmann, Erwin

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a chemistry course taught at Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis via television, with a Web version added later. The television format is a delivery technology; the Web is an engagement technology and is preferred since it requires student participation. The distance-laboratory component presented the greatest challenge since laboratories via distance education are not a part of the U.S. academic culture. Appropriate experiments have been developed with the consultation of experts from The Open University in the United Kingdom, Athabasca University in Canada, and Monash University in Australia. The criteria used in the development of experiments are: (1) they must be credible academic experiences equal to or better than those used on campus, (2) they must be easy to perform without supervision, (3) they must be safe, and (4) they must meet all legal requirements. An evaluation of the program using three different approaches is described. The paper concludes that technology-mediated distance education students do as well as on-campus students, but drop out at a higher rate. It is very important to communicate with students frequently, and technology tools ought to be used only if good pedagogy is enhanced by their use.

  8. Walking for Transportation: What do U.S. Adults Think is a Reasonable Distance and Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Humbert-Rico, Tiffany; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-06-16

    Less than one-third of U.S. adults walk for transportation. Public health strategies to increase transportation walking would benefit from knowing what adults think is a reasonable distance to walk. Our purpose was to determine 1) what adults think is a reasonable distance and amount of time to walk and 2) whether there were differences in minutes spent transportation walking by what adults think is reasonable. Analyses used a cross-sectional nationwide adult sample (n = 3653) participating in the 2010 Summer ConsumerStyles mail survey. Most adults (> 90%) think transportation walking is reasonable. However, less than half (43%) think walking a mile or more or for 20 minutes or more is reasonable. What adults think is reasonable is similar across most demographic subgroups, except for older adults (≥ 65 years) who think shorter distances and times are reasonable. Trend analysis that adjust for demographic characteristics indicates adults who think longer distances and times are reasonable walk more. Walking for short distances is acceptable to most U.S. adults. Public health programs designed to encourage longer distance trips may wish to improve supports for transportation walking to make walking longer distances seem easier and more acceptable to most U.S. adults.

  9. Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan; Liang, Junying

    2017-07-01

    Dependency distance, measured by the linear distance between two syntactically related words in a sentence, is generally held as an important index of memory burden and an indicator of syntactic difficulty. Since this constraint of memory is common for all human beings, there may well be a universal preference for dependency distance minimization (DDM) for the sake of reducing memory burden. This human-driven language universal is supported by big data analyses of various corpora that consistently report shorter overall dependency distance in natural languages than in artificial random languages and long-tailed distributions featuring a majority of short dependencies and a minority of long ones. Human languages, as complex systems, seem to have evolved to come up with diverse syntactic patterns under the universal pressure for dependency distance minimization. However, there always exist a small number of long-distance dependencies in natural languages, which may reflect some other biological or functional constraints. Language system may adapt itself to these sporadic long-distance dependencies. It is these universal constraints that have shaped such a rich diversity of syntactic patterns in human languages.

  10. Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan; Liang, Junying

    2017-07-01

    Dependency distance, measured by the linear distance between two syntactically related words in a sentence, is generally held as an important index of memory burden and an indicator of syntactic difficulty. Since this constraint of memory is common for all human beings, there may well be a universal preference for dependency distance minimization (DDM) for the sake of reducing memory burden. This human-driven language universal is supported by big data analyses of various corpora that consistently report shorter overall dependency distance in natural languages than in artificial random languages and long-tailed distributions featuring a majority of short dependencies and a minority of long ones. Human languages, as complex systems, seem to have evolved to come up with diverse syntactic patterns under the universal pressure for dependency distance minimization. However, there always exist a small number of long-distance dependencies in natural languages, which may reflect some other biological or functional constraints. Language system may adapt itself to these sporadic long-distance dependencies. It is these universal constraints that have shaped such a rich diversity of syntactic patterns in human languages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. High lung cancer surgical procedure volume is associated with shorter length of stay and lower risks of re-admission and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Riaz, Sharma P; Holmberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset for this anal......It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset...... to their geographical population. Higher volume hospitals had shorter length of stay and the odds of re-admission were 15% lower in the highest hospital volume quintile compared with the lowest quintile. Mortality risks were 1% after 30 d and 3% after 90 d. Patients from hospitals in the highest volume quintile had...

  12. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  13. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  14. Legibility Implications of Embellished Display Typefaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Sand, Katrine; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    are designed for the purpose of controlling for the variables of swashes, stroke contrast and drop shadow. The results show that all fonts are processed more accurately in the right visual field (corresponding to initial processing in the left hemisphere), and this is mainly evident when exposure is very brief...

  15. Quantum chromodynamics at large distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Properties of QCD at large distances are considered in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. An investigation of asymptotic behaviour of lower Green functions in QCD is the starting point of the approach. The recent works are reviewed which confirm the singular infrared behaviour of gluon propagator M 2 /(k 2 ) 2 at least under some gauge conditions. A special covariant gauge comes out to be the most suitable for description of infrared region due to absence of ghost contributions to infrared asymptotics of Green functions. Solutions of Schwinger-Dyson equation for quark propagator are obtained in this special gauge and are shown to possess desirable properties: spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance and nonperturbative character. The infrared asymptotics of lower Green functions are used for calculation of vacuum expectation values of gluon and quark fields. These vacuum expectation values are obtained in a good agreement with the corresponding phenomenological values which are needed in the method of sum rules in QCD, that confirms adequacy of the infrared region description. The consideration of a behaviour of QCD at large distances leads to the conclusion that at contemporary stage of theory development one may consider two possibilities. The first one is the well-known confinement hypothesis and the second one is called incomplete confinement and stipulates for open color to be observable. Possible manifestations of incomplete confinement are discussed

  16. Open and Distance Learning Today. Routledge Studies in Distance Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Fred, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on open and distance learning today: "Preface" (Daniel); "Big Bang Theory in Distance Education" (Hawkridge); "Practical Agenda for Theorists of Distance Education" (Perraton); "Trends, Directions and Needs: A View from Developing Countries" (Koul); "American…

  17. The relationship between anogenital distance, fatherhood, and fertility in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Hsieh, Michael H; Walters, Rustin Chanc; Krasnow, Ross; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2011-05-11

    Anogenital distance (AGD), a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men. A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count). A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4) and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7) were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, pfatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03) and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01). On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters. A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

  18. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding...

  19. Discrimination of Urban Spaces with Different Level of Restorativeness Based on the Original and on a Shorter Version of Hartig et al.’s Perceived Restorativeness Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Negrín

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Restorativeness is defined as the potential of the environment to re-establish certain cognitive capacities related to human information processing. The most frequently used instrument for evaluating the restorativeness of places is the Perceived Restorativeness Scale, proposed by Hartig et al. (1991. Later on, shorter versions of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale were proposed. The aim of this work is to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of the original and of a shorter Spanish version of the PRS, considering urban settings previously selected for having different level of restorativeness, according to expert’s criteria. The study involved 244 students and used a 3 × 2 mixed experimental design, with two independent variables: Restorativeness of a place (between-subjects, which was manipulated by showing pictures of settings selected with varying levels of restorativeness (high, medium, low, and length of the scale (within-subjects, which was manipulated by asking subjects to fill in both the original and a shorter version of the PRS. The order of presentation of the two scales was counterbalanced. Results show an appropriate reliability for both version of the scale. Items of being-away, fascination, and coherence of the shorter scale correlate more strongly with the corresponding factor of the original scale, compared to the others factors. Both scales produce similar values for the perceived restorativeness of the different places, except for places with low restorativeness.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of longer-term versus shorter-term provision of antibiotics in patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berende, A.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Vos, F.J.; Vogelaar, M.L.; Tromp, M.A.; Middendorp, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Evers, A.W.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Adang, E.M.M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease remains controversial. Recently, the PLEASE study did not demonstrate any additional clinical benefit of longer-term versus shorter-term antibiotic treatment. However, the economic impact of the antibiotic strategies has not

  1. The effect of shorter exposure versus prolonged exposure on treatment outcome in Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders - an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Griendt, Jolande M T M; van Dijk, Maarten K; Verdellen, Cara W J; Verbraak, Marc J P M

    2018-01-11

    Exposure and response prevention has shown to be an effective strategy and is considered a first-line intervention in the behavioural treatment of tic disorders. Prior research demonstrated significant tic reduction after 12 two hour sessions. In this open trial, the question is addressed whether, relative to these prolonged sessions, exposure sessions of shorter duration yield differential outcome for patients with tic disorders. A total of 29 patients diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder were treated with shorter exposure sessions (1 h), and these data were compared to the data from a study about prolonged exposure (2 h, n = 21). Outcome was measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Results suggest that after taking the difference in illness duration between the two groups into account, the effectiveness of shorter exposure sessions is not inferior to that of prolonged exposure. Results suggest that treatment with shorter exposure might be more efficient and more patients can be reached. Future research is needed to gain more insight into the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of behavioural treatments for tics.

  2. N-Terminal Domains in Two-Domain Proteins Are Biased to Be Shorter and Predicted to Fold Faster Than Their C-Terminal Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etai Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis of proteomes in all kingdoms of life reveals a strong tendency for N-terminal domains in two-domain proteins to have shorter sequences than their neighboring C-terminal domains. Given that folding rates are affected by chain length, we asked whether the tendency for N-terminal domains to be shorter than their neighboring C-terminal domains reflects selection for faster-folding N-terminal domains. Calculations of absolute contact order, another predictor of folding rate, provide additional evidence that N-terminal domains tend to fold faster than their neighboring C-terminal domains. A possible explanation for this bias, which is more pronounced in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, is that faster folding of N-terminal domains reduces the risk for protein aggregation during folding by preventing formation of nonnative interdomain interactions. This explanation is supported by our finding that two-domain proteins with a shorter N-terminal domain are much more abundant than those with a shorter C-terminal domain.

  3. VIRTUAL LABORATORY IN DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Kozlovsky

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions of designing and a choice of technologies of creation of virtual laboratory for the distance learning system are considered. Distance learning system «Kherson Virtual University» is used as illustration.

  4. Distance Learning Plan Development: Initiating Organizational Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poole, Clifton

    1998-01-01

    .... Army distance learning plan managers to examine the DLPs they were directing. The analysis showed that neither army nor civilian distance learning plan managers used formalized requirements for organizational structure development (OSD...

  5. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that...

  6. Institutional Distance and the Internationalization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai; Maitland, Carleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the institutional lens to the internationalization process model. It updates the concept of psychic distance in the model with a recently developed, theoretically grounded construct of institutional distance. Institutions are considered simultaneously at the national and industry...

  7. Anxiety and Resistance in Distance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nazime Tuncay; Huseyin Uzunboylu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' anxiety and resistance towards learning through distance education.Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions: -What are the reasons of students not choosing distancelearning courses? -Which symptoms of anxiety, if any, do distance learner’s exhibit towards distance learning? Does genderhave any significant relationships with distance learners' perception of factors that affect their anxiety and resistance? A totalo...

  8. Distance majorization and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications.

  9. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  10. Classification With Truncated Distance Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Suykens, Johan A K; Wang, Shuning; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    This brief proposes a truncated distance (TL1) kernel, which results in a classifier that is nonlinear in the global region but is linear in each subregion. With this kernel, the subregion structure can be trained using all the training data and local linear classifiers can be established simultaneously. The TL1 kernel has good adaptiveness to nonlinearity and is suitable for problems which require different nonlinearities in different areas. Though the TL1 kernel is not positive semidefinite, some classical kernel learning methods are still applicable which means that the TL1 kernel can be directly used in standard toolboxes by replacing the kernel evaluation. In numerical experiments, the TL1 kernel with a pregiven parameter achieves similar or better performance than the radial basis function kernel with the parameter tuned by cross validation, implying the TL1 kernel a promising nonlinear kernel for classification tasks.

  11. Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen T. Buckland; Robin E. Russell; Brett G. Dickson; Victoria A. Saab; Donal N. Gorman; William M. Block

    2009-01-01

    Distance sampling is a survey technique for estimating the abundance or density of wild animal populations. Detection probabilities of animals inherently differ by species, age class, habitats, or sex. By incorporating the change in an observer's ability to detect a particular class of animals as a function of distance, distance sampling leads to density estimates...

  12. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

    2016-01-01

    Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

  13. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  14. Continuity Properties of Distances for Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Mao, Hua; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate distance functions on finite state Markov processes that measure the behavioural similarity of non-bisimilar processes. We consider both probabilistic bisimilarity metrics, and trace-based distances derived from standard Lp and Kullback-Leibler distances. Two desirable...

  15. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  16. Critical Points in Distance Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airina Savickaitė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article presents the results of distance learning system analysis, i.e. the critical elements of the distance learning system. The critical points of distance learning are a part of distance education online environment interactivity/community process model. The most important is the fact that the critical point is associated with distance learning participants. Design/methodology/approach – Comparative review of articles and analysis of distance learning module. Findings – A modern man is a lifelong learner and distance learning is a way to be a modern person. The focus on a learner and feedback is the most important thing of learning distance system. Also, attention should be paid to the lecture-appropriate knowledge and ability to convey information. Distance system adaptation is the way to improve the learner’s learning outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Different learning disciplines and learning methods may have different critical points. Practical implications – The information of analysis could be important for both lecturers and students, who studies distance education systems. There are familiar critical points which may deteriorate the quality of learning. Originality/value – The study sought to develop remote systems for applications in order to improve the quality of knowledge. Keywords: distance learning, process model, critical points. Research type: review of literature and general overview.

  17. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Phylogenetic inference with weighted codon evolutionary distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Michel, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    We develop a new approach to estimate a matrix of pairwise evolutionary distances from a codon-based alignment based on a codon evolutionary model. The method first computes a standard distance matrix for each of the three codon positions. Then these three distance matrices are weighted according to an estimate of the global evolutionary rate of each codon position and averaged into a unique distance matrix. Using a large set of both real and simulated codon-based alignments of nucleotide sequences, we show that this approach leads to distance matrices that have a significantly better treelikeness compared to those obtained by standard nucleotide evolutionary distances. We also propose an alternative weighting to eliminate the part of the noise often associated with some codon positions, particularly the third position, which is known to induce a fast evolutionary rate. Simulation results show that fast distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms on distance matrices based on this codon position weighting can lead to phylogenetic trees that are at least as accurate as, if not better, than those inferred by maximum likelihood. Finally, a well-known multigene dataset composed of eight yeast species and 106 codon-based alignments is reanalyzed and shows that our codon evolutionary distances allow building a phylogenetic tree which is similar to those obtained by non-distance-based methods (e.g., maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) and also significantly improved compared to standard nucleotide evolutionary distance estimates.

  19. Distance Education at Silesian University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Klosowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Distance Learning Platform used by Silesian University of Technology. Distance Learning Platform is based on modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment, represents LMS (Learning Management Systems technology, a software package designed to help educators create quality online courses. Currently on Distance Learning Platform at Silesian University of Technology are available over 520 online courses created for students of twelve University's faculties. Number of Distance Learning Platform users exceeds 12000. Distance Learning Platform works as typically asynchronous e-learning service, but in the future more synchronous e-learning services will be added. Distance Learning Platform has great potential to create a successful elearning experience by providing a plethora of excellent tools that can be used to enhance conventional classroom instruction, in hybrid courses, or any distance learning arrangements.

  20. Long-Distance Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Joseph

    1999-04-01

    One of the goals of physics education is to instill a sense of wonder in our students. We hope our natural curiosity will rub off on them and that they will apply the critical thinking skills we teach them to other aspects of their lives outside the classroom. As an example of this, consider the situation described in Milton's epic poem ``Paradise Lost''. Milton wrote that when the devil was cast out of heaven, he fell for nine days before landing in hell. In Milton's universe, hell is a separate place from Earth, but many people place hell at the center of the Earth. Based on these ideas, we can apply Newton's laws of motion to calculate the distance from heaven to Earth. This exercise is an example of the kind of intellectual exercise a physicist (or a physics student) might carry out when confronted with such information. We apply the basic principles of physics to a situation described in work of literature while making no attempt to validate or refute any philosophy, theology or ideology.

  1. Foundations of Distance Education. Third Edition. Routledge Studies in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond

    This text gives an overview of distance education for students, administrators, and practitioners in distance education. Chapter 1 discusses the study of distance education. Chapter 2 analyzes forms of nonconventional education (open, nontraditional) that may have similarities to distance education but are not to be identified with it. Chapter 3…

  2. Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and subsurface drainage systems: Key factors for determining drainage setback distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2018-01-01

    Use of agricultural subsurface drainage systems in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America continues to increase, prompting concerns over potential negative effects to the Region's vital wetlands. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protects a large number of wetlands through conservation easements that often utilize standard lateral setback distances to provide buffers between wetlands and drainage systems. Because of a lack of information pertaining to the efficacy of these setback distances for protecting wetlands, information is required to support the decision making for placement of subsurface drainage systems adjacent to wetlands. We used qualitative graphical analyses and data comparisons to identify characteristics of subsurface drainage systems and wetland catchments that could be considered when assessing setback distances. We also compared setback distances with catchment slope lengths to determine if they typically exclude drainage systems from the catchment. We demonstrated that depth of a subsurface drainage system is a key factor for determining drainage setback distances. Drainage systems located closer to the surface (shallow) typically could be associated with shorter lateral setback distances compared with deeper systems. Subsurface drainage systems would be allowed within a wetland's catchment for 44–59% of catchments associated with wetland conservation easements in North Dakota. More specifically, results suggest that drainage setback distances generally would exclude drainage systems from catchments of the smaller wetlands that typically have shorter slopes in the adjacent upland contributing area. For larger wetlands, however, considerable areas of the catchment would be vulnerable to drainage that may affect wetland hydrology. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easements are associated with > 2,000 km2 of wetlands in North Dakota, demonstrating great potential to protect these systems from drainage depending on policies for installing

  3. Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to Presumed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mexican-American Men in NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48–2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52–2.62, resp.. Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006–0.79 and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006–0.24. Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.

  4. Giant sparks at cosmological distances?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Neill, J. D.; Zheng, Z.; Juric, M.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond-duration bright radio pulses at 1.4 GHz with high dispersion measures (DMs) were reported by Lorimer et al., Keane et al., and Thornton et al. Their all-sky rate is ≈10 4 day –1 above ∼1 Jy. Related events are 'Perytons'–similar pulsed, dispersed sources, but most certainly local. Suggested models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can originate in Earth's atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, and even at cosmological distances. Using physically motivated assumptions combined with observed properties, we explore these models. In our analysis, we focus on the Lorimer event: a 30 Jy, 5 ms duration burst with DM = 375 cm –3 pc, exhibiting a steep frequency-dependent pulse width (the Sparker). To be complete, we drop the assumption that high DMs are produced by plasma propagation and assume that the source produces pulses with frequency-dependent arrival time ('chirped signals'). Within this framework, we explore a scenario in which Perytons, the Sparker, and the FRBs are all atmospheric phenomena occurring at different heights. This model is ad hoc in that we cannot explain why Perytons at higher altitudes show greater DMs or exhibit narrower pulses. Nonetheless, we argue that the Sparker may be a Peryton. We end with two remarks. First, the detection of a single FRB by an interferometer with a kilometer (or longer) baseline will prove that FRBs are of extraterrestrial origin. Second, we urge astronomers to pursue observations and understanding of Perytons since they form (at least) a formidable foreground for the FRBs.

  5. Giant sparks at cosmological distances?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, S. R. [Caltech Optical Observatories 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ofek, E. O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Neill, J. D. [Space Radiation Laboratory 290-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zheng, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Juric, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Millisecond-duration bright radio pulses at 1.4 GHz with high dispersion measures (DMs) were reported by Lorimer et al., Keane et al., and Thornton et al. Their all-sky rate is ≈10{sup 4} day{sup –1} above ∼1 Jy. Related events are 'Perytons'–similar pulsed, dispersed sources, but most certainly local. Suggested models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can originate in Earth's atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, and even at cosmological distances. Using physically motivated assumptions combined with observed properties, we explore these models. In our analysis, we focus on the Lorimer event: a 30 Jy, 5 ms duration burst with DM = 375 cm{sup –3} pc, exhibiting a steep frequency-dependent pulse width (the Sparker). To be complete, we drop the assumption that high DMs are produced by plasma propagation and assume that the source produces pulses with frequency-dependent arrival time ('chirped signals'). Within this framework, we explore a scenario in which Perytons, the Sparker, and the FRBs are all atmospheric phenomena occurring at different heights. This model is ad hoc in that we cannot explain why Perytons at higher altitudes show greater DMs or exhibit narrower pulses. Nonetheless, we argue that the Sparker may be a Peryton. We end with two remarks. First, the detection of a single FRB by an interferometer with a kilometer (or longer) baseline will prove that FRBs are of extraterrestrial origin. Second, we urge astronomers to pursue observations and understanding of Perytons since they form (at least) a formidable foreground for the FRBs.

  6. Hop Distance Symmetry Does Not Indicate Normal Landing Biomechanics in Adolescent Athletes With Recent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Mueske, Nicole M; Brophy, Christopher H; Pace, J Lee; Katzel, Mia J; Edison, Bianca R; VandenBerg, Curtis D; Zaslow, Tracy L

    2018-03-30

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Return to sport (RTS) protocols after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often include assessment of hop distance symmetry. However, it is unclear if movement deficits are present regardless of hop symmetry. Objectives To assess biomechanics and symmetry of adolescent athletes following ACLR during a single leg hop for distance. Methods Forty-six patients with ACLR (5-12 months post-surgery; 27 female; age 15.6, SD 1.7 years) were classified as asymmetric (operative limb hop distance biomechanics were compared among operative and contralateral limbs and 24 symmetric controls (12 female; age 14.7, SD 1.5 years) using ANOVA. Results Compared to controls, asymmetric patients hopped a shorter distance on their operative limb (P<0.001), while symmetric patients hopped an intermediate distance on both sides (P≥0.12). During landing, operative limbs, regardless of hop distance, exhibited lower knee flexion moments compared to controls and the contralateral side (P≤0.04) with lower knee energy absorption than the contralateral side (P≤0.006). During take-off, both symmetric and asymmetric patients had less hip extension and smaller ankle range of motion on the operative side compared with controls (P≤0.05). Asymmetric patients also had lower hip range of motion on the operative, compared with the contralateral, side (P=0.001). Conclusion Both symmetric and asymmetric patients offloaded the operative knee; symmetric patients achieved symmetry in part by hopping a shorter distance on the contralateral side. Therefore, hop distance symmetry may not be an adequate test of single limb function and RTS readiness. Level of Evidence 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 30 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7817.

  7. ADULT LEARNERS IN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORICA-FELICIA BUCUR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts at identifying the main features that characterize distance higher education and adult education, respectively, in order to be able to establish to what extent adult learners can fit in distance higher education programs. The historical background of distance learning education, the factors that influence adult learners, and distance learning’s key objectives, effects, issues, advantages, and disadvantages are to be briefly investigated in order to reach the purpose of this paper. Recent developments in Information Technology have led to a new approach to teaching and learning, especially as far as adult learning and distance learning are concerned. Thus, this study will also focus on the consequences of using technology for course design, delivery, and the perception of adult learners participating in distance learning.

  8. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  9. Long working distance objective lenses for single atom trapping and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, J. D., E-mail: jonathan.pritchard@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Isaacs, J. A.; Saffman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present a pair of optimized objective lenses with long working distances of 117 mm and 65 mm, respectively, that offer diffraction limited performance for both Cs and Rb wavelengths when imaging through standard vacuum windows. The designs utilise standard catalog lens elements to provide a simple and cost-effective solution. Objective 1 provides NA = 0.175 offering 3 μm resolution whilst objective 2 is optimized for high collection efficiency with NA = 0.29 and 1.8 μm resolution. This flexible design can be further extended for use at shorter wavelengths by simply re-optimising the lens separations.

  10. The distances of nearby cool carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeat, J.; Sibille, F.; Lunel, M.

    1978-01-01

    Distance ratios are provided for 38 cool carbon stars on the basis of a previous study (Bergeat et al., 1976 a,b,c). The validation of this distance scale is obtained through an analysis of stellar velocities. A relationship is established between proper motions and the distance scale. Luminosities and radii are derived for cool carbon stars which permit a discussion of their evolutionary status. Finally, evaluations are given for the rate of mass ejection corresponding to large graphite grains. (WL) [de

  11. Long distance signaling using axionlike particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    2007-01-01

    The possible existence of axionlike particles could lead to a new type of long-distance communication. In this work, basic antenna concepts are defined and a Friis-like equation is derived to facilitate long-distance link calculations. An example calculation is presented showing that communication over distances of 1000 km or more may be possible for m a aγγ >5x10 -8 GeV -1

  12. Cardiovascular Risks in Long Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Bethany Rolfe; Babbitt, Keven

    Distance running has become increasingly popular since the 1970s. Despite the health benefits, long-distance running has been associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Healthcare professionals should be familiar with distance running cardiac risk factors and preparticipation screening recommendations from the American Heart Association, and should screen and educate patients during healthcare encounters. Nurses are particularly well suited to educate runners on risks and symptoms of cardiac dysfunction.

  13. Don’t stand so close to me: Psychopathy and the regulation of interpersonal distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B. Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterized by callous-unemotional traits, such as reduced empathy and remorse, and a tendency toward deviant interpersonal behaviors. It has been suggested that subtle behavioral cues in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits may betray their personality during interpersonal interactions, but little research has addressed what these clues might be. In this study, we investigated whether psychopathic traits predict interpersonal distance preferences, which have been previously linked to amygdala functioning. Forty-six healthy participants performed a behavioral task in which the distance they preferred to maintain between themselves and an experimenter was measured across a series of trials. Psychopathic traits, including Coldheartedness, Fearless Dominance, and Self-centered Impulsivity were assessed using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005. Results demonstrated that Coldheartedness predicted preferred interpersonal distance, with more coldhearted participants preferring shorter distances. These findings suggest that interpersonal distance preferences may signal psychopathic traits, particularly callousness, supporting accounts of amygdala dysfunction in psychopathy.

  14. Genetic distances and phylogenetic trees of different Awassi sheep populations based on DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed to estimate evolutionary distances and to reconstruct phylogeny trees between different Awassi sheep populations. Thirty-two sheep individuals from three different geographical areas of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were randomly sampled. DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and sequenced using the T7 promoter universal primer. Different phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from 0.64-kb DNA sequences using the MEGA software with the best general time reverse distance model. Three methods of distance estimation were then used. The maximum composite likelihood test was considered for reconstructing maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees. The maximum likelihood tree indicated three major clusters separated by cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The greatest distance was shown between the South sheep and North sheep. On the other hand, the KSA sheep as an outgroup showed shorter evolutionary distance to the North sheep population than to the others. The neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees showed quite reliable clusters of evolutionary differentiation of Jordan sheep populations from the Saudi population. The overall results support geographical information and ecological types of the sheep populations studied. Summing up, the resulting phylogeny trees may contribute to the limited information about the genetic relatedness and phylogeny of Awassi sheep in nearby Arab countries.

  15. Is transport distance correlated with animal welfare and carcass quality of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Sauli; Jokelainen, Pikka; Pusenius, Jyrki; Oksanen, Antti

    2017-03-15

    Slaughter reindeer are exposed to stress caused by gathering, handling, loading and unloading, and by conditions in vehicles during transport. These stress factors can lead to compromised welfare and trauma such as bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, and abnormal odour in carcasses, and causing condemnations in meat inspection and lower meat quality. We investigated the statistical association of slaughter transport distance with these indices using meat inspection data from years 2004-2016, including inspection of 669,738 reindeer originating from Finnish reindeer herding areas. Increased stress and decreased welfare of reindeer, as indicated by higher incidence of carcass condemnation due to bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, or abnormal odour, were positively associated with systems involving shorter transport distances to abattoirs. Significant differences in incidence of condemnations were also detected between abattoirs and reindeer herding cooperatives. This study indicates that in particular the short-distance transports of reindeer merit more attention. While the results suggest that factors associated with long distance transport, such as driver education, truck design, veterinary supervision, and specialist equipment, may be favourable to reducing pre-slaughter stress in reindeer when compared with short distance transport systems, which occur in a variety of vehicle types and may be done by untrained handlers. Further work is required to elucidate the causal factors to the current results.

  16. A cognitively grounded measure of pronunciation distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Wieling

    Full Text Available In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL. Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.

  17. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Dilmar A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.

  18. Machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Presented for the first time is a machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor. The distance sensor is based on our previously demonstrated distance measurement technique that uses an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL) with a laser source to illuminate a target plane with a controlled optical beam spot. This spot with varying spot sizes is viewed by an off-axis camera and the spot size data is processed to compute the distance. In particular, proposed and demonstrated in this paper is the use of a regularized polynomial regression based supervised machine learning algorithm to enhance the accuracy of the operational sensor. The algorithm uses the acquired features and corresponding labels that are the actual target distance values to train a machine learning model. The optimized training model is trained over a 1000 mm (or 1 m) experimental target distance range. Using the machine learning algorithm produces a training set and testing set distance measurement errors of learning. Applications for the proposed sensor include industrial scenario distance sensing where target material specific training models can be generated to realize low <1% measurement error distance measurements.

  19. Galaxies Gather at Great Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Distant Galaxy Cluster Infrared Survey Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Bird's Eye View Mosaic Bird's Eye View Mosaic with Clusters [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 9.1 Billion Light-Years 8.7 Billion Light-Years 8.6 Billion Light-Years Astronomers have discovered nearly 300 galaxy clusters and groups, including almost 100 located 8 to 10 billion light-years away, using the space-based Spitzer Space Telescope and the ground-based Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. The new sample represents a six-fold increase in the number of known galaxy clusters and groups at such extreme distances, and will allow astronomers to systematically study massive galaxies two-thirds of the way back to the Big Bang. A mosaic portraying a bird's eye view of the field in which the distant clusters were found is shown at upper left. It spans a region of sky 40 times larger than that covered by the full moon as seen from Earth. Thousands of individual images from Spitzer's infrared array camera instrument were stitched together to create this mosaic. The distant clusters are marked with orange dots. Close-up images of three of the distant galaxy clusters are shown in the adjoining panels. The clusters appear as a concentration of red dots near the center of each image. These images reveal the galaxies as they were over 8 billion years ago, since that's how long their light took to reach Earth and Spitzer's infrared eyes. These pictures are false-color composites, combining ground-based optical images captured by the Mosaic-I camera on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, with infrared pictures taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Blue and green represent visible light at wavelengths of 0.4 microns and 0.8 microns

  20. National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James B. Beddow

    2013-03-29

    Executive Summary The energy development assumptions identified in the Department of Energy's position paper, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, projected an exploding demand for wind energy-related workforce development. These primary assumptions drove a secondary set of assumptions that early stage wind industry workforce development and training paradigms would need to undergo significant change if the workforce needs were to be met. The current training practice and culture within the wind industry is driven by a relatively small number of experts with deep field experience and knowledge. The current training methodology is dominated by face-to-face, classroom based, instructor present training. Given these assumptions and learning paradigms, the purpose of the National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative was to determine the feasibility of developing online learning strategies and products focused on training wind technicians. The initial project scope centered on (1) identifying resources that would be needed for development of subject matter and course design/delivery strategies for industry-based (non-academic) training, and (2) development of an appropriate Learning Management System (LMS). As the project unfolded, the initial scope was expanded to include development of learning products and the addition of an academic-based training partner. The core partners included two training entities, industry-based Airstreams Renewables and academic-based Lake Area Technical Institute. A third partner, Vision Video Interactive, Inc. provided technology-based learning platforms (hardware and software). The revised scope yielded an expanded set of results beyond the initial expectation. Eight learning modules were developed for the industry-based Electrical Safety course. These modules were subsequently redesigned and repurposed for test application in an academic setting. Software and hardware developments during the project's timeframe enabled redesign providing

  1. Urban blackbirds have shorter telomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez-Alamo, Juan Diego; Pineda-Pampliega, Javier; Thomson, Robert L.; Aguirre, Jose I.; Diez-Fernandez, Alazne; Faivre, Bruno; Figuerola, Jordi; Verhulst, Simon

    Urbanization, one of the most extreme human-induced environmental changes, represents a major challenge for many organisms. Anthropogenic habitats can have opposing effects on different fitness components, for example, by decreasing starvation risk but also health status. Assessment of the net

  2. REPRESENTATIONS OF DISTANCE: DIFFERENCES IN UNDERSTANDING DISTANCE ACCORDING TO TRAVEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Riber Larsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge. The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether the journey was undertaken by air or land. The analysis also shows that being aeromobile is the holiday transportation mode that removes the tourists the furthest away from physical distance, resulting in the distance travelled by air being represented in ways that have the least correlation, in the tourists’ minds, with physical distance measured in kilometres.

  3. On the Newtonian limit of emergent NC gravity and long-distance corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinacker, Harold

    2009-01-01

    We show how Newtonian gravity emerges on 4-dimensional non-commutative spacetime branes in Yang-Mills matrix models. Large matter clusters such as galaxies are embedded in large-scale harmonic deformations of the space-time brane, which screen gravity for long distances. On shorter scales, the local matter distribution reproduces Newtonian gravity via local deformations of the brane and its metric. The harmonic 'gravity bag' acts as a halo with effective positive energy density. This leads in particular to a significant enhancement of the orbital velocities around galaxies at large distances compared with the Newtonian case, before dropping to zero as the geometry merges with a Milne-like cosmology. Besides these 'harmonic' solutions, there is another class of solutions which is more similar to Einstein gravity. Thus the IKKT model provides an accessible candidate for a quantum theory of gravity.

  4. Writing for Distance Education. Samples Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Extension Coll., Cambridge (England).

    Approaches to the format, design, and layout of printed instructional materials for distance education are illustrated in 36 samples designed to accompany the manual, "Writing for Distance Education." Each sample is presented on a single page with a note pointing out its key features. Features illustrated include use of typescript layout, a comic…

  5. Three short distance structures from quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, A.

    1997-01-01

    Known results are reviewed and new results are given on three types of short distance structures of observables which typically appear in studies of quantum group related algebras. In particular, one of the short distance structures is shown to suggest a new mechanism for the introduction of internal symmetries

  6. Digital Competence Model of Distance Learning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ketia Kellen A.; Behar, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the development of a digital competency model of Distance Learning (DL) students in Brazil called CompDigAl_EAD. The following topics were addressed in this study: Educational Competences, Digital Competences, and Distance Learning students. The model was developed between 2015 and 2016 and is being validated in 2017. It was…

  7. Distance Learning: Are We Being Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana; Kidwell, Jill

    2000-01-01

    Presents conceptual frameworks for discussing distance education. Considers the networked environment; the higher education market; rationales for distance education, including expanding access to educational and training needs; learner segments, including lifelong learners and professional development; indicators of institutional readiness;…

  8. Student and Faculty Issues in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, David L.

    Occupational safety and health faculty and occupational safety and health professionals (i.e., the potential audience for graduate level distance education programs) were surveyed to determine the considerations for a distance education-based graduate occupational safety and health program. Findings are reported related to the demand for distance…

  9. Professional development of distance education professionals (DEPs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Firstly, the international and national ETD and distance education contexts are described for the purpose of benchmarking, and thereafter the TSA context is described and aligned to the benchmarks. Finally, a comparison is drawn between the proposed profile of ETD practitioners at a distance education institution and the ...

  10. Distance Education for People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakou, Maria; Manousou, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the standards of higher Distance Education, focusing on the Hellenic Open University, for people who have visual impairments, so that it becomes fully accessible and thus helps reduce social exclusion. Specifically, it aims to study the operational context of Distance Education, the possibilities that modern technology provides…

  11. Applying Leadership Theories to Distance Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworie, John

    2012-01-01

    The instructional delivery mode in distance education has been transitioning from the context of a physical classroom environment to a virtual learning environment or maintaining a hybrid of the two. However, most distance education programs in dual mode institutions are situated in traditional face-to-face instructional settings. Distance…

  12. Sensor Network Localization with Imprecise Distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.; Morse, A.S.; Anderson, B.D.O.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to formulate geometric relations among distances between nodes as equality constraints is introduced in this paper to study the localization problem with imprecise distance information in sensor networks. These constraints can be further used to formulate optimization problems for

  13. The Viability of Distance Education Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Kyle; Wisman, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of offering science laboratories via distance education. Explains current delivery technologies, including computer simulations, videos, and laboratory kits sent to students; pros and cons of distance labs; the use of spreadsheets; and possibilities for new science education models. (LRW)

  14. NASA Langley/CNU Distance Learning Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Randall; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    NASA Langley Research Center and Christopher Newport University (CNU) provide, free to the public, distance learning programs that focus on math, science, and/or technology over a spectrum of education levels from K-adult. The effort started in 1997, and currently there are a suite of five distance-learning programs. This paper presents the major…

  15. Investigating Distance Education Students' Study Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    Distance education, which is a planned way of teaching in which students and instructors are brought face to face in a classroom environment in several different ways by means of technology, has started to become widespread in many fields today. In distance education, students and instructors reside in different locations. Students can learn at…

  16. Is Distance Education a Faustian Bargain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, David

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the morality of distance education in geography. States that distance education learners are a qualitatively different, older population with educational needs separate from traditional on-campus students. Argues that geography educators have a moral obligation to serve lifelong learners. Includes references. (CMK)

  17. Exploring Cloud Computing for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu; Cernusca, Dan; Abdous, M'hammed

    2011-01-01

    The use of distance courses in learning is growing exponentially. To better support faculty and students for teaching and learning, distance learning programs need to constantly innovate and optimize their IT infrastructures. The new IT paradigm called "cloud computing" has the potential to transform the way that IT resources are utilized and…

  18. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    . A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...

  19. Increasing Access and Relevance in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Access to higher education is subject to many factors including affordability, time and geography. Distance education can deliver education to those that live far from a campus. Some of that distance education may be synchronous, or live, requiring students to be available at certain times. Flexibility and access are increased when the instruction…

  20. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    Given a stream of items each associated with a numerical value, its edit distance to monotonicity is the minimum number of items to remove so that the remaining items are non-decreasing with respect to the numerical value. The space complexity of estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a ...

  1. Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry; Dron, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy. Unlike earlier classifications of distance education based on the technology used, this analysis focuses on the pedagogy that defines the learning experiences encapsulated in the learning design. The three generations of cognitive-behaviourist, social constructivist,…

  2. Media use in long distance friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2007-01-01

    New media such as email and mobile phones have made it easier to maintain relationships over distances. The present paper examines which media people use to maintain long-distance friendships. The main focus lies on the comparison of email and phone. Media choice theories like media richness theory

  3. What Does Electronic Conferencing Afford Distance Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of technology for distance learning in higher education and examines the similarities and differences between face-to-face seminars and online discussions. Considers the concept of affordance in relation to information and communication technologies and distance education; and examines affordances of electronic conferencing and…

  4. Distance Synchronous Information Systems Course Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.; Lewis, Griffith R.; Aebli, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Teaching computer information systems via distance education is a challenge for both student and faculty. Much research work has been performed on methods of teaching via distance education. Today we are faced with a variety of options for course delivery. Asynchronous delivery via online or lesson instruction still remains most common. But…

  5. Distance Learning Delivery Systems: Instructional Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ray L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the availability of satellite and cable programing to provide distance education opportunities in school districts. Various delivery systems are described, including telephones with speakers, personal computers, and satellite dishes; and a sidebar provides a directory of distance learning opportunities, including telecommunications…

  6. Systemic lupus erythematosus and vitamin D deficiency are associated with shorter telomere length among African Americans: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Hoffecker

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects African American females. The causes of SLE are unknown but postulated to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the possible environmental triggers. In this study we evaluated relationships between vitamin D status, cellular aging (telomere length and anti-telomere antibodies among African American Gullah women with SLE. The study population included African American female SLE patients and unaffected controls from the Sea Island region of South Carolina. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using a nonchromatographic radioimmunoassay. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR. Anti-telomere antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Patients with SLE had significantly shorter telomeres and higher anti-telomere antibody titers compared to age- and gender-matched unaffected controls. There was a positive correlation between anti-telomere antibody levels and disease activity among patients and a significant correlation of shorter telomeres with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both patients and controls. In follow-up examination of a subset of the patients, the patients who remained vitamin D deficient tended to have shorter telomeres than those patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were repleted. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in African American patients with SLE may be beneficial in maintaining telomere length and preventing cellular aging. Moreover, anti-telomere antibody levels may be a promising biomarker of SLE status and disease activity.

  7. Long-Term Costs and Health Consequences of Issuing Shorter Duration Prescriptions for Patients with Chronic Health Conditions in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Payne, Rupert; Wilson, Edward Cf

    2018-06-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) in England spends over £9 billion on prescription medicines dispensed in primary care, of which over two-thirds is accounted for by repeat prescriptions. Recently, GPs in England have been urged to limit the duration of repeat prescriptions, where clinically appropriate, to 28 days to reduce wastage and hence contain costs. However, shorter prescriptions will increase transaction costs and thus may not be cost saving. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that shorter prescriptions are associated with lower adherence, which would be expected to lead to lower clinical benefit. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of 3-month versus 28-day repeat prescriptions from the perspective of the NHS. We adapted three previously developed UK policy-relevant models, incorporating transaction (dispensing fees, prescriber time) and drug wastage costs associated with 3-month and 28-day prescriptions in three case studies: antihypertensive medications for prevention of cardiovascular events; drugs to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes; and treatments for depression. In all cases, 3-month prescriptions were associated with lower costs and higher QALYs than 28-day prescriptions. This is driven by assumptions that higher adherence leads to improved disease control, lower costs and improved QALYs. Longer repeat prescriptions may be cost-effective compared with shorter ones. However, the quality of the evidence base on which this modelling is based is poor. Any policy rollout should be within the context of a trial such as a stepped-wedge cluster design.

  8. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif.j.khan@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rafique, Raza [Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Zafar, Waleed [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Jamshed, Arif [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhao, Yao [Rutgers University School of Business, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  9. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Atif J.; Rafique, Raza; Zafar, Waleed; Shah, Chirag; Haffty, Bruce G.; Vicini, Frank; Jamshed, Arif; Zhao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  10. Ethnical distance in Vojvodina: Research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Žolt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the ethnical distance measuring in Vojvodina, the north Province of the Republic of Serbia. The measuring was carried out on autumn 2002, during realization of the wider project of multiculturalism research in the mentioned region. According to the results the ethnical distances in Vojvodina are quite equalized and they are grouped around the attitude "all the same". Vojvodinian Serbs are more favorable partners for the majority of social contacts, and the relatively largest distance is shown toward Roma. The ethnical distance results also discovers two very important factors for understanding the interethnic relations in Vojvodina: first, the "rational" kind of social contacts with the members of the other ethnical groups are more preferable for the majority of respondents, and second, they have very equal distances toward their own ethnical groups.

  11. Method of measuring distance between fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu.

    1991-01-01

    The distance between fuel elements contained in a pool is measured in a contactless manner even for a narrow distance less than 1 mm. That is, the equipment for measuring the distance between spent fuel elements of a spent fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor comprises a optical fiber scope, a lens, an industrial TV camera and a monitor TV. The top end of the optical fiber scope is inserted between fuel elements to be measured. The state thereof is displayed on the TV screen to measure the distance between the fuel elements. The measured results are compared with a previously formed calibration curve to determine the value between the fuel elements. Then, the distance between the fuel elements can be determined in the pool of a power plant without dismantling the fuel assembly, to investigate the state of the bending and estimate the fuel working life. (I.S.)

  12. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    Distance-to-default is a remarkably robust measure for ranking firms according to their risk of default. The ranking seems to work despite the fact that the Merton model from which the measure is derived produces default probabilities that are far too small when applied to real data. We use...... simulations to investigate the robustness of the distance-to-default measure to different model specifications. Overall we find distance-to-default to be robust to a number of deviations from the simple Merton model that involve different asset value dynamics and different default triggering mechanisms....... A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...

  13. Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Anderson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy. Unlike earlier classifications of distance education based on the technology used, this analysis focuses on the pedagogy that defines the learning experiences encapsulated in the learning design. The three generations of cognitive-behaviourist, social constructivist, and connectivist pedagogy are examined, using the familiar community of inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000 with its focus on social, cognitive, and teaching presences. Although this typology of pedagogies could also be usefully applied to campus-based education, the need for and practice of openness and explicitness in distance education content and process makes the work especially relevant to distance education designers, teachers, and developers. The article concludes that high-quality distance education exploits all three generations as determined by the learning content, context, and learning expectations.

  14. The distances of the Galactic Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdonmez, Aykut; Guver, Tolga; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Ak, Tansel

    2016-07-01

    Using location of the RC stars on the CMDs obtained from the UKIDSS, VISTA and 2MASS photometry, we have derived the reddening-distance relations towards each Galactic nova for which at least one independent reddening measurement exists. We were able to determine the distances of 72 Galactic novae and set lower limits on the distances of 45 systems. The reddening curves of the systems are presented. These curves can be also used to estimate reddening or the distance of any source, whose location is close to the position of the nova in our sample. The distance measurement method in our study can be easily applicable to any source, especially for ones that concentrated along the Galactic plane.

  15. Interstitial lung abnormalities in treatment-naïve advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients are associated with shorter survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki, E-mail: Mizuki_Nishino@DFCI.HARVARD.EDU [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Cardarella, Stephanie [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States); Dahlberg, Suzanne E. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Araki, Tetsuro [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lydon, Christine; Jackman, David M.; Rabin, Michael S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Johnson, Bruce E. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 14% of stage IV NSCLC patients. • ILA was more common in older patients with heavier smoking history. • ILA was associated with shorter survival after adjusting for smoking and therapy. • ILA could be an additional independent marker for survival in advanced NSCLC. - Abstract: Objective: Interstitial lung diseases are associated with increased risk of lung cancer. The prevalence of ILA at diagnosis of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its impact on overall survival (OS) remain to be investigated. Materials and method: The study included 120 treatment-naïve stage IV NSCLC patients (53 males, 67 females). ILA was scored on CT prior to any systemic therapy using a 4-point scale [0 = no evidence of ILA, 1 = equivocal for ILA, 2 = suspicious for ILA, 3 = ILA] by a sequential reading method previously reported. ILA scores of 2 or 3 indicated the presence of ILA. Results: ILA was present in 17 patients (14%) with advanced NSCLC prior to any treatment (score3: n = 2, score2: n = 15). These 17 patients were significantly older (median age: 69 vs. 63, p = 0.04) and had a heavier smoking history (median: 40 vs. 15.5 pack-year, p = 0.003) than those with ILA score 0 or 1. Higher ILA scores were associated with shorter OS (p = 0.001). Median OS of the 17 patients with ILA was 7.2 months [95%CI: 2.9–9.4] compared to 14.8 months [95%CI: 11.1–18.4] in patients with ILA score 0 or 1 (p = 0.002). In a multivariate model, the presence of ILA remained significant for increased risk for death (HR = 2.09, p = 0.028) after adjusting for first-line systemic therapy (chemotherapy, p < 0.001; TKI, p < 0.001; each compared to no therapy) and pack years of smoking (p = 0.40). Conclusion: Radiographic ILA was present in 14% of treatment-naïve advanced NSCLC patients. Higher ILA scores were associated with shorter OS, indicating that ILA could be a marker of shorter survival in advanced NSCLC.

  16. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Distancing from experienced self: how global-versus-local perception affects estimation of psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Förster, Jens

    2009-08-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition). Relative to the control condition, global processing made participants estimate larger psychological distances in time (Study 1), space (Study 2), social distance (Study 3), and hypotheticality (Study 4). Local processing had the opposite effect. Consistent with CLT, all studies show that the effect of global-versus-local processing did emerge when participants estimated egocentric distances, which are distances from the experienced self in the here and now, but did not emerge with temporal distances not from now (Study 1), spatial distances not from here (Study 2), social distances not from the self (Study 3), or hypothetical events that did not involve altering an experienced reality (Study 4).

  18. The facility location problem for hyper-rectilinear distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1985-01-01

    Hyper-rectilinear distances correspond to the l p distance function for 0 travel distances between pairs of points are generally greater than rectilinear distances. In this paper we examine the single facility location problem when hyper...

  19. Distancing, not embracing, the Distancing-Embracing model of art reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Despite denials in the target article, the Distancing-Embracing model appeals to compensatory ideas in explaining the appeal of artworks that elicit negative affect. The model also appeals to the deflationary effects of psychological distancing. Having pointed to the famous rejection in the 1960s of the view that aesthetic experience involves psychological distancing, I suggest that "distance" functions here as a weak metaphor that cannot sustain the explanatory burden the theory demands of it.

  20. First trimester phthalate exposure and anogenital distance in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S.H.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Barrett, E.S.; Janssen, S.; Liu, F.; Nguyen, R.H.N.; Redmon, J.B.; Liu, Fan; Scher, Erica; Stasenko, Marina; Ayash, Erin; Schirmer, Melissa; Farrell, Jason; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Baskin, Laurence; Gray Chelsea Georgesen, Heather L.; Rody, Brooke J.; Terrell, Carrie A.; Kaur, Kapilmeet; Brantley, Erin; Fiore, Heather; Kochman, Lynda; Parlett, Lauren; Marino, Jessica; Hulbert, William; Mevorach, Robert; Pressman, Eva; Ivicek, Kristy; Salveson, Bobbie; Alcedo, Garry

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is first trimester phthalate exposure associated with anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure, in newborns? SUMMARY ANSWER Concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites in first trimester maternal urine samples are inversely associated with AGD in male, but not female, newborns. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY AGD is a sexually dimorphic measure reflecting prenatal androgen exposure. Prenatal phthalate exposure has been associated with shorter male AGD in multiple animal studies. Prior human studies, which have been limited by small sample size and imprecise timing of exposure and/or outcome, have reported conflicting results. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES) is a prospective cohort study of pregnant women recruited in prenatal clinics in San Francisco, CA, Minneapolis, MN, Rochester, NY and Seattle, WA in 2010–2012. Participants delivered 787 infants; 753 with complete data are included in this analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Any woman over 18 years old who was able to read and write English (or Spanish in CA), who was <13 weeks pregnant, whose pregnancy was not medically threatened and who planned to deliver in a study hospital was eligible to participate. Analyses include all infants whose mothers provided a first trimester urine sample and who were examined at or shortly after birth. Specific gravity (SpG) adjusted concentrations of phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples were examined in relation to genital measurements. In boys (N = 366), we obtained two measures of anogenital distance (AGD) (anoscrotal distance, or AGDAS and anopenile distance, AGDAP) as well as penile width (PW). In girls (N = 373), we measured anofourchette distance (AGDAF) and anoclitoral distance (AGDAC). We used multivariable regression models that adjusted for the infant's age at exam, gestational age, weight-for-length Z-score, time of day of urine

  1. Modern Geometric Methods of Distance Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Frédéric; Falanga, Maurizio; Kuo, Cheng Yu; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2017-11-01

    Building a 3D picture of the Universe at any distance is one of the major challenges in astronomy, from the nearby Solar System to distant Quasars and galaxies. This goal has forced astronomers to develop techniques to estimate or to measure the distance of point sources on the sky. While most distance estimates used since the beginning of the 20th century are based on our understanding of the physics of objects of the Universe: stars, galaxies, QSOs, the direct measures of distances are based on the geometric methods as developed in ancient Greece: the parallax, which has been applied to stars for the first time in the mid-19th century. In this review, different techniques of geometrical astrometry applied to various stellar and cosmological (Megamaser) objects are presented. They consist in parallax measurements from ground based equipment or from space missions, but also in the study of binary stars or, as we shall see, of binary systems in distant extragalactic sources using radio telescopes. The Gaia mission will be presented in the context of stellar physics and galactic structure, because this key space mission in astronomy will bring a breakthrough in our understanding of stars, galaxies and the Universe in their nature and evolution with time. Measuring the distance to a star is the starting point for an unbiased description of its physics and the estimate of its fundamental parameters like its age. Applying these studies to candles such as the Cepheids will impact our large distance studies and calibration of other candles. The text is constructed as follows: introducing the parallax concept and measurement, we shall present briefly the Gaia satellite which will be the future base catalogue of stellar astronomy in the near future. Cepheids will be discussed just after to demonstrate the state of the art in distance measurements in the Universe with these variable stars, with the objective of 1% of error in distances that could be applied to our closest

  2. Alternative information signs : an evaluation of driver comprehension and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of a traffic sign is collectively influenced by the signs understandability, legibility distance, glance legibility, and : learnability; however, understandability has been repeatedly identified as a one of the most important mea...

  3. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT or its shorter versions more useful to identify risky drinkers in a Chinese population? A diagnostic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H K Yip

    Full Text Available To examine the diagnostic performance of shorter versions of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, including Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-C, in identifying risky drinkers in primary care settings using conventional performance measures, supplemented by decision curve analysis and reclassification table.A cross-sectional study of adult males in general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study included only patients who reported at least sometimes drinking alcoholic beverages. Timeline follow back alcohol consumption assessment method was used as the reference standard. A Chinese translated and validated 10-item AUDIT (Ch-AUDIT was used as a screening tool of risky drinking.Of the participants, 21.7% were classified as risky drinkers. AUDIT-C has the best overall performance among the shorter versions of Ch-AUDIT. The AUC of AUDIT-C was comparable to Ch-AUDIT (0.898 vs 0.901, p-value = 0.959. Decision curve analysis revealed that when the threshold probability ranged from 15-30%, the AUDIT-C had a higher net-benefit than all other screens. AUDIT-C improved the reclassification of risky drinking when compared to Ch-AUDIT (net reclassification improvement = 0.167. The optimal cut-off of AUDIT-C was at ≥5.Given the rising levels of alcohol consumption in the Chinese regions, this Chinese translated 3-item instrument provides convenient and time-efficient risky drinking screening and may become an increasingly useful tool.

  4. Revised Distances to 21 Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, S.; Leahy, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We carry out a comprehensive study of H I 21 cm line observations and 13CO line observations of 21 supernova remnants (SNRs). The aim of the study is to search for H I absorption features to obtain kinematic distances in a consistent manner. The 21 SNRs are in the region of sky covered by the Very Large Array Galactic Plane Survey (H I 21 cm observations) and Galactic Ring Survey (13CO line observations). We obtain revised distances for 10 SNRs based on new evidence in the H I and 13CO observations. We revise distances for the other 11 SNRs based on an updated rotation curve and new error analysis. The mean change in distance for the 21 SNRs is ≃25%, i.e., a change of 1.5 kpc compared to a mean distance for the sample of 6.4 kpc. This has a significant impact on interpretation of the physical state of these SNRs. For example, using a Sedov model, age and explosion energy scale as the square of distance, and inferred ISM density scales as distance.

  5. GLOBALIZATION, DISTANCE EDUCATION AND HEGEMONIC FUTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn RUSSELL

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Consideration of the place of theory in distance education suggests that existing definitions do not adequately account for economic, cultural and historical factors. The application of the notion of hegemonic valency to distance education highlights the ways in which tools, technological systems and online environments operate in predictable ways. Historically, the imperatives of market forces and social justice have displayed a tension that is continued in contemporary contexts including virtual learning environments. A characteristic of this tension can be seen in the forces and interactions associated with globalisation and technology. These forces, in association with others, have contributed to a null curriculum in which some alternatives open to distance education practitioners remain invisible. It is likely that this situation is further compounded by the difficulty of ascertaining what distance education practices are actually operating world-wide at any identifiable time. Available options for distance educators can be understood in terms of instrumental and interpersonal axes that can potentially indicate the relative consideration that can be given to these factors. This approach is suggested as one way to understand available options at a time when there has been an apparent increase in instrumental approaches to distance education at the expense of interpersonal approaches and issues of social justice. While this problem is of concern, it is more appropriate to reflect on the unintended consequences of distance education for society and identify them than it is to uncritically oppose globalisation and its adherents.

  6. Cepheids Geometrical Distances Using Space Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sanchez, M.

    2004-05-01

    A space based interferometer with a sub-milliarcsecond resolution in the UV-optical will provide a new avenue for the calibration of primary distance indicators with unprecedented accuracy, by allowing very accurate and stable measurements of Cepheids pulsation amplitudes at wavelengths not accessible from the ground. Sasselov & Karovska (1994) have shown that interferometers allow very accurate measurements of Cepheids distances by using a ``geometric'' variant of the Baade-Wesselink method. This method has been succesfully applied to derive distances and radii of nearby Cepheids using ground-based near-IR and optical interferometers, within a 15% accuracy level. Our study shows that the main source of error in these measurements is due to the perturbing effects of the Earth atmosphere, which is the limiting factor in the interferometer stability. A space interferometer will not suffer from this intrinsic limitations, and can potentially lead to improve astronomical distance measurements by an order of magnitude in precision. We discuss here the technical requirements that a space based facility will need to carry out this project, allowing distance measurements within a few percent accuracy level. We will finally discuss how a sub-milliarcsecond resolution will allow the direct distance determination for hundreds of galactic sources, and provide a substantial improvement in the zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale.

  7. ANTHROPOMETRIC, GAIT AND STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF KENYAN DISTANCE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui W. Kong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2, low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6% and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm. At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p < 0.05 during right (170 - 212 ms compared to left (177 - 220 ms foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1 but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s. The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners

  8. Transforming distance education curricula through distributive leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Keppell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a core leadership strategy for transforming learning and teaching in distance education through flexible and blended learning. It focuses on a project centred on distributive leadership that involves collaboration, shared purpose, responsibility and recognition of leadership irrespective of role or position within an organisation. Distributive leadership was a core principle in facilitating the transformation of learning and teaching through a Teaching Fellowship Scheme that empowered leaders across a regional distance education university. In parallel, a design-based research project analysed the perceptions of the Teaching Fellows in relation to blended learning, time/space, peer learning, innovation and equity issues in relation to distance education.

  9. Recoil distance method lifetime measurements at TRIUMF-ISAC using the TIGRESS Integrated Plunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, A.; Ball, G. C.; Bernier, N.; Cross, D. S.; Domingo, T.; Drake, T. E.; Evitts, L. J.; Garcia, F. H.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hallam, S.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R.; Krücken, R.; MacConnachie, E.; Moukaddam, M.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Paetkau, O.; Pore, J. L.; Rizwan, U.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Shoults, J.; Smallcombe, J.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Van Wieren, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, M.

    2018-02-01

    The TIGRESS Integrated Plunger device (TIP) has been developed for recoil distance method (RDM) lifetime measurements using the TIGRESS array of HPGe γ-ray detectors at TRIUMF's ISAC-II facility. A commissioning experiment was conducted utilizing a 250 MeV 84Kr beam at ≈ 2 × 108 particles per second. The 84Kr beam was Coulomb excited to the 21+ state on a movable 27Al target. A thin Cu foil fixed downstream from the target was used as a degrader. Excited nuclei emerged from the target and decayed by γ-ray emission at a distance determined by their velocity and the lifetime of the 21+ state. The ratio of decays which occur between the target and degrader to those occurring after traversing the degrader changes as a function of the target-degrader separation distance. Gamma-ray spectra at 13 target-degrader separation distances were measured and compared to simulated lineshapes to extract the lifetime. The result of τ = 5 . 541 ± 0 . 013(stat.) ± 0 . 063(sys.) ps is shorter than the literature value of 5 . 84 ± 0 . 18 ps with a reduction in uncertainty by a factor of approximately two. The TIP plunger device, experimental technique, analysis tools, and result are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of notch effects in low cycle fatigue of alloy 718 using critical distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Robert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine disks contain many notch-like features acting as stress raisers. The fatigue life based on the notch root stress may be overly conservative as the steep stress gradient in front of the notch may give rise to so-called notch support. In the current work, the theory of critical distances was applied to the prediction of the total fatigue life of low cycle fatigued, notched specimens made from alloy 718. The fatigue tests were performed at 450 °C and 550 °C. It was found that, for lives shorter than 5000–10000 cycles, the notched specimens had longer lives than would have been expected based on the notch root strain. For lives longer than 5000–10000 cycles, there were no notch support. The life prediction for notched specimens could be significantly improved by basing the prediction on the strain chosen some distance from the notch (the critical distance. An expression for calculating the critical distance based on the notch root strain was suggested.

  11. Effects of habitat composition and landscape structure on worker foraging distances of five bumble bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, John W; Dreier, Stephanie; Bourke, Andrew F G; Heard, Matthew S; Jordan, William C; Sumner, Seirian; Wang, Jinliang; Carvell, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of both crops and wildflowers. Their contribution to this essential ecosystem service has been threatened over recent decades by changes in land use, which have led to declines in their populations. In order to design effective conservation measures, it is important to understand the effects of variation in landscape composition and structure on the foraging activities of worker bumble bees. This is because the viability of individual colonies is likely to be affected by the trade-off between the energetic costs of foraging over greater distances and the potential gains from access to additional resources. We used field surveys, molecular genetics, and fine resolution remote sensing to estimate the locations of wild bumble bee nests and to infer foraging distances across a 20-km² agricultural landscape in southern England, UK. We investigated five species, including the rare B. ruderatus and ecologically similar but widespread B. hortorum. We compared worker foraging distances between species and examined how variation in landscape composition and structure affected foraging distances at the colony level. Mean worker foraging distances differed significantly between species. Bombus terrestris, B. lapidarius, and B. ruderatus exhibited significantly greater mean foraging distances (551, 536, and 501 m, respectively) than B. hortorum and B. pascuorum (336 and 272 m, respectively). There was wide variation in worker foraging distances between colonies of the same species, which was in turn strongly influenced by the amount and spatial configuration of available foraging habitats. Shorter foraging distances were found for colonies where the local landscape had high coverage and low fragmentation of semi-natural vegetation, including managed agri-environmental field margins. The strength of relationships between different landscape variables and foraging distance varied between species, for example the strongest

  12. Long distance travel ‘today’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Dane’s long distance travel. It is a part of the Drivers and Limits project about long distance travel. Long distance travel is in the project defined as infrequent travel with overnight stay. Danes 15-85 years-old travel in average 5.5 long distance travel...... per year og which a third is for international destinations, a third is for domestic second homes and a third are other domestic trips. However, 87% of the kilometres are for international destinations and only 4% are for domestic second homes. Travel activity is very uneven distributed with only half...... of the population having had a journey during the last three month. At the other hand 60% have travelled internationally during the last year and only 2% have never travelled abroad. The paper presents among other things how the travel activity is distributed on travel purpose and mode and how the mode choice...

  13. Professional development of distance education professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    profile of functions of ETD practitioners at distance education institutions. Firstly, the ... of staff members: Teachers at primary and secondary schools, lecturers at ... vacuum, since it forms part of the higher education sector in South. Africa.

  14. Distance Education Technologies in Asia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-10

    Nov 10, 2010 ... Book cover Distance Education Technologies in Asia ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) deserves our ... results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  15. Short-distance structure of instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Creamer, D.B.

    The short distance structure of a quark propagator in an instanton background field is analyzed. This analysis describes the influence of instantons upon physical processes such as electron-position annihilation and the deep inelastic scattering of leptons from hadrons

  16. Handwriting individualization using distance and rarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Srihari, Sargur; Srinivasan, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Forensic individualization is the task of associating observed evidence with a specific source. The likelihood ratio (LR) is a quantitative measure that expresses the degree of uncertainty in individualization, where the numerator represents the likelihood that the evidence corresponds to the known and the denominator the likelihood that it does not correspond to the known. Since the number of parameters needed to compute the LR is exponential with the number of feature measurements, a commonly used simplification is the use of likelihoods based on distance (or similarity) given the two alternative hypotheses. This paper proposes an intermediate method which decomposes the LR as the product of two factors, one based on distance and the other on rarity. It was evaluated using a data set of handwriting samples, by determining whether two writing samples were written by the same/different writer(s). The accuracy of the distance and rarity method, as measured by error rates, is significantly better than the distance method.

  17. Applying Technology to Marine Corps Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broihier, Michael

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the application of technology to distance learning with the intention of recommending to the Marine Corps a feasible migration path away from its current...

  18. FAQS. III: Groupwork in Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Richard M.; Brent, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Offers ideas for getting students at remote sites to collaborate when attending lectures in a synchronous course, working through lessons in an asynchronous course, and doing homework in either distance mode. (ASK)

  19. A Novel Method for Short Distance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J.C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Garcia, C.F.; Rodigrido, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A new, accurate and un expensive device for measuring short distances, intended for monitoring in LHC experiments is presented. Data taken with a very simple prototype are shown and performance is extracted. (Author) 4 refs

  20. Stellar candles for the extragalactic distance scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    This volume reviews the current status with respect to both theory and observation of the extragalactic distance scale. A sufficient accuracy is required both for a precise determination of the cosmological parameters and also in order to achieve a better understanding of physical processes in extragalactic systems. The "standard candles", used to set up the extragalactic distance scale, reviewed in this book include cepheid variables, RR Lyrae variables, novae, Type Ia and Type II supernovae as well as globular clusters and planetary nebulae.

  1. INFORMATION PROVISION OF DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav M. Oleksenko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the research concerning the relevant information resources elaborated and introduced into the pedagogical process by the author. The peculiarities of the first in Ukraine dictionary on theory and practice of distance learning, distance course “Linear Algebra” and the course-book “Linear Algebra and Analytical Geometry”, which promote the raising in quality of education and training of specialists, are revealed.

  2. Operator expansion at short distance in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik

    1982-11-01

    We present a method of calculating coefficients of gluon operators in the operator product expansion of two-point functions at short distance. It is based on a short-distance expansion of the singular part of the quark propagator in the gluon field, the latter being treated as external. We verify in full generality that the spin zero, gluon operator of dimension six does not contribute to the two-point functions of quark bilinears.

  3. Reliability of reference distances used in photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Kaya, Demet; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2010-07-01

    To determine the reliability of the reference distances used for photogrammetric assessment. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with mean ages of 22.97 +/- 2.98 years. Five lateral and four frontal parameters were measured directly on the subjects' faces. For photogrammetric assessment, two reference distances for the profile view and three reference distances for the frontal view were established. Standardized photographs were taken and all the parameters that had been measured directly on the face were measured on the photographs. The reliability of the reference distances was checked by comparing direct and indirect values of the parameters obtained from the subjects' faces and photographs. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bland-Altman analyses were used for statistical assessment. For profile measurements, the indirect values measured were statistically different from the direct values except for Sn-Sto in male subjects and Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in female subjects. The indirect values of Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto were reliable in both sexes. The poorest results were obtained in the indirect values of the N-Sn parameter for female subjects and the Sn-Me parameter for male subjects according to the Sa-Sba reference distance. For frontal measurements, the indirect values were statistically different from the direct values in both sexes except for one in male subjects. The indirect values measured were not statistically different from the direct values for Go-Go. The indirect values of Ch-Ch were reliable in male subjects. The poorest results were obtained according to the P-P reference distance. For profile assessment, the T-Ex reference distance was reliable for Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in both sexes. For frontal assessment, Ex-Ex and En-En reference distances were reliable for Ch-Ch in male subjects.

  4. Multivariate Welch t-test on distances

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseyenko, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Permutational non-Euclidean analysis of variance, PERMANOVA, is routinely used in exploratory analysis of multivariate datasets to draw conclusions about the significance of patterns visualized through dimension reduction. This method recognizes that pairwise distance matrix between observations is sufficient to compute within and between group sums of squares necessary to form the (pseudo) F statistic. Moreover, not only Euclidean, but arbitrary distances can be used. This method...

  5. The Changeable Block Distance System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Toruń, Andrzej

    The paper treats about efficiency analysis in Changeable Block Distance (CBD) System connected with wireless positioning and control of train. The analysis is based on modeling of typical ERTMS line and comparison with actual and future traffic. The calculations are related to assumed parameters of railway traffic corresponding to real time - table of distance Psary - Góra Włodowska from CMK line equipped in classic, ETCS Level 1 and ETCS with CBD systems.

  6. The transposition distance for phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Rossello, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The search for similarity and dissimilarity measures on phylogenetic trees has been motivated by the computation of consensus trees, the search by similarity in phylogenetic databases, and the assessment of clustering results in bioinformatics. The transposition distance for fully resolved phylogenetic trees is a recent addition to the extensive collection of available metrics for comparing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we generalize the transposition distance from fully resolved to arbi...

  7. Intimacy, Distance Relationships and Emotional Care

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The social changes surrounding individualisation and globalization impact upon our emotional and intimate lives. Geographical mobility is especially significant and its effects on relationships much debated. Distance relationships are one example of how people respond to such changes. This paper is based on an ESRC funded qualitative study of couples in distance relationships. The argument is that such forms of loving are not all about self-satisfaction, although they may prompt reflexivity a...

  8. Globalization, Distance Education and Hegemonic Futures

    OpenAIRE

    RUSSELL, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Consideration of the place of theory in distance education suggests that existing definitions do not adequately account for economic, cultural and historical factors. The application of the notion of hegemonic valency to distance education highlights the ways in which tools, technological systems and online environments operate in predictable ways. Historically, the imperatives of market forces and social justice have displayed a tension that is continued in contemporary contexts inc...

  9. Copyright law and distance nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline; White, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The authors present essential information regarding the copyright law and online education. This information provides the reader specific aids to assist in designing and implementing distance education courses within the bounds of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act and fair use guidelines. From their research, the authors, who are distance education experts, offer a wide array of educational and legal data to inform nurse educators.

  10. Long distance triathlon: demands, preparation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    The rise in worldwide popularity of long distance triathlon racing comes with it an increased interest into how to train and prepare optimally for such an event. This paper examines the physiologic and bioenergetic demands of long distance triathlon racing, including energy requirements, muscle damage consequences, thermoregulatory demands and water turnover rates. In response to these physiological challenges, the second part of the paper describes the training goals and race practices that ...

  11. What does electronic conferencing afford distance education?

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes , Sally

    2000-01-01

    Pre-published, final revised version of journal article published in Distance Education, 2000, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 236-247; Technology is potentially offering many opportunities to extend and expand distance learning in the higher education sector. Electronic conferencing, in particular, is seen as a technique, which offers opportunities for course delivery and methods of interaction for distant learners. This paper examines the similarities and differences between face-to-face seminars and o...

  12. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    OpenAIRE

    Haandrikman, Karen; van Wissen, Leo

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population register data on all new cohabiters in 2004 were used. Regression methods were employed to explain spatial patterns. Regional variation in short distance homogamy is largely explained by geographica...

  13. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  14. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity

  15. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  16. Relationship between retinal distance and object field angles for finite schematic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suheimat, Marwan; Zhu, Hai-Feng; Lambert, Andrew; Atchison, David A

    2016-07-01

    Retinal anatomical studies have used the Drasdo & Fowler three-refracting surface schematic eye to convert between retinal distances and object field angles. We compared its performance at this task with those of more sophisticated four-refracting surface schematic eyes. Raytracing was performed for Drasdo & Fowler, Lotmar, Navarro, Liou & Brennan, Kooijman and Atchison schematic eyes, and some of their variants. The Drasdo & Fowler eye gives a greater rate of change of object field angle with retinal distance at the retinal centre of about 5% than the other schematic eyes. This rate of change also increases much more quickly into the peripheral retina for the Drasdo & Fowler eye than for the other eyes. The reason for these differences is only that the Drasdo & Fowler eye is shorter than the other eyes. The relationship between retinal distance and visual field angle appears robust to changes in retinal radius of curvature when the retina is spherical. The retinal asphericity of Kooijman and Atchison eyes appears to play a role beyond 14 mm (~50°). Changing the length of the Drasdo & Fowler eye, to match those of the four-refracting surface schematic eyes, gives similar relationships between retinal distance and object field angle up to a retinal distance of approximately 14 mm (~50°). The relationship will change with refractive error as this is related to axial length and to retinal shape, and this should be taken into consideration for accurate conversions. For distances and angles beyond 14 mm and ~50°, retinal shape should be taken into account. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  17. Induction of a shorter compression phase is correlated with a deeper chest compression during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Bae, Jinkun; Kim, Eui Chung; Cho, Yun Kyung; You, Je Sung; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Ok Jun

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that there may be an interaction between duty cycle and other factors related to the quality of chest compression. Duty cycle represents the fraction of compression phase. We aimed to investigate the effect of shorter compression phase on average chest compression depth during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Senior medical students performed 12 sets of chest compressions following the guiding sounds, with three down-stroke patterns (normal, fast and very fast) and four rates (80, 100, 120 and 140 compressions/min) in random sequence. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the average chest compression depth and duty cycle among the trials. The average chest compression depth increased and the duty cycle decreased in a linear fashion as the down-stroke pattern shifted from normal to very fast (pmetronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  18. The relationship between anogenital distance, fatherhood, and fertility in adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Eisenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD, a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men. METHODS: A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge and penile length (PL were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count. FINDINGS: A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4 and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7 were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, p<0.01. The difference in AGD persisted even after accounting for ethnic and anthropomorphic differences. In addition to fatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03 and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01. On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters. CONCLUSION: A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

  19. High Numbers of Stromal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Associated With a Shorter Survival Time in Cats With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobukowska, H J; Munday, J S

    2016-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are fibroblastic cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and have been identified in the stroma of numerous epithelial tumors. The presence of CAFs within the tumor stroma has been associated with a poorer prognosis in some human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Cats frequently develop oral SCCs, and although these are generally highly aggressive neoplasms, there is currently a lack of prognostic markers for these tumors. The authors investigated the prognostic value of the presence of CAFs within the stroma of oral SCC biopsy specimens from 47 cats. In addition, several epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic variables were also assessed for prognostic significance. A CAF-positive stroma was identified in 35 of 47 SCCs (74.5%), and the median survival time (ST) of cats with CAF-positive SCCs (35 days) was significantly shorter than that of cats with CAF-negative SCCs (48.5 days) (P = .031). ST was also associated with the location of the primary tumor (P = .0018): the median ST for oropharyngeal SCCs (179 days) was significantly longer than for maxillary (43.5 days; P = .047), mandibular (42 days; P = .022), and sublingual SCCs (22.5 days; P = .0005). The median ST of sublingual SCCs was also shorter compared with maxillary SCCs (P = .0017). Furthermore, a significant association was identified between site and the presence of stromal CAFs (P = .025). On the basis of this retrospective study, evaluating the tumor stroma for CAFs in feline oral SCC biopsy specimens may be of potential prognostic value. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  1. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  2. Censoring distances based on labeled cortical distance maps in cortical morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Elvan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Alexopolous, Dimitrios; Todd, Richard D; Botteron, Kelly N; Miller, Michael I; Ratnanather, J Tilak

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that shape differences in cortical structures may be manifested in neuropsychiatric disorders. Such morphometric differences can be measured by labeled cortical distance mapping (LCDM) which characterizes the morphometry of the laminar cortical mantle of cortical structures. LCDM data consist of signed/labeled distances of gray matter (GM) voxels with respect to GM/white matter (WM) surface. Volumes and other summary measures for each subject and the pooled distances can help determine the morphometric differences between diagnostic groups, however they do not reveal all the morphometric information contained in LCDM distances. To extract more information from LCDM data, censoring of the pooled distances is introduced for each diagnostic group where the range of LCDM distances is partitioned at a fixed increment size; and at each censoring step, the distances not exceeding the censoring distance are kept. Censored LCDM distances inherit the advantages of the pooled distances but also provide information about the location of morphometric differences which cannot be obtained from the pooled distances. However, at each step, the censored distances aggregate, which might confound the results. The influence of data aggregation is investigated with an extensive Monte Carlo simulation analysis and it is demonstrated that this influence is negligible. As an illustrative example, GM of ventral medial prefrontal cortices (VMPFCs) of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), subjects at high risk (HR) of MDD, and healthy control (Ctrl) subjects are used. A significant reduction in laminar thickness of the VMPFC in MDD and HR subjects is observed compared to Ctrl subjects. Moreover, the GM LCDM distances (i.e., locations with respect to the GM/WM surface) for which these differences start to occur are determined. The methodology is also applicable to LCDM-based morphometric measures of other cortical structures affected by disease.

  3. Censoring Distances Based on Labeled Cortical Distance Maps in Cortical Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan eCeyhan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that shape differences are manifested in cortical structures due to neuropsychiatric disorders. Such morphometric differences can be measured by labeled cortical distance mapping (LCDM which characterizes the morphometry of the laminar cortical mantle of cortical structures. LCDM data consist of signed/labeled distances of gray matter (GM voxels with respect to GM/white matter (WM surface. Volumes and other summary measures for each subject and the pooled distances can help determine the morphometric differences between diagnostic groups, however they do not reveal all the morphometric information con-tained in LCDM distances. To extract more information from LCDM data, censoring of the pooled distances is introduced for each diagnostic group where the range of LCDM distances is partitioned at a fixed increment size; and at each censoring step, the distances not exceeding the censoring distance are kept. Censored LCDM distances inherit the advantages of the pooled distances but also provide information about the location of morphometric differences which cannot be obtained from the pooled distances. However, at each step, the censored distances aggregate, which might confound the results. The influence of data aggregation is investigated with an extensive Monte Carlo simulation analysis and it is demonstrated that this influence is negligible. As an illustrative example, GM of ventral medial prefrontal cortices (VMPFCs of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD, subjects at high risk (HR of MDD, and healthy control (Ctrl subjects are used. A significant reduction in laminar thickness of the VMPFC in MDD and HR subjects is observed compared to Ctrl subjects. Moreover, the GM LCDM distances (i.e., locations with respect to the GM/WM surface for which these differences start to occur are determined. The methodology is also applicable to LCDM-based morphometric measures of other cortical structures affected by disease.

  4. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Kappel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  5. Exact Sight Distance Determination on Compound Vertical and Horizontal Curves in the Presence of Road Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The sight distance (SD on a three-dimensional (3-d compound curve has been studied recently in the absence of obstacles at road sides. Often, physical barriers are installed at road sides or in a roadway median for reducing potential collision severities; these rigid, semi-rigid, or even temporary cushion-type barriers can limit or reduce the driver's sight distance, depending on their horizontal offset distances away from the nearest edge of traveled way (ETW. The closer a barrier to the ETW is, the shorter the driver's sight distance would be. Since most barriers are constructed to prevent running-off road or crossing-median collisions, it is crucial to check whether the installation would reduce the driver's sight distance and potentially cause other traffic collisions such as rear-end or side swipe collisions. In this paper, an exact analytic framework is formulated with derived equations the first time to calculate the sight distance on a 3-d compound curve in the presence of a median barrier, a roadside barrier, or a temporary cushion or barrier used for construction or other maintenance purposes. This framework provides an engineer a handy tool to examine the possible change of SD in the presence of a barrier and choose the required horizontal offset/clearance of a barrier from the nearest traveled way edge to meet certain design criteria or standards. This critical offset distance determined using this framework not only reinforces the importance of having roadside clearance recovery zones on highways but also provides a method to determine its horizontal clearance from a different standpoint. This analytic framework can easily be programmed into an Excel spreadsheet to evaluate the design of a physical barrier and its potential influence on sight distance along a 3-d compound horizontal and vertical curve. Transportation engineers or practitioners may find this design tool handy and useful once the programmed spreadsheet is saved in a

  6. INVESTIGATING DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS’ STUDY SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz POYRAZ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Distance education, which is a planned way of teaching in which students and instructors are brought face to face in a classroom environment in several different ways by means of technology, has started to become widespread in many fields today. In distance education, students and instructors reside in different locations. Students can learn at their pace and control their learning path, content and load of what they have learned and evaluate it. However, they should adopt strategies for effective studying in order not to waste their time and efforts. Because study skills, motivation, time management, exam preparation and coping with exam stress have an impact on students’ success. In this context, distance education students’ study skills are foregrounded in today’s widespread use of distance education. In accordance with this, this study aims to investigate some variables which are influential on the dimensions of distance education students’ motivation, time management, exam preparation and coping with exam stress. A personal information form and the Study Skills scale were used for data collection. This study was designed in survey model and SPSS16.0 statistical package program was used for the statistical analyses of the research data. The research findings were discussed in line with the literature and some suggestions were presented for further research and researchers.

  7. DISTANCE LEARNING: POTENTIAL APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulija Mihajlovna Tsarapkina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of distance education potential and prospects research in the Russian education system. According to the UNESCO estimates, if the current trend continues, then the number of people with a firm desire to receive an education would increase from 165 millions to 263 millions [7, 12]. Thus 98 million qualified students worldwide will be excluded from higher education due to a shortage of university seats. The purpose of the study is to analyze the historical and present state of the problem, to identify the potential and prospects of the development in distance learning within higher education. The methodological base of the research has become common methods of pedagogical sciences: pedagogical observation, survey, questionnaire, testing, comparative analysis, pedagogical experiment. The analytical review has shown several problem areas within distance learning, such as student’s motivation while distance course learning and training efficiency as compared to full-time university training. Combination of full-time training and distance learning leads to 31% enhancement of training efficiency and shows a sustainable increase of student’s motivation.

  8. A Distance Measure for Genome Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Allison, Lloyd; Dix, Trevor

    Phylogenetic analyses of species based on single genes or parts of the genomes are often inconsistent because of factors such as variable rates of evolution and horizontal gene transfer. The availability of more and more sequenced genomes allows phylogeny construction from complete genomes that is less sensitive to such inconsistency. For such long sequences, construction methods like maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood are often not possible due to their intensive computational requirement. Another class of tree construction methods, namely distance-based methods, require a measure of distances between any two genomes. Some measures such as evolutionary edit distance of gene order and gene content are computational expensive or do not perform well when the gene content of the organisms are similar. This study presents an information theoretic measure of genetic distances between genomes based on the biological compression algorithm expert model. We demonstrate that our distance measure can be applied to reconstruct the consensus phylogenetic tree of a number of Plasmodium parasites from their genomes, the statistical bias of which would mislead conventional analysis methods. Our approach is also used to successfully construct a plausible evolutionary tree for the γ-Proteobacteria group whose genomes are known to contain many horizontally transferred genes.

  9. Distance Training in the European Union. ZIFF Papiere 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond

    A study examined distance training in the European Union (EU) countries. First, recent literature on the following topics was reviewed: technology-supported learning, flexible and distance learning, development of open distance learning, and teleconferencing and distance learning. Next, enrollments and trends in distance learning in the EU as a…

  10. THE WEIGHTED POINCARÉ DISTANCE IN THE HALF PLANE

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Jisoo; Baek, Seung Min; Cho, Hong Rae; Lee, Han-Wool

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the weighted Poincaré distance and the induced distance by the weighted Bloch type space. We prove that the weighted Poincaré distance is identical to the inner distance generated by the induced distance.

  11. The social distance theory of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joe C; Smith, Pamela K

    2013-05-01

    We propose that asymmetric dependence between individuals (i.e., power) produces asymmetric social distance, with high-power individuals feeling more distant than low-power individuals. From this insight, we articulate predictions about how power affects (a) social comparison, (b) susceptibility to influence, (c) mental state inference and responsiveness, and (d) emotions. We then explain how high-power individuals' greater experienced social distance leads them to engage in more abstract mental representation. This mediating process of construal level generates predictions about how power affects (a) goal selection and pursuit, (b) attention to desirability and feasibility concerns, (c) subjective certainty, (d) value-behavior correspondence, (e) self-control, and (f) person perception. We also reassess the approach/inhibition theory of power, noting limitations both in what it can predict and in the evidence directly supporting its proposed mechanisms. Finally, we discuss moderators and methodological recommendations for the study of power from a social distance perspective.

  12. Distance matrices and quadratic embedding of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Obata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A connected graph is said to be of QE class if it admits  a quadratic embedding in a Hilbert space, or equivalently, if the distance matrix is conditionally negative definite. Several criteria for a graph to be of QE class are derived from the point of view of graph operations. For a quantitative criterion the QE constant is introduced and concrete examples are shown with explicit calculation. If the distance matrix admits a constant row sum, the QE constant coincides with the second largest eigenvalue of the distance matrix. The QE constants are determined for all graphs on $n$ vertices with $n\\le5$, among which two are not of QE class.

  13. Distance 2-Domination in Prisms of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ferran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A set of vertices D of a graph G is a distance 2-dominating set of G if the distance between each vertex u ∊ (V (G − D and D is at most two. Let γ2(G denote the size of a smallest distance 2-dominating set of G. For any permutation π of the vertex set of G, the prism of G with respect to π is the graph πG obtained from G and a copy G′ of G by joining u ∊ V(G with v′ ∊ V(G′ if and only if v′ = π(u. If γ2(πG = γ2(G for any permutation π of V(G, then G is called a universal γ2-fixer. In this work we characterize the cycles and paths that are universal γ2-fixers.

  14. Ethnic and social distance towards Roma population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roma people are one of social marginalised ethnic groups which can easily be classified as underclass or ethno-class. In this work are presented the results of survey data analysis of ethnic and social distance towards the Roma population (2007. It concludes that the Roma people are one of ethnic groups with the highest social and ethnic distances in all observed social relations. The conclusion is that their generations poverty and still of life which the poverty produces are main causes of the high distance. The society has very important task to overcome situation which keep their social situation. In this paper are showed some of possible solutions of solving global Romas social situation and their integration in the rest of society. .

  15. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lio, Pietro; Hui, Pan

    2016-06-15

    Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS) content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content owner has traveled further in the immediate past time than the distance between the owner and the subscriber, the content owner will send the content to the subscriber through opportunistic routing. Simulations provide an evaluation of the data traffic offloading efficiency of DOPS.

  16. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content owner has traveled further in the immediate past time than the distance between the owner and the subscriber, the content owner will send the content to the subscriber through opportunistic routing. Simulations provide an evaluation of the data traffic offloading efficiency of DOPS.

  17. Exact geodesic distances in FLRW spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William J.; Rideout, David; Halverson, James; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2017-11-01

    Geodesics are used in a wide array of applications in cosmology and astrophysics. However, it is not a trivial task to efficiently calculate exact geodesic distances in an arbitrary spacetime. We show that in spatially flat (3 +1 )-dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes, it is possible to integrate the second-order geodesic differential equations, and derive a general method for finding both timelike and spacelike distances given initial-value or boundary-value constraints. In flat spacetimes with either dark energy or matter, whether dust, radiation, or a stiff fluid, we find an exact closed-form solution for geodesic distances. In spacetimes with a mixture of dark energy and matter, including spacetimes used to model our physical universe, there exists no closed-form solution, but we provide a fast numerical method to compute geodesics. A general method is also described for determining the geodesic connectedness of an FLRW manifold, provided only its scale factor.

  18. Mahalanobis Distance Based Iterative Closest Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Blas, Morten Rufus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    the notion of a mahalanobis distance map upon a point set with associated covariance matrices which in addition to providing correlation weighted distance implicitly provides a method for assigning correspondence during alignment. This distance map provides an easy formulation of the ICP problem that permits...... a fast optimization. Initially, the covariance matrices are set to the identity matrix, and all shapes are aligned to a randomly selected shape (equivalent to standard ICP). From this point the algorithm iterates between the steps: (a) obtain mean shape and new estimates of the covariance matrices from...... the aligned shapes, (b) align shapes to the mean shape. Three different methods for estimating the mean shape with associated covariance matrices are explored in the paper. The proposed methods are validated experimentally on two separate datasets (IMM face dataset and femur-bones). The superiority of ICP...

  19. Correlation function of the luminosity distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biern, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-09-01

    We present the correlation function of the luminosity distances in a flat ΛCDM universe. Decomposing the luminosity distance fluctuation into the velocity, the gravitational potential, and the lensing contributions in linear perturbation theory, we study their individual contributions to the correlation function. The lensing contribution is important at large redshift ( z ∼> 0.5) but only for small angular separation (θ ∼< 3°), while the velocity contribution dominates over the other contributions at low redshift or at larger separation. However, the gravitational potential contribution is always subdominant at all scale, if the correct gauge-invariant expression is used. The correlation function of the luminosity distances depends significantly on the matter content, especially for the lensing contribution, thus providing a novel tool of estimating cosmological parameters.

  20. Crossing latitudes--long-distance tracking of an apex predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C Ferreira

    Full Text Available Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier are apex predators occurring in most tropical and warm temperate marine ecosystems, but we know relatively little of their patterns of residency and movement over large spatial and temporal scales. We deployed satellite tags on eleven tiger sharks off the north-western coast of Western Australia and used the Brownian Bridge kernel method to calculate home ranges and analyse movement behaviour. One individual recorded one of the largest geographical ranges of movement ever reported for the species, travelling over 4000 km during 517 days of monitoring. Tags on the remainder of the sharks reported for shorter periods (7-191 days. Most of these sharks had restricted movements and long-term (30-188 days residency in coastal waters in the vicinity of the area where they were tagged. Core home range areas of sharks varied greatly from 1166.9 to 634,944 km2. Tiger sharks spent most of their time in water temperatures between 23°-26°C but experienced temperatures ranging from 6°C to 33°C. One shark displayed seasonal movements among three distinct home range cores spread along most of the coast of Western Australia and generalized linear models showed that this individual had different patterns of temperature and depth occupancy in each region of the coast, with the highest probability of residency occurring in the shallowest areas of the coast with water temperatures above 23°C. These results suggest that tiger sharks can migrate over very large distances and across latitudes ranging from tropical to the cool temperate waters. Such extensive long-term movements may be a key element influencing the connectivity of populations within and among ocean basins.

  1. Energy cost of swimming of elite long-distance swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparo, P; Bonifazi, M; Faina, M; Milan, A; Sardella, F; Schena, F; Capelli, C

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was: (1) to assess the energy cost of swimming (C(s), kJ km(-1)) in a group of male (n = 5) and female (n = 5) elite swimmers specialised in long-distance competitions; (2) to evaluate the possible effect of a 2-km trial on the absolute value of C(s). C(s) was assessed during three consecutive 400-m trials covered in a 50-m pool at increasing speeds (v1, v2, v3). After these experiments the subjects swam a 2-km trial at the 10-km race speed (v2km) after which the three 400-m trials were repeated at the same speed as before (v5 = v1, v6 = v2, v7 = v3). C(s) was calculated by dividing the net oxygen uptake at steady state VO2ss by the corresponding average speed (v, m s(-1)). VO2ss was estimated by using back extrapolation technique from breath-to-breath VO2 recorded during the first 30 s of recovery after each test. C(s) increased (from 0.69 kJ m(-1) to 1.27 kJ m(-1)) as a function of v (from 1.29 m s(-1) to 1.50 m s(-1)), its values being comparable to those measured in elite short distance swimmers at similar speeds. In both groups of subjects the speed maintained during the 2-km trial (v2km) was on the average only 1.2% faster than of v2 and v6 (P>0.05), whereas C(s) assessed at the end of the 2-km trial (v2km) turned out to be 21 +/- 26% larger than that assessed at v2 and v6 (P<0.05); the average stroke frequency (SF, cycles min(-1)) during the 2-km trial turned to be about 6% (P<0.05) faster than that assessed at v2 and v6. At v5, C(s) turned out to be 19 +/- 9% (P<0.05) and 22 +/- 27% (0.1 < P = 0.05) larger than at v1 in male and female subjects (respectively). SF was significantly faster (P<0.05, in male subjects) and the distance per stroke (Ds = v/SF) significantly shorter (P<0.05) in female subjects at v5 and v6 than at v1 and v2. These data suggest that the increase of C(s) found after the 2-km trial was likely related to a decrease in propelling efficiency, since the latter is related to the distance per stroke.

  2. An Introduction to Distance Measurement in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Distance determination is an essential technique in astronomy, and is briefly covered in most textbooks on astrophysics and cosmology. It is rarely covered as a coherent topic in its own right. When it is discussed the approach is frequently very dry, splitting the teaching into, for example, stars, galaxies and cosmologies, and as a consequence, books lack depth and are rarely comprehensive. Adopting a unique and engaging approach to the subject An Introduction to distance Measurement in Astronomy will take the reader on a journey from the solar neighbourhood to the edge of the Universe, dis

  3. Giant HII regions as distance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Terlevich, Robert; Moles, Mariano

    1987-01-01

    The correlations between the integrated Hβ luminosities, the velocity widths of the nebular lines and the metallicities of giant HII regions and HII galaxies are demonstrated to provide powerful distance indicators. They are calibrated on a homogeneous sample of giant HII regions with well determined distances and applied to distant HII galaxies to obtain a value of H 0 =95+-10 for the Hubble parameter, consistent with the value obtained by the Tully-Fisher technique. The effect of Malmquist bias and other systematic effects on the HII region method are discussed in detail. (Author)

  4. PERSPECTIVES ON GROUP WORK IN DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Sarromaa HAUSSTÄTTER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current distance education benefits greatly from educational software that makes group work possible for students who are separated in time and space. However, some students prefer distance education because they can work on their own. This paper explores how students react to expectations on behalf of the course provider to do their assignments in collaborative groups. They are seemingly both positively surprised by the challenges that group work offer, and they are less positive to the downsides of group work. The paper discusses both sides of the experiences and suggests why this might be a paradox to live with.

  5. Human recognition at a distance in video

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir

    2010-01-01

    Most biometric systems employed for human recognition require physical contact with, or close proximity to, a cooperative subject. Far more challenging is the ability to reliably recognize individuals at a distance, when viewed from an arbitrary angle under real-world environmental conditions. Gait and face data are the two biometrics that can be most easily captured from a distance using a video camera. This comprehensive and logically organized text/reference addresses the fundamental problems associated with gait and face-based human recognition, from color and infrared video data that are

  6. Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Bushimata, Takeshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Jike, Takaaki; Kameno, Seiji; Kameya, Osamu; Kamohara, Ryuichi; Kan-ya, Yukitoshi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kijima, Masachika; Kim, Mi Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    We report astrometric observations of H2O masers around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). Based on astrometric monitoring for 13 months, we successfully measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.88 +/- 0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.14 +0.11/-0.09 kpc. This is the most accurate distance to VY CMa and the first one based on an annual parallax measurement. The luminosity of VY CMa has been overestimated due to a p...

  7. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Nunan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this ‘market’ agenda of government in terms of characteristics of markets and market behavior. After a scan of the current role, the paper looks at two scenarios (regulated and deregulated for distance education in university teaching and learning in Australia.

  8. Regularisation of 3D Signed Distance Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Signed 3D distance fields are used a in a variety of domains. From shape modelling to surface registration. They are typically computed based on sampled point sets. If the input point set contains holes, the behaviour of the zero-level surface of the distance field is not well defined...... Cholesky factorisation. It is demonstrated that the zero-level surface will act as a membrane after the proposed regularisation. This effectively closes holes in a predictable way. Finally, the performance of the method is tested with a set of synthetic point clouds of increasing complexity....

  9. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  10. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  11. Do Dysphagic Patients with an Absent Pharyngeal Swallow Have a Shorter Survival than Dysphagic Patients with Pharyngeal Swallow? Prognostic Importance of a Therapeutic Videoradiographic Swallowing Study (TVSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, M.; Olsson, R.; Ekberg, O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study survival in two groups of dysphagic patients - one group unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow (APS) and another group with pharyngeal swallow (WPS) - and to compare recommendations regarding nutrition and therapeutic strategies based on the therapeutic swallowing study. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of dysphagic patients who have undergone a therapeutic videoradiographic swallowing study (TVSS) were reviewed. Forty patients without pharyngeal swallow were matched for age and gender with 40 patients with pharyngeal swallow; altogether 80 patients were included in the study. Survival was registered at 3, 12, and 72 months after the TVSS. Results: In this study, the APS group had a significantly shorter survival time compared to the WPS group when followed-up at 12 months. In the APS group, most patients (37.5% (15/40)) died within the 3 months after TVSS. At 72 months, 62.5% (25/40) of the patients in the APS group had died. In the WPS group, 5% (2/40) had died within 3 months and 47.4% (19/40) after 12 months. At 72 months, 52.5% (21/40) of the patients in the WPS group had died. Regarding nutritional and therapeutic recommendations based on TVSS, 34/40 in the APS group were recommended no oral intake. Eighteen naso-gastric tubes were placed directly after TVSS. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, and tongue exercises (in 8 patients). In the WPS group, all patients were recommended oral intake. Diet modification was recommended in 29 patients. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, tongue exercises, supraglottic swallow, and effortful swallow (in 24 patients). Conclusion: Patients unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow had a shorter survival time than patients with pharyngeal swallow, probably due to a more severe underlying disease. Tube feeding was more frequent in the APS group. Fewer

  12. The prosurvival activity of ascites against TRAIL is associated with a shorter disease-free interval in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Denis

    2010-01-01

    associated with shorter disease-free interval. Conclusions The prosurvival activity of ascites against TRAIL is associated with shorter disease-free interval, which may be explained, at least in part, by ascites-induced cisplatin/paclitaxel resistance. Our findings suggest that ascites may contain prosurvival factors that protect against TRAIL and chemotherapy and consequently affect disease progression.

  13. Progesterone-releasing devices for cattle estrus induction and synchronization: Device optimization to anticipate shorter treatment durations and new device developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, W; Grimard, B

    2018-05-01

    Synchronization programs using progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices that allow for fixed time artificial insemination are still finding increasing application in bovine reproduction. This practice is useful for rationalizing livestock management because an increased number of cows can be inseminated in one session without the need for estrus detection. Although much of the innovation related to the design and development of intravaginal devices for use in cattle took place in the previous century, progress in understanding the physiology of the bovine estrous cycle resulted in shorter treatment durations, a trend which is still continuing. In this competitive market, with little functional differentiation between the existing devices, the shorter treatment duration prompted for optimization of the progesterone content in the device, as the cost of the drug significantly contributes to the price per unit. For CIDR ® a reduction of the progesterone content of about 30 per cent was realized. Price reduction remained an important target for further device development. Next to reduction of progesterone content, cheaper and easier to process materials like polyethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers have been explored to replace the commonly used silicone elastomers. The reengineering effort of CIDR ® demonstrated that knowledge of release kinetics and insight into gradual depletion patterns in the device is critical for optimization of drug content without compromising performance (blood levels). More recent publications related to the use of alternative polymers like EVA and polyisoprene (IP) indicated encouraging results regarding further reduction of progesterone content. The use of EVA seems most promising, because it is in principle a low-cost polymer available in many grades and this thermoplastic polymer can be processed easily by means of commonly used techniques like injection molding and extrusion. The use of thermoplastic polymers, however, requires

  14. Making Distance Visible: Assembling Nearness in an Online Distance Learning Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jen; Gallagher, Michael Sean; Macleod, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Online distance learners are in a particularly complex relationship with the educational institutions they belong to (Bayne, Gallagher, & Lamb, 2012). For part-time distance students, arrivals and departures can be multiple and invisible as students take courses, take breaks, move into independent study phases of a programme, find work or…

  15. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED): A new class of adaptable distance transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon

    2014-01-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT starting directly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is

  16. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) : A new class of adaptable distance transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2014-01-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT startingdirectly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is introduced,

  17. From a distance: implications of spontaneous self-distancing for adaptive self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayduk, Ozlem; Kross, Ethan

    2010-05-01

    Although recent experimental work indicates that self-distancing facilitates adaptive self-reflection, it remains unclear (a) whether spontaneous self-distancing leads to similar adaptive outcomes, (b) how spontaneous self-distancing relates to avoidance, and (c) how this strategy impacts interpersonal behavior. Three studies examined these issues demonstrating that the more participants spontaneously self-distanced while reflecting on negative memories, the less emotional (Studies 1-3) and cardiovascular (Study 2) reactivity they displayed in the short term. Spontaneous self-distancing was also associated with lower emotional reactivity and intrusive ideation over time (Study 1). The negative association between spontaneous self-distancing and emotional reactivity was mediated by how participants construed their experience (i.e., less recounting relative to reconstruing) rather than avoidance (Studies 1-2). In addition, spontaneous self-distancing was associated with more problem-solving behavior and less reciprocation of negativity during conflicts among couples in ongoing relationships (Study 3). Although spontaneous self-distancing was empirically related to trait rumination, it explained unique variance in predicting key outcomes. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Measuring and testing dependence by correlation of distances

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Bakirov, Nail K.

    2007-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new measure of dependence between random vectors. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but unlike the classical definition of correlation, distance correlation is zero only if the random vectors are independent. The empirical distance dependence measures are based on certain Euclidean distances between sample elements rather than sample moments, yet have a compact representation analogous to the clas...

  19. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aiming for a shorter rheumatoid arthritis MRI protocol: can contrast-enhanced MRI replace T2 for the detection of bone marrow oedema?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stomp, Wouter; Bloem, Johan L.; Reijnierse, Monique [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Krabben, Annemarie; Heijde, Desiree van der; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Helm-van Mil, Annette H.M. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    To determine whether T1 post-gadolinium chelate images (T1Gd) can replace T2-weighted images (T2) for evaluating bone marrow oedema (BME), thereby allowing a shorter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 179 early arthritis patients and 43 advanced RA patients, wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints were examined on a 1.5-T extremity MRI system with a standard protocol (coronal T1, T2 fat-saturated and coronal and axial T1 fat-saturated after Gd). BME was scored according to OMERACT RAMRIS by two observers with and without T2 images available. Agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for semi-quantitative scores and test characteristics with T2 images as reference. Agreement between scores based on T2 and T1Gd images was excellent ICC (0.80-0.99). At bone level, sensitivity and specificity of BME on T1Gd compared to T2 were high for both patient groups and both readers (all ≥80 %). T1Gd and T2 images are equally suitable for evaluating BME. Because contrast is usually administered to assess (teno)synovitis, a short MRI protocol of T1 and T1Gd is sufficient in RA. (orig.)

  1. Disparate patterns of age-related changes in lipid peroxidation in long-lived naked mole-rats and shorter-lived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Blazej; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2006-12-01

    A key tenet of the oxidative stress theory of aging is that levels of accrued oxidative damage increase with age. Differences in damage generation and accumulation therefore may underlie the natural variation in species longevity. We compared age-related profiles of whole-organism lipid peroxidation (urinary isoprostanes) and liver lipid damage (malondialdehyde) in long living naked mole-rats [maximum lifespan (MLS) > 28.3 years] and shorter-living CB6F1 hybrid mice (MLS approximately 3.5 years). In addition, we compared age-associated changes in liver non-heme iron to assess how intracellular conditions, which may modulate oxidative processes, are affected by aging. Surprisingly, even at a young age, concentrations of both markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as of iron, were at least twofold (P naked mole tats than in mice. This refutes the hypothesis that prolonged naked mole-rat longevity is due to superior protection against oxidative stress. The age-related profiles of all three parameters were distinctly species specific. Rates of lipid damage generation in mice were maintained throughout adulthood, while accrued damage in old animals was twice that of young mice. In naked mole-rats, urinary isoprostane excretion declined by half with age (P naked mole-rats is independent of oxidative stress parameters.

  2. Shorter Exciton Lifetimes via an External Heavy-Atom Effect: Alleviating the Effects of Bimolecular Processes in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einzinger, Markus; Zhu, Tianyu; de Silva, Piotr; Belger, Christian; Swager, Timothy M; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Multiexcited-state phenomena are believed to be the root cause of two exigent challenges in organic light-emitting diodes; namely, efficiency roll-off and degradation. The development of novel strategies to reduce exciton densities under heavy load is therefore highly desirable. Here, it is shown that triplet exciton lifetimes of thermally activated delayed-fluorescence-emitter molecules can be manipulated in the solid state by exploiting intermolecular interactions. The external heavy-atom effect of brominated host molecules leads to increased spin-orbit coupling, which in turn enhances intersystem crossing rates in the guest molecule. Wave function overlap between the host and the guest is confirmed by combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. Shorter triplet exciton lifetimes are observed, while high photoluminescence quantum yields and essentially unaltered emission spectra are maintained. A change in the intersystem crossing rate ratio due to increased dielectric constants leads to almost 50% lower triplet exciton densities in the emissive layer in the steady state and results in an improved onset of the photoluminescence quantum yield roll-off at high excitation densities. Efficient organic light-emitting diodes with better roll-off behavior based on these novel hosts are fabricated, demonstrating the suitability of this concept for real-world applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Aiming for a shorter rheumatoid arthritis MRI protocol: can contrast-enhanced MRI replace T2 for the detection of bone marrow oedema?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomp, Wouter; Bloem, Johan L.; Reijnierse, Monique; Krabben, Annemarie; Heijde, Desiree van der; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Helm-van Mil, Annette H.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether T1 post-gadolinium chelate images (T1Gd) can replace T2-weighted images (T2) for evaluating bone marrow oedema (BME), thereby allowing a shorter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 179 early arthritis patients and 43 advanced RA patients, wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints were examined on a 1.5-T extremity MRI system with a standard protocol (coronal T1, T2 fat-saturated and coronal and axial T1 fat-saturated after Gd). BME was scored according to OMERACT RAMRIS by two observers with and without T2 images available. Agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for semi-quantitative scores and test characteristics with T2 images as reference. Agreement between scores based on T2 and T1Gd images was excellent ICC (0.80-0.99). At bone level, sensitivity and specificity of BME on T1Gd compared to T2 were high for both patient groups and both readers (all ≥80 %). T1Gd and T2 images are equally suitable for evaluating BME. Because contrast is usually administered to assess (teno)synovitis, a short MRI protocol of T1 and T1Gd is sufficient in RA. (orig.)

  4. Travel distance to prenatal care and high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; MacLeod, Kara E; Zhang, Donglan; Wang, Fan; Chao, Margaret Shin

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether poor geographic accessibility to prenatal care, as indicated by long distance trips to prenatal care, produced high blood pressure (HPB) during pregnancy. Using the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Study for women without hypertension prior to pregnancy (n = 3405), we compared self-reported HBP by travel distance to prenatal care controlling for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, weight status, and physical activity. Results of the multilevel logistic regression shows traveling more than 50 mi to prenatal care is associated with an increased odds for having HPB during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.867, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.079,7.613), as compared with a travel distance shorter than 5 mi. Traveling 5-14 mi (OR = 0.917, 95% CI = 0.715-1.176), 15-29 mi (OR = 0.955, 95% CI = 0.634-1.438), or 30-50 mi (OR = 1.101, 95% CI = 0.485-2.499) were not significantly associated with more risk of HBP during pregnancy. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the association between poor geographic accessibility to care and the possible harms of travel burdens for pregnant women. Future research that replicates these findings can assist in developing recommendations for pregnant women and health-care accessibility.

  5. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Willemoes, Mikkel; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Vega, Marta Lomas; Dasari, Hari P; Araújo, Miguel B; Wikelski, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future.

  6. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants

    KAUST Repository

    Thorup, Kasper

    2017-01-05

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future.

  7. Escape Distance in Ground-Nesting Birds Differs with Individual Level of Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared K; Troscianko, Jolyon T; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-08-01

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread antipredator strategies in the animal kingdom, yet no animal can match its background perfectly in a complex environment. Therefore, selection should favor individuals that use information on how effective their camouflage is in their immediate habitat when responding to an approaching threat. In a field study of African ground-nesting birds (plovers, coursers, and nightjars), we tested the hypothesis that individuals adaptively modulate their escape behavior in relation to their degree of background matching. We used digital imaging and models of predator vision to quantify differences in color, luminance, and pattern between eggs and their background, as well as the plumage of incubating adult nightjars. We found that plovers and coursers showed greater escape distances when their eggs were a poorer pattern match to the background. Nightjars sit on their eggs until a potential threat is nearby, and, correspondingly, they showed greater escape distances when the pattern and color match of the incubating adult's plumage-rather than its eggs-was a poorer match to the background. Finally, escape distances were shorter in the middle of the day, suggesting that escape behavior is mediated by both camouflage and thermoregulation.

  8. VIRTUAL LEADERSHIP AT DISTANCE EDUCATION TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KUSCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization being one of the most popular terms of recent years is considered as a factor changing the operation styles of the companies. Companies and universities opened up to the world with the globalization and as a result of it, they had the opportunity of being a world brand. Now, some companies have affiliated companies in almost every country. Well, if we think about time and place difference how do these companies lead the affiliated companies in various locations of the world? This question resulted in the new leadership approach, virtual leadership. The process of distance learning beginning with newspaper advertisement appears as virtual learning now. A number of companies and universities provide distance learning classes and in-service training in virtual platform via Internet. These trainings provided independently from time and space are conducted in a country and worldwide sometimes. If we consider individuals in different time and environments as virtual teams, dealing with these virtual teams is the duty of virtual leader. The purpose of this study is to examine virtual leadership perception of distance learning teams. Three trivets are in question for distance learning teams. The first one is the academicians lecturing the second one is the students and the third one is coordinator and technical support team. Perceptions of virtual leader of the said three groups were examined individually in this study.

  9. Educational Transition of East Malaysian Distance Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, K. G.; Awang, M. N.; Idrus, R. M.; Atan, H.; Azli, N. A.; Jaafar, I.; Rahman, Z. A.; Latiff, Z. A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes results of a study of the changing perceptions of East Malaysian distance learners studying at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Highlights include students' perceptions of their study skills; and the impact of their studies on other areas of their life, including social obligations, recreation, families, health, finances, work, and…

  10. Distance Learning For Mobile Internet Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran NECAT

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on the current state of art in the field of Distance learning for mobile users. It mentions a large range of technologies, services and approaches that may be used to bring distance learning to mobile internet users. These technologies are supposed to considerably increase innovative e-learning solutions for the next generation. While this definitely appears to be true, I think what is not so clear are the implications for students, and lecturers etc. In this article I first evaluate distributed e-learning technologies. With some of the most vital topics, focusing on adaptive distributed e-learning for Mobile Internet Users (MIUs. I also provide a brief analysis of Broadband Network Services, Collaborative e-Learning Tools and Distributed Virtual Environments, Internet-Based Adaptive Learning Technologies and Personalised Distance Learning. I continue my discussion on to Internet Development Tools (IDTs for Distance Learning Solutions, Learning Technologies for MIUs, Semantic and Web-Based Services for Enriching Learning Interactivity, and Evaluations of Distributed Learning Technologies (DLTs.

  11. DISTANCE LEARNING ONLINE WEB 3 .0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Petryk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the existing methods of identification information in the semantic web, outlines the main problems of its implementation and researches the use of Semantic Web as the part of distance learning. Proposed alternative variant of identification and relationship construction of information and acquired knowledge based on the developed method “spectrum of knowledge”

  12. Long distance synchronization of mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Aguirre, A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Oguchi, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the long distance master-slave and mutual synchronization of unicycle-type mobile robots. The issues that arise when the elements of a robotic network are placed in different locations are addressed, specifically the time-delay induced by the communication channel linking the

  13. Relationship between Cultural Distance and Pragmatic Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Damavand, Ayoob; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    The distance between language learners' culture and the culture of the target language community is considered to play a crucial role in determining the level of pragmatic comprehension. In this respect, a study was conducted over 30 German students, perceived as culturally close to the British, and 30 South Korean students, perceived as…

  14. Defining functional distances over Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Pozo Angela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental problem when trying to define the functional relationships between proteins is the difficulty in quantifying functional similarities, even when well-structured ontologies exist regarding the activity of proteins (i.e. 'gene ontology' -GO-. However, functional metrics can overcome the problems in the comparing and evaluating functional assignments and predictions. As a reference of proximity, previous approaches to compare GO terms considered linkage in terms of ontology weighted by a probability distribution that balances the non-uniform 'richness' of different parts of the Direct Acyclic Graph. Here, we have followed a different approach to quantify functional similarities between GO terms. Results We propose a new method to derive 'functional distances' between GO terms that is based on the simultaneous occurrence of terms in the same set of Interpro entries, instead of relying on the structure of the GO. The coincidence of GO terms reveals natural biological links between the GO functions and defines a distance model Df which fulfils the properties of a Metric Space. The distances obtained in this way can be represented as a hierarchical 'Functional Tree'. Conclusion The method proposed provides a new definition of distance that enables the similarity between GO terms to be quantified. Additionally, the 'Functional Tree' defines groups with biological meaning enhancing its utility for protein function comparison and prediction. Finally, this approach could be for function-based protein searches in databases, and for analysing the gene clusters produced by DNA array experiments.

  15. a case series in habitual distance runners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle injury, aponeurotic tears, ligament injuries, tendinopathy and evaluation of soft tissue ... the point of preventing visualisation of sections of the vessel lumen. (Figure 6). ... 11 constant, then intermittent. Short distances ... Gielen S, Schuler G, Adams V. Cardiovascular effects of exercise training: molecular mechanisms.

  16. Distance Learning for Teacher Training in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvana Maria Bof

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Proformação is a distance teacher certification course aimed at providing training to 27,000 uncertified teachers in 15 Brazilian states. This innovative program organizes human and technical resources for delivering distance education in a cost-effective manner. Different from other institutional systems – which typically employ their own dedicated content, design, and instructional resource personnel, and accompanied by a large pool of administrative staff – Proformação leverages pre-existing learning resources such as content experts, technology specialists, instruction, and student support systems from several institutions. Proformação goal is to create a viable teacher certification course to upgrade thousands of non-certified teachers working in the field. Proformação is coordinated by an administrative unit of the Brazilian Ministry of Education. To support the program, an information system was implemented to continuously and consistently monitor the program’s activities and results. Results of an external evaluation have been positive; Proformação is regarded by some as an innovative model for delivering decentralized training opportunities to large student numbers. Therefore, the findings in this article may prove interesting to those charged with implementing distance learning initiatives in developing countries, in that the lessons learned in Brazil may help others interested in implementing similar distance training programs.

  17. Sequence distance via parsing complexity: Heartbeat signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degli Esposti, M.; Farinelli, C.; Menconi, G.

    2009-01-01

    We compare and discuss the use of different symbolic codings of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in order to distinguish healthy patients from hospitalized ones. To this aim, we recall a parsing-based similarity distance and compare the performances of several methods of classification of data.

  18. Characterizing the round sphere by mean distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the measure theoretic metric invariants extent, rendezvous number and mean distance of a general compact metric space X and relate these to classical metric invariants such as diameter and radius. In the final section we focus attention to the category of Riemannian manifolds. The main...

  19. Distance Matters: Physical Space and Social Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latane, Bibb; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies of college students and citizens of south Florida, United States, students in Shanghai, China, and an international sample of social psychologists show that social influence, measured by the frequency of memorable interactions, is heavily determined by distance. Confirms one principle from Latane's 1981 theory of social impact. (JBJ)

  20. Motivating Distance Learners in Online Gaming Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) have potential as educational tools. Existing literature shows that MMOG-based courses can foster a more immediate sense of community among students than traditional distance learning interfaces. The immersive technology of MMOGs opens the door for students to be able to virtually walk through the college…

  1. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....

  2. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  3. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  4. Teacher Passion and Distance Education Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a significant body of research on post-secondary distance education, harmonious passion has not been explored in relation to teacher presence. Teacher presence within a community of inquiry has been identified as an important influence and predictor of student performance. As such, determining the degree of relationship between teacher…

  5. An Organizational Diffusion Study on Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Richter, Donna L.; Miner, Kathleen R.; Watkins, Ken; Usdan, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    This research explored the diffusion process of distance education in schools of public health to determine best practices in the planning and implementation of future programs. The researcher traced the diffusion process by utilizing a multiple-case study methodology using a semi-structured interview to collect the perceptions of Distance…

  6. Empathy in Distance Learning Design Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael T.; Williams, Gregory S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.; McDonald, Jason K.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of designer empathy has become a cornerstone of design philosophy in fields such as product design, human-computer interaction, and service design. But the literature on instructional designer empathy and learner analysis suggests that distance learning designers are generally quite removed from the learners with whom they could be…

  7. Respect distances. Rationale and means of computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hoekmark, Harald [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Canisters with spent nuclear fuel can obviously not be located within deformation zones as this might jeopardise their long term mechanical stability and thereby constitute a potential hazard to the biosphere. Less apparent, but equally important, is the fact that earthquakes trigger reactivation, slip, of structures some distance from their hypocentres due to, among many other factors, stress redistribution. Fault slip across a deposition hole might damage the isolation capacity of the canister and thereby jeopardise the overall integrity of the barrier system. Therefore, the following question might be posed: What is the distance from a deformation zone beyond which a canister can be safely emplaced? This respect distance cannot be readily computed because, unknown future events aside, there are some complicated aspects that need to be addressed e.g. degree of conservatism, scale, our ability to model ice sheets and earthquakes, etc. In this report we discuss various aspects of the assignment of respect distances, propose a methodology for its assignment and apply the methodology to the Forsmark Site as a worked example. Our main concern, in the context discussed in this report, is the post glacial faults anticipated to occur after the next glaciations. To properly address conservativeness, analysis of risk, and its implementation in safety analysis, we provide an extensive compilation of our current knowledge on post glacial faults as an appendix.

  8. Respect distances. Rationale and means of computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Hoekmark, Harald

    2004-12-01

    Canisters with spent nuclear fuel can obviously not be located within deformation zones as this might jeopardise their long term mechanical stability and thereby constitute a potential hazard to the biosphere. Less apparent, but equally important, is the fact that earthquakes trigger reactivation, slip, of structures some distance from their hypocentres due to, among many other factors, stress redistribution. Fault slip across a deposition hole might damage the isolation capacity of the canister and thereby jeopardise the overall integrity of the barrier system. Therefore, the following question might be posed: What is the distance from a deformation zone beyond which a canister can be safely emplaced? This respect distance cannot be readily computed because, unknown future events aside, there are some complicated aspects that need to be addressed e.g. degree of conservatism, scale, our ability to model ice sheets and earthquakes, etc. In this report we discuss various aspects of the assignment of respect distances, propose a methodology for its assignment and apply the methodology to the Forsmark Site as a worked example. Our main concern, in the context discussed in this report, is the post glacial faults anticipated to occur after the next glaciations. To properly address conservativeness, analysis of risk, and its implementation in safety analysis, we provide an extensive compilation of our current knowledge on post glacial faults as an appendix

  9. How to measure distance visual acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Marsden

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual acuity (VA is a measure of the ability of the eye to distinguish shapes and the details of objects at a given distance. It is important to assess VA in a consistent way in order to detect any changes in vision. One eye is tested at a time.

  10. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2015-01-01

    Distance-to-default (DD) is a measure of default risk derived from observed stock prices and book leverage using the structural credit risk model of Merton (1974). Despite the simplifying assumptions that underlie its derivation, DD has proven empirically to be a strong predictor of default. We use...

  11. [Osteoarthritis from long-distance running?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, E; Wörtler, K; Imhoff, A

    2005-06-01

    Long distance running has become a fashionable recreational activity. This study investigated the effects of external impact loading on bone and cartilage introduced by performing a marathon race. Seven beginners were compared to six experienced recreational long distance runners and two professional athletes. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and knee before and after a marathon run. Coronal T1 weighted and STIR sequences were used. The pre MRI served as a baseline investigation and monitored the training effect. All athletes demonstrated normal findings in the pre run scan. All but one athlete in the beginner group demonstrated joint effusions after the race. The experienced and professional runners failed to demonstrate pathology in the post run scans. Recreational and professional long distance runners tolerate high impact forces well. Beginners demonstrate significant changes on the post run scans. Whether those findings are a result of inadequate training (miles and duration) warrant further studies. We conclude that adequate endurance training results in adaptation mechanisms that allow the athlete to compensate for the stresses introduced by long distance running and do not predispose to the onset of osteoarthritis. Significant malalignment of the lower extremity may cause increased focal loading of joint and cartilage.

  12. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  13. Implementing Distance Education: Issues Impacting Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Jolene; Rockwell, S. Kay; Fritz, Susan M.; Marx, Dave B.

    2005-01-01

    Through a modified Delphi study, an expert panel identified 62 concepts organized in eight issue categories that impact administrative decisions as higher education institutions commit to implementing distance education courses and programs. Using a mail survey, 62 department chairs in Colleges of Agriculture in Land-Grant Universities ranked the…

  14. Distance Learning and Assistance Using Smart Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Michael; Nanic, Ibrahim; Ebner, Martin

    2018-01-01

    With the everyday growth of technology, new possibilities arise to support activities of everyday life. In education and training, more and more digital learning materials are emerging, but there is still room for improvement. This research study describes the implementation of a smart glasses app and infrastructure to support distance learning…

  15. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  16. Computational Developments for Distance Determination of Stellar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the members of the group scatter around a mean absolute magnitude in. Gaussian ..... Due to its important role in distance determination (e.g., equation 9) this tempted us to establish analytical ..... Communications, 40, 39–61. Sharaf, M. A. ...

  17. Psychic Distance, Innovation, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Goudarz; Drogendijk, Rian

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that internationalization improves a firm's ability to innovate, but the effect of internationalizing into specific target markets or destinations on the innovation ability of firms has not been fully investigated. This study examined whether the psychic distance between

  18. Normalized compression distance of multisets with applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    Pairwise normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free, feature-free, alignment-free, similarity metric based on compression. We propose an NCD of multisets that is also metric. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. For classification purposes it is superior to the pairwise

  19. Two Approaches to Distance Education: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Robert A.; Cartwright, G. Phillip

    1997-01-01

    Outlines lessons learned by the University of Wisconsin-Stout in implementing two distance education programs, a technology program using interactive television and a hospitality program using Lotus Notes to deliver courses. Topics discussed include program concept vs. technology as stimulus for innovation, program planning/administration,…

  20. What's Driving Faculty Participation in Distance Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews more than a decade of investigations undertaken to determine what motivates and what discourages faculty participation in distance education. The presenters describe the evidence that faculty extrinsic and intrinsic conditions both influence willingness to participate. The researchers compare the findings of this study with…

  1. Interactive Distance Education: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based approaches to the design of the next generation of interactive distance education need to take into account established multimedia learning principles. Cognitive load theory is a theory that has significantly contributed to the development of such principles. It has applied our knowledge of major features and processing limitations…

  2. Measuring Astronomical Distances with Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Akshar

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago it was suggested that the distance to celestial bodies could be computed by tracking their position over about 24 hours and then solving a regression problem. One only needed to use inexpensive telescopes, cameras, and astrometry tools, and the experiment could be done from one's backyard. However, it is not obvious to an amateur…

  3. Environmental Impact of Long Distance Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel and the cl...

  4. Environmental Impact of Long Distance Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel and the cl...

  5. Oenology through Multimedia and Distance Learning Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Deanna M.

    A study was conducted to determine whether wine experts, already trained in the traditional oenology method, would be interested in learning about wine through multimedia and distance learning. Data were gathered from 113 of the 502 members of the American Wine Society who attended a national conference in November 1995. About 58 percent were male…

  6. Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2012-04-01

    Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) linkage, but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4 and 11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photo refractor set in a remote haploscopic device that assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Responses on decompensation were compared with those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target was significantly reduced (paccommodation of 2.33 D at 33 cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near.

  7. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY A DISTANCE LEARNING ORGANISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta MALIK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores; the rapid growth of the adult learner population is increasing the demand of distance learning techniques. The demographic study of the learners will help target the adult learner population and proper training will help organizations to develop course materials and techniques appropriately.

  8. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...... or truthfully reports that the edit distance between x and y is greater than k. For this problem, we give a randomized protocol in which Alice transmits at most O ˜ (klog 2 n) bits and each party’s time complexity is O ˜ (nlogn+k 2 log 2 n) . Our second result is a simultaneous protocol for edit distance over...... permutations. Here Alice and Bob both send a message to a third party (the referee) who does not have access to the input strings. Given the messages, the referee decides if the edit distance between x and y is at most k or not. For this problem we give a protocol in which Alice and Bob run a O...

  10. Electromagnetic obstacle detection in close distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzela, Michał; Burd, Aleksander

    2016-09-01

    The main topic is the electronic system, designed and built to help car drivers during parking. It uses electromagnetism phenomena for making an estimation of arrangement of obstacles. The device works with close distance (about 5-15cm), depending on the material from which the obstacle is made.

  11. Markov chain of distances between parked cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    We describe the distribution of distances between parked cars as a solution of certain Markov processes and show that its solution is obtained with the help of a distributional fixed point equation. Under certain conditions the process is solved explicitly. The resulting probability density is compared with the actual parking data measured in the city. (fast track communication)

  12. Distance Education: An Evolving Instructional Technology Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the several levels of questions that need to be considered before planning and implementing a distance education program. Discusses systems procedures to be followed in developing pilot lessons (modules) prior to "rapid prototyping." Concludes by providing a generic research plan for ensuring the development of sustained quality…

  13. Barriers to Distance Education in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; Varre, Claire de la; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to examine barriers to the use of distance education and explore related factors in small and low-income rural schools. Data were collected via a telephone survey with administrators or other qualified personnel. The sample involved 417 randomly selected small and low-income rural school districts…

  14. Barriers to Communication in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Zane L.

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent education can be thought of as a communication process among the participants. This article focuses on distance education, which has both the general communication processes that in-person education venues possess, and also communication specific to the technologies that mediate the teaching and learning taking place at a…

  15. Tutoring Group Learning at a Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahraeus, Eva R.

    Experiences from a distance course conducted during 1996-97 for high-school teachers in Sweden and reports from other experiments have yielded the conclusion that collaborating via electronic conferencing systems demands new communication patterns. This paper uses theories about communication, group processes, and shared symbolic order and social…

  16. From Distance Education to Online Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Describes the history and development of the United Kingdom's Open University from a print-based distance teaching institution to an electronic university. Discusses computer conferencing, including problems and successes with implementation; barriers to use; research and development; designing and teaching online courses; and the Open University…

  17. Distance Measures for Information System Reengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, G.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Wangler, B.; Bergman, L.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to assess the magnitude and impact of information system reengineering caused by business process change. This approach is based on two concepts: object-oriented business modeling and distance measurement. The former concept is used to visualize changes in the business layer

  18. Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study show that concerted efforts have been made by both the OUT and UDSM to integrate online media in their instructional methodologies in the last two decades. In the specific case of the OUT, as a result of such innovations, print has been dislodged as the lead medium in distance education delivery.

  19. Distance, Bank Organizational Structure and Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Cerqueiro, G.M.; Ongena, S.

    2007-01-01

    We survey the extant literature on the effects of both a bank’s organizational structure and the physical distance separating it from the lender on lending decisions. Banks do engage in spatial pricing, where the underlying mechanism can be both transportation costs and information asymmetries.

  20. Distance Learning Library Services in Ugandan Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayende, Jackline Estomihi Kiwelu; Obura, Constant Okello

    2013-01-01

    The study carried out at Makerere University and Uganda Martyrs University in 2010 aimed at providing strategies for enhanced distance learning library services in terms of convenience and adequacy. The study adopted a cross sectional descriptive survey design. The study revealed services provided in branch libraries in Ugandan universities were…

  1. Procrastination in a Distance University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsieck, Katrin B.; Fries, Stefan; Horz, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Procrastination, putting off until tomorrow what should have been done today, is a self-regulation failure that is widespread among students. Although plenty of research has emerged regarding academic procrastination, hardly any research endeavor regarding procrastination in distance university settings exists. This lack of research is even more…

  2. Distance between Behaviors and Rational Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H.L.; Gottimukkala, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study notions of distance between behaviors of linear differential systems. We introduce four metrics on the space of all controllable behaviors which generalize existing metrics on the space of input-output systems represented by transfer matrices. Three of these are defined in

  3. Distance Sensitive Bloom Filters Without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    A Bloom filter is a widely used data-structure for representing a set S and answering queries of the form “Is x in S?”. By allowing some false positive answers (saying ‘yes’ when the answer is in fact ‘no’) Bloom filters use space significantly below what is required for storing S. In the distanc...

  4. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, K.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population

  5. Comparison of the anogenital distance and anthropometry of the perineum in patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, M L; Moya-Jiménez, L C; Mendiola, J

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric measures of the perineum for women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse who are candidates for surgery, with or without urinary incontinence, and for patients without pelvic floor dysfunction. The main objective was to measure the anogenital distance in its 2 variants: anoclitoral and anofourchette. The anogenital distance appears to be determined prenatally and is influenced by the intrauterine hormonal environment. The secondary objective was to measure the length of the genital hiatus, the perineal body and the distance between the 2 ischial tuberosities. An observational case-control study was conducted with 58 patients. The cases (n=22) were patients with stages >II 2 in the Baden-Walker classification system. The controls were patients with normal pelvic floors. Measurements were performed with a digital calliper. The patients' tocogynecological history, lifestyle habits and risk factors were recorded. The case patients had a significantly shorter anogenital anofourchette distance than that of the control patients (P=.001), a significantly longer anogenital anoclitoral distance than the control patients (P=.0001) and a significantly longer genital hiatus length than the control patients (P=.02). This was an observational study with a small sample. We cannot determine whether the difference in these distances are caused by or are the result of this disease. Given that the anogenital distance appears to be determined prenatally, we question whether this changed distance could be a risk factor for developing pelvic floor dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Areca nut is associated with younger age of diagnosis, poor chemoradiotherapy response, and shorter overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Han Chen

    Full Text Available Areca nut chewing is carcinogenic to humans. However, little is known about the impact of areca nut chewing on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC.We retrospectively reviewed 286 ESCC patients who received surgery or preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery at our institution. Background characteristics including areca nut chewing history were analyzed. The 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model was used to test the impact of arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, on ESCC.Compared to patients without areca nut chewing history, patients with areca nut chewing history had overall a younger age of onset (Mean age: 56.75 versus 52.68 yrs, P<0.001 and significantly worse overall survival than those without areca nut chewing history (P = 0.026. Among patients who received surgery, the overall survival rates were not significantly different between those with or without areca nut chewing history. Among patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, those with areca nut chewing history had a significantly lower pathologic complete response rate (P = 0.002 and lower overall survival rate (P = 0.002 than those without. In the murine ESCC model, the incidence of esophageal invasive squamous cell carcinoma was 40% in mice exposed to concomitant 4-NQO and arecoline treatment for 8 weeks and 6% in mice exposed to 4-NQO only for 8 weeks (P = 0.037.Our results indicate that areca nut chewing history is significantly associated with younger age of onset, poor response to chemoradiotherapy, and shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, accelerates esophageal tumorigenesis in the 4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model.

  7. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Di Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa, and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa, lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA whose 5′ end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF21. The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA.

  8. INSIGHTS INTO THE CEPHEID DISTANCE SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bono, G.; Caputo, F.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the Cepheid distance scale by using both theory and observations. Through the use of pulsation models for fundamental mode Cepheids, we found that the slope of the period-luminosity (P-L) relation covering the entire period range (0.40 ≤ log P ≤ 2.0) becomes steeper when moving from optical to near-infrared (NIR) bands, and that the metallicity dependence of the slope decreases from the B- to the K band. The sign of the metallicity dependence for the slopes of the P-L V and P-L I relation is at odds with some recent empirical estimates. We determined new homogeneous estimates of V- and I-band slopes for 87 independent Cepheid data sets belonging to 48 external galaxies with nebular oxygen abundance 7.5 ≤ 12 + log (O/H) ≤ 8.9. By using Cepheid samples including more than 20 Cepheids, the χ 2 test indicates that the hypothesis of a steepening of the P-L V,I relations with increased metal content can be discarded at the 99% level. On the contrary, the observed slopes agree with the metallicity trend predicted by pulsation models, i.e., the slope is roughly constant for galaxies with 12+log (O/H) 2 test concerning the hypothesis that the slope does not depend on metallicity gives confidence levels either similar (PL V , 62%) or smaller (PL I , 67%). We investigated the dependence of the period-Wesenheit (P-W) relations on the metal content and we found that the slopes of optical and NIR P-W relations in external galaxies are similar to the slopes of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids. They also agree with the theoretical predictions suggesting that the slopes of the P-W relations are independent of the metal content. On this ground, the P-W relations provide a robust method to determine distance moduli relative to the LMC, but theory and observations indicate that the metallicity dependence of the zero point in the different passbands has to be taken into account. To constrain this effect, we compared the independent

  9. Foot strike patterns and ground contact times during high-calibre middle-distance races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Phil; Caplan, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine ground contact characteristics, their relationship with race performance, and the time course of any changes in ground contact time during competitive 800 m and 1500 m races. Twenty-two seeded, single-sex middle-distance races totalling 181 runners were filmed at a competitive athletics meeting. Races were filmed at 100 Hz. Ground contact time was recorded one step for each athlete, on each lap of their race. Forefoot and midfoot strikers had significantly shorter ground contact times than heel strikers. Forefoot and midfoot strikers had significantly faster average race speed than heel strikers. There were strong large correlations between ground contact time and average race speed for the women's events and men's 1500 m (r = -0.521 to -0.623; P < 0.05), whereas the men's 800 m displayed only a moderate relationship (r = -0.361; P = 0.002). For each event, ground contact time for the first lap was significantly shorter than for the last lap, which might reflect runners becoming fatigued.

  10. Resistance Distances in Vertex-Face Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yingmin; Chen, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    The computation of two-point resistances in networks is a classical problem in electric circuit theory and graph theory. Let G be a triangulation graph with n vertices embedded on an orientable surface. Define K(G) to be the graph obtained from G by inserting a new vertex vϕ to each face ϕ of G and adding three new edges (u, vϕ), (v, vϕ) and (w, vϕ), where u, v and w are three vertices on the boundary of ϕ. In this paper, using star-triangle transformation and resistance local-sum rules, explicit relations between resistance distances in K(G) and those in G are obtained. These relations enable us to compute resistance distance between any two points of Kk(G) recursively. As explanation examples, some resistances in several networks are computed, including the modified Apollonian network and networks constructed from tetrahedron, octahedron and icosahedron, respectively.

  11. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan; Lill, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices

  12. Distance Protection for Microgrids in Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Chengxi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    protection decreased. This paper adopts distance protection for one mid-voltage level microgrid in Aalborg, Denmark. Different operation modes of the network are analyzed and tested in the paper. The simulation results show that the variations of the fault currents seen by the forward relays are much larger...... than the backward relays. Meanwhile, the fault currents change little with the randomness of renewable energy except the intermittence. Finally, it shows that the designed distance protection has satisfactory performance to clear the various faults.......Owing to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, there are some challenges for the conventional protection in distribution system. Bidirectional power flow and variable fault current because of the various operation modes may lead to the selectivity and sensitivity of the overcurrent...

  13. Group Organized Project Work in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2001-01-01

    Project organized problem based learning is a successful concept for on-campus education at Aalborg University. Recently this "Aalborg concept" has been used in networked distance education as well. This paper describes the experiences from two years of Internet-mediated project work in a new...... Master of Information Technology education. The main conclusions are, that the project work is a strong learning motivator, enhancing peer collaboration, for off-campus students as well. However, the concept cannot be directly transferred to off-campus learning. The main reasons are that the students...... must communicate electronically, and that they are under a fierce time strain, studying part time and typically with a full time job and a family. In this paper, the main problems experienced with group organized project work in distance education are described, and some possible solutions are listed...

  14. Project Work in Networked Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Helbo, Jan; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2000-01-01

    devoted to courses and the other half to project work. A computer conference system, LuvitÒ provides facilities for the courses, as well as structured synchronous and asynchronous communication. Eight times per year two-day seminars are held at the university for intensive lectures, project work......Problem oriented project work has been the foundation for the educational system at Aalborg University since its start 25 years ago. The duration of each student project is one semester, and the students spend half of their time working on the project in groups of typically 5-6 persons....... As the experience since then has proven this to be a very successful innovation in higher education [1], it seems to be an obvious idea also to base our new distance educations on the project study form. Traditionally, however, distance education has been characterized by one-way communication and self...

  15. Transactional distance in a blended learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dron

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study that describes and discusses the problems encountered during the design and implementation of a blended learning course, largely taught online through a web-based learning environment. Based on Moore's theory of transactional distance, the course was explicitly designed to have dialogue at its heart. However, the reality of systemic behaviours caused by delivering such a course within a group of conventional further and higher educational institutions has led to an entirely unanticipated reversion to structure, with unpleasant consequences for both quality and quantity of dialogue. The paper looks at some of the reasons for this drift, and suggests that some of the disappointing results (in particular in terms of the quality of the students' experience and associated poor retention can be attributed to the lack of dialogue, and consequent increase in transactional distance. It concludes with a description and evaluation of steps currently being taken to correct this behaviour.

  16. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream......Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...... perceptions. This paper theorizes about ways in which the Internet can change the act of producing knowledge through the characteristics of speed and reach, allowing minorities to access a widespread audience much more easily than before the Internet. Access to a widespread audience, in turn, offers...

  17. Towards an intelligent environment for distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Morales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream distance learning nowadays is heavily influenced by traditional educational approaches that produceshomogenised learning scenarios for all learners through learning management systems. Any differentiation betweenlearners and personalisation of their learning scenarios is left to the teacher, who gets minimum support from the system inthis respect. This way, the truly digital native, the computer, is left out of the move, unable to better support the teachinglearning processes because it is not provided with the means to transform into knowledge all the information that it storesand manages. I believe learning management systems should care for supporting adaptation and personalisation of bothindividual learning and the formation of communities of learning. Open learner modelling and intelligent collaborativelearning environments are proposed as a means to care. The proposal is complemented with a general architecture for anintelligent environment for distance learning and an educational model based on the principles of self-management,creativity, significance and participation.

  18. Intimacy, Distance Relationships and Emotional Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Holmes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The social changes surrounding individualisation and globalization impact upon our emotional and intimate lives. Geographical mobility is especially significant and its effects on relationships much debated. Distance relationships are one example of how people respond to such changes. This paper is based on an ESRC funded qualitative study of couples in distance relationships. The argument is that such forms of loving are not all about self-satisfaction, although they may prompt reflexivity about how to connect and how to care. They illustrate that embodiment must still be attended to, but may also help in rethinking care as about mutual interdependence. Practical caring is difficult within contexts of individualisation and of increased (often global mobility, but more abstract forms of mutual emotional support take on importance.

  19. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...... expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...

  20. The distance from CERN to LNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M; Crespi, M; Colosimo, G; Mazzoni, A; Durand, S

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the distance from CERN to Gran Sasso involves the combination of three independent sets of measurements: the calculation of the distance between pillars included in the geodetic reference network at CERN and the Lab Nationale Gran Sasso (LNGS); and the transfer on each site of coordinates, from the geodetic surface network, underground into the tunnel or experiment hall installations. The transfer of coordinates, from the surface, underground at the two sites was not done as part of the CNGS Project. Initial survey concerns for the project were directed towards the orientation of the beamline from CERN to LNGS to within ~100 m. Gyro-theodolite measurements underground were planned at CERN so a transfer would effectively only translate the target point. Given the precision estimated for previous transfers, it was decided not to undertake expensive and time-consuming measurements campaigns for a negligible gain in accuracy. Therefore only GPS measurements at the two sites were carried out. Th...

  1. The Hamming distance in the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-08-01

    We investigate different versions of the minority game, a toy model for agents buying and selling a commodity. The Hamming distance between the strategies used by agents to make decisions is introduced as an analytical tool to determine several properties of these models. The success rate of the agents in an adaptive version of the game is compared with the rate from a stochastic version. It is shown numerically and analytically that the adaptive process is inefficient, increasing the success rate of the unused strategies while decreasing the success rate of the strategies used by the agents. The agents do not do as well as if they were forced to use only one strategy permanently. A version of the game in which the agents strategies evolve is also analysed using the notion of distance. The agents evolve into a state in which they are all using one strategy, which is again the state that yields the maximum success rate.

  2. Assessment of Andragogical Attributes of Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Rugayah Gy; Ahmad, Hashim; Ahmad, Nor'aini

    The purpose of this research was to assess the andragogical attribute of adult students engaged in distance learning, specifically, with regards to the main construct, cognitive engagement versus academic achievement. Five hundred students were sampled and the response rate was 33.8%. From the analyses, the overall mean score for cognitive engagement is 3.75 from a scale of one to seven. The results indicated that knowledge gained through the e-distance learning is low and this evidence correlates to the average academic performance or CGPA of the respondents, which is between 2.50-2.99. The findings indicated a low level of integration and motivation in learning and consequently it is suggested that training programs and additional course revisions be integrated into the curriculum to ensure the chances of student success and reduce attrition rate.

  3. Study of speed endurance middle distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Golovaschenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To investigate the boost performance speed endurance runners who specialize in middle-distance running . Material and methods : The study involved team members Vinnytsia region in an amount of 44 people, whose average age was 20,2 ± 2,1 years. Classes are held during the 21-day mesocycle, 5 times a week, twice a day. Things were aimed at enhancing the development of indicators of special speed endurance. Results : The dynamics of the running speed of the model segments that characterize speed endurance athletes. Proved that the improved running 400 meter intervals helps reduce travel time competitive distance of 1500 meters. Conclusion : The use of the program contributes to higher speed endurance, which determines the result in the women's 1,500 meters.

  4. Evaluation of Distance Measures Between Gaussian Mixture Models of MFCCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2007-01-01

    In music similarity and in the related task of genre classification, a distance measure between Gaussian mixture models is frequently needed. We present a comparison of the Kullback-Leibler distance, the earth movers distance and the normalized L2 distance for this application. Although...

  5. Positioning for Effectiveness: Applying Marketing Concepts to Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenburg, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how colleges can use distance education to attract and retain a "critical mass" of learners for distance programs. Explores alternative ways to view distance education market opportunities and determine which avenues to pursue. Suggests how to be more effective in all aspects of distance education programs. (13 citations) (YKH)

  6. Space-efficient path-reporting approximate distance oracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkin, Michael; Neiman, Ofer; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We consider approximate path-reporting distance oracles, distance labeling and labeled routing with extremely low space requirements, for general undirected graphs. For distance oracles, we show how to break the nlog⁡n space bound of Thorup and Zwick if approximate paths rather than distances need...

  7. On Normalized Compression Distance and Large Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Borbely, Rebecca Schuller

    2015-01-01

    Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) is a popular tool that uses compression algorithms to cluster and classify data in a wide range of applications. Existing discussions of NCD's theoretical merit rely on certain theoretical properties of compression algorithms. However, we demonstrate that many popular compression algorithms don't seem to satisfy these theoretical properties. We explore the relationship between some of these properties and file size, demonstrating that this theoretical pro...

  8. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  9. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  10. Auditory Perception in Open Field: Distance Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    geocentric judgments, are based on the external frame of reference and are independent of the actual location of the observer. The location of one...viewing distance increases approaching an asymptotic ceiling (Gogel, 1993; Loomis and Philbeck, 1999). Sedgwick (1986) conducted an extensive...hypothesized that in the case of a sound source spherically radiating sound and approaching the stationary listener with a constant velocity in an open

  11. Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Distance Gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James D.; Reasenberg, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require a spaceworthy laser distance gauge of substantially improved performance. The Tracking Frequency Gauge (TFG) uses a single beam, locking a laser to the measurement interferometer. We have demonstrated this technique with pm (10(exp -12) m) performance. We report on the version we are now developing based on space-qualifiable, fiber-coupled distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers.

  12. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  13. Cyclic labellings with constraints at two distances

    OpenAIRE

    Leese, R; Noble, S D

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by problems in radio channel assignment, we consider the vertex-labelling of graphs with non-negative integers. The objective is to minimise the span of the labelling, subject to constraints imposed at graph distances one and two. We show that the minimum span is (up to rounding) a piecewise linear function of the constraints, and give a complete specification, together with associated optimal assignments, for trees and cycles.

  14. Distances on Cosmological Scales with VLTI

    OpenAIRE

    Karovska, Margarita; Elvis, Martin; Marengo, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    We present here a new method using interferometric measurements of quasars, that allows the determination of direct geometrical distances on cosmic scales. Quasar Broad Emission Line Regions sizes provide a "meter rule" with which to measure the metric of the Universe. This method is less dependent of model assumptions, and even of variations in the fundamental constants (other than c). We discuss the spectral and spatial requirements on the VLTI observations needed to carry out these measure...

  15. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hafied Cangara

    2016-01-01

    Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and International cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also...

  16. Diagnostic radiography: A study in distancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.; Decker, Sola

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article aims to explore the ways in which diagnostic radiographers use distancing as a tool for emotional management in radiography practice. Methods: This review utilises data from oral history interviews undertaken as part of a larger study documenting the oral history of the diagnostic radiography profession in the United Kingdom as recounted by 24 participants. Results: The results are presented as illustrative of various aspects of the role of the diagnostic radiographer including the initial choice of diagnostic radiography as a profession, the endemic use of particular terminology, the nature of the encounter in diagnostic radiography (including that of sectional imaging) and whether the role is really patient-centred. Conclusions: The article concludes by suggesting that distancing from the patient is mediated by the need for physical touch in order to position the patient for radiography and also makes the suggestion that those opting for diagnostic radiography as a career may do so because they want a profession which is more distanced from the patient and that, even where this is not the case initially, individuals are socialised into adopting the ‘feeling rules’ of the profession. The article concludes by outlining potential areas for further research.

  17. Measures of lexical distance between languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    The idea of measuring distance between languages seems to have its roots in the work of the French explorer Dumont D’Urville (1832) [13]. He collected comparative word lists for various languages during his voyages aboard the Astrolabe from 1826 to 1829 and, in his work concerning the geographical division of the Pacific, he proposed a method for measuring the degree of relation among languages. The method used by modern glottochronology, developed by Morris Swadesh in the 1950s, measures distances from the percentage of shared cognates, which are words with a common historical origin. Recently, we proposed a new automated method which uses the normalized Levenshtein distances among words with the same meaning and averages on the words contained in a list. Recently another group of scholars, Bakker et al. (2009) [8] and Holman et al. (2008) [9], proposed a refined version of our definition including a second normalization. In this paper we compare the information content of our definition with the refined version in order to decide which of the two can be applied with greater success to resolve relationships among languages.

  18. Multivariate Welch t-test on distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseyenko, Alexander V

    2016-12-01

    Permutational non-Euclidean analysis of variance, PERMANOVA, is routinely used in exploratory analysis of multivariate datasets to draw conclusions about the significance of patterns visualized through dimension reduction. This method recognizes that pairwise distance matrix between observations is sufficient to compute within and between group sums of squares necessary to form the (pseudo) F statistic. Moreover, not only Euclidean, but arbitrary distances can be used. This method, however, suffers from loss of power and type I error inflation in the presence of heteroscedasticity and sample size imbalances. We develop a solution in the form of a distance-based Welch t-test, [Formula: see text], for two sample potentially unbalanced and heteroscedastic data. We demonstrate empirically the desirable type I error and power characteristics of the new test. We compare the performance of PERMANOVA and [Formula: see text] in reanalysis of two existing microbiome datasets, where the methodology has originated. The source code for methods and analysis of this article is available at https://github.com/alekseyenko/Tw2 Further guidance on application of these methods can be obtained from the author. alekseye@musc.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy.

  20. Distance weighting for improved tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.; Holden, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method for the reconstruction of emission computed axial tomography images has been developed. The method is a modification of filtered back-projection, where the back projected values are weighted to reflect the loss of formation, with distance from the camera, which is inherent in gamma camera imaging. This information loss is a result of: loss of spatial resolution with distance, attenuation, and scatter. The weighting scheme can best be described by considering the contributions of any two opposing views to the reconstruction image pixels. The weight applied to the projections of one view is set to equal the relative amount of the original activity that was initially received in that projection, assuming a uniform attenuating medium. This yields a weighting value which is a function of distance into the image with a value of one for pixels ''near the camera'', a value of .5 at the image center, and a value of zero on the opposite side. Tomographic reconstructions produced with this method show improved spatial resolution when compared to conventional 360 0 reconstructions. The improvement is in the tangential direction, where simulations have indicated a FWHM improvement of 1 to 1.5 millimeters. The resolution in the radial direction is essentially the same for both methods. Visual inspection of the reconstructed images show improved resolution and contrast