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Sample records for shorter disease-free interval

  1. Survival after Locoregional Recurrence or Second Primary Breast Cancer: Impact of the Disease-Free Interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Annemieke; Kwast, Annemiek B.G.; Sonke, Gabe S.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Siesling, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The association between the disease-free interval (DFI) and survival after a locoregional recurrence (LRR) or second primary (SP) breast cancer remains uncertain. The objective of this study is to clarify this association to obtain more information on expected prognosis. Women first diagnosed with

  2. Shorter dosing intervals of sublingual immunotherapy lead to more efficacious treatment in a mouse model of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, C; Brimnes, J; Lund, K

    2010-06-01

    Current day practice of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) includes varying modalities of treatment that differ with regard to formulation, dosing and administration regimens. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of the dosing intervals in SLIT. The immunological effect of increased SLIT dosing frequency was tested in a mouse model of allergic inflammation. Mice sensitized to Phleum pratense (Phl p) were SLIT-treated with the same weekly cumulative dose administered with different administration frequencies. A SLIT sham-treated group was also included. All mice were challenged intra-nasally with Phl p extract following SLIT. Local and systemic cytokine production, eosinophil infiltration into airways and the development of Phl p-specific antibody responses were determined. Higher frequency of sublingual administration of allergen extract has a profound positive impact on the effect of SLIT, measured as induction of IgG and IgA antibodies. The once daily SLIT was the only treatment regimen being able to reduce all systemic Th2 cytokines and systemic IgE antibody responses when compared to sham-treated mice after the intra-nasal challenge period. The group receiving SLIT with the highest frequency of administration had the most pronounced effect of the treatment. In the same group, there was also a higher degree of protection against increase in IgE antibody levels after intra-nasal challenge with the allergen, our data demonstrate that a once daily regimen is more efficacious than regimens where SLIT, with the same weekly cumulative allergen dose, is administered with longer intervals but higher doses.

  3. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  4. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  5. Preirradiation PSA predicts biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with postprostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Read, Paul W.; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Gillenwater, Jay Y.; Kelly, Maria D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and to determine prognostic factors for biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy without hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March, 1988 and December, 1993. Seven patients had undetectable PSA ( 2.7. Five-year actuarial biochemical disease-free survival values were 71, 48, and 0%, respectively, for the three groups. Biochemical disease-free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, clinical stage, Gleason's score, pathologic stage, surgical margins, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, total dose, or presence of clinically suspicious local disease. Based on digital rectal exam, there were no local failures. Conclusion: Biochemical disease-free survival after postprostatectomy radiation is predicted by the PSA at the time of irradiation. Clinical local control is excellent, but distant failure remains a significant problem in this population. The addition of concomitant systemic therapy should be investigated in patients with PSA >2.7

  6. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Martin D.; Manton, David J.; Lowry, Martin; Turnbull, Lindsay W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  7. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.pickles@hull.ac.uk; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.j.manton@hull.ac.uk; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.lowry@hull.ac.uk; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.w.turnbull@hull.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  8. Surgical removal versus retention for the management of asymptomatic disease-free impacted wisdom teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaeminia, Hossein; Perry, John; Nienhuijs, Marloes E L; Toedtling, Verena; Tummers, Marcia; Hoppenreijs, Theo J M; Van der Sanden, Wil J M; Mettes, Theodorus G

    2016-08-31

    Prophylactic removal of asymptomatic disease-free impacted wisdom teeth is surgical removal of wisdom teeth in the absence of symptoms and with no evidence of local disease. Impacted wisdom teeth may be associated with pathological changes, such as pericoronitis, root resorption, gum and alveolar bone disease (periodontitis), caries and the development of cysts and tumours. When surgical removal is carried out in older people, the risk of postoperative complications, pain and discomfort is increased. Other reasons to justify prophylactic removal of asymptomatic disease-free impacted third molars have included preventing late lower incisor crowding, preventing damage to adjacent structures such as the second molar or the inferior alveolar nerve, in preparation for orthognathic surgery, in preparation for radiotherapy or during procedures to treat people with trauma to the affected area. Removal of asymptomatic disease-free wisdom teeth is a common procedure, and researchers must determine whether evidence supports this practice. This review is an update of an existing review published in 2012. To evaluate the effects of removal compared with retention (conservative management) of asymptomatic disease-free impacted wisdom teeth in adolescents and adults. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 24 May 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 24 May 2016) and Embase Ovid (1980 to 24 May 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing and unpublished studies to 24 May 2016. We imposed no restrictions on language or date of publication in our search of electronic databases. Studies comparing removal (or absence) with retention (or presence) of asymptomatic disease-free impacted wisdom teeth in adolescents or adults. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with no

  9. [Disease-free survival related factors in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Arias, Cristina; Ocón, Olga; Fernández, Mariana F; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sánchez, María José; Aneiros, José; Torné, Pablo; Olea, Nicolás

    2014-10-07

    To evaluate the relationship between the clinical and pathological parameters of the primary tumor and disease-free survival (DFS) in a sample of hospital cases of invasive breast cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 635 patients recruited at San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) between 1994 and 2006. Information on the primary tumor and the outcomes of patients was collected by reviewing the medical records. Predictors of recurrence and/or metastasis and DFS (follow up of 3, 5 and 10 years) were analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. Multivariate models adjusted for age, tumor size, lymph nodal status, histological grade and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression showed a higher risk of recurrence and/or metastasis and lower DFS (adjusted relative risk, 95% confidence intervals) with tumor size (3 yrs: 3.00, 1.79-5.03; 5 yrs: 2.56, 1.65-3.98; 10 yrs: 2.16, 1.44-3.24), lymph nodal status (3 yrs: 4.58, 2.42-8.65; 5 yrs: 3.84, 2.35-6.30; 10 yrs: 3.08, 2.05-4.61), lymphovascular invasion (5 yrs: 1.88, 1.16-3.04; 10 yrs: 2.19, 1.43-3.35), multifocal and/or multicenter tumors (3 yrs: 2.69, 1.46-4.96; 5 yrs: 1.90, 1.08-3.35) and p53 protein expression (3 yrs: 2.03, 1.00-4.09). DFS was positively associated with an increased expression of progesterone receptor (3 yr: 0.48, 0.26-0.89; 5 yrs: 0.58, 0.35-0.97; 10 yrs: 0.59, 0.38-0.90). The biological characteristics of the primary tumor can be used to identify patients with distinctive prognoses and DFS, and could be helpful in making individual follow up strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Bunching for Shorter Damping Rings for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David V

    2005-01-01

    A variant rearrangement of the bunch trains for the ILC that enables much shorter damping rings is presented. In a particular example the ~2280 bunches are regrouped into ~450 subtrains of five adjacent bunches. These subtrains are extracted from the damping rings at ~2.2 ms intervals, obtaining the 1ms macrobunch length of the baseline TESLA collider scenario. If the baseline damping rf frequency is 325 MHz and the kicker rise and fall times are ~20 ns, a ring circumference of ~4.5km is required. Variations of the scheme could easily reduce the circumference to ~3km, and faster kickers could reduce it even further.

  11. In vitro regeneration of disease free enset [ Ensete ventricosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro regeneration of disease free enset [ Ensete ventricosum (Welw) Cheesman] planting materials from bacterial wilt diseased plants using shoot tip culture. ... In the efficiency of shoot tip culture for Xanthomonas pathogen elimination, sample suspension was prepared from shoots regenerated from diseased suckers ...

  12. Seminoma metastasis to the terminal ileum after a 17-year disease-free interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M; Nickoloff, B; Weinberg, D

    1983-11-15

    This is a report of a metastasis of a pure seminoma to the ileum after a 17-year latent period. The patient had a previous history of stage I testicular seminoma treated with primary orchiectomy and radiotherapy. He presented clinically with ileocolic intussuseption caused by a solitary metastasis in the terminal ileum. The rarity of this event is discussed.

  13. Overall survival and disease-free survival in endometrial cancer: prognostic factors in 276 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejerizo-García A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Álvaro Tejerizo-García,1 Jesús S Jiménez-López,1 José L Muñoz-González,1 Sara Bartolomé-Sotillos,1 Laura Marqueta-Marqués,1 Gregorio López-González,1 José F Pérez-Regadera Gómez21Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, SpainObjective: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with endometrial cancer and to determine independent factors affecting the prognosis.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of a single-center clinical series of 276 patients (mean age 64 years with histologically confirmed cancer of the corpus uteri. The standard treatments were extrafascial total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with selective pelvic/para-aortic node dissection, according to risk for recurrence. Actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were estimated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to assess the prognostic significance of the different variables.Results: The estimated median follow-up, determined using the inverse Kaplan–Meier method, was 45 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.2–48.8 for disease-free survival and 46 months (95% CI 43.0–49.0 for overall survival. The statistically significant variables affecting disease-free survival and overall survival were age, serous-papillary and clear-cell histological types, outer-half myometrial invasion, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage, tumor grades G2 and G3, incomplete surgical resection, positive lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, tumor remnants of >1 cm after surgery, and high-risk group. In the multivariate Cox regression model, predictors of tumor recurrence included advanced FIGO stage (hazard ratio [HR] 4.90, 95% CI 2.57–9.36, P < 0.001 and tumor grades G2 (HR 4.79, 95

  14. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Interval training can help you get the most out of your workout. By Mayo Clinic Staff Are you ready to shake up ... more time at the gym? Consider aerobic interval training. Once the domain of elite athletes, interval training ...

  15. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising periods in emergencies. In emergency situations where prompt...

  16. Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  17. Preoperative Tracheostomy Is Associated with Poor Disease-Free Survival in Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Rosko, Andrew J; Beesley, Lauren; Bellile, Emily; Chinn, Steven B; Shuman, Andrew G; Prince, Mark E; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Brenner, J Chad; Spector, Matthew E

    2017-09-01

    Objectives It is unknown if preoperative tracheostomy for persistent/recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) plays a role in unrecognized local disease spread and disease recurrence after salvage laryngectomy. The goals of this study were to determine the effect of preoperative tracheostomy on disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with recurrent/persistent LSCC undergoing salvage laryngectomy. Study Design Retrospective case series derived from prospectively maintained database. Setting Tertiary care academic center. Subjects Patients with recurrent/persistent LSCC after radiation/chemoradiation (RT/CRT) who underwent salvage laryngectomy at the University of Michigan from 1997 to 2015. Methods Demographic, clinical, pathologic, and survival data were collected. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were performed. Results DFS was worse for patients with tracheostomy prior to laryngectomy than patients without a tracheostomy (5 year: 39% vs 67%; P tracheostomy prior to RT/CRT compared to patients with tracheostomy after RT/CRT or patients without a tracheostomy had worse DFS (5-year: 25%, 49%, and 67%, respectively; P tracheostomy was associated with worse DFS. In multivariable analysis, presence of a preoperative tracheostomy had a worse DFS (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.67; P = .048). Conclusion Preoperative tracheostomy is associated with disease recurrence in patients with persistent/recurrent LSCC undergoing salvage laryngectomy, particularly in patients who had tracheostomy prior to completion of initial RT/CRT. Notably, preoperative tracheostomy as a causal factor vs marker for disease recurrence is difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with preoperative tracheostomy when counseling on surgical salvage and when considering the role of additional therapy.

  18. Forgetting Curve: Experiments on Intervals and Total Time in Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Zhan; Jeffrey Hanks

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript is a continuation of our previous work ([1], [2]). In [1], we mainly tested the spacing effect and whether intervals affect the recall ratio in recalling English words. From the forgetting curve, learning data like English words and their definitions, it has been assumed that initial intervals should be shorter than later ones. But our experiments showed that the ratio of remembered words is not related to the patterns of intervals, (1) initial intervals shorter than later one...

  19. interval functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Chatfield

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose N is a Banach space of norm |•| and R is the set of real numbers. All integrals used are of the subdivision-refinement type. The main theorem [Theorem 3] gives a representation of TH where H is a function from R×R to N such that H(p+,p+, H(p,p+, H(p−,p−, and H(p−,p each exist for each p and T is a bounded linear operator on the space of all such functions H. In particular we show that TH=(I∫abfHdα+∑i=1∞[H(xi−1,xi−1+−H(xi−1+,xi−1+]β(xi−1+∑i=1∞[H(xi−,xi−H(xi−,xi−]Θ(xi−1,xiwhere each of α, β, and Θ depend only on T, α is of bounded variation, β and Θ are 0 except at a countable number of points, fH is a function from R to N depending on H and {xi}i=1∞ denotes the points P in [a,b]. for which [H(p,p+−H(p+,p+]≠0 or [H(p−,p−H(p−,p−]≠0. We also define an interior interval function integral and give a relationship between it and the standard interval function integral.

  20. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  1. 9 CFR 92.4 - Reestablishment of a region's disease-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reestablishment of a region's disease... Reestablishment of a region's disease-free status. This section applies to regions that are designated in this... is necessary to continue the interim prohibitions or restrictions. In reassessing a region's disease...

  2. Surgical removal versus retention for the management of asymptomatic disease-free impacted wisdom teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaeminia, H.; Perry, J.; Nienhuijs, M.E.L.; Toedtling, V.; Tummers, M.J.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Mettes, T.G.P.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic removal of asymptomatic disease-free impacted wisdom teeth is surgical removal of wisdom teeth in the absence of symptoms and with no evidence of local disease. Impacted wisdom teeth may be associated with pathological changes, such as pericoronitis, root resorption, gum and

  3. Shorter length of stay in the stroke unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tistad, Malin; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Sjöstrand, Christina

    2012-01-01

    was seen at 6 or 12 months post stroke. CONCLUSION: It seems possible to reduce the number of days spent in the stroke unit after mild to moderate stroke and instead spend days in a rehabilitation unit, and yet achieve similar patient satisfaction and faster recovery in ADL....... the first year post stroke in 2 groups of patients with mild to moderate stroke who received care in the same stroke unit. METHOD: The patients (1993/96, n=40; 2006/07, n=43) in this study received care in the stroke unit at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden. Data on LOS and on the use...... unit was shorter in the 2006-2007 group (median 8 days) compared to the 1993-1996 group (13 days) (P post stroke in the 2006-2007 group, but no difference...

  4. Prenatal Anogenital Distance Is Shorter in Fetuses With Hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yinon; Perlman, Sharon; Kivilevitch, Zvi; Messing, Baruch; Achiron, Reuven

    2017-01-01

    Recent research provides evidence that anogenital distance may serve as a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men. In children, a shorter anogenital distance was linked with cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and micropenis. Scarce data exist in the literature regarding anogenital distance measurement in the fetus. The aim of our study was to assess whether intrauterine measurement of fetal anogenital distance could assist in the differential diagnosis of male genital anomalies. Anogenital distance was prospectively measured in all cases referred for suspected isolated abnormal male genitalia. Final diagnoses, confirmed by a pediatric urologist, were compared with anogenital distance prenatal measurements. Fifty-two cases were referred for evaluation because of suspected male external genital malformation during a 12-month period. Cases with normal-appearing genitalia, associated major malformations, and early severe fetal growth restriction were excluded from the study. Postnatal examination revealed 14 cases of hypospadias in varying severity and 8 cases of a buried penis. All fetuses with hypospadias had an anogenital distance measurement below the fifth percentile. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the normal mean anogenital distance for gestational age versus those with hypospadias (mean ± SD, 16.90 ± 4.08 and 11.68 ± 3.31 mm, respectively; P = .001). No significant difference was found between the normal mean anogenital distance for gestational age versus those with a buried penis (18.85 ± 2.76 and 19.46 ± 3.41 mm; P = .700). Fetuses with hypospadias have a statistically significant shorter anogenital distance compared with the general population. Therefore, anogenital distance may serve as a complementary objective sonographic parameter in the prenatal assessment and counseling of male external genital anomalies. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Outage dose reduction achievements during shorter refueling outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.O.; Taylor, S. [Limerick Generating Station, Sanatoga, PA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Achievement of dose reduction goals has been demonstrated at the Limerick Generating Station during the past three refueling outages in 1995-96. Shorter refueling outages were accomplished by carefully selecting outage work and thoroughly planning the work. Limerick Unit 1 completed its outage in 35 d; Unit 2 in 23 d in 1995; Unit 1 completed its outage in 24 d in 1996. The four previous outages at Unit I had taken from 100 to 127 days. European plants were visited by plant supervisors to develop improved management approaches to optimizing outage performance from work planning to work implement. Cofrentes in Spain and KKL Leibstadt in Switzerland were visited in 1994 because of their similar design and outage durations consistently below 35 d. This paper describes the radiation protection practices observed at European plants and implemented at Limerick to achieve efficiency of work practices and adequacy of radiological controls. Specific radiation protection initiatives discussed include electronic dosimetry system, break areas, wash sinks, scrub suits, zone mapping and self-monitoring. Outage achievements in 1995 and 1996 has assured Limerick continued BWR industry leadership as the lowest annual person-rem BWRs in the U.S..

  6. Physical activity during video capsule endoscopy correlates with shorter bowel transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Peter P; Peck, Joshua; Murphy, Christopher; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2017-09-01

     Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is limited by reliance on bowel motility for propulsion, and lack of physical activity has been proposed as a cause of incomplete studies. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between physical activity and VCE bowel transit.  Ambulatory outpatients receiving VCE were eligible for the study. A pedometer was attached at the time of VCE ingestion and step count was recorded at the end of the procedure. VCE completion was assessed by logistic regression models, which included step count (500 steps as one unit). Total transit time was analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. The hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) indicated the "hazard" of completion, such that HRs > 1 indicated a reduced transit time.  A total of 100 patients were included. VCE was completed in 93 patients (93 %). The median step count was 2782 steps. Step count was not significantly associated with VCE completion (odds ratio 1.45, 95 %CI 0.84, 2.49). Pedometer step count was significantly associated with shorter total, gastric, and small-bowel transit times (HR 1.09, 95 %CI 1.03, 1.16; HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.00, 1.11; HR 1.07, 95 %CI 1.01, 1.14, respectively). Higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with VCE completion (HR 1.87, 95 %CI 1.18, 2.97) and shorter bowel transit times (HR 1.05, 95 %CI 1.02, 1.08).  Increased physical activity during outpatient VCE was associated with shorter bowel transit times but not with study completion. In addition, BMI was a previously unreported clinical characteristic associated with VCE completion and should be included as a variable of interest in future studies.

  7. Preeclampsia mediates the association between shorter height and increased risk of preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Ogawa, Kohei; Urayama, Kevin Y; Sago, Haruhiko; Sato, Shoji; Saito, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Maternal short stature has been observed to increase the risk of preterm birth; however, the aetiology behind this phenomenon is unknown. We investigated whether preeclampsia, an obstetric complication that often leads to preterm delivery and is reported to have an inverse association with women's height, mediates this association. We studied 218 412 women with no underlying diseases before pregnancy, who delivered singletons from 2005 to 2011 and were included in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology perinatal database, which is a national multi-centre-based delivery database among tertiary hospitals. We assessed the risk of preterm delivery in relation to height using multivariate analysis, and how the association was mediated by risk of preeclampsia using mediation analysis. Each 5-cm decrement in height was associated with significantly higher risk of preterm delivery [relative risk 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.27] and shorter gestational age (-0.30; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.16 weeks). Mediation analysis showed that the effect of shorter height on increased risk of preterm delivery, due to an indirect effect mediated through increased risk of preeclampsia, was substantial for shorter gestational age (48%), as well as risk of preterm delivery (28%). When examining the three subtypes of preterm delivery separately, mediated effect was largest for provider-initiated preterm delivery without premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (34%), compared with spontaneous preterm delivery without PROM (17%) or preterm delivery with PROM (0%). Preeclampsia partially mediates the association between maternal short stature and preterm delivery.

  8. Long term disease free survival with multimodal therapy in small cell bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Tulchiner, Gennadi; Schäfer, Georg; Horninger, Wolfgang; Pichler, Renate

    2016-10-13

    Small cell bladder cancer (SCBC) is an aggressive subtype accounting for less than 1 % of all bladder malignancies associated with rapid progression, early metastases formation and high mortality rates. We present an unusual long term disease free survival of a 60 year-old man who was diagnosed with SCBC two and a half years ago. He underwent four cycles of cisplatin/etoposide chemotherapy as well as a prophylactic whole-brain radiotherapy followed by a radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal neobladder with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Since 33 months the patient is now recurrence-free. In this case report, we were able to show that early multimodal therapy results in long term disease free survival, thus we highly recommend neoadjuvant chemotherapy as a part of multimodal management of a primary metastases-free, localized and surgically resectable SCBC.

  9. Similar long-term overall and disease-free survival after conventional and extralevator abdominoperineal excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    based on data from a nationwide colorectal cancer database. Patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer in the period January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2012 were examined. Factors of importance for disease-free and overall survival were identified by multivariate Cox regressions. RESULTS: Five hundred......PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to assess, compare, and identify factors of importance for long-term overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival after conventional (cAPE) and extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) on a nationwide basis. METHODS: This was a database study......, respectively, (log-rank p = 0.59)). In Cox regression, the type of procedure did not affect DFS or OS. Factors of importance for DFS included increasing age, ypN-positive disease and neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Factors of importance for OS included increasing age, circumferential resection margin (CRM...

  10. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  12. Prognostic value DCE-MRI parameters in predicting factor disease free survival and overall survival for breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncbilek, Nermin; Tokatli, Fusun; Altaner, Semsi; Sezer, Atakan; Türe, Mevlüt; Omurlu, Imran Kurt; Temizoz, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to assess the predictive power of DCE-MRI semi-quantitative parameters during treatment of breast cancer, for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Materials and methods: Forty-nine women (age range, 28–84 years; mean, 50.6 years) with breast cancer underwent dynamic contrast enhancement MRI at 1.0 T imaging, using 2D FLASH sequences. Time intensity curves (TICs) were obtained from the regions showing maximal enhancement in subtraction images. Semi-quantitative parameters (TICs; maximal relative enhancement within the first minute, E (max/1); maximal relative enhancement of the entire study, E max ; steepest slope of the contrast enhancement curve; and time to peak enhancement) derived from the DCE-MRI data. These parameters were then compared with presence of recurrence or metastasis, DFS and OS by using Cox regression (proportional hazards model) analysis, linear discriminant analysis. Results: The results from of the 49 patients enrolled into the survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumor size and nodal metastasis) and semi-quantitative parameters (E max/1 , and steepest slope) demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals (p max/1 : p = 0.013, hazard ratio 1.022; for stepest slope: p = 0.004, hazard ratio 1.584). Conclusion: This study shows that DCE-MRI has utility predicting survival analysis with breast cancer patients.

  13. Factors related with colorectal and stomach cancer screening practice among disease-free lung cancer survivors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Min; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Young Ae; Chang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Moon Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Zo, Jae Ill; Yun, Young Ho

    2017-08-30

    Lung cancer survivors are more likely to develop colorectal and stomach cancer than the general population. However, little is known about the current status of gastrointestinal cancer screening practices and related factors among lung cancer survivors. We enrolled 829 disease-free lung cancer survivors ≥40 years of age, who had been treated at two hospitals from 2001 to 2006. The patients completed a questionnaire that included stomach and colorectal cancer screening after lung cancer treatment, as well as other sociodemographic variables. Among lung cancer survivors, correlations with stomach and colorectal screening recommendations were 22.7 and 25.8%, respectively. Of these, 40.7% reported receiving physician advice to screen for second primary cancer (SPC). Those who were recommended for further screening for other cancers were more likely to receive stomach cancer screening [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-2.30] and colorectal cancer screening [aOR = 1.37, 95% CI, 0.99-1.90]. Less-educated lung cancer survivors were less likely to have stomach and colorectal cancer screenings. Lack of a physician's advice for SPC screening and lower educational status had negative impact on the gastrointestinal cancer screening rates of lung cancer survivors.

  14. The impact of bone marrow micrometastases on metastatic disease-free survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, O J

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: The biological relevance of bone marrow micrometastases (BMM) in colorectal cancer remains unknown. Here, we investigate their nature by examining the impact of the presence of BMM on metastatic disease-free survival in a cohort of patients with this disease. METHODS: Sixty-three consecutive patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer of any stage were studied after approval of the study protocol by the local ethics committee and with full individual informed consent. All had bilateral iliac crest bone marrow aspirates prior to operation. Aspirates were then examined for the presence of aberrant cytokeratin-18-positive cells by a blinded observer using both flow cytometric and APAAP immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: Mean follow-up after surgery was 4.6 years (range 1.9-6.9) for those without hepatic metastases at diagnosis. Seven of 34 patients with Dukes\\' stage A or B developed metastatic disease after a mean interval of 4.7 years (range 3.8-6.8). However, only 2 of these patients demonstrated BMM at the time of surgery. Nine of 15 patients with Dukes\\' C carcinoma at the time of surgery subsequently developed metastases after a mean interval of 4.4 years (range 1.9-6.9). Again, only two of these patients had BMM detectable initially. In only three of the 14 patients known to have metastases at the time of operation (i.e. Dukes\\'\\'D\\' disease) were BMM found. CONCLUSION: The presence of BMM as detected by this methodology was not predictive of tumour recurrence or metastasis. This study does not support the consideration of adjuvant therapy based on the presence of BMM at a single pre-operative time point in patients with colorectal cancer.

  15. Reference intervals data mining: no longer a probability paper method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Alexander; Fleming, James K; Luo, Dajie; Fisher, Arren H; Sharp, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    To describe the application of a data-mining statistical algorithm for calculation of clinical laboratory tests reference intervals. Reference intervals for eight different analytes and different age and sex groups (a total of 11 separate reference intervals) for tests that are unlikely to be ordered during routine screening of disease-free populations were calculated using the modified algorithm for data mining of test results stored in the laboratory database and compared with published peer-reviewed studies that used direct sampling. The selection of analytes was based on the predefined criteria that include comparability of analytical methods with a statistically significant number of observations. Of the 11 calculated reference intervals, having upper and lower limits for each, 21 of 22 reference interval limits were not statistically different from the reference studies. The presented statistical algorithm is shown to be an accurate and practical tool for reference interval calculations. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  16. Case of Six-Year Disease-Free Survival with Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Saito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas (UDC is rare and has a dismal prognosis. Here, we report a case of 6-year disease-free survival with a mixed type of UDC and UDC with osteoclast-like giant cells, with a high mitotic index as well as perineural, lymphatic, vessel, and diaphragmatic invasion. The patient underwent radical distal pancreatectomy and was subsequently treated with adjuvant chemotherapy using gemcitabine plus S-1 followed by maintenance chemotherapy with oral tegafur-uracil. The patient has been doing well with no evidence of recurrence for more than 6 years after surgery.

  17. Shorter-Course Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases in Elderly Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Evers, Jasmin N.; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Lohynska, Radka; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many patients with brain metastases receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. Using 10 × 3 Gy in 2 weeks is the standard regimen in most centers. Regarding the extraordinarily poor survival prognosis of elderly patients with multiple brain metastases, a shorter WBRT regimen would be preferable. This study compared 10 × 3 Gy with 5 × 4 Gy in elderly patients (≥65 years). Methods and Materials: Data from 455 elderly patients who received WBRT alone for brain metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Survival and local (= intracerebral) control of 293 patients receiving 10 × 3 Gy were compared with 162 patients receiving 5 × 4 Gy. Eight additional potential prognostic factors were investigated including age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), primary tumor, number of brain metastases, interval from tumor diagnosis to WBRT, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: The 6-month overall survival rates were 29% after 5 × 4 Gy and 21% after 10 × 3 Gy (p = 0.020). The 6-month local control rates were 12% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.32). On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with KPS ≥ 70 (p < 0.001), only one to three brain metastases (p = 0.029), no extracerebral metastasis (p = 0.012), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Improved local control was associated with KPS ≥ 70 (p < 0.001), breast cancer (p = 0.029), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Shorter-course WBRT with 5 × 4 Gy was not inferior to 10 × 3 Gy with respect to overall survival or local control in elderly patients. 5 × 4 Gy appears preferable for the majority of these patients.

  18. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich; Jansen, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of the principles of total mesorectal excision to colon cancer by undertaking complete mesocolic excision (CME) has been proposed to improve oncological outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether implementation of CME improved disease-free survival compared with conventional...... colon resection. METHODS: Data for all patients who underwent elective resection for Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage I-III colon adenocarcinomas in the Capital Region of Denmark between June 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2011, were retrieved for this population-based study. The CME group...... consisted of patients who underwent CME surgery in a centre validated to perform such surgery; the control group consisted of patients undergoing conventional colon resection in three other hospitals. Data were collected from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database and medical charts. Patients...

  19. A note on Nonparametric Confidence Interval for a Shift Parameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an application of a kernel based nonparametric approach in constructing a large sample nonparametric confidence interval for a shift parameter is considered. The method is illustrated using the Cauchy distribution as a location model. The kernel-based method is found to have a shorter interval for the shift ...

  20. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration

  1. Factors associated with depression in disease-free stomach cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Hee; Hwang, In Cheol; Kim, Sung; Bae, Jae-Moon; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae-Hyung; Sohn, Tae-Sung; Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Young Ho

    2013-10-01

    Depression in cancer survivors affects the rest of their lives in many ways. To estimate the prevalence of depression and identify associated factors in disease-free stomach cancer survivors. We enrolled 391 stomach cancer survivors who had been disease-free for at least one year after surgery from the cancer registries of two hospitals in Korea. Stomach cancer survivors were mailed a survey that included the Beck Depression Inventory, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30, and the associated stomach module, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach Cancer Module 22. Forty-four percent of survivors suffered from depression, and more women (49%) than men (42%) had high depression scores (Beck Depression Inventory >13). In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower income (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI 1.64-3.78), problems with care before treatment (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.23-2.98), body image change (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.41-3.53), and symptoms of fatigue (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.49-6.52), dyspnea (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.48-4.45), or insomnia (OR 4.51; 95% CI 1.88-10.83) were associated with depression. The prevalence of depression was high in stomach cancer survivors even after the completion of treatment, especially among those with problems amenable to treatment, and we identified the associated factors. We suggest that stomach cancer survivors should be screened for depression after the end of treatment. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, convex interval games are introduced and some characterizations are given. Some economic situations leading to convex interval games are discussed. The Weber set and the Shapley value are defined for a suitable class of interval games and their relations with the interval core for

  3. High levels of microRNA-21 in the stroma of colorectal cancers predict short disease-free survival in stage II colon cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jørgensen, Stine; Fog, Jacob Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all patients with stage II colorectal cancer will experience recurrent disease and subsequently die within 5 years. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in several cancer types and has been associated with survival in colon cancer. In the present study we developed a robust...... in situ hybridization assay using high-affinity Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) probes that specifically detect miR-21 in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. The expression of miR-21 was analyzed by in situ hybridization on 130 stage II colon and 67 stage II rectal cancer specimens. The mi...... relative to the nuclear density (TBR) obtained using a red nuclear stain. High TBR (and TB) estimates of miR-21 expression correlated significantly with shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.004, HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.55) in the stage II colon cancer patient group, whereas no significant correlation...

  4. Cooperative interval games

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we study cooperative interval games, a generalized model of cooperative games in which worth of every coalition corresponds with a closed interval representing all possible outcomes of their cooperation. We give a brief introduction into classical cooperative games, interval analysis and finally introduction to cooperative interval games with focus on selections, that is on all possible outcomes of interval game with no additional uncertainty. We introduce new selection-based ...

  5. COX-2 as a determinant of lower disease-free survival for patients affected by ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezuma, Marco Aurélio Petroni; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Benites, Bernar Monteiro; Soares, Ciro Dantas; do Amaral-Silva, Gleyson Kleber; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Pagano, Rosana Lima; Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues

    2018-03-15

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive neoplasm with a poorly understood pathogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether COX-2 expression is associated with ameloblastoma microvascular density (MVD) and with tumor aggressiveness. Sixty-three cases of primary ameloblastomas arranged in tissue microarray were submitted to immunohistochemistry against cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) and CD34. Clinicopathological parameters regarding sex, age, tumour size, tumour duration, tumour location, treatment, recurrences, radiographic features, vestibular/lingual and basal cortical disruption and follow-up data were obtained from patients' medical records and correlated with the proteins expression. The results on BRAF-V600E expression were obtained from our previous study and correlated with COX-2 and CD34 expressions. Log-rank univariate analysis and multivariate Cox regression model were done to investigate the prognostic potential of the molecular markers. Twenty-eight cases (44.4%) exhibited cytoplasmic positivity for COX-2, predominantly in the columnar peripheral cells, with a mean MVD of 2.2 vessels/mm 2 . COX-2 was significantly associated with recurrences (p COX-2 was significantly associated with a lower 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate (p COX-2 expression in ameloblastomas is not associated with MVD, but it is significantly associated with recurrences and with a lower DFS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive cone-beam CT planning improves long-term biochemical disease-free survival for 125I prostate brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.; Smit Duijzentkunst, D. A.; Westendorp, H.; van de Pol, S. M G; Kattevilder, R.; Schellekens, A.; van der Voort van Zyp, J. R N|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326982728; Moerland, M. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/153488174; van Vulpen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250581035; Hoekstra, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Determining the independent effect of additional intraoperative adaptive C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) planning vs. transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided interactive planning alone in 125I brachytherapy for prostate cancer (PCa) on biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS). Methods and materials:

  7. Decreased health-related quality of life in disease-free survivors of differentiated thyroid cancer in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kwang-Won

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of long-term survivors of thyroid cancer has risen due to the rapid increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, which generally has an excellent prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of HRQOL in disease-free survivors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC and to evaluate the important determinants of HRQOL. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which we interviewed consecutive disease-free survivors of DTC. Three different validated questionnaires ("EORTC QLQ-C30" for various functional domains, the "brief fatigue inventory (BFI" and the "hospital anxiety and depression scale" (HADS were used. Data from a large, population based survey of 1,000 people were used as a control. Results The response rate for the questionnaires was 78.9% (316/401. Disease-free survivors of DTC showed a decreased HRQOL in all five functional domains (physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social on the EORTC QLQ-C30 compared with controls (P P Conclusions Although disease-free survivors of DTC are expected to have disease-specific survival comparable to the general population, they experience a significantly decreased HRQOL. Anxiety, depression, and fatigue were the major determinants of the decreased HRQOL. Supportive psychological care should be integrated into the management of long-term survivors of DTC.

  8. Disease-free survival after hepatic resection in hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a prediction approach using artificial neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Ho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A database for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients who had received hepatic resection was used to develop prediction models for 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival based on a set of clinical parameters for this patient group. METHODS: The three prediction models included an artificial neural network (ANN model, a logistic regression (LR model, and a decision tree (DT model. Data for 427, 354 and 297 HCC patients with histories of 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival after hepatic resection, respectively, were extracted from the HCC patient database. From each of the three groups, 80% of the cases (342, 283 and 238 cases of 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival, respectively were selected to provide training data for the prediction models. The remaining 20% of cases in each group (85, 71 and 59 cases in the three respective groups were assigned to validation groups for performance comparisons of the three models. Area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC was used as the performance index for evaluating the three models. CONCLUSIONS: The ANN model outperformed the LR and DT models in terms of prediction accuracy. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using ANNs in medical decision support systems for predicting disease-free survival based on clinical databases in HCC patients who have received hepatic resection.

  9. The influence of timing of radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery on 10-year disease-free survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maaren, Marissa C.; Bretveld, Reini W.; Jobsen, Jan; Veenstra, Renske K.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gm; Struikmans, Hendrik; Maduro, John H.; Strobbe, Luc Ja; Poortmans, Philip Mp; Siesling, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Dutch guidelines advise to start radiation therapy (RT) within 5 weeks following breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However, much controversy exists regarding timing of RT. This study investigated its effect on 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) in a Dutch population-based cohort.

  10. The influence of timing of radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery on 10-year disease-free survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maaren, Marissa C.; Bretveld, Reini W; Jobsen, Jan J.; Veenstra, Renske K; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gm; Struikmans, Hendrik; Maduro, John H; Strobbe, Luc Ja; Poortmans, Philip Mp; Siesling, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Dutch guidelines advise to start radiation therapy (RT) within 5 weeks following breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However, much controversy exists regarding timing of RT. This study investigated its effect on 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) in a Dutch population-based cohort.

  11. Measurement of subcritical multiplication by the interval distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The prompt decay constant or the subcritical neutron multiplication may be determined by measuring the distribution of the time intervals between successive neutron counts. The distribution data is analyzed by least-squares fitting to a theoretical distribution function derived from a point reactor probability model. Published results of measurements with one- and two-detector systems are discussed. Data collection times are shorter, and statistical errors are smaller the nearer the system is to delayed critical. Several of the measurements indicate that a shorter data collection time and higher accuracy are possible with the interval distribution method than with the Feynman variance method

  12. Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a family of modal logics for reasoning about relational structures of intervals over (usually) linear orders, with modal operators associated with the various binary relations between such intervals, known as Allen’s interval relations. The formulae of these logics are evaluated...... at intervals rather than points and the main eect of that semantic feature is substantially higher expressiveness and computational complexity of the interval logics as compared to point-based ones. Without purporting to provide a comprehensive survey of the field, we take the reader to a journey through...... the main developments in it over the past 10 years and outline some landmark results on expressiveness and (un)decidability of the satisfiability problem for the family of interval logics....

  13. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  14. Tics and Shorter Stature: Should We Be Looking for an Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Kurlan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tic disorders have commonly occurring and well recognized comorbidities including obsessive‐compulsive disorder (OCD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Shorter stature is not generally appreciated as an associated feature.Methods: Case reports and a literature review.Results: We describe four recently encountered patients with tics and shorter stature. The literature suggests that in addition to OCD and ADHD, shorter stature may also commonly accompany tic disorders. A variety of neuroendocrine mechanisms have been proposed.Discussion: The potential associations between shorter stature and tic disorders and the common comorbidities OCD and ADHD deserve more attention. More research is needed to establish the strength of these associations and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  15. Estimating duration intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); B.L.K. Vroomen (Björn)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDuration intervals measure the dynamic impact of advertising on sales. More precise, the p per cent duration interval measures the time lag between the advertising impulse and the moment that p per cent of its effect has decayed. In this paper, we derive an expression for the duration

  16. LOH rather than genotypes of TP53 codon 72 is associated with disease-free survival in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Alsner, Jan; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the TP53 gene are a well-documented strong prognostic factor in breast cancer. A prognostic value of the Arg72Pro polymorphism of the TP53 gene is more contradictory. We assessed TP53 mutations and genotypes of the Arg72Pro polymorphism in a study including 204 Danish women. Patients......-free survival was found for patients with LOH and retention of the Pro allele as compared to patients with LOH and retention of the Arg allele and patients with no LOH (p = 0.05). In conclusion, we find a highly significant prognostic value of TP53 mutations but find a possible prognostic value of the Arg72Pro...... with mutations in the TP53 gene had a significant reduction in disease-free survival of breast cancer (p mutations nor with disease-free survival (p = 0.4). Among heterozygous patients a reduction in disease...

  17. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  18. The incidence and clinical associated factors of interval colorectal cancers in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-En Tsai

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of interval CRC in the present study is 3.28%. Comorbidity with ESRD and shorter ascending colon withdrawal time could be factors associated with interval CRC. Good colon preparation for the patients with ESRD and more ascending colon withdrawal time could reduce the interval CRC.

  19. Complete loss of PTEN protein expression correlates with shorter time to brain metastasis and survival in stage IIIB/C melanoma patients with BRAFV600 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheit, Amanda D; Chen, Guo; Siroy, Alan; Tetzlaff, Michael; Broaddus, Russell; Milton, Denai; Fox, Patricia; Bassett, Roland; Hwu, Patrick; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Lazar, Alexander J; Davies, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Loss of function of PTEN is a frequent event in melanoma, particularly in tumors with BRAF(V600) mutations. The prevalence, pathologic features, and clinical outcomes associated with PTEN loss in patients with stage IIIB/C melanoma were interrogated to improve our understanding of the clinical significance of this molecular event. Archival tissue from lymphadenectomy specimens among patients (n = 136) with stage IIIB or IIIC melanoma was assessed by DNA sequencing for activating BRAF and NRAS mutations, and by immunohistochemistry for the expression of PTEN protein. Associations of these molecular aberrations with demographics, tumor characteristics, and clinical outcomes were determined. The prevalence of BRAF(V600) mutations (40% overall), NRAS mutations (10%), and PTEN loss (25%) did not vary by pathologic substage. BRAF/NRAS mutation status did not correlate with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) or overall survival (OS). Complete loss of PTEN expression correlated with shorter OS but not DDFS. When stratified by specific sites of distant metastasis, PTEN loss was associated with significantly shorter time to melanoma brain metastasis (MBM), but not to liver, lung, or bone metastasis. Analysis of PTEN in mutationally defined subsets showed that PTEN loss was significantly associated with OS and time to MBM in patients with BRAF(V600) mutations. Loss of PTEN protein expression correlates significantly with decreased OS and time to MBM in stage IIIB/C melanoma patients with BRAF(V600) mutations. The findings add to evidence supporting a significant role for PTEN loss and the PI3K-AKT pathway in melanoma. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Long term disease-free survival and T cell and antibody responses in women with high-risk Her2+ breast cancer following vaccination against Her2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Carey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HER2-inhibiting antibody trastuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, significantly improves survival of women with resected, HER2-overexpressing breast cancers, but is associated with toxicities including a risk of cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the beneficial effect of trastuzumab is expected to decrease once the drug is discontinued. We proposed to address these concerns by using cancer vaccines to stimulate HER2 intracellular domain (ICD-specific T cell and antibody responses. Methods Subjects with stage II (≥ 6 +LN, III, or stage IV breast cancerwith > 50% HER2 overexpressing tumor cells who were disease-free after surgery and adjuvant therapy were eligible. Vaccines consisted of immature, cultured DC (n = 3, mature cultured DC (n = 3, or mature Flt3-ligand mobilized peripheral blood DC (n = 1 loaded with ICD, or tetanus toxoid, keyhole limpet hemocyanin or CMV peptide as controls, and were administered intradermally/subcutaneously four times at 3 week intervals. ICD-specific T cell and antibody responses were measured. Cardiac function was determined by MUGA or ECHO; long term disease status was obtained from patient contact. Results All seven patients successfully underwent DC generation and five received all 4 immunizations. There were no toxicities greater than grade 1 or ejection fraction decrements below normal. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions at the injection site occurred in 6/7 patients and HER2 specificity was detected by cytokine flow cytometry or ELISPOT in 5 patients. At more than 5 years of follow-up, 6/7 had detectable anti-ICD antibodies. One patient experienced a pulmonary recurrence at 4 years from their study immunizations. This recurrence was resected and they are without evidence of disease. All patients are alive and disease-free at 4.6–6.7 years of follow-up. Conclusion Although this was a small pilot study, the well-tolerated nature of the vaccines, the lack of cardiac

  1. Shorter height is related to lower cardiovascular disease risk – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Western studies have shown a negative correlation between height and cardiovascular disease. However, these correlations do not prove causation. This review provides a variety of studies showing short people have little to no cardiovascular disease. When shorter people are compared to taller people, a number of biological mechanisms evolve favoring shorter people, including reduced telomere shortening, lower atrial fibrillation, higher heart pumping efficiency, lower DNA damage, lower risk of blood clots, lower left ventricular hypertrophy and superior blood parameters. The causes of increased heart disease among shorter people in the developed world are related to lower income, excessive weight, poor diet, lifestyle factors, catch-up growth, childhood illness and poor environmental conditions. For short people in developed countries, the data indicate that a plant-based diet, leanness and regular exercise can substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Dyslexics' faster decay of implicit memory for sounds and words is manifested in their shorter neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Frenkel, Or; Ahissar, Merav

    2017-01-24

    Dyslexia is a prevalent reading disability whose underlying mechanisms are still disputed. We studied the neural mechanisms underlying dyslexia using a simple frequency-discrimination task. Though participants were asked to compare the two tones in each trial, implicit memory of previous trials affected their responses. We hypothesized that implicit memory decays faster among dyslexics. We tested this by increasing the temporal intervals between consecutive trials, and by measuring the behavioral impact and ERP responses from the auditory cortex. Dyslexics showed a faster decay of implicit memory effects on both measures, with similar time constants. Finally, faster decay of implicit memory also characterized the impact of sound regularities in benefitting dyslexics' oral reading rate. Their benefit decreased faster as a function of the time interval from the previous reading of the same non-word. We propose that dyslexics' shorter neural adaptation paradoxically accounts for their longer reading times, since it reduces their temporal window of integration of past stimuli, resulting in noisier and less reliable predictions for both simple and complex stimuli. Less reliable predictions limit their acquisition of reading expertise.

  3. Sleep Duration and Sleep Disturbances as Predictors of Healthy and Chronic Disease-Free Life Expectancy between Ages 50 and 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholm, Sari; Head, Jenny; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sleep duration and sleep disturbances with healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy (LE) between ages 50 and 75. Methods: Data were drawn from repeated waves of three occupational cohort studies in England, Finland...... and chronic disease-free LE based on years without chronic diseases. Multistate life table models were used to estimate healthy and chronic disease-free LE from age 50 to 75 years for each category of sleep measures in each cohort. Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to pool the cohort-specific results...

  4. Overestimation of the second time interval replaces time-shrinking when the difference between two adjacent time intervals increases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka eNakajima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When the onsets of three successive sound bursts mark two adjacent time intervals, the second time interval can be underestimated when it is physically longer than the first time interval by up to 100 ms. This illusion, time-shrinking, is very stable when the first time interval is 200 ms or shorter (Nakajima et al., 2004, Perception, 33. Time-shrinking had been considered a kind of perceptual assimilation to make the first and the second time interval more similar to each other. Here we investigated whether the underestimation of the second time interval was replaced by an overestimation if the physical difference between the neighboring time intervals was too large for the assimilation to take place; this was a typical situation in which a perceptual contrast could be expected. Three experiments to measure the overestimation/underestimation of the second time interval by the method of adjustment were conducted. The first time interval was varied from 40 to 280 ms, and such overestimations indeed took place when the first time interval was 80-280 ms. The overestimations were robust when the second time interval was longer than the first time interval by 240 ms or more, and the magnitude of the overestimation was larger than 100 ms in some conditions. Thus, a perceptual contrast to replace time-shrinking was established. An additional experiment indicated that this contrast did not affect the perception of the first time interval substantially: The contrast in the present conditions seemed unilateral.

  5. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration perception of a hypnotic virtuoso was tested using repeated standard temporal generalization and duration estimation tasks. When compared to the baseline state, hypnosis affected perception of intervals spread around 600 ms in the temporal generalization task but did not alter perception of slightly longer intervals spread around 1000 ms. Furthermore, generalization of temporal intervals was more orderly under hypnosis than in the baseline state. In contrast, the hypnotic virtuoso showed a typical time underestimation effect when perception of longer supra-second intervals was tested in the duration estimation task, replicating results of the previous hypnosis studies.

  6. Anticancer drug development from traditional cytotoxic to targeted therapies: evidence of shorter drug research and development time, and shorter drug lag in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata-Shoda, E; Masuda, S; Kimura, H

    2012-10-01

    Concern about the drug lag, the delay in marketing approval between one country and another, for anticancer drugs has increased in Japan. Although a number of studies have investigated the drug lag, none has investigated it in relation to the transition of anticancer therapy from traditional cytotoxic drugs to molecularly targeted agents. Our aim was to investigate current trend in oncology drug lag between the US and Japan and identify oncology drugs approved in only one of the two countries. Publicly and commercially available data sources were used to identify drugs approved in the US and Japan as of 31 December 2010 and the data used to calculate the drug lag for individual drugs. Fifty-one drugs were approved in both the US and Japan, whereas 34 and 19 drugs were approved only in the US or Japan, respectively. Of the 19 drugs approved only in Japan, 12 had not been subject to development for a cancer indication in the US, and all were approved before 1996 in Japan. Of the 34 drugs approved only in the US, 20 had not been subject to development in Japan, and none was in the top 25 by annual US anticancer drug-class sales. For drugs approved in both countries, the mean approval lag of the molecularly targeted drugs (MTDs) was significantly shorter than that of the non-molecularly targeted drugs (non-MTDs) (3·3 vs. 5·4 years). Further, mean R&D time of the MTDs was significantly shorter than that of non-MTDs (10·0 vs. 13·7 years). The price of MTDs had increased on average by 6·6% annually in the US, whereas it had decreased on average by 4·3% biyearly in Japan. The emergence of new molecularly targeted agents has contributed to reducing the approval lag, most likely due to improvements in R&D strategy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Curative Surgical Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Determining Long-term Outcome Based on Conditional Disease-free Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Jason D.; Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Poultsides, George A.; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate conditional disease-free survival (CDFS) for patients who underwent curative intent surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Background ACC is a rare but aggressive tumor. Survival estimates are usually reported as survival from the time of surgery. CDFS estimates may be more clinically relevant by accounting for the changing likelihood of disease-free survival (DFS) according to time elapsed after surgery. Methods CDFS was assessed using a multi-institutional cohort of patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate factors associated with DFS. Three-year CDFS (CDFS3) estimates at “x” year after surgery were calculated as follows: CDFS3=DFS(x+3)/DFS(x). Results One hundred ninety-two patients were included in the study cohort; median patient age was 52 years. On presentation, 36% of patients had a functional tumor and median size was 11.5 cm. Most patients underwent R0 resection (75%) and 9% had N1 disease. Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS was 59%, 34%, and 22%, respectively. Using CDFS estimates, the probability of remaining disease free for an additional 3 years given that the patient had survived without disease at 1, 3, and 5 years, was 43%, 53%, and 70%, respectively. Patients with less favorable prognosis at baseline demonstrated the greatest increase in CDFS3 over time (eg, capsular invasion: 28%–88%, Δ60% vs no capsular invasion: 51%–87%, Δ36%). Conclusions DFS estimates for patients with ACC improved dramatically over time, in particular among patients with initial worse prognoses. CDFS estimates may provide more clinically relevant information about the changing likelihood of DFS over time. PMID:28009746

  8. An incidental finding of a nodal recurrence of cutaneous malignant melanoma after a 45-year disease-free period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Jenny; Cozon, Caroline Louise; Liew, Se Hwang

    2014-06-03

    We report the case of an 84-year-old woman who had a nodal recurrence of melanoma 45 years after the primary diagnosis of an extremity cutaneous melanoma. It is believed to be the longest disease-free latency period reported between primary melanoma diagnosis and recurrence to date. Late recurrences of melanoma are rare and recurrence after four decades extremely rare. This article suggests melanoma is a disease with a potentially lifelong risk of recurrence and thus clinicians and patients must be vigilant and aware of this risk, particularly if late recurrences are to be recognised early and management optimised. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Telomere length is shorter in healthy offspring of subjects with coronary artery disease : support for the telomere hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouilette, S. W.; Whittaker, A.; Stevens, S. E.; van der Harst, P.; Goodall, A. H.; Samani, N. J.

    Background: Telomeres are shorter in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) and may indicate premature biological ageing. However, whether shorter telomeres are a primary abnormality or secondary to the disease is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether shorter telomeres are a primary

  10. Inter-Pregnancy Interval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    This definition excludes. 1, 2 miscarriage as a preceding pregnancy event. Often the IPI is calculated as ... Inter-pregnancy interval of <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse subsequent pregnancy outcomes. Mothers 35 years or older at start of childbearing have the highest risk compared to.

  11. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides...

  12. Five-year disease-free survival among stage II-IV breast cancer patients receiving FAC and AC chemotherapy in phase II clinical trials of Panagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurina, Anastasia S; Gvozdeva, Tatiana S; Potter, Ekaterina A; Dolgova, Evgenia V; Orishchenko, Konstantin E; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Sidorov, Sergey V; Chernykh, Elena R; Ostanin, Alexandr A; Leplina, Olga Y; Dvornichenko, Victoria V; Ponomarenko, Dmitriy M; Soldatova, Galina S; Varaksin, Nikolay A; Ryabicheva, Tatiana G; Uchakin, Peter N; Rogachev, Vladimir A; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-08-18

    We report on the results of a phase II clinical trial of Panagen (tablet form of fragmented human DNA preparation) in breast cancer patients (placebo group n = 23, Panagen n = 57). Panagen was administered as an adjuvant leukoprotective agent in FAC and AC chemotherapy regimens. Pre-clinical studies clearly indicate that Panagen acts by activating dendritic cells and induces the development of adaptive anticancer immune response. We analyzed 5-year disease-free survival of patients recruited into the trial. Five-year disease-free survival in the placebo group was 40 % (n = 15), compared with the Panagen arm - 53 % (n = 51). Among stage III patients, disease-free survival was 25 and 52 % for placebo (n = 8) and Panagen (n = 25) groups, respectively. Disease-free survival of patients with IIIB + C stage was as follows: placebo (n = 6)-17 % vs Panagen (n = 18)-50 %. Disease-free survival rate (17 %) of patients with IIIB + C stage breast cancer receiving standard of care therapy is within the global range. Patients who additionally received Panagen demonstrate a significantly improved disease-free survival rate of 50 %. This confirms anticancer activity of Panagen. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02115984 from 04/07/2014.

  13. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  14. Where to next with animal health in Latin America? The transition from endemic to disease-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, H; Romero, J R

    2017-04-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security. Obtaining certification of disease-free status is only the first step towards gaining benefits from improvements in animal health. Increasing international trade means that countries must manage the sustainability of their disease-free status in conjunction with trade partners and must comply with additional food safety and animal welfare standards. This paper comments on the challenges created by this new scenario in relation to the epidemiology and economics of animal health, when seeking to improve decisionmaking for animal health management. The authors characterise the current LAC livestock landscape and animal health situation, describing transitions in disease control and the use of economics in improving animal health. They conclude with remarks on the challenges presented by decision-making, economic rationality, sources of benefits, distribution and incentives.

  15. YAOPBM-II: extension to higher degrees and to shorter time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzennik, S G

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, I presented a new fitting methodology (Yet AnOther Peak Bagging Method -YAOPBM), derived for very-long time series (2088-day-long) and applied it to low degree modes, ι ≤ 25. That very-long time series was also sub-divided into shorter segments (728-day-long) that were each fitted over the same range of degrees, to estimate changes with solar activity levels. I present here the extension of this method in several 'directions': a) to substantially higher degrees (ι ≤ 125); b) to shorter time series (364- and 182-day-long); and c) to additional 728-day-long segments, covering now some 10 years of observations. I discuss issues with the fitting, namely the leakage matrix, and the f- and p1 mode at very low frequencies, and I present some of the characteristics of the observed temporal changes.

  16. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  17. Is equity confined to the shorter term projects - and if not, what does it need?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryan, T.

    1996-01-01

    There are two types of equity investor generally found in shorter term energy projects: energy project developers or sponsors who view a given project as buying or building a business; and financial investors who have viewed an investment as buying a stream of cash flows. This article examines the objectives and needs of these two investor groups, and discusses the principal issues which govern their respective decision-making process. (author)

  18. HIV-1 sequences isolated from patients promote expression of shorter isoforms of the Gag polyprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudé, Christelle; Décimo, Didier; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; André, Patrice; Ohlmann, Théophile; de Breyne, Sylvain

    2016-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) unspliced mRNA drives the expression of both Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins by using both cap- and internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation initiation mechanisms. An IRES has been described in the matrix coding region that is involved in the production of shorter isoforms of Gag. However, up to now, this has only been shown with sequences derived from the HIV-1 laboratory strains (NL4.3 and HXB2) and never from clinical HIV-1 isolates. We have isolated ~70 sequences from HIV-1-positive patients that we have sequenced and cloned into an expression vector to monitor their ability to drive translation of Gag p55 and the shorter isoforms both in vitro and ex vivo. The results indicate that (1) the translational efficiency from the AUG-p55 varies significantly among the different isolates; (2) expression initiated at AUG-p40 codon is independent of translation initiation at the AUG-p55 triplet; and (3) all sequences promote expression of shorter Gag isoforms, in particular in Jurkat T cells, in which internal initiation occurs exclusively and directly at the AUG-p40 codon. The composition of the first ~800 nucleotides of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA modulates the expression initiated both at the AUG-p55 and AUG-p40 codons and may impact viral production and replication. Interestingly, the AUG-p40 codon and its surrounding nucleotide context are conserved amongst clinical isolates and are used as a translation initiation site to produce a shorter Gag isoform.

  19. Men with celiac disease are shorter than their peers in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonti, Rajiv; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne K; Abu Daya, Hussein; Klavan, Heather; Aguilar, Kathleen; Green, Peter H R

    2013-09-01

    Late diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) is increasingly common, the implications of which are largely unknown. Although short stature is a common sign of childhood CD, the data on the height of adult CD patients is conflicting. This study investigates the final height of men and women diagnosed with CD in adulthood and attempts to identify influencing factors. We performed a cross-sectional study of 585 adults at the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, comparing their height with the control population (NHANES). Patients were included if they were older than 18 years of age at diagnosis and if baseline height and weight were available. In addition, we examined for differences in demographic and physical features, mode of presentation, and concomitant illnesses in shorter versus taller celiac patients. Men (n=162) with CD diagnosed in adulthood were shorter than men in the general population (CD: 169.3 ± 10.5 vs. 177.3 ± 7.0 cm, Phypothyroidism, type I diabetes, dermatitis herpetiformis), or mode of presentation in shorter versus taller CD patients of either sex. Hemoglobin was associated with short stature in CD men (short: 13.9 g/dl, tall: 14.6 g/dl; P=0.01), but not women (short: 12.9 g/dl, tall: 13.0 g/dl, P=0.41). Short stature is a well described phenomenon in pediatric CD with the potential for 'catch-up growth' on a gluten-free diet. However, among adults with CD who had attained final height before diagnosis, we found that men, not women, are shorter relative to the general population.

  20. A shorter set reduces the loss of cardiac autonomic and baroreflex control after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Carballeira-Fernández, Eduardo; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Set configuration may affect the recovery pattern of cardiac vagal autonomic and reflex modulation after a resistance exercise, since it is closely associated with intensity and volume and determines the metabolic involvement of the session. We tested the hypothesis that longer set configurations have a higher impact on cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity compared with shorter set configurations. We studied the effects of three set configurations with the same components of work on the cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity. Seventeen subjects performed one control session and three experimental sessions of a leg-press exercise with the same volume (40 repetitions), resting time (720 s) and intensity (10RM load): (a) 5 sets of 8 repetitions with 3 min of rest between sets (8S), (b) 10 sets of 4 repetitions with 80 s of rest between sets (4S) and (c) 40 sets of 1 repetition with 18.5 s of rest between each repetition (1S). Longer set configurations (8S and 4S) induced greater reductions of the vagal cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity (p ≤ .001) compared with a shorter set configuration (1S). Also, 1S had non-significant reductions versus the control session (p > .05). These findings suggest that a shorter set configuration can reduce the impact of resistance exercise on the post-exercise cardiac vagal autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity.

  1. Shorter telomeres may mark early risk of dementia: preliminary analysis of 62 participants from the nurses' health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Grodstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dementia takes decades to develop, and effective prevention will likely require early intervention. Thus, it is critical to identify biomarkers of preclinical disease, allowing targeting of high-risk subjects for preventive efforts. Since telomeres shorten with age and oxidative stress, both of which are important contributors to the onset of dementia, telomere length might be a valuable biomarker. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 62 participants of the Nurses' Health Study, we conducted neurologic evaluations, including patient and caregiver interviews, physical exam, neurologic exam, and neuropsychologic testing. We also conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a sample of 29 of these women. In these preliminary data, after adjustment for numerous health and lifestyle factors, we found that truncated telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes segregate with preclinical dementia states, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI; the odds of MCI were 12-fold higher (odds ratio = 12.00, 95% confidence interval 1.24-116.5 for those with shorter telomere length compared to longer telomere length. In addition, decreasing telomere length was strongly related to decreasing hippocampal volume (p = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data suggest that telomere length may be a possible early marker of dementia risk, and merits further study in large, prospective investigations.

  2. Interval orders and reverse mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Marcone, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We study the reverse mathematics of interval orders. We establish the logical strength of the implications between various definitions of the notion of interval order. We also consider the strength of different versions of the characterization theorem for interval orders: a partial order is an interval order if and only if it does not contain $2 \\oplus 2$. We also study proper interval orders and their characterization theorem: a partial order is a proper interval order if and only if it cont...

  3. Chaos on the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruette, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to survey the relations between the various kinds of chaos and related notions for continuous interval maps from a topological point of view. The papers on this topic are numerous and widely scattered in the literature; some of them are little known, difficult to find, or originally published in Russian, Ukrainian, or Chinese. Dynamical systems given by the iteration of a continuous map on an interval have been broadly studied because they are simple but nevertheless exhibit complex behaviors. They also allow numerical simulations, which enabled the discovery of some chaotic phenomena. Moreover, the "most interesting" part of some higher-dimensional systems can be of lower dimension, which allows, in some cases, boiling it down to systems in dimension one. Some of the more recent developments such as distributional chaos, the relation between entropy and Li-Yorke chaos, sequence entropy, and maps with infinitely many branches are presented in book form for the first time. The author gi...

  4. Shorter CAG repeat in the AR gene is associated with atypical hyperplasia and breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Abreu, Francine Blumental; Pirolo, Leandro Júnior; Canevari, Renata de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    -based GeneScan analysis was used to investigate the [CAG]n repeat length at exon 1 of the AR gene in 59 benign breast lesions (27 fibroadenomas, 18 atypical hyperplasias, and 14 hyperplasias without atypia) and 54 ductal breast carcinomas. Seventy-two cancer-free women were used as a control group....... In addition, [CAG]n repeats were evaluated for the presence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in a subset of these samples (27 fibroadenomas, 14 hyperplasias without atypia and 22 breast carcinomas). RESULTS: Shorter [CAG]n repeat lengths were strongly correlated...

  5. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-03

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.

  6. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often transfused with red blood cells (RBC). During storage, the RBCs and storage medium undergo changes, which may have clinical consequences. Several trials now have assessed these consequences, and we reviewed the present evidence...... on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... fresher versus older blood for transfusion....

  7. Shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, Jens; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    findings indicate that leukocyte telomere length may be a marker of immune competence. Further studies are needed to determine whether risk of infections in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients can be reduced by considering donor leukocyte telomere length when selecting donors....... in the recipients. These findings suggest that leukocyte telomere length could possibly be a marker of immune competence. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infectious disease hospitalization and infection-related death. Relative peripheral...

  8. Reemission spectra and inelastic processes at interaction of attosecond and shorter duration electromagnetic pulses with atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov D.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic processes and the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by atoms have been considered within the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation in the sudden perturbation approximation. A method of calculations with the exact inclusion of spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and the momenta of photons in the reemission processes has been developed. The probabilities of inelastic processes and spectra of reemission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by one- and many-electron atoms have been calculated. The results have been presented in the form of analytical formulas.

  9. Interval Female Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Ramesh, Shanthi S

    2018-01-01

    Female sterilization is relied on by nearly one in three women aged 35-44 years in the United States. Sterilization procedures are among the most common procedures that obstetrician-gynecologists perform. The most frequent sterilization procedures include postpartum tubal ligation, laparoscopic tubal disruption or salpingectomy, and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion. The informed consent process for sterilization is crucial and requires shared decision-making between the patient and the health care provider. Counseling should include the specific risks and benefits of the specific surgical approaches. Additionally, women should be counseled on the alternatives to sterilization, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal contraceptive implants. Complications, including unplanned pregnancy after successful female sterilization, are rare. The objectives of this Clinical Expert Series are to describe the epidemiology of female sterilization, access to postpartum sterilization, advances in interval sterilization techniques, and clinical considerations in caring for women requesting sterilization.

  10. Multichannel interval timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.T.

    1983-10-01

    A CAMAC based modular multichannel interval timer is described. The timer comprises twelve high resolution time digitizers with a common start enabling twelve independent stop inputs. Ten time ranges from 2.5 μs to 1.3 μs can be preset. Time can be read out in twelve 24-bit words either via CAMAC Crate Controller or an external FIFO register. LSB time calibration is 78.125 ps. An additional word reads out the operational status of twelve stop channels. The system consists of two modules. The analog module contains a reference clock and 13 analog time stretchers. The digital module contains counters, logic and interface circuits. The timer has an excellent differential linearity, thermal stability and crosstalk free performance

  11. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  12. Interval by interval analysis of commercial drilling speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublenich, L.B.; Gor' kov, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The results are cited of an interval by interval analysis of the commercial drilling speeds in individual sites of the Carpathian region (Skhodnitsa, Dolina, Duvboshanka) which attest to the presence of reserves for increasing the commercial drilling speeds.

  13. Meta-analysis of CDKN2A methylation to find its role in prostate cancer development and progression, and also to find the effect of CDKN2A expression on disease-free survival (PRISMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zipei; Wei, Lijuan; Zhu, Weizhi; Yao, Xuping

    2018-03-01

    Reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (p16 and p14) expression through DNA methylation has been reported in prostate cancer (PCa). This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the difference of p16 and p14 methylation between PCa and different histological types of nonmalignant controls and the correlation of p16 or p14 methylation with clinicopathological features of PCa. According to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Wanfang, and CNKI databases. The strength of correlation was calculated by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to estimate the required population information for significant results. A total of 20 studies published from 1997 to 2017 were identified in this meta-analysis, including 1140 PCa patients and 530 cases without cancer. Only p16 methylation in PCa was significantly higher than in benign prostatic lesions (OR = 4.72, P = .011), but had a similar level in PCa and adjacent tissues or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias (HGPIN). TSA revealed that this analysis on p16 methylation is a false positive result in cancer versus benign prostatic lesions (the estimated required information size of 5116 participants). p16 methylation was not correlated with PCa in the urine and blood. Besides, p16 methylation was not linked to clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and Gleason score (GS) of patients with PCa. p14 methylation was not correlated with PCa in tissue and urine samples. No correlation was observed between p14 methylation and clinical stage or GS. CDKN2A mutation and copy number alteration were not associated with prognosis of PCa in overall survival and disease-free survival. CDKN2A expression was not correlated with the prognosis of PCa in overall survival (492 cases) (P > .1

  14. Multiple addictive behaviors in young adults: student norms for the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ; Christo, Jones, Haylett, Stephenson, Lefever & Lefever, 2003) is a multidimensional self report that measures 16 addictive behaviors. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SPQ and collected normative data from 948 students at two Canadian universities. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two categories of addictive behavior, which Haylett and her colleagues (2004) labelled hedonistic and nurturant. The hedonistic categories included behaviors such as the use of prescription drugs, gambling, caffeine, illegal drugs, alcohol, tobacco and compulsive sex. The nurturant group included behaviors such as compulsive helping, work, relationships, shopping, disordered eating and exercise. Men (N=250) scored higher than women on dominant relationships, exercise, gambling, illegal drugs, alcohol, tobacco and sex. Women (N=698) scored higher on compulsive shopping, food binging and starving. These results suggest that the SPQ may be a useful index of multiple addictive behaviors in college-age people. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shorter Decentralized Attribute-Based Encryption via Extended Dual System Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE is a special form of multiauthority ABE systems, in which no central authority and global coordination are required other than creating the common reference parameters. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized ABE in prime-order groups by using extended dual system groups. We formulate some assumptions used to prove the security of our scheme. Our proposed scheme is fully secure under the standard k-Lin assumption in random oracle model and can support any monotone access structures. Compared with existing fully secure decentralized ABE systems, our construction has shorter ciphertexts and secret keys. Moreover, fast decryption is achieved in our system, in which ciphertexts can be decrypted with a constant number of pairings.

  16. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  17. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  18. [Association between oxytocin augmentation intervals and the risk of postpartum haemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscul, C; Chantry, A-A; Caubit, L; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Goffinet, F; Le Ray, C

    2016-09-01

    To study the association between the duration of oxytocin augmentation intervals and the risk of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) among primiparous women in spontaneous labour. Retrospective cohort including primiparous women in spontaneous labour who received oxytocin during labour (n=454). Oxytocin augmentation intervals were dichotomized in intervalsoxytocin augmentation intervals. The association between oxytocin augmentation intervals and PPH was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Oxytocin augmentation intervals were shorter than 20minutes for 43.8% of the study population. The rate of PPH was higher (9.1% vs 3.5%; P=0.014), and the use of sulprostone was more frequent (6.5% vs 3.5%; P=0.013) if oxytocin augmentation intervals were shorter than 20minutes in comparison with intervals≥20minutes. The association between oxytocin augmentation intervals and PPH remains significant after adjustment on other PPH risk factors (adjusted OR=3.48, 95% CI [1.45-8.34]). The rate of adverse neonatal issue, defined by arterial pH at birth≤7.10 and/or 5minutes score d'Apgar≤7, was higher if oxytocin augmentation intervals wereoxytocin with augmentation intervals shorter than 20minutes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Sodium ion channel mutations in glioblastoma patients correlate with shorter survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velculescu Victor E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM is the most common and invasive astrocytic tumor associated with dismal prognosis. Treatment for GBM patients has advanced, but the median survival remains a meager 15 months. In a recent study, 20,000 genes from 21 GBM patients were sequenced that identified frequent mutations in ion channel genes. The goal of this study was to determine whether ion channel mutations have a role in disease progression and whether molecular targeting of ion channels is a promising therapeutic strategy for GBM patients. Therefore, we compared GBM patient survival on the basis of presence or absence of mutations in calcium, potassium and sodium ion transport genes. Cardiac glycosides, known sodium channel inhibitors, were then tested for their ability to inhibit GBM cell proliferation. Results Nearly 90% of patients showed at least one mutation in ion transport genes. GBM patients with mutations in sodium channels showed a significantly shorter survival compared to patients with no sodium channel mutations, whereas a similar comparison based on mutational status of calcium or potassium ion channel mutations showed no survival differences. Experimentally, targeting GBM cells with cardiac glycosides such as digoxin and ouabain demonstrated preferential cytotoxicity against U-87 and D54 GBM cells compared to non-tumor astrocytes (NTAs. Conclusions These pilot studies of GBM patients with sodium channel mutations indicate an association with a more aggressive disease and significantly shorter survival. Moreover, inhibition of GBM cells by ion channel inhibitors such as cardiac glycosides suggest a therapeutic strategy with relatively safe drugs for targeting GBM ion channel mutations. Key Words: glioblastoma multiforme, ion channels, mutations, small molecule inhibitors, cardiac glycosides.

  20. Shorter Mandibular Length is Associated with a Greater Fall in AHI with Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Matthew T.; Monteith, Brian D.; Manton, David J.; Dever, Paul; Schachter, Linda M.; O'Brien, Paul E.; Dixon, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Obesity is a major risk factor towards the development of obstructive sleep apnea, while significant weight loss (both conservatively managed and surgically assisted) has a variable effect upon its severity. Differences in the effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea may be due to underlying craniofacial characteristics. Objectives: To determine whether craniofacial characteristics can predict OSA treatment response to significant weight loss. Methods: We analyzed craniofacial measurements from lateral cephalograms performed at baseline on 57 patients enrolled in a previously reported 2-year randomized clinical weight loss trial (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery versus conservatively [dietician and very low calorie diet] treated). Group mean weight loss was ∼ 13% (mean weight loss 131 to 114 kg), with corresponding reduction in mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 61 to 41 events/h. Computer assisted lateral cephalogram analysis was undertaken by three trained staff blinded to treatment. We analyzed lateral cephalogram and demographic data at baseline (cross-sectional) and change over two years (interventional) in 54 patients. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline cross-sectional analysis indicated no cephalometric measurement correlated significantly with baseline AHI when corrected for neck circumference. The percentage change in AHI over 2 years correlated with a shorter menton-gonion distance (i.e., mandibular body length). The % change in AHI correlated with the % weight change (R2 = 0.25, p cephalometry. Citation: Naughton MT, Monteith BD, Manton DJ, Dever P, Schachter LM, O'Brien PE, Dixon JB. Shorter mandibular length is associated with a greater fall in AHI with weight loss. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):451–456. PMID:25515279

  1. ICF, quality of life, and depression in breast cancer: perceived disability in disease-free women 6 months after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Anna; Anna, Giardini; Pisoni, Camilla; Camilla, Pisoni; Giorgi, Ines; Ines, Giorgi; Borelli, Veronica; Veronica, Borelli; Scoccia, Elisabetta; Elisabetta, Scoccia; Majani, Giuseppina; Giuseppina, Majani

    2013-09-01

    Aim of the present observational study is to focus on health-related quality of life (HRQL), mood and everyday life of breast cancer affected women disease-free 6 months after mastectomy, paying particular attention to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework contribution. Sixty-five breast cancer-affected women disease-free 6 months after mastectomy hospitalized for reconstructive surgery (mean age 46.3 ± 7.3) were enrolled. Their depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI-II), HRQL, and every day life functioning/barriers and facilitators (ICF) were assessed. At the BDI-II, 6 patients (9.2 %) reported mild depression and 6 (9.2 %) severe depression; when the subscales were considered, 7 (10.8%) resulted depressed at the somatic-affective factor and 16 (24.6 %) at the cognitive factor. Compared to normative data no differences emerged at the HRQL Physical Component Summary (46.4 ± 9.3 vs 49.1 ± 10.1), whereas patients reported lower scores at the Mental HRQL Component Summary (45.9 ± 10.1 vs 51.5 ± 9.1; p = 0.00001 t = -4.3). As for the activity and participation domain, 11 of the 42 categories investigated were compromised in at least 20% of the sample: lifting and carrying objects (d430), acquisition of goods and services (d620), doing housework (d640), remunerative employment (d850), and many categories relating to interpersonal relationships; moreover the caregiver seems to be perceived as an important and positive modulator of disability. The addition of the ICF evaluation to the usual psychological assessment gives a more complete picture, enabling a broader perspective of the psychological-clinical implications. Mainly, the women that we have evaluated continue to function in their everyday lives, thanks in part to their ability to accept help from their own families. However, they inevitably carry signs of their disease which some translating into problems with interpersonal relationships

  2. Differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary). Brain tumor metastasis as clinical onset. surgical treatment and 131I. 8 years disease-free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, D.; Pena, M.; Alvarez, L.; García del Rio, H.; Bruno, O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. The major manifestation belongs to the papillary variant (65-90%). The prognosis tends to be very favorable, with a mortality rate of 1.8 % and a disease-free rate up to 10 years of around 90-95 %. The distant metastasis in brain accounts for 0.1-5 %. There are no established protocols for the management of brain metastasis. Therapeutic options are: surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy / radiosurgery, and 131 I. The successful management of this case is an option for brain metastasis from thyroid papillary carcinoma. Case report: A 77 year-old female begins with double vision (diplopia). She underwent twice a surgery for brain tumor with a histopathological report on thyroid papillary tissue. The endocrine evaluation determines euthyroid state except thyroglobulin (TG) 2300 ng/ml. Total thyroidectomy with classic thyroid papillary carcinoma. A diagnostic 131 I scan after surgery shows for first time brain metastasis uptake. The patient receives 25 mCi of 131 I as initial therapeutic dose, and subsequent therapeutic doses (50, 50, 75, 75, 50 mCi) in 2 years, in accordance with the evolution of magnetic resonance, clinic, endocrine lab, hematological analysis, and 131 I scintigraphy, that shows the possible remission of the disease. The follow-up was carried out by means of a clinical control, thyroglobulin values, U.S., 131 I scans, and magnetic resonance. The patient is at the present time over 11 years survival and 8 years disease-free. Discussion: Even though the distant metastasis is not very common in brain and is generally associated with aggressive variants of tumor, our case started with a metastatic brain tumor in an euthyroid patient with no thyroid pathology background and with low-risk post-thyroidectomy criterion. The 131 I scan turned positive in brain metastasis when the patient was thyroidectomized. This detail must be considered important, since it makes it

  3. Radiotherapy alone for non-small cell lung carcinoma. Five-year disease-free survival and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukourakis, M.; Skarlatos, J.; Kosma, L.; Yannakakis, D.; Giatromanolaki, A.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-three patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiotherapy alone have been retrospectively analysed. Normalized Total Dose (NTD) as defined by Macejewski, TN-stage (AJC-system) and histology have been examined with respect to 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and the patterns of failure so as to identify subgroups of patients that routinely should be treated with radical intent. The 5-year DFS for T1, 2-N0, 1 and T3-N0, 1 staged patients was 30% (7/23) and 25% (4/16) respectively when the tumor NTD (a/b=10 Gy) was 56-64 Gy vs. 12% (5/41) and 0% (0/10) when the NTD was 48-55 Gy. This difference was statistically significant for the squamous cell histology group. The higher doses significantly altered the patterns of death in N0, 1 staged squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma patients. Forty-five percent (22/55) and 41% (12/29) of squamous cell adenocarcinoma patients respectively, died from local relapse without evidence of distant metastases when NTD less than 55 Gy were given vs. 21% (9/42) and 13% (2/15) when the NTD delivered was 56-64 Gy (p<0.05). Although for N2, 3 staged patients or patients with direct extension of the tumor into the mediastinum death from local relapse occurred in 38% (10/26) of the high NTD treated patients vs. 51% (19/37) of the low-dose treated ones, the difference was not statistically significant. It is concluded that NSCLC patients should not a priori be considered as non-radiocurable. At least 30% of the patients with early local stages can be long-term disease-free survivors with readiation NTD up to 60 Gy and better results are to be expected with higher doses. Advanced T-stage without mediastinal involvement should be treated with radical intent since a high NTD could give cure rates of over 25%. The disappointing results for patients with mediastinal disease could perhaps be attributed to the low NTD delivered. For patients with good performance status

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen at 4 to 5 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Is a Strong Predictor of Disease-Free Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James, E-mail: JMorris@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lapointe, Vincent [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Spadinger, Ingrid [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prognostic utility of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at 45 to 60 months (48mPSA) after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB); (2) the predictors of 48mPSA; and (3) the prognostic utility of directional trends between PSA levels at 24, 36, and 48 months after LDR-PB. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2008, 2223 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received LDR-PB monotherapy. A cohort of 1434 of these patients was identified with a documented 48mPSA and no evidence of disease relapse prior to the 48mPSA. In addition, a subset of this cohort (n=585) was identified with ≥72 months of follow-up and documented PSA values at both 24 and 36 months after implantation. Results: Median follow-up time was 76 months. Eight-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 100% vs 73.4% for patients with 48mPSA ≤0.2 vs those with >0.2 ng/mL; 99.1% versus 53.8% for a 48mPSA threshold of ≤0.4 versus >0.4 ng/mL, respectively; and 97.3% versus 0% for a threshold of ≤1.0 versus >1.0 ng/mL, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the only factor predictive of DFS was 48mPSA (P<.0001). On subset analysis (n=585), 29 patients had a PSA rise (defined as >0.2 ng/mL) between 24 and 36 months, 24 patients had a rise between 36 and 48 months, and 11 patients had rises over both intervals. Failure rates in these patients were 52%, 79%, and 100%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, initial PSA, androgen deprivation therapy, and dose to 90% of the prostate significantly correlated with 48mPSA but together accounted for only ∼5% of its total variance. Conclusions: The 48mPSA after LDR-PB is highly predictive of long-term DFS. Patients with 48mPSA ≤0.4 ng/mL had a <1% risk of disease relapse at 8 years, whereas all patients with 48mPSA >1.0 ng/mL relapsed. Consecutive PSA rises of >0.2 ng/mL from 24 to 36 months and from 36 to 48 months were also highly predictive of subsequent failure.

  5. An Overview of Disease-Free Buffalo Breeding Projects with Reference to the Different Systems Used in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louwrens Hoffman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the successful national program initiated by the South African government to produce disease-free African buffalo so as to ensure the sustainability of this species due to threats from diseases. Buffalo are known carriers of foot-and-mouth disease, bovine tuberculosis, Corridor disease and brucellosis. A long-term program involving multiphase testing and a breeding scheme for buffalo is described where, after 10 years, a sustainable number of buffalo herds are now available that are free of these four diseases. A large portion of the success was attributable to the use of dairy cows as foster parents with the five-stage quarantine process proving highly effective in maintaining the “disease-free” status of both the calves and the foster cows. The projects proved the successfulness of breeding with African buffalo in a commercial system that was unique to African buffalo and maintained the “wildness” of the animals so that they could effectively be released back into the wild with minimal, if any, behavioral problems.

  6. Early Postoperative Low Expression of RAD50 in Rectal Cancer Patients Associates with Disease-Free Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular biomarkers have the potential to predict response to the treatment of rectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic and clinicopathological implication of RAD50 (DNA repair protein RAD50 homolog expression in rectal cancer. Methods: A total of 266 rectal cancer patients who underwent surgery and received chemo- and radiotherapy between 2000 and 2011 were involved in the study. Postoperative RAD50 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in surgical samples (n = 266. Results: Using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, we found that low RAD50 expression in postoperative samples was associated with worse disease free survival (p = 0.001 and overall survival (p < 0.001 in early stage/low-grade tumors. In a comparison of patients with low vs. high RAD50 expression, we found that low levels of postoperative RAD50 expression in rectal cancer tissues were significantly associated with perineural invasion (p = 0.002. Conclusion: Expression of RAD50 in rectal cancer may serve as a prognostic biomarker for long-term survival of patients with perineural invasion-positive tumors and for potential use in early stage and low-grade rectal cancer assessment.

  7. Number of negative lymph nodes is associated with disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Juan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin; Guan, Xun-Xing; He, Zhen-Yu

    2015-02-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the number of negative lymph nodes (NLNs) in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. 2,455 breast cancer patients who received a mastectomy between January 1998 and December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic impact of the number of NLNs with respect to disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed. The median follow-up time was 62.0 months, and the 5-year and 10-year DFS was 87.1% and 74.3%, respectively. The DFS of patients with >10 NLNs was significantly higher than that of patents with ≤10 NLNs, and the 5-year DFS rates were 87.5% and 69.5%, respectively (P patients with a higher number of NLNs had a better DFS (HR = 0.977, 95% CI: 0.958-0.997, P = 0.022). Subgroup analysis showed that the NLN count had a prognostic value in patients at different pT stages and pN positive patients (log-rank P patients (log-rank P = 0.684). The number of NLNs is an independent prognostic factor of DFS in breast cancer patients after mastectomy, and patients with a higher number of NLNs have a better DFS.

  8. Health-related quality of life of patients with endometrial cancer who are disease-free following external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, Marianne; Machin, David

    2001-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HQoL) is assessed through the patients' own evaluation of the impact that a disease and its treatment may have on some of the physical, psychological and social aspects of their lives. The purpose of this study is to describe the HQoL of patients with endometrial cancer who are free of disease after undergoing external irradiation. An HQoL questionnaire was designed and validated, and consisted of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and 80 additional questions. The patients provided self-reported assessments at the end of radiotherapy, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months later. Forty-nine out of 66 potential subjects participated in the study, which was confined to the period during which the women were disease free. Most patients experience physical side effects at the end of treatment and up to 6 months thereafter; 10% of the patients have chronic local symptoms and a large number of the patients think about their treatment even two years later. The patients' overall evaluation of their quality of life is lower than that of a matched population of healthy women

  9. Young age: an independent risk factor for disease-free survival in women with operable breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wonshik; Kim, Seok Won; Ae Park, In; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Sung-Won; Youn, Yeo-Kyu; Oh, Seung Keun; Choe, Kuk Jin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compared to older patients. We retrospectively analyzed 2040 consecutive primary invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgical procedures at our institution between 1990 and 1999. The younger age group was defined as patients aged <35 years at the time of diagnosis. The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between younger and older age groups. A total of 256 (12.5%) patients were aged <35. There was a significantly higher incidence of nuclear grade 3 and medullary histological-type tumors in younger patients compared to older patients. Axillary lymph node status, T stage, histological grade, c-erbB2 expression and estrogen receptor status did not differ significantly between the two age groups. Younger patients had a greater probability of recurrence and death at all time periods. Although there was no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two age groups in lymph node-negative patients, the younger group showed worse prognosis among lymph node-positive patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, young age remained a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.010). Young age (<35) is an independent risk factor for relapse in operable breast cancer patients

  10. Treatment Adherence and Its Impact on Disease-Free Survival in the Breast International Group 1-98 Trial of Tamoxifen and Letrozole, Alone and in Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirgwin, Jacquie H; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Coates, Alan S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate adherence to endocrine treatment and its relationship with disease-free survival (DFS) in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 clinical trial. METHODS: The BIG 1-98 trial is a double-blind trial that randomly assigned 6,193 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-p...

  11. Shorter anogenital and anoscrotal distances correlate with the severity of hypospadias: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K; Kyriakou, A; Amjad, B; O'Toole, S; Flett, M E; Welsh, M; Ahmed, S F; Cascio, S

    2017-02-01

    Anogenital distance (AGD) is a recognised marker of in utero androgen action. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between severity of hypospadias and AGD. Boys undergoing hypospadias repair in a single tertiary centre between May 2012 and February 16 were included in the study. Anogenital distance was measured from the centre of the anus to the base of the penis, and anoscrotal distance (ASD) from the centre of the anus to the junction between the smooth perineal skin and scrotal skin. Trained paediatric urologists made all measurements using digital callipers. Fifty-nine boys with hypospadias and 31 age-matched controls undergoing circumcision (median age 1.37 years, range 1.01-1.96) had AGD and ASD measured under anaesthetic. The patients were divided into two groups, according to hypospadias severity: group 1 - distal penile/subcoronal/glandular (n = 40); and group 2 - perineal/penoscrotal/midshaft (n = 19). The median AGD for controls was 74.0 mm (range 53.2-87.8) and for hypospadias it was 72.3 mm (range 50.7-90.0) (P = 0.816). The median ASD for controls was 42.3 mm (range 31.0-56.1) and for hypospadias it was 39.4 mm (range 20.7-77.0) (P = 0.224). Considering severity of hypospadias, the median AGD for group 1 and group 2 was 73.7 mm (range 50.7-90.0) and 63.3 mm (range 53.6-77.0), respectively (P hypospadias are associated with shorter AGD and ASD. These findings agree with two previous studies that identified reduced AGD in boys with hypospadias. However, these studies did not investigate an association with severity of hypospadias. As hypospadias is multifactorial, only a small proportion of cases are thought to be associated with impaired in utero androgen exposure. The shorter AGD in boys with severe hypospadias compared with mild hypospadias would indicate that AGD is a marker of the severity of androgen production. This may also suggest that less severe forms of hypospadias have a different aetiology involving a later

  12. Shorter anogenital distance correlates with the severity of hypospadias in pre-pubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Arbinder K; Jain, Viral G; Gazali, Zarine; Shekhawat, Prem

    2016-07-01

    Do pre-pubertal boys with hypospadias have a shorter anogenital distance (AGD) than boys with normal genitalia? AGD is significantly shorter in boys with hypospadias and decreases with the severity of hypospadias. Animal studies have shown that androgen disruption and exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during a critical time period in early gestation, termed the male programming window (MPW), result in hypospadias and reduced AGD; and the severity of hypospadias correlates with the reduction in AGD. However, this correlation has not been established in humans. A prospective descriptive study involving measurement of AGD in pre-pubertal boys (n = 458) presenting to our pediatric urology clinic with hypospadias and normal genitalia was performed over a period of 3 years. AGD was measured in pre-pubertal boys from 5 months to 14 years of age presenting to our clinic with hypospadias (n = 180: four were excluded) and compared with randomly selected boys with normal genitalia (controls, n = 274). Three variants of AGD, from the midpoint of the anus to base of the scrotum (AGD-AS), to the anterior base of penis (AGD-1) and to the posterior base of penis (AGD-2), were measured and assessed for correlation with the severity of hypospadias. Severity of hypospadias was classified as anterior, middle and posterior according to the meatal location. No significant difference in weight (P = 0.123), age (P = 0.162) or height (P = 0.591) between the two groups was observed. Only AGD-AS was significantly shorter in boys with hypospadias compared with controls (mean ± SD: 40.6 ± 9.7 mm versus 45.6 ± 9.4 mm, P hypospadias with all the three AGD measures. Analysis of variance between anterior, middle and posterior subgroups showed a significant reduction in mean AGD-AS (P = 0.003) and AGD-2 (P = 0.008). No data were collected pertaining to in utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) or cigarette smoke, or current diet and environmental exposure to EDCs, which

  13. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  14. A semi-quantitative World Health Organization grading scheme evaluating worst tumor differentiation predicts disease-free survival in oral squamous carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dhruv; Tikku, Gargi; Bhadana, Pallavi; Dravid, Chandrashekhar; Grover, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-08-01

    We investigated World Health Organization (WHO) grading and pattern of invasion based histological schemes as independent predictors of disease-free survival, in oral squamous carcinoma patients. Tumor resection slides of eighty-seven oral squamous carcinoma patients [pTNM: I&II/III&IV-32/55] were evaluated. Besides examining various patterns of invasion, invasive front grade, predominant and worst (highest) WHO grade were recorded. For worst WHO grading, poor-undifferentiated component was estimated semi-quantitatively at advancing tumor edge (invasive growth front) in histology sections. Tumor recurrence was observed in 31 (35.6%) cases. The 2-year disease-free survival was 47% [Median: 656; follow-up: 14-1450] days. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we defined poor-undifferentiated component exceeding 5% of tumor as the cutoff to assign an oral squamous carcinoma as grade-3, when following worst WHO grading. Kaplan-Meier curves for disease-free survival revealed prognostic association with nodal involvement, tumor size, worst WHO grading; most common pattern of invasion and invasive pattern grading score (sum of two most predominant patterns of invasion). In further multivariate analysis, tumor size (>2.5cm) and worst WHO grading (grade-3 tumors) independently predicted reduced disease-free survival [HR, 2.85; P=0.028 and HR, 3.37; P=0.031 respectively]. The inter-observer agreement was moderate for observers who semi-quantitatively estimated percentage of poor-undifferentiated morphology in oral squamous carcinomas. Our results support the value of semi-quantitative method to assign tumors as grade-3 with worst WHO grading for predicting reduced disease-free survival. Despite limitations, of the various histological tumor stratification schemes, WHO grading holds adjunctive value for its prognostic role, ease and universal familiarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risky family processes prospectively forecast shorter telomere length mediated through negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy; a bibliographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease considered a global epidemic by the World Health Organization (WHO. The body mass index (BMI is used internationally for diagnosis and classification, a BMI> 30kg/m2 is a diagnosis of obesity and it correlates positively with the relative risk of general and cardiovascular mortality. Objectives: The main objective of this work is to make known the impact of this disease through a systematic review of the most recent publications. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing alarmingly worldwide, affecting more than 50% of the adult population in the European Union and tripling the number of obese over the last twenty years. Due to this large increase, obesity has become a major threat for the whole world, being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and causal factor of other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipemias, thus increasing morbidity and mortality of these people. It also has association with alterations to other levels such as OSAS, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increased risk of complications during gestation, association with osteoarthrosis and cancer, among others. Conclusions: Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy so, a multidisciplinary approach focused on weight loss is first needed. Prevention is the key to its control.

  17. Low-methane yield sheep have smaller rumens and shorter rumen retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goopy, John P; Donaldson, Alastair; Hegarty, Roger; Vercoe, Philip E; Haynes, Fay; Barnett, Mark; Oddy, V Hutton

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, following the measurement of methane emissions from 160 mature ewes three times, a subset of twenty ewes was selected for further emission and physiological studies. Ewes were selected on the basis of methane yield (MY; g CH4/kg DM intake) being low (Low MY: >1 sd below the mean; n 10) or high (High MY: >1 sd above the mean; n 10) when fed a blended chaff ration at a fixed feeding level (1·2-fold maintenance energy requirements). The difference between the Low- and High-MY groups observed at the time of selection was maintained (P= 0·001) when remeasured 1-7 months later during digesta kinetics studies. Low MY was associated with a shorter mean retention time of particulate (Psheep's rumens after an overnight fast revealed a trend towards the Low-MY sheep having more clearly demarcated rumen gas and liquid phases (P= 0·10). These findings indicate that the selection of ruminants for low MY may have important consequences for an animal's nutritional physiology.

  18. Gain of chromosome arm 1q in atypical meningioma correlates with shorter progression-free survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aims: Atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas have moderately high recurrence rates; even for completely resected tumours, approximately one-third will recur. Post-operative radiotherapy (RT) may aid local control and improve survival, but carries the risk of side effects. More accurate prediction of recurrence risk is therefore needed for patients with atypical meningioma. Previously, we used high-resolution array CGH to identify genetic variations in 47 primary atypical meningiomas and found that approximately 60% of tumors show gain of 1q at 1q25.1 and 1q25.3 to 1q32.1 and that 1q gain appeared to correlate with shorter progression-free survival. This study aimed to validate and extend these findings in an independent sample. Methods: 86 completely resected atypical meningiomas (with 25 recurrences) from two neurosurgical centres in Ireland were identified and clinical follow up was obtained. Utilizing a dual-colour interphase FISH assay, 1q gain was assessed using BAC probes directed against 1q25.1 and 1q32.1. Results: The results confirm the high prevalence of 1q gain at these loci in atypical meningiomas. We further show that gain at 1q32.1 and age each correlate with progression-free survival in patients who have undergone complete surgical resection of atypical meningiomas. Conclusions: These independent findings suggest that assessment of 1q copy number status can add clinically useful information for the management of patients with atypical meningiomas.

  19. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brandt

    Full Text Available Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings.

  20. Why was resistance to shorter-acting pre-emergence herbicides slower to evolve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Gayle J; Powles, Stephen B; Walsh, Michael J; Renton, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Across several agricultural systems the evolution of herbicide resistance has occurred more rapidly to post-emergence than pre-emergence herbicides; however, the reasons for this are not clear. We used a new simulation model to investigate whether interactions between differences in order of application and weed cohorts affected could explain this historically observed difference between the herbicide groups. A 10 year delay in resistance evolution was predicted for a shorter-acting residual pre-emergence (cf. post-emergence), when all other parameters were identical. Differences in order of application between pre- and post-emergence herbicides had minimal effect on rates of resistance evolution when similar weed cohorts were affected. This modelling suggested that the historically observed lower levels of resistance to pre-emergence herbicides are most likely to be due to the smaller number of weed cohorts affected by many pre-emergence herbicides. The lower number of weed cohorts affected by pre-emergence herbicides necessitated the use of additional, effective control measures, thereby reducing resistance evolution. This study highlights the advantages of applying multiple control measures to each weed cohort. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Shorter anogenital distance predicts poorer semen quality in young men in Rochester, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Stahlhut, Richard W; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    count (p-values, 0.002-0.048). Men with AGD(AS) below (vs. above) the median were 7.3 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 2.5-21.6) to have a low sperm concentration (7 × 106/mL and 51.6 × 106/mL at the 25th and 75th...... percentiles of (adjusted) AGD(AS). CONCLUSIONS: In our population, AGD(AS) was a strong correlate of all semen parameters and a predictor of low sperm concentration. In animals, male AGD at birth reflects androgen levels during the masculinization programming window and predicts adult AGD and reproductive...

  2. Evaluation of postradiotherapy PSA patterns and correlation with 10-year disease free survival outcomes for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Chan, Heather M.; Fearn, Paul A.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pattern profiles observed after external beam radiotherapy with and without short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ST-ADT) and to report the association of established posttreatment PSA patterns with long-term disease-free survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,665 patients were treated with conformal external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Of 570 patients who had the requisite >10 consecutive PSA measurements for statistical analysis, 194 patients received a median of 3 months of ADT before radiotherapy and 376 were treated with radiotherapy alone. The median follow up was 103 months. Results: In the group treated with ST-ADT, three distinct postradiotherapy PSA patterns were identified: a stable trend (44%), an increasing trend followed by stabilization of the PSA (25%), and an increasing trend (31%). Among the subgroup that demonstrated a rising and subsequent stabilizing patterns, PSA levels had gradually risen to a median value of 0.9 ng/mL after therapy, stabilized, and remained durably suppressed. The only identified trends among patients treated with external beam radiotherapy without ST-ADT were declining PSA levels followed by stable PSA trends or declining patterns followed by rising levels. Patients whose PSA levels stabilized after an initial rise or those with slowly rising PSA profiles had a lower incidence of distant metastasis compared to those with accelerated rises after therapy. Conclusions: For those treated with external beam radiotherapy in conjunction with ST-ADT, a significant percentage who develop a rising PSA after treatment are expected to manifest subsequent stabilization at plateaued levels of approximately 1.0 ng/mL, which can remain durably suppressed. The likelihood of distant metastasis in these patients is low despite the PSA stabilization at levels 1.0 ng/mL or higher and comparable to outcomes observed for those

  3. Coverage Probability of Random Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinjia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a general theory on the coverage probability of random intervals defined in terms of discrete random variables with continuous parameter spaces. The theory shows that the minimum coverage probabilities of random intervals with respect to corresponding parameters are achieved at discrete finite sets and that the coverage probabilities are continuous and unimodal when parameters are varying in between interval endpoints. The theory applies to common important discrete ...

  4. Support Vector Regression with Interval-Input Interval-Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensen An

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machines (classification and regression are powerful machine learning techniques for crisp data. In this paper, the problem is considered for interval data. Two methods to deal with the problem using support vector regression are proposed and two new methods for evaluating performance for estimating prediction interval are presented as well.

  5. Hypermetabolism in ALS is associated with greater functional decline and shorter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Frederik J; Ioannides, Zara A; van Eijk, Ruben P A; Heggie, Susan; Thorpe, Kathryn A; Ceslis, Amelia; Heshmat, Saman; Henders, Anjali K; Wray, Naomi R; van den Berg, Leonard H; Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A; Ngo, Shyuan T

    2018-04-29

    To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls. Longitudinal changes in clinical parameters between hypermetabolic and normometabolic patients with ALS were determined for up to 12 months following metabolic assessment. Survival was monitored over a 30-month period following metabolic assessment. Hypermetabolism was more prevalent in patients with ALS than controls (41% vs 12%, adjusted OR=5.4; pALS. Mean lower motor neuron score (SD) was greater in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (4 (0.3) vs 3 (0.7); p=0.04). In the 12 months following metabolic assessment, there was a greater change in Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale score in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (-0.68 points/month vs -0.39 points/month; p=0.01). Hypermetabolism was inversely associated with survival. Overall, hypermetabolism increased the risk of death during follow-up to 220% (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.4, p=0.03). Hypermetabolic patients with ALS have a greater level of lower motor neuron involvement, faster rate of functional decline and shorter survival. The metabolic index could be important for informing prognosis in ALS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Molloy

    Full Text Available The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session.We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr. However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased.Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  7. Dedicated Pediatricians in Emergency Department: Shorter Waiting Times and Lower Costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rocha Melo

    Full Text Available Dedicated pediatricians in emergency departments (EDs may be beneficial, though no previous studies have assessed the related costs and benefits/harms. We aimed to evaluate the net benefits and costs of dedicated emergency pediatricians in a pediatric ED.Cost-consequences analysis of visits to a pediatric ED of a tertiary hospital. Two pediatric ED Medical Teams (MT were compared: MT-A (May-September 2012, with general pediatrics physicians only; and MT-B (May-September 2013, with emergency dedicated pediatricians. The main outcomes analyzed were relevant clinical outcomes, patient throughput time and costs.We included 8,694 children in MT-A and 9,417 in MT-B. Medication use in the ED increased from 42.3% of the children in MT-A to 49.6% in MT-B; diagnostic tests decreased from 24.2% in MT-A to 14.3% in MT-B. Hospitalization increased from 1.3% in MT-A to 3.0% in MT-B; however, there was no significant difference in diagnosis-related group relative weight of hospitalized children in MT-A and MT-B (MT-A, 0.979; MT-B, 1.075. No differences were observed in ED readmissions or in patients leaving without being seen by a physician. The patient throughput time was significantly shorter in MT-B, with faster times to first medical observation. Within the cost domains analyzed, the total expenditures per children observed in the ED were 16% lower in MT-B: 37.87 euros in MT-A; 31.97 euros in MT-B.The presence of dedicated emergency pediatricians in a pediatric ED was associated with significantly lower waiting times in the ED, reduced costs, and similar clinical outcomes.

  8. Are Shorter Article Titles More Attractive for Citations? Cross-sectional Study of 22 Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between the length of the title of a scientific article and the number of citations it receives, in view of the common editorial call for shorter titles. Methods Title and the number of citations to all articles published in 2005 in 22 arbitrarily chosen English-language journals (n = 9031) were retrieved from citation database Scopus. The 2008 journal impact factors of these 22 journals were also retrieved from Thomson Reuters’ Journal Citation Report (JCR). Assuming the article title length as the independent variable, and the number of citations to the article as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was applied. Results The slope of the regression line for some journals (n = 6, when titles were measured in characters but 7 when titles were measured in words) was negative – none was significantly different from 0. The overall slope for all journals was 0.140 (when titles were measured in characters) and 0.778 (when titles were measured in words), significantly different from 0 (P articles with longer titles received more citations – Spearman ρ = 0.266 – when titles were measured in characters, and ρ = 0.244 when titles were measured in words (P 10 and for 2 out of 14 journals with impact factor <10 (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). Conclusion Longer titles seem to be associated with higher citation rates. This association is more pronounced for journals with high impact factors. Editors who insist on brief and concise titles should perhaps update the guidelines for authors of their journals and have more flexibility regarding the length of the title. PMID:20401960

  9. Rec-DCM-Eigen: reconstructing a less parsimonious but more accurate tree in shorter time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seunghwa; Tang, Jijun; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Bader, David A

    2011-01-01

    Maximum parsimony (MP) methods aim to reconstruct the phylogeny of extant species by finding the most parsimonious evolutionary scenario using the species' genome data. MP methods are considered to be accurate, but they are also computationally expensive especially for a large number of species. Several disk-covering methods (DCMs), which decompose the input species to multiple overlapping subgroups (or disks), have been proposed to solve the problem in a divide-and-conquer way. We design a new DCM based on the spectral method and also develop the COGNAC (Comparing Orders of Genes using Novel Algorithms and high-performance Computers) software package. COGNAC uses the new DCM to reduce the phylogenetic tree search space and selects an output tree from the reduced search space based on the MP principle. We test the new DCM using gene order data and inversion distance. The new DCM not only reduces the number of candidate tree topologies but also excludes erroneous tree topologies which can be selected by original MP methods. Initial labeling of internal genomes affects the accuracy of MP methods using gene order data, and the new DCM enables more accurate initial labeling as well. COGNAC demonstrates superior accuracy as a consequence. We compare COGNAC with FastME and the combination of the state of the art DCM (Rec-I-DCM3) and GRAPPA. COGNAC clearly outperforms FastME in accuracy. COGNAC--using the new DCM--also reconstructs a much more accurate tree in significantly shorter time than GRAPPA with Rec-I-DCM3.

  10. Rec-DCM-Eigen: reconstructing a less parsimonious but more accurate tree in shorter time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghwa Kang

    Full Text Available Maximum parsimony (MP methods aim to reconstruct the phylogeny of extant species by finding the most parsimonious evolutionary scenario using the species' genome data. MP methods are considered to be accurate, but they are also computationally expensive especially for a large number of species. Several disk-covering methods (DCMs, which decompose the input species to multiple overlapping subgroups (or disks, have been proposed to solve the problem in a divide-and-conquer way. We design a new DCM based on the spectral method and also develop the COGNAC (Comparing Orders of Genes using Novel Algorithms and high-performance Computers software package. COGNAC uses the new DCM to reduce the phylogenetic tree search space and selects an output tree from the reduced search space based on the MP principle. We test the new DCM using gene order data and inversion distance. The new DCM not only reduces the number of candidate tree topologies but also excludes erroneous tree topologies which can be selected by original MP methods. Initial labeling of internal genomes affects the accuracy of MP methods using gene order data, and the new DCM enables more accurate initial labeling as well. COGNAC demonstrates superior accuracy as a consequence. We compare COGNAC with FastME and the combination of the state of the art DCM (Rec-I-DCM3 and GRAPPA. COGNAC clearly outperforms FastME in accuracy. COGNAC--using the new DCM--also reconstructs a much more accurate tree in significantly shorter time than GRAPPA with Rec-I-DCM3.

  11. Expression of ANO1/DOG1 is associated with shorter survival and progression of breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jun Sang; Park, Jeong Yeol; Park, See-Hyoung; Ha, Sang Hoon; An, Ae Ri; Noh, Sang Jae; Kwon, Keun Sang; Jung, Sung Hoo; Park, Ho Sung; Kang, Myoung Jae; Jang, Kyu Yun

    2018-01-02

    The expression of ANO1 is considered to have diagnostic specificity for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. However, its function as a calcium-activated chloride channel suggests that the expression of ANO1 is not restricted to gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Recently, it has been reported that ANO1 has roles in the progression of human malignant tumors. However, the role of ANO1 in breast carcinoma has been controversial. Therefore, we investigated the expression of ANO1 in 139 breast carcinoma patients and the role of ANO1 in vitro . The immunohistochemical expression of ANO1 was significantly associated with the expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, MMP9, snail, and E-cadherin. Especially, ANO1 expression was an independent indicator of poor prognosis of shorter overall survival and relapse-free survival of breast carcinoma patients by multivariate analysis. In MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells, inhibition of ANO1 with T16Ainh-A01 or siRNA for ANO1 significantly suppressed the proliferation of cells. Knock-down of ANO1 with siRNA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and significantly inhibited the invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells. Knock-down of ANO1 decreased the expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, MMP9, snail, and N-cadherin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ANO1 expression is an indicator of poor prognosis of breast carcinoma patients and suggests that ANO1 might be a therapeutic target for breast carcinoma patients with ANO1-positive tumors and poor prognosis.

  12. Shorter exposures to harder X-rays trigger early apoptotic events in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJia Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant conditions are therapeutically treated and how radiation is used in combination with other therapies. Our research challenges the current dogma of dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and establishes a new parallel paradigm to the photoelectric effect in biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored how the energy of individual X-ray photons and exposure time, both factors that determine the total dose, influence the occurrence of cell death in early Xenopus embryo. Three different experimental scenarios were analyzed and morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis were evaluated. Initially, we examined cell death events in embryos exposed to increasing incident energies when the exposure time was preset. Then, we evaluated the embryo's response when the exposure time was augmented while the energy value remained constant. Lastly, we studied the incidence of apoptosis in embryos exposed to an equal total dose of radiation that resulted from increasing the incoming energy while lowering the exposure time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our data establish that the energy of the incident photon is a major contributor to the outcome of the biological system. In particular, for embryos exposed under identical conditions and delivered the same absorbed dose of radiation, the response is significantly increased when shorter bursts of more energetic photons are used. These results suggest that biological organisms display properties similar to the photoelectric effect in physical systems and provide new insights into how radiation-mediated apoptosis should be understood and

  13. Interval Entropy and Informative Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhroddin Misagh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shannon interval entropy function as a useful dynamic measure of uncertainty for two sided truncated random variables has been proposed in the literature of reliability. In this paper, we show that interval entropy can uniquely determine the distribution function. Furthermore, we propose a measure of discrepancy between two lifetime distributions at the interval of time in base of Kullback-Leibler discrimination information. We study various properties of this measure, including its connection with residual and past measures of discrepancy and interval entropy, and we obtain its upper and lower bounds.

  14. Affective and Enjoyment Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Overweight-to-Obese and Insufficiently Active Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nic; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Salomon, Kristen; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has many known physiological benefits, but research investigating the psychological aspects of this training is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the affective and enjoyment responses to continuous and high-intensity interval exercise sessions. Twenty overweight-to-obese, insufficiently active adults completed four counterbalanced trials: a 20-min trial of heavy continuous exercise and three 24-min HIIT trials that used 30-s, 60-s, and 120-s intervals. Affect declined during all trials (p < .05), but affect at the completion of trials was more positive in the shorter interval trials (p < .05). Enjoyment declined in the 120-s interval and heavy continuous conditions only (p < .05). Postexercise enjoyment was higher in the 60-s trial than in the 120-s trial and heavy continuous condition (p < .05). Findings suggest that pleasure and enjoyment are higher during shorter interval trials than during a longer interval or heavy continuous exercise.

  15. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  16. Effect of endurance and high intensity interval swimming training on cardiac structure and Hand2 expression of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Gharaat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In the situation of the present study, both of Endurance and Interval training regimens increase Hand2 gene expression, heart weight and left ventricle weight. Because of the shorter training time, high intensity interval training can be more beneficial to be executed.

  17. Procrastination by pigeons with fixed-interval response requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J E

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments studied the phenomenon of procrastination, in which pigeons chose a larger, more delayed response requirement over a smaller, more immediate response requirement. The response requirements were fixed-interval schedules that did not lead to an immediate food reinforcer, but that interrupted a 55-s period in which food was delivered at random times. The experiments used an adjusting-delay procedure in which the delay to the start of one fixed-interval requirement was varied over trials to estimate an indifference point--a delay at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. Experiment 1 found that as the delay to a shorter fixed-interval requirement was increased, the adjusting delay to a longer fixed-interval requirement also increased, and the rate of increase depended on the duration of the longer fixed-interval requirement. Experiment 2 found a strong preference for a fixed delay of 10 s to the start of a fixed-interval requirement compared to a mixed delay of either 0 or 20 s. The results help to distinguish among different equations that might describe the decreasing effectiveness of a response requirement with increasing delay, and they suggest that delayed reinforcers and delayed response requirements have symmetrical but opposite effects on choice. PMID:9540230

  18. Shorter survival rate in varus-aligned knees after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shang, Ping; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    One long-held tenet of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is that post-operative neutral limb alignment promotes implant durability. Recently, the concept of generic safe zone (0° ± 3°) has been challenged. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether neutral alignment was superior to malalignment in long-term survival of TKAs. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Chinese Periodical, Google and reference lists of all the included studies were searched. Of the 1512 studies initially identified, ten met the eligibility criteria, including eight case-control studies and two cohort trials. Relative risks of implant failure were compared between post-operative neutrally aligned and malaligned knees. Post-operative malalignment showed higher failure rate of knee implants compared with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.00-1.88, P = 0.05). Failure rate in knees with varus alignment was significantly higher than with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.07-2.55, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of implant failure between knees with valgus and neutral alignment (95 % CI 0.78-2.41, n.s.). No significant difference of failure rate was noted between neutral alignment and malalignment for fixed-bearing prothesis (95 % CI 0.94-1.95, n.s.) or rotating-platform prothesis (95 % CI 0.75-2.73, n.s.). There was no significant difference of failure rate between knees with neutral alignment and malalignment for studies with a mean follow-up of more than 10 years (95 % CI 0.81-2.01, n.s.) or studies using long-leg weight-bearing radiographs (95 % CI 0.79-1.79, n.s.). Post-operative varus alignment results in shorter survival rate after TKA. Not only neutral limb alignment but also the valgus alignment promotes implant durability. Neutral or valgus alignment rather than varus alignment is essential to achieve long-term survival of TKAs and patient satisfaction. III.

  19. Virtual HDR CyberKnife SBRT for Localized Prostatic Carcinoma: 5-year Disease-free Survival and Toxicity Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Blake Fuller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSEProstate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT may substantially recapitulate the dose distribution of high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy, representing an externally delivered Virtual HDR treatment method. Herein we present 5-year outcomes from a cohort of consecutively treated Virtual HDR SBRT prostate cancer patients.METHODSSeventy-nine patients were treated from 2006 - 2009, 40 low-risk and 39 intermediate-risk, under IRB-approved clinical trial, to 38 Gy in 4 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV included prostate plus a 2-mm volume expansion in all directions, with selective use of a 5-mm prostate-to-PTV expansion and proximal seminal vesicle coverage in intermediate-risk patients, to better cover potential extraprostatic disease; rectal PTV margin reduced to zero in all cases. The prescription dose covered > 95% of the PTV (V100 >= 95%, with a minimum 150% PTV dose escalation to create HDR-like PTV dose distribution.RESULTSMedian pre-SBRT PSA level of 5.6 ng/mL decreased to 0.05 ng/mL 5 years out and 0.02 ng/mL 6 years out. At least one PSA bounce was seen in 55 patients (70% but only 3 of them subsequently relapsed, Biochemical-relapse-free survival was 100% and 92% for low-risk and intermediate-risk patients, respectively, by ASTRO definition (98% and 92% by Phoenix definition. Local relapse did not occur, distant metastasis-free survival was 100% and 95% by risk-group, and disease-specific survival was 100%. Acute and late grade 2 GU toxicity incidence was 10% and 9%, respectively; with 6% late grade 3 GU toxicity. Acute urinary retention did not occur. Acute and late grade 2 GI toxicity was 0% and 1%, respectively, with no grade 3 or higher toxicity. Of patients potent pre-SBRT, 65% remained so at 5 years.CONCLUSIONSVirtual HDR prostate SBRT creates a very low PSA nadir, a high rate of 5-year disease-free survival and an acceptable toxicity incidence, with results closely resembling those reported post-HDR brachytherapy.

  20. Adjuvant IMRT/XELOX radiochemotherapy improves long-term overall- and disease-free survival in advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda-Heggemann, J.; Schneider, V.; Weiss, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In a retrospective analysis, adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with modern chemotherapy improved advanced gastric cancer survival rates compared to a combination of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional chemotherapy. We report on the long-term outcomes of two consecutive patient cohorts that were treated with either IMRT and intensive chemotherapy, or 3D-CRT and conventional chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Between 2001 and 2008, 65 consecutive gastric cancer patients received either 3D-CRT (n = 27) or IMRT (n = 38) following tumor resection. Chemotherapy comprised predominantly 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (5-FU/FA) in the earlier cohort and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) in the latter. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Median OS times were 18 and 43 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0602). Actuarial 5-year OS rates were 26 and 47 %, respectively. Within the IMRT group, XELOX gave better results than 5-FU/FA in terms of OS, but this difference was not statistically significant. The primary cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. Median DFS times were 14 and 35 months in the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups, respectively (p = 0.0693). Actuarial 5-year DFS rates were 22 and 44 %, respectively. Among patients receiving 5-FU/FA, DFS tended to be better in the IMRT group, but this was not statistically significant. A similar analysis for the XELOX group was not possible as 3D-CRT was almost never used to treat these patients. No late toxicity exceeding grade 3 or secondary tumors were observed. Conclusion: After a median follow-up period of over 5 years, OS and DFS were improved in the IMRT/XELOX treated patients compared to the 3D-CRT/5-FU/FA group. Long-term observation revealed no clinical indications of therapy-induced secondary tumors or renal toxicity. (orig.)

  1. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as recurrence in vastus intermedius after 22 years of long-term disease free survival: A rare metastatic presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Shaqul Qamar Wani; Talib Khan; Saiful Yamin Wani; Tariq Rasool Malik; Arshad Manzoor Najmi; Liza Rafiq Mir; Mohammad Ashraf Teli; Mohammad Maqbool Lone; Fir Afroz; Nazir Ahmad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has widespread and unpredictable metastatic potential, even when the curative nephrectomy is performed. RCC can metastasize via venous and lymphatic routes virtually to any site but commonly metastasizes to lungs, lymph nodes, bones, liver, and brain. Muscular metastases are rare from RCC. After 22 years of curative radical nephrectomy and disease-free follow-up, the patient presented with discomfort on walking and climbing upstairs and also complained of thigh swel...

  2. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  3. Investigations of model polymers: Dynamics of melts and statics of a long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, M.; Ceperley, D.; Frisch, H.L.; Kalos, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    We report additional results on a simple model of polymers, namely the diffusion in concentrated polymer systems and the static properties of one long chain in a dilute melt of shorter chains. It is found, for the polymer sizes and time scales amenable to our computer calculations, that there is as yet no evidence for a ''reptation'' regime in a melt. There is some indication of reptation in the case of a single chain moving through fixed obstacles. No statistically significant effect of the change, from excluded volume behavior of the long chain to ideal behavior as the shorter chains grow, is observed

  4. Factors influencing the abortion interval of second trimester pregnancy termination using misoprostol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Hua Ting

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Higher parity, intrauterine fetal demise, and preterm premature rupture of membranes were associated with shorter AI. The regimen of 200 μg oral misoprostol at 6-hour intervals following a 200 μg or 400 μg priming vaginal dose is feasible and efficacious for second trimester pregnancy termination.

  5. Diurnal lamotrigine plasma level fluctuations: clinical significance and indication of shorter half-life with chronic administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dahl, M.; Tommerup, E.

    2008-01-01

    of complaints indicating toxicity requires determination of drug levels when the symptoms are present. Our findings indicate that the t(1/2) of LTG with chronic treatment is shorter than generally assumed, and suggest that a slow-release formulation could be helpful in achieving full seizure control in patients...

  6. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  7. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13...

  8. Increased tumour ascorbate is associated with extended disease-free survival and decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activation in human colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eKuiper

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate is a co-factor for the hydroxylases that regulate the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1, which provides cancer cells with a metabolic and survival advantage in the hypoxic environment of solid tumors. However, whether ascorbate affects tumor development is a highly debated issue. We aimed to determine whether tumor ascorbate was associated with HIF-1 activation and patient disease-free survival. In this study we undertook a retrospective observational analysis of tissue-banked tumor and paired normal tissue from 49 colorectal cancer patients, measuring ascorbate levels, HIF-1α and its downstream gene products BNIP3 and VEGF. Patient survival was monitored for the first six years after surgery. We found that ascorbate levels were lower in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue (p< 0.001 but overall levels varied considerably. HIF-1α, VEGF and BNIP3 were elevated in tumor samples (p< 0.01. There was an inverse relationship between tumor ascorbate content and HIF-1 pathway activation (p=0.002 and tumor size (p=0.018. Higher tumor ascorbate content was associated with significantly improved disease-free survival in the first 6 years after surgery (p=0.006, with 141 - 1,094 additional disease free days. This was independent of tumor grade and stage. Survival advantage was associated with the amount of ascorbate in the tumor, but not with the amount in adjacent normal tissue. Our results demonstrate that higher tumor ascorbate content is associated decreased HIF-1 activation, most likely due to the co-factor activity of ascorbate for the regulatory HIF hydroxylases. Our findings support the need for future studies to determine whether raising tumor ascorbate is possible with clinical intervention and whether this results in modification of hydroxylase-dependent pathways in the tumor.

  9. A comparison of teeth and implants during maintenance therapy in terms of the number of disease-free years and costs -- an in vivo internal control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Øystein; Grytten, Jostein

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the cost minimization and cost effectiveness involved in maintaining teeth and implants for patients treated for periodontal disease. A retrospective study was carried out encompassing all patients who had initial periodontal treatment followed by implant placement and maintenance therapy in a specialist practice in Norway. The neighbouring tooth and the contra-lateral tooth were used as controls. The number of disease-free years and the extra cost over and above maintenance treatment for both teeth and implants were recorded. The sample consisted of 43 patients with an average age of 67.4 years. The patients had 847 teeth at the initial examination and received 119 implants. Two implants were removed 13 and 22 years after insertion. The prevalence of peri-implantitis was 53.5% at the patient level and 31.1% at the implant level. The prevalence of periodontitis was 53.4% at the patient level and 7.6% at the tooth level. The mean number of disease-free years was: implants: 8.66; neighbouring tooth: 9.08; contra-lateral teeth: 9.93. These mean values were not statistically significantly different from each other. The extra cost of maintaining the implants was about five times higher for implants than for teeth. The number of disease-free years was the same for neighbouring teeth, contra-lateral teeth and implants. However, due to the high prevalence of peri-implantitis, the cost of maintaining implants was much higher than the cost of maintaining teeth. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: radiologic-pathologic correlation of the response and disease-free survival depending on molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Ciria, S; Jiménez Aragón, F; García Mur, C; Esteban Cuesta, H; Gros Bañeres, B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic and pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their correlation in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to analyze their impact in disease-free survival. We included 205 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the radiologic response by comparing MRI images acquired before and after chemotherapy. The pathologic response was classified on the Miller and Payne scale. For each subtype (HER2+, TN, luminal A, luminal B HER2-, and luminal B HER2+), we used the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and Kendall's Tau-b to evaluate the radiologic response and the pathologic response, the radiologic-pathologic correlation, and the disease-free survival. The subtypes HER2+ (62.1%) and TN (45.2%) had higher rates of complete radiologic response. The pathologic response was 65.5% in the HER2+ subtype, 38.1% in the TN subtype, 2.6% in the luminal A subtype, 8.2% in the luminal B HER2- subtype, and 31% in the luminal B HER2+ subtype. The rate of radiologic-pathologic correlation was significant in all subtypes, higher in TN and HER2 (Tau-b coefficients 0.805 and 0.717, respectively). Disease-free survival was higher in HER2+ (91.9±3.3 months) and lower in TN (69.5±6.3 months), with significant differences between the cases with poor and good radiologic responses (P=.040). Survival was greater in cases with good radiologic response, except in cases with luminal A subtype. MRI can be a useful tool that provides information about the evolution of breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which varies with the immunohistochemical subtype. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more

  12. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov expone...

  13. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  14. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  15. Dynamic Properties of QT Intervals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Vondra, Vlastimil; Lipoldová, J.; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Kára, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2009), s. 517-520 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/1129; GA MŠk ME09050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : QT Intervals * arrhythmia diagnosis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2009/pdf/0517.pdf

  16. Effect of Interval to Definitive Breast Surgery on Clinical Presentation and Survival in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Perera, Francisco; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Hammond, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of clinical presentation and interval to breast surgery on local recurrence and survival in early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The data from 397 patients with Stage T1-T2N0 breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and breast radiotherapy between 1985 and 1992 were reviewed at the London Regional Cancer Program. The clinical presentation consisted of a mammogram finding or a palpable lump. The intervals from clinical presentation to definitive breast surgery used for analysis were 0-4, >4-12, and >12 weeks. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of the time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival were determined for the three groups. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical presentation and interval to definitive surgery on survival. Results: The median follow-up was 11.2 years. No statistically significant difference was found in local recurrence as a function of the interval to definitive surgery (p = .424). A significant difference was noted in disease-free survival (p = .040) and cause-specific survival (p = .006) with an interval of >12 weeks to definitive breast surgery. However, the interval to definitive surgery was dependent on the presentation for cause-specific survival, with a substantial effect for patients with a mammographic presentation and a negligible effect for patients with a lump presentation (interaction p = .041). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an interval of >12 weeks to breast surgery might be associated with decreased survival for patients with a mammographic presentation, but it appeared to have no effect on survival for patients presenting with a palpable breast lump.

  17. Comparative assessment of passive surveillance in disease-free and endemic situation: Example of Brucella melitensis surveillance in Switzerland and in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haracic Sabina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globalization and subsequent growth in international trade in animals and animal products has increased the importance of international disease reporting. Efficient and reliable surveillance systems are needed in order to document the disease status of a population at a given time. In this context, passive surveillance plays an important role in early warning systems. However, it is not yet routinely integrated in the assessment of disease surveillance systems because different factors like the disease awareness (DA of people reporting suspect cases influence the detection performance of passive surveillance. In this paper, we used scenario tree methodology in order to evaluate and compare the quality and benefit of abortion testing (ABT for Brucella melitensis (Bm between the disease free situation in Switzerland (CH and a hypothetical disease free situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH, taking into account DA levels assumed for the current endemic situation in BH. Results The structure and input parameters of the scenario tree were identical for CH and BH with the exception of population data in small ruminants and the DA in farmers and veterinarians. The sensitivity analysis of the stochastic scenario tree model showed that the small ruminant population structure and the DA of farmers were important influential parameters with regard to the unit sensitivity of ABT in both CH and BH. The DA of both farmers and veterinarians was assumed to be higher in BH than in CH due to the current endemic situation in BH. Although the same DA cannot necessarily be assumed for the modelled hypothetical disease free situation as for the actual endemic situation, it shows the importance of the higher vigilance of people reporting suspect cases on the probability that an average unit processed in the ABT-component would test positive. Conclusion The actual sensitivity of passive surveillance approaches heavily depends on the context in

  18. Comparative assessment of passive surveillance in disease-free and endemic situation: example of Brucella melitensis surveillance in Switzerland and in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, Daniela C; Haracic, Sabina Seric; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2008-12-22

    Globalization and subsequent growth in international trade in animals and animal products has increased the importance of international disease reporting. Efficient and reliable surveillance systems are needed in order to document the disease status of a population at a given time. In this context, passive surveillance plays an important role in early warning systems. However, it is not yet routinely integrated in the assessment of disease surveillance systems because different factors like the disease awareness (DA) of people reporting suspect cases influence the detection performance of passive surveillance. In this paper, we used scenario tree methodology in order to evaluate and compare the quality and benefit of abortion testing (ABT) for Brucella melitensis (Bm) between the disease free situation in Switzerland (CH) and a hypothetical disease free situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), taking into account DA levels assumed for the current endemic situation in BH. The structure and input parameters of the scenario tree were identical for CH and BH with the exception of population data in small ruminants and the DA in farmers and veterinarians. The sensitivity analysis of the stochastic scenario tree model showed that the small ruminant population structure and the DA of farmers were important influential parameters with regard to the unit sensitivity of ABT in both CH and BH. The DA of both farmers and veterinarians was assumed to be higher in BH than in CH due to the current endemic situation in BH. Although the same DA cannot necessarily be assumed for the modelled hypothetical disease free situation as for the actual endemic situation, it shows the importance of the higher vigilance of people reporting suspect cases on the probability that an average unit processed in the ABT-component would test positive. The actual sensitivity of passive surveillance approaches heavily depends on the context in which they are applied. Scenario tree modelling allows for

  19. Self-pacing in interval training: a teleoanticipatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew M; Bentley, Maria B; Mann, Michael E; Seaholme, Timothy S

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the concurrent use of Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and a new Perceived Readiness (PR) scale facilitates optimal interval training performance outcomes. Eleven competitive male runners completed outdoor interval track-running trials at a pre-set RPE. The PR scale was used to facilitate self-determined recovery, while minimum heart rate (HR) and work to rest ratio (WR) strategies were used as comparative conditions. Duplicate PR trial performances were similar but intercondition comparisons identified that the HR trial was significantly slower than both WR and PR conditions. There was no difference in performance between WR and PR, but recoveries for both PR trials were significantly shorter than for WR. Since the aim of interval training is to sustain performance with the shortest possible recovery time, the concurrent use of RPE and PR scales appears to be a useful psychophysiological technique to self- determine both work and rest in interval training. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Shorter adult stature increases the impact of risk factors for cognitive impairment: a comparison of two Nordic twin cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitala, Venla S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Koskenvuo, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Rinne, Juha O; Christensen, Kaare; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the association between mean height and old age cognition in two Nordic twin cohorts with different childhood living conditions. The cognitive performance of 4720 twin individuals from Denmark (mean age 81.6 years, SD = 4.59) and Finland (mean age 74.4 years, SD = 5.26) was measured using validated cognitive screens. Taller height was associated with better cognitive performance in Finland (beta-estimates 0.18 SD/10cm, p value < .001, for men and 0.13 SD, p = .008, for women), but this association was not significant in Denmark (beta-estimates 0.0093 SD, p value = .16, for men and 0.0075 SD, p value = .016, for women) when adjusted for age and education/social class. Among Finnish participants higher variability of cognitive performance within shorter height quintiles was observed. Analysis using gene-environment interaction models showed that environmental factors exerted a greater impact on cognitive performance in shorter participants, whereas in taller participants' it was explained mainly by genetic factors. Our results suggest that shorter participants with childhood adversity are more vulnerable to environmental risk factors for cognitive impairment.

  1. Calibration interval technical basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

    1998-09-01

    This document provides a method for the establishment and evaluation of calibration intervals for radiation protection instrumentation. This document is applicable to instrumentation used by personnel at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the measurement of radioactive contamination and the measurement and monitoring of radiation fields for protection of personnel and the environment. Special calibrations are not addressed by this document and should be handled separately

  2. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna; Andersen, Malene R; Colov, Nina P; Stender, Steen

    2010-04-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S, and protein C and in a subgroup of 186 women in addition for prothrombin time (PT), Owren and Quick PT, protein S activity, and total protein S and coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII. The level of coagulation factors II, V, X, XI, XII and antithrombin, protein C, aPTT, PT remained largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total protein S was stable. Gestational age-specific reference values are essential for the accurate interpretation of a subset of haemostatic tests during pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium.

  3. A comparison of cognitive function, sleep and activity levels in disease-free breast cancer patients with or without cancer-related fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Ollie; Stone, Patrick C

    2012-09-01

    Chronic fatigue is a feature in a subset of women successfully treated for breast cancer but is not well characterised. This study examines differences in objective cognitive function, activity levels and sleep in disease-free women who do and do not meet criteria for cancer-related fatigue syndrome (CRFS). Women between 3 months and 2 years after completion of any primary therapy were recruited from a cancer centre follow-up clinic. On the basis of a diagnostic semi-structured interview they were classified as being CRFS cases or non-fatigued controls. Participants underwent objective cognitive testing using a computerised battery, wore an activity monitor for 1 week and completed quality of life and fatigue questionnaires. 114 women were recruited (69 controls and 45 CRFS cases). There were significant differences between groups on fatigue, mood, sleep and quality of life scores, and in objective cognitive testing (tests of sustained attention, reaction time and verbal memory all psleep or in routine laboratory measures. Our preliminary results suggest that disease-free women with CRFS after successful breast cancer treatment have significantly lower subjective quality of life and mood. Additionally, objective cognitive impairment in certain domains may play an important role in the subjective manifestation of these symptoms. There is also objective evidence on actigraphy of differing levels of activity. The subjective sleep disturbance and higher prevalence of insomnia do not correlate with objective measures.

  4. Lymphocyte counts and responses to PHA and PPD following radiation therapy for breast cancer in patients who develop recurrent disease and those who remain clinically disease-free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, H.; Wasserman, J.; Wallgren, A.; Baral, E.; Petrini, B.; Idestroem, K.

    1980-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and stimulations by PHA and PPD in vitro were examined before and up to four years after local pre- or post-operative radiation therapy of 99 patients with breast cancer. The patient material was divided into those who remained clinically disease-free during a follow up period of 4.5-7 years and those who relapsed. Radiation therapy reduced the lymphocyte counts and PPD response to the same levels in both groups of patients; there were no essential differences in their recoveries, with the exception of a somewhat delayed recovery of the PPD-response in the patients who relapsed. PHA responses of the lymphocytes were not decreased following radiation therapy. The data indicate that these radiation induced changes of the peripheral lymphocyte population were similar both in patients who relapsed and those who remained symptom free. A group of 47 women with breast cancer that was treated by surgery only was examined similarly as a comparison. Patients from this group who developed local recurrences had higher lymphocyte counts than those who remained disease-free; patients who developed distant metastases had somewhat decreased PHA responses

  5. Mortality and morbidity in two-year disease-free survivors of small cell lung cancer after treatment with combination chemotherapy with or without irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnoshi, Taisuke; Hiraki, Shunkichi; Fujii, Masafumi

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term outcome of 148 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who had been entered into clinical trials of chemotherapy with or without thoracic and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) between 1981 and 1987. Eighteen patients (12%) survived for 2 or more years. With a minimum follow-up of 4.5 years, 10 of the 18 patients who remained disease-free at 2 years are currently alive and free of SCLC. Seven of these 10 patients currently function as they did before diagnosis. However, three suffer from central nervous system changes of varying degrees in severity which appeared 2-3 years after PCI. Eight of the 18 patients who were disease-free at 2 years have died. Two died of isolated relapse in the brain at 3.6 and 4.2 years after initiation of chemotherapy. Five died of other malignancies while continuing their complete response to SCLC; two of non-small cell lung cancer, two of acute myelogenous leukemia, and one of hepatocellular carcinoma. Another patient died of unrelated disease without any evidence of SCLC. A small but substantial proportion of patients who underwent intensive treatment will achieve long-term survival; however, these patients remain at higher risk for second cancers and late toxicities. Therefore, attention must be directed to defining the safety way to employ such treatment in the management of SCLC. (author)

  6. Statistical intervals a guide for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    Presents a detailed exposition of statistical intervals and emphasizes applications in industry. The discussion differentiates at an elementary level among different kinds of statistical intervals and gives instruction with numerous examples and simple math on how to construct such intervals from sample data. This includes confidence intervals to contain a population percentile, confidence intervals on probability of meeting specified threshold value, and prediction intervals to include observation in a future sample. Also has an appendix containing computer subroutines for nonparametric stati

  7. EFFECT OF INTERPREGNANCY INTERVAL ON SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY FOLLOWING A MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasooya Parail Sankaran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Primary Objective of this study was to determine the effect on interpregnancy interval on subsequent pregnancies after a miscarriage. Secondary Objective was to study the maternal and foetal complications following shorter interpregnancy interval. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done in OBG Department, Government TD Medical College, Alappuzha, during 2011 to 2013. A total of 347 cases were studied who have had a miscarriage before the current pregnancy. RESULTS Compared with women with an interpregnancy interval of 6-12 months, those who conceived again within six months were more likely to have another miscarriage and ectopic gestation (odds ratio 0.106, p value 0.000.. Compared with women with interpregnancy interval of <6 months, women who conceived again in 6-12 months went on to have a vaginal delivery in the second pregnancy (Odd’s ratio 0.79 and p value in is significant.Lower segment caesarean section (LSCS is significantly high in women whose interpregnancy interval is more than 12 months (Odds ratio 0.64 and p value 0.000. Maternal complications like APH, PPH, preeclampsia, hypertension, etc. were significantly seen higher in women whose interpregnancy interval is more than 12 months (odds ratio 0.41 p value- 0.000. The women with interpregnancy interval less than 6 months didn’t develop any significant foetal complications. Most of the complications like premature rupture of membrane (PROM, meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF, oligamnios, foetal growth restriction (FGR, etc. are seen more in the women with interpregnancy interval 6 to 12 months odds ratio (0.30 p value significant, but breech and foetal distress are seen significantly higher in women with interpregnancy interval more than 12 months (Odds ratio 0.29 p value 0.000. Induction of labour was not significantly raised in any group. CONCLUSION Women who conceive within 6 months of an initial miscarriage have the best reproductive outcomes and lower

  8. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others

  9. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov exponent...... (LE) from point processes differ between the two models. We also consider the problem of estimating the second LE and the possibility to diagnose hyperchaotic behavior by processing spike trains. Since the second exponent is quite sensitive to the structure of the ISI series, we investigate...

  10. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Sosnovtseva, Olga V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov exponent...... (LE) from paint processes differ between the two models. We also consider the problem of estimating the second LE and the possibility to diagnose hyperchaotic behavior by processing spike trains. Since the second exponent is quite sensitive to the structure of the ISI series, we investigate...

  11. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  12. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    , and protein C and in a subgroup of 186 women in addition for prothrombin time (PT), Owren and Quick PT, protein S activity, and total protein S and coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII. The level of coagulation factors II, V, X, XI, XII and antithrombin, protein C, aPTT, PT remained...... largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total...

  13. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery is associated with equivalent cost and shorter hospital stay when compared with traditional sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, Pavan; Stetson, Robert L; Hung, George; Gaffey, Ann C; Szeto, Wilson Y; Acker, Michael A; Hargrove, W Clark

    2016-02-01

    Mitral valve surgery is increasingly performed through minimally invasive approaches. There are limited data regarding the cost of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Moreover, there are no data on the specific costs associated with mitral valve surgery. We undertook this study to compare the costs (total and subcomponent) of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery relative to traditional sternotomy. All isolated mitral valve repairs performed in our health system from March 2012 through September 2013 were analyzed. To ensure like sets of patients, only those patients who underwent isolated mitral valve repairs with preoperative Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores of less than 4 were included in this study. A total of 159 patients were identified (sternotomy, 68; mini, 91). Total incurred direct cost was obtained from hospital financial records. Analysis demonstrated no difference in total cost (operative and postoperative) of mitral valve repair between mini and sternotomy ($25,515 ± $7598 vs $26,049 ± $11,737; P = .74). Operative costs were higher for the mini cohort, whereas postoperative costs were significantly lower. Postoperative intensive care unit and total hospital stays were both significantly shorter for the mini cohort. There were no differences in postoperative complications or survival between groups. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery can be performed with overall equivalent cost and shorter hospital stay relative to traditional sternotomy. There is greater operative cost associated with minimally invasive mitral valve surgery that is offset by shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Tumor Imaging With 18F-FDG and Secondary Shorter-Lived Tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid multi-tracer PET, where two to three PET tracers are rapidly scanned with staggered injections, can recover certain imaging measures for each tracer based on differences in tracer kinetics and decay. We previously showed that single-tracer imaging measures can be recovered to a certain extent from rapid dual-tracer 62Cu – PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu — ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging. In this work, the feasibility of rapidly imaging 18F-FDG plus one or two of these shorter-lived secondary trac...

  15. Optimization of a shorter variable-acquisition time for legs to achieve true whole-body PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takuro; Miwa, Kenta; Murata, Taisuke; Miyaji, Noriaki; Wagatsuma, Kei; Motegi, Kazuki; Terauchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively. The phantoms comprised two spheres (diameters, 10 and 17 mm) containing fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose solution with sphere-to-background ratios of 4 at a background radioactivity level of 2.65 kBq/mL. All PET data were reconstructed with acquisition times ranging from 10 to 180, and 1200 s. We visually evaluated image quality and determined the coefficient of variance (CV) of the background, contrast and the quantitative %error of the hot spheres, and then determined two shorter variable-acquisition protocols for legs. Lesion detectability and quantitative accuracy determined based on maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in PET images of a patient using the proposed protocols were also evaluated. A larger phantom and a shorter acquisition time resulted in increased background noise on images and decreased the contrast in hot spheres. A visual score of ≥ 1.5 was obtained when the acquisition time was ≥ 30 s for three leg phantoms, and ≥ 120 s for the NEMA phantom. The quantitative %errors of the 10- and 17-mm spheres in the leg phantoms were ± 15 and ± 10%, respectively, in PET images with a high CV (scan variable-acquisition time protocols in the clinical study were 3.1, 3.1 and 3.2, respectively, which did not significantly differ. Leg acquisition time per bed position of even 30-90 s allows axial equalization, uniform image noise and a maximum ± 15% quantitative

  16. Nosewitness Identification: Effects of Lineup Size and Retention Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C; Costa, Liliana P; Pinto, Elisa; Ferreira, Jacqueline H T; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Silva, Carlos F; Olsson, Mats J

    2016-01-01

    Although canine identification of body odor (BO) has been widely used as forensic evidence, the concept of nosewitness identification by human observers was only recently put to the test. The results indicated that BOs associated with male characters in authentic crime videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. To further evaluate nosewitness memory, we assessed the effects of lineup size (Experiment 1) and retention interval (Experiment 2), using a forced-choice memory test. The results showed that nosewitness identification works for all lineup sizes (3, 5, and 8 BOs), but that larger lineups compromise identification performance in similarity to observations from eye- and earwitness studies. Also in line with previous eye- and earwitness studies, but in disagreement with some studies on odor memory, Experiment 2 showed significant forgetting between shorter retention intervals (15 min) and longer retention intervals (1-week) using lineups of five BOs. Altogether this study shows that identification of BO in a forensic setting is possible and has limits and characteristics in line with witness identification through other sensory modalities.

  17. Use of a novel shorter minimum caliber needle for creating endoscopic tattoos for preoperative localization: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ito, Sayo; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Kawakami, Takeshi; Wada, Takuya; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In colorectal cancer surgery, inadvertent deep injections during endoscopic tattooing can cause India ink leakage into the peritoneum, leading to complications or to poor visualization of the surgical plane. This ex vivo animal study compared the use of novel shorter, minimum caliber needles versus conventional injection needles for endoscopic tattooing. Four endoscopists used the novel needles and conventional needles to make ten endoscopic tattoos (five tattoos/needle type/endoscopist) in harvested porcine rectum using a saline test-injection method. India ink leakage and the success of the tattoo (i. e. visible, tattoos but for none of the novel needle tattoos ( P  = 0.02). Tattoos created using the novel needles were more successful than those made with the conventional needles: 18/20 (90 %) vs. 11/20 (55 %); P  = 0.01. The use of novel shorter minimum caliber needles may be safe and effective for endoscopic tattooing for preoperative localization prior to colorectal cancer surgery.

  18. Insulin aspart has a shorter duration of action than human insulin over a wide dose-range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, L; Roggen, K; Heinemann, L; Gottschalk, C; Kaiser, M; Arnolds, S; Heise, T

    2013-01-01

    Regular human insulin (RHI) at high doses shows prolongation of its duration of action potentially leading to late postprandial hypoglycaemia. This study compared late metabolic activity (4-12 and 6-12 h post-dosing) and duration of action (time to reach late half-maximal activity) over a range of doses between insulin aspart (IAsp) and RHI. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of subcutaneous IAsp and RHI (6, 12 and 24 (I)U) were compared in 16 healthy subjects in this double-blind, randomized, six-way crossover glucose clamp study. With increasing doses of both insulins, metabolic activity, insulin exposure, maximum metabolic effect and maximum serum insulin concentration increased linearly. Late metabolic activity was lower for IAsp than RHI at all doses, reaching statistical significance (p IAsp had a shorter duration of action at all doses (p IAsp, compared with RHI, showed a higher maximum metabolic effect at 12 and 24 (I)U (p IAsp showed a shorter duration of action and, particularly with doses of 12 and 24 (I)U, less late metabolic activity than RHI. These properties might contribute to the lower incidence of hypoglycaemia observed with IAsp versus RHI in clinical trials as lower late metabolic activity should decrease the risk of late postprandial hypoglycaemia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Some Characterizations of Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on new characterizations of convex interval games using the notions of exactness and superadditivity. We also relate big boss interval games with concave interval games and obtain characterizations of big boss interval games in terms of exactness and subadditivity.

  20. Combination of interval set and soft set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyun Qin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory and interval set theory are all mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties. This paper is devoted to the discussion of soft interval set and its application. The notion of soft interval sets is introduced by combining soft set and interval set. Several operations on soft interval sets are presented in a manner parallel to that used in defining operations on soft sets and the lattice structures of soft interval sets are established. In addition, a soft interval set based decision making problem is analyzed.

  1. Expression of Transketolase like gene 1 (TKTL1 predicts disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Wolf-Karsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended as standard therapy. So far, no predictive or prognostic molecular factors for patients undergoing multimodal treatment are established. Increased angiogenesis and altered tumour metabolism as adaption to hypoxic conditions in cancers play an important role in tumour progression and metastasis. Enhanced expression of Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor (VEGF-R and Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1 are related to hypoxic conditions in tumours. In search for potential prognostic molecular markers we investigated the expression of VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and TKTL1 in patients with LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab. Methods Tumour and corresponding normal tissue from pre-therapeutic biopsies of 33 patients (m: 23, f: 10; median age: 61 years with LARC treated in phase-I and II trials with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (cetuximab, irinotecan, capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy were analysed by quantitative PCR. Results Significantly higher expression of VEGFR-1/2 was found in tumour tissue in pre-treatment biopsies as well as in resected specimen after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy compared to corresponding normal tissue. High TKTL1 expression significantly correlated with disease free survival. None of the markers had influence on early response parameters such as tumour regression grading. There was no correlation of gene expression between the investigated markers. Conclusion High TKTL-1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in terms of 3 year disease-free survival in patients with LARC treated with intensified neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and may therefore serve as a molecular prognostic marker which should be further evaluated in randomised clinical trials.

  2. Auditory time-interval perception as causal inference on sound sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi eSawai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of a temporal pattern in a sub-second time scale is fundamental to conversation, music perception, and other kinds of sound communication. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. A simple example is hearing three successive sounds with short time intervals. The following misperception of the latter interval is known: underestimation of the latter interval when the former is a little shorter or much longer than the latter, and overestimation of the latter when the former is a little longer or much shorter than the latter. Although this misperception of auditory time intervals for simple stimuli might be a cue to understanding the mechanism of time-interval perception, there exist no model that comprehensively explains it. Considering a previous experiment demonstrating that illusory perception does not occur for stimulus sounds with different frequencies, it might be plausible to think that the underlying mechanism of time-interval perception involves a causal inference on sound sources: herein, different frequencies provide cues for different causes. We construct a Bayesian observer model of this time-interval perception. We introduce a probabilistic variable representing the causality of sounds in the model. As prior knowledge, the observer assumes that a single sound source produces periodic and short time intervals, which is consistent with several previous works. We conducted numerical simulations and confirmed that our model can reproduce the misperception of auditory time intervals. A similar phenomenon has also been reported in visual and tactile modalities, though the time ranges for these are wider. This suggests the existence of a common mechanism for temporal pattern perception over modalities. This is because these different properties can be interpreted as a difference in time resolutions, given that the time resolutions for vision and tactile are lower than those for audition.

  3. When one's sense of agency goes wrong: Absent modulation of time perception by voluntary actions and reduction of perceived length of intervals in passivity symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Schmidt, Kyran T; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Holmes, Nicholas P; Waters, Flavie A V

    2016-10-01

    Passivity symptoms in schizophrenia are characterised by an absence of agency for actions, thoughts and other somatic experiences. Time perception and intentional binding have both been linked to agency and schizophrenia but have not been examined in passivity symptoms. Time perception and intentional binding were assessed in people with schizophrenia (n=15 with, n=24 without passivity symptoms) and 43 healthy controls using an interval estimation procedure (200, 400 and 600ms intervals) with active, passive and observed movements. People with passivity symptoms did not display action-modulation of time perception, while those without passivity symptoms estimated intervals to be the same after active and observed movements. Additionally, both clinical samples reported intervals to be shorter with increasing interval length. We propose that impaired predictive processes may produce an overreliance on external cues and, together with shorter perceived intervals, lead to the subjective loss of agency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Shorter telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from older persons with sarcopenia: results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eMarzetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs has been associated with biological age and several chronic degenerative diseases. However, the relationship between telomere length and sarcopenia, a hallmark of the aging process, is unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether PBMC telomeres obtained from sarcopenic older persons were shorter relative to non-sarcopenic peers. We further explored if PBMC telomere length was associated with frailty, a major clinical correlate of sarcopenia.Methods. Analyses were conducted in 142 persons aged >/= 65 years referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic (University Hospital. The presence of sarcopenia was established according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with bioelectrical impedance analysis used for muscle mass estimation. The frailty status was determined by both the Fried’s criteria (physical frailty, PF and a modified Rockwood’s frailty index (FI. Telomere length was measured in PBMCs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction according to the Telomere/Single copy gene ratio (T/S method.Results. Among 142 outpatients (mean age 75.0 ± 6.5 years, 59.2% women, sarcopenia was diagnosed in 23 individuals (19.3%. The PF phenotype was detected in 74 participants (52.1%. The average FI score was 0.46 ± 0.17. PBMC telomeres were shorter in sarcopenic subjects (T/S = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.18 – 0.24 relative to non-sarcopenic individuals (T/S = 0.26; 95%: CI: 0.24 – 0.28; p = 0.01, independent of age, gender, smoking habit, or comorbidity. No significant associations were determined between telomere length and either PF or FI.Conclusion. PBMC telomere length, expressed as T/S values, is shorter in older outpatients with sarcopenia. The cross-sectional assessment of PBMC telomere length is not sufficient at capturing the complex, multidimensional syndrome of frailty.

  5. Costs associated with shorter duration of antibiotic therapy in hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate severe community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, B. C.; el Moussaoui, R.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Speelman, P.; Prins, J. M.; de Borgie, C. A. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in patients with uncomplicated pneumonia may be shorter than that recommended in the current guidelines. A shorter duration will probably also lead to a cost reduction. This study evaluates the costs associated with 3 versus 8 day antibiotic

  6. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients: a systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B; Perner, Anders; Holst, Lars B; Johansson, Pär I; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often transfused with red blood cells (RBC). During storage, the RBCs and storage medium undergo changes, which may have clinical consequences. Several trials now have assessed these consequences, and we reviewed the present evidence on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue blood. We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required information size was reached for mortality for a relative risk change of 20%. We may be able to reject a clinically meaningful effect of RBC storage time on mortality in transfused adult ICU patients as our trial sequential analyses reject a 10% relative risk change in death when comparing fresher versus older blood for transfusion.

  7. The Investment Model Scale (IMS): further studies on construct validation and development of a shorter version (IMS-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Lopes, Diniz

    2013-01-01

    The Investment Model (IM; Rusbult, 1980, 1983) has been widely used to study the development and maintenance of romantic relationships. Its components--satisfaction, quality of alternatives, investment size and commitment--are operationalized in the Investment Model Scale (IMS; Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998). Given its importance for personal relationships literature, this article presents the adaptation and validation of the IMS to Portugal, and the development and validation of a shorter version, the IMS-S. A confirmatory factor analysis replicates the IMS's original four factors structure. A similar structure was found for the IMS-S. For both versions, results show the instruments to have validity and good reliability. Results are discussed considering the scales' importance for studying romantic relationships.

  8. Isolation of a mutant line with shorter larval duration by induction of mutations in the silkworm Bombyx mori L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanya, G.; Sreerama Reddy, G.

    1982-01-01

    Induction of mutations by X-rays in the pure Mysore race of the silkworm, B. mori, has resulted in the isolation of a mutant line exhibiting a much shorter larval duration than the control. The 8th day eggs and 3rd instar larvae were exposed to variable doses of X-rays of 1000 and 2000 R respectively. The 8th day eggs were found to be more sensitive for irradiation. The mutant line isolated from the progenies of the irradiated eggs exhibits a relatively faster rate of development. In addition, the mutant line exhibits certain degree of improvement in the commercial characters such as cocoon weight, shell weight percentage of silk, etc. over those of controls. The significance of faster rate of development and improvement in the commercial characters of the mutant line are discussed in relation to economics of sericulture industry. (author)

  9. Isolation of a mutant line with shorter larval duration by induction of mutations in the silkworm Bombyx mori L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanya, G.; Sreerama Reddy, G.

    1982-02-01

    Induction of mutations by X-rays in the pure Mysore race of the silkworm, B. mori, has resulted in the isolation of a mutant line exhibiting a much shorter larval duration than the control. The 8th day eggs and 3rd instar larvae were exposed to variable doses of X-rays of 1000 and 2000 R respectively. The 8th day eggs were found to be more sensitive for irradiation. The mutant line isolated from the progenies of the irradiated eggs exhibits a relatively faster rate of development. In addition, the mutant line exhibits a certain degree of improvement in the commercial characters such as cocoon weight, shell weight percentage of silk, etc. over those of controls. The significance of faster rate of development and improvement in the commercial characters of the mutant line are discussed in relation to economics of sericulture industry.

  10. Shorter sleep duration in early pregnancy is associated with birth length: a prospective cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiye; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Li; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Li, Xiating; Xiao, Mei; Hao, Liping; Yang, Xuefeng; Yang, Nianhong; Wei, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between sleep duration in early pregnancy and fetal growth in a prospective cohort study of 3567 Chinese women. Pregnant women at 8-16 weeks of gestation were interviewed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire to assess sleep duration. Birth weight and birth length were measured by a midwife in the delivery room at birth; low birth weight (LBW) was defined as birth weight sleep duration was 8.39 ± 1.13 h/day. A total of 1290 women sleeping ≥9 h/day, 1563 sleeping 8 to sleeping 7 to sleeping sleeping 8 to sleeping sleeping sleeping habit or with a history of abortion (all p for interaction sleep duration in early pregnancy was associated with birth length. Our findings indicate that midday napping may be a protective factor for birth length among pregnant women with shorter sleep duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential intensity-dependent effects of magnetic stimulation on the longest neurites and shorter dendrites in neuroscreen-1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Huang, Whitney J.; Li, Kevin; Swanson, Roy; Cheung, Brian; Lin, Vernon W.; Lee, Yu-Shang

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Magnetic stimulation (MS) is a potential treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. This study investigates whether MS-regulated neuronal activity can translate to specific changes in neuronal arborization and thus regulate synaptic activity and function. Approach. To test our hypotheses, we examined the effects of MS on neurite growth of neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells over the pulse frequencies of 1, 5 and 10 Hz at field intensities controlled via machine output (MO). Cells were treated with either 30% or 40% MO. Due to the nature of circular MS coils, the center region of the gridded coverslip (zone 1) received minimal (∼5%) electromagnetic current density while the remaining area (zone 2) received maximal (∼95%) current density. Plated NS-1 cells were exposed to MS twice per day for three days and then evaluated for length and number of neurites and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Main results. We show that MS dramatically affects the growth of the longest neurites (axon-like) but does not significantly affect the growth of shorter neurites (dendrite-like). Also, MS-induced changes in the longest neurite growth were most evident in zone 1, but not in zone 2. MS effects were intensity-dependent and were most evident in bolstering longest neurite outgrowth, best seen in the 10 Hz MS group. Furthermore, we found that MS-increased BDNF expression and secretion was also frequency-dependent. Taken together, our results show that MS exerts distinct effects when different frequencies and intensities are applied to the neuritic compartments (longest neurite versus shorter dendrite(s)) of NS-1 cells. Significance. These findings support the concept that MS increases BDNF expression and signaling, which sculpts longest neurite arborization and connectivity by which neuronal activity is regulated. Understanding the mechanisms underlying MS is crucial for efficiently incorporating its use into potential therapeutic strategies.

  12. Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Tumor Imaging With F-FDG and Secondary Shorter-Lived Tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Noel F; McJames, Scott; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2009-10-01

    Rapid multi-tracer PET, where two to three PET tracers are rapidly scanned with staggered injections, can recover certain imaging measures for each tracer based on differences in tracer kinetics and decay. We previously showed that single-tracer imaging measures can be recovered to a certain extent from rapid dual-tracer (62)Cu - PTSM (blood flow) + (62)Cu - ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging. In this work, the feasibility of rapidly imaging (18)F-FDG plus one or two of these shorter-lived secondary tracers was evaluated in the same tumor model. Dynamic PET imaging was performed in four dogs with pre-existing tumors, and the raw scan data was combined to emulate 60 minute long dual- and triple-tracer scans, using the single-tracer scans as gold standards. The multi-tracer data were processed for static (SUV) and kinetic (K(1), K(net)) endpoints for each tracer, followed by linear regression analysis of multi-tracer versus single-tracer results. Static and quantitative dynamic imaging measures of FDG were both accurately recovered from the multi-tracer scans, closely matching the single-tracer FDG standards (R > 0.99). Quantitative blood flow information, as measured by PTSM K(1) and SUV, was also accurately recovered from the multi-tracer scans (R = 0.97). Recovery of ATSM kinetic parameters proved more difficult, though the ATSM SUV was reasonably well recovered (R = 0.92). We conclude that certain additional information from one to two shorter-lived PET tracers may be measured in a rapid multi-tracer scan alongside FDG without compromising the assessment of glucose metabolism. Such additional and complementary information has the potential to improve tumor characterization in vivo, warranting further investigation of rapid multi-tracer techniques.

  13. Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Tumor Imaging With 18F-FDG and Secondary Shorter-Lived Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid multi-tracer PET, where two to three PET tracers are rapidly scanned with staggered injections, can recover certain imaging measures for each tracer based on differences in tracer kinetics and decay. We previously showed that single-tracer imaging measures can be recovered to a certain extent from rapid dual-tracer 62Cu – PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu — ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging. In this work, the feasibility of rapidly imaging 18F-FDG plus one or two of these shorter-lived secondary tracers was evaluated in the same tumor model. Dynamic PET imaging was performed in four dogs with pre-existing tumors, and the raw scan data was combined to emulate 60 minute long dual- and triple-tracer scans, using the single-tracer scans as gold standards. The multi-tracer data were processed for static (SUV) and kinetic (K1, Knet) endpoints for each tracer, followed by linear regression analysis of multi-tracer versus single-tracer results. Static and quantitative dynamic imaging measures of FDG were both accurately recovered from the multi-tracer scans, closely matching the single-tracer FDG standards (R > 0.99). Quantitative blood flow information, as measured by PTSM K1 and SUV, was also accurately recovered from the multi-tracer scans (R = 0.97). Recovery of ATSM kinetic parameters proved more difficult, though the ATSM SUV was reasonably well recovered (R = 0.92). We conclude that certain additional information from one to two shorter-lived PET tracers may be measured in a rapid multi-tracer scan alongside FDG without compromising the assessment of glucose metabolism. Such additional and complementary information has the potential to improve tumor characterization in vivo, warranting further investigation of rapid multi-tracer techniques. PMID:20046800

  14. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  15. Drug discrimination under two concurrent fixed-interval fixed-interval schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, D E; Li, M

    2000-07-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a two-key concurrent fixed-interval (FI) 100-s FI 200-s schedule of food presentation, and later tinder a concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, in which the FI component with the shorter time requirement reinforced responding on one key after drug administration (pentobarbital-biased key) and on the other key after saline administration (saline-biased key). After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 100-s FI 200-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 66% (after pentobarbital) to 68% (after saline) of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 100-s component of the concurrent schedule. These birds made an average of 70% of their responses on both the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital and the saline-biased key after saline. After responding stabilized under the concurrent FI 40-s FI 80-s schedule, pigeons earned an average of 67% of their reinforcers for responding under the FI 40 component after both saline and the training dose of pentobarbital. These birds made an average of 75% of their responses on the pentobarbital-biased key after the training dose of pentobarbital, but only 55% of their responses on the saline-biased key after saline. In test sessions preceded by doses of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, ethanol, phencyclidine, or methamphetamine, the dose-response curves were similar under these two concurrent schedules. Pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and ethanol produced dose-dependent increases in responding on the pentobarbital-biased key as the doses increased. For some birds, at the highest doses of these drugs, the dose-response curve turned over. Increasing doses of phencyclidine produced increased responding on the pentobarbital-biased key in some, but not all, birds. After methamphetamine, responding was largely confined to the saline-biased key. These data show that pigeons can perform drug discriminations under concurrent

  16. Using the confidence interval confidently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Avijit

    2017-10-01

    Biomedical research is seldom done with entire populations but rather with samples drawn from a population. Although we work with samples, our goal is to describe and draw inferences regarding the underlying population. It is possible to use a sample statistic and estimates of error in the sample to get a fair idea of the population parameter, not as a single value, but as a range of values. This range is the confidence interval (CI) which is estimated on the basis of a desired confidence level. Calculation of the CI of a sample statistic takes the general form: CI = Point estimate ± Margin of error, where the margin of error is given by the product of a critical value (z) derived from the standard normal curve and the standard error of point estimate. Calculation of the standard error varies depending on whether the sample statistic of interest is a mean, proportion, odds ratio (OR), and so on. The factors affecting the width of the CI include the desired confidence level, the sample size and the variability in the sample. Although the 95% CI is most often used in biomedical research, a CI can be calculated for any level of confidence. A 99% CI will be wider than 95% CI for the same sample. Conflict between clinical importance and statistical significance is an important issue in biomedical research. Clinical importance is best inferred by looking at the effect size, that is how much is the actual change or difference. However, statistical significance in terms of P only suggests whether there is any difference in probability terms. Use of the CI supplements the P value by providing an estimate of actual clinical effect. Of late, clinical trials are being designed specifically as superiority, non-inferiority or equivalence studies. The conclusions from these alternative trial designs are based on CI values rather than the P value from intergroup comparison.

  17. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  18. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1989-08-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  19. Combined heavy smoking and drinking predicts overall but not disease-free survival after curative resection of locoregional esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peng Sun,1,2,* Cui Chen,3,* Fei Zhang,1,2,* Hang Yang,1,2 Xi-Wen Bi,1,2 Xin An,1,2 Feng-Hua Wang,1,2 Wen-Qi Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 3Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The prognostic impact of smoking and drinking on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC was scarcely discussed. We investigated the prognostic value of smoking and drinking and their relationships with clinicopathological characteristics in a large cohort of patients with locoregional ESCC.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 488 patients who underwent curative treatment at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2008. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between smoking and drinking and clinicopathological variables, the Kaplan–Meier method was used for 5-year overall survival (OS and disease-free survival, and Cox proportional hazards models were applied for univariate and multivariate analyses of variables with respect to OS and disease-free survival.Results: Heavy smokers were more likely to have advanced Tumor-Node-Metastases (TNM stage and higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio at diagnosis (P<0.05. Drinkers were more likely to have advanced TNM stage, to present with a larger tumor, and to undergo multidisciplinary treatment (P<0.05. For patients who used neither heavy tobacco nor alcohol, used either tobacco or alcohol, and used both, the 5-year OS rates and OS times were 57.4%, 46.4%, and 39.1% (P<0.05 and not reached, 55.2 months, and 41.2 months (P<0.05, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients who both heavily smoked and drank had 1.392 times the risk of dying during follow-up compared with

  20. Quality of life and sexuality in disease-free survivors of cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy alone: A comparison between total laparoscopy and laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meizhu; Gao, Huiqiao; Bai, Huimin; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible differences between total laparoscopy and laparotomy regarding their impact on postoperative quality of life and sexuality in disease-free cervical cancer survivors who received radical hysterectomy (RH) and/or lymphadenectomy alone and were followed for >1 year.We reviewed all patients with cervical cancer who had received surgical treatment in our hospital between January 2001 and March 2014. Consecutive sexually active survivors who received RH and/or lymphadenectomy for early stage cervical cancer were enrolled and divided into 2 groups based on surgical approach. Survivors were interviewed and completed validated questionnaires, including the European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire including 30 items, the Cervical Cancer-Specific Module of European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire including 24 items (EORTC QLQ-CX24), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI).In total, 273 patients with histologically confirmed cervical cancer were retrospectively reviewed. However, only 64 patients had received RH and/or lymphadenectomy alone; 58 survivors meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled, including 42 total laparoscopy cases and 16 laparotomy cases, with an average follow-up of 46.1 and 51.2 months, respectively. The survivors in the 2 groups obtained good and similar scores on all items of the European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire including 30 items and Cervical Cancer-Specific Module of European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire including 24 items, without significant differences after controlling for covariate background characteristics. To the date of submission, 21.4% (9/42) of cases in the total laparoscopy group and 31.2% (5/16) of cases in the laparotomy group had not resumed sexual behavior after RH. Additionally

  1. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  2. Skew products of interval maps over subshifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharaei, Masoumeh; Homburg, Ale Jan

    2016-01-01

    We treat step skew products over transitive subshifts of finite type with interval fibers. The fiber maps are diffeomorphisms on the interval; we assume that the end points of the interval are fixed under the fiber maps. Our paper thus extends work by V. Kleptsyn and D. Volk who treated step skew

  3. Consistency and Refinement for Interval Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delahaye, Benoit; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Interval Markov Chains (IMC), or Markov Chains with probability intervals in the transition matrix, are the base of a classic specification theory for probabilistic systems [18]. The standard semantics of IMCs assigns to a specification the set of all Markov Chains that satisfy its interval...

  4. Electrocardiographic PR Interval Duration and Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Skov, Morten Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Background Because of ambiguous reports in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between PR interval and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, heart failure, and pacemaker implantation, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. MethodsWe included 293,111 individuals...... into 7 groups based on the population PR interval distribution. Cox models were used, with reference to a PR interval between 152 and 161 ms (40th to ..., and 1805 pacemaker implantations. A short PR interval ( PR interval ( > 200 ms; HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.14-1.32; P

  5. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Hyperopic refractive error and shorter axial length are associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, Raghavan; Kawasaki, Ryo; Tay, Wan Ting; Cheung, Gemmy C M; Mitchell, Paul; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Y

    2010-12-01

    To describe the association between refractive errors, ocular biometry, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an Asian Malay population in Singapore. A population-based study of 3280 Malay individuals aged 40 to 80 years was conducted in Singapore. Early- and late-AMD signs were graded from retinal photographs according to the Wisconsin grading system. Autorefraction, followed by subjective refraction, was performed to obtain spherical equivalent refraction (SER) in diopters, with emmetropia defined as SER -0.5 to +0.5 D, hyperopia as > +0.5 D, and myopia as education, height, and systolic blood pressure. Each diopter increase in hyperopic refraction and each millimeter decrease in axial length was associated with an 8% (OR, 1.08; CI, 1.01-1.16; P = 0.03) and 29% (OR, 1.29; CI, 1.06-1.57; P = 0.01) increased risk of early AMD, respectively. No significant association was noted of refractive error and ocular biometry with late AMD. Hyperopic refractive error and shorter axial length are associated with early AMD in Asian eyes.

  7. Shorter duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep slow waves in EphA4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyburger, Marlène; Poirier, Gaétan; Carrier, Julie; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation. We observed that, compared with wild-type mice, knockout mice display a shorter duration of positive and negative phases of slow waves under baseline conditions and after sleep deprivation. However, the mutation did not change slow-wave density, amplitude and slope, and did not affect the sleep deprivation-dependent changes in slow-wave characteristics, suggesting that EphA4 is not involved in the response to elevated sleep pressure. Our present findings suggest a role for EphA4 in shaping cortical oscillations during sleep that is independent from sleep need. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Impact of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and bipolar radiofrequency device (Habib-4X) based hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma on tumour recurrence and disease-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Lee, Po-Huang; Kusano, Tomokazu; Reccia, Isabella; Jayant, Kumar; Habib, Nagy

    2017-11-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing liver resection using cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) or radiofrequency (RF) based device Habib-4X.
. We prospectively analyzed the data of 280 patients who underwent liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma at our institution from 2010-2012 with follow up till August 2016. The CUSA was used in the 163 patients whilst Habib-4X in 117 patients. The end points of analysis were oncological outcomes as disease recurrence, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, which has been compared with all other existing literature on the survival study. Compared with CUSA the reported incidence of recurrence was significantly lower, in Habib-4X group; p device Habib-4X, is safe and effective device for resection of hepatocellular carcinoma, in comparison to CUSA with better oncological outcomes, i.e., significantly lesser tumour recurrence and better DFS. This could be explained on the basis of systemic and local immunomodulatory effect involving induction of kupffer cells and effector CD-8 T cells that help in minimizing postoperative complications and bring more advantageous oncological outcomes.

  9. Prognostic Factors on the Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free and Relapse-Free Survival after Adult Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chung Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure of hematologic disorders by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is often associated with major complications resulting in poor outcome, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, relapse, and death. A novel composite endpoint of GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS in which events include grades 3-4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD requiring systemic therapy, relapse, or death is censored to completely characterize the survival without mortality or ongoing morbidity. In this regard, studies attempting to identify the prognostic factors of GRFS are quite scarce. Thus, we reviewed 377 adult patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT between 2003 and 2013. The 1- and 2-year GRFS were 40.8% and 36.5%, respectively, significantly worse than overall survival and disease-free survival (log-rank p 2 (p 2 (p<0.001, being male (p=0.028, and hematologic malignancy (p=0.010 were significant for poor outcome. The events between 1-year GRFS and 2-year GRFS predominantly increased in relapsed patients. With prognostic factors of GRFS, we could evaluate the probability of real recovery following HSCT without ongoing morbidity.

  10. Extremity preservation by combined modality therapy in sarcomas of the hand and foot: an analysis of local control, disease free survival and functional result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Loeffler, J.S.; Fraass, B.A.; Tepper, J.

    1983-01-01

    A primary tumor arising in the hand or foot represents an uncommon presentation for patients with Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or soft tissue sarcoma (STS). While there exists considerable literature on the treatment of extremity sarcomas, very little deals specifically with lesions of the hand or foot. It remains controversial whether these lesions can be successfully treated with combined modality therapy which preserves the extremity and maintains function. From 1972 to 1979, 10 patients with sarcomas arising in the hand or foot were treated with combined modality therapy at the National Cancer Institute. Seven patients with ES of bone received local irradiation to 5000 rad and combination chemotherapy following an incisional biopsy. Three patients with STS received a gross tumor excision and local irradiation to 6000 rad. Local control was achieved in nine patients (90%) with a follow-up of 30 to 119 months (median 56 months). These patients have complete or almost complete function of the treated extremity. Nine patients are alive with five patients remaining disease-free following the initial combined modality treatment. We conclude that for selected patients with sarcomas arising in the hand or foot, combined modality therapy which leaves the extremity intact results in excellent local tumor control and preserves function. Careful treatment planning is an essential aspect of successful radiation therapy of a hand or foot primary. Our treatment recommendations are outlined. This approach is a viable alternative to amputation in these patients

  11. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  12. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  13. Shorter waiting times from education to colonoscopy can improve the quality of bowel preparation: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Kim, Tae Oh; Seo, Joo Wan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Heo, Nae Yun; Park, Jongha; Park, Seung Ha; Yang, Sung Yeon; Moon, Young Soo

    2018-01-01

    Adequate bowel preparation is essential for an effective and safe colonoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of bowel preparation according to waiting times from education to colonoscopy. A prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized study was performed from December 2016 to March 2017. Patients were divided into two groups: within 2 weeks (group A, n=64) or more than 2 weeks (group B, n=66) from education about bowel preparation to colonoscopy. The primary outcome was the quality of bowel preparation as assessed by the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). The secondary outcome was the polyp and adenoma detection rate. A total of 130 patients were enrolled. The total BBPS score was significantly higher in group A (within 2 weeks from education to colonoscopy) than in group B (more than 2 weeks). Total BBPS scores were 8.25}0.97 in group A and 7.75}1.32 in group B (P=.017). The rate of good preparation (BBPS≥8) was higher in group A than in group B (78.1% vs. 59.1%, P=.020). The rates of polyp and adenoma detection were both slightly higher in group A (polyps, 42.2% vs. 38.5%, P=.667; adenoma, 31.2% vs. 22.7%, P=.275). A numerical trend was observed for the slightly superior polyp and adenoma detection rate in group A, but it was not statistically significant. This study demonstrated that shorter waiting times from education to colonoscopy can improve the quality of bowel preparation. Ensuring sufficient staff and equipment for endoscopy is one approach to reducing waiting times to colonoscopy. If waiting times can not be reduced, more contact through telephone, e-mail, and text messaging could be used to remind patients about information regarding bowel preparation.

  14. Conditional inactivation of TNFα-converting enzyme in chondrocytes results in an elongated growth plate and shorter long bones.

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    Kenta Saito

    Full Text Available TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.

  15. Low RAP80 mRNA expression correlates with shorter survival in sporadic high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Margarita; Karachaliou, Niki; Chaid, Imane; Queralt, Cristina; De Aguirre, Itziar; Del Carmen Gómez, María; Sanchez-Ronco, María; Radua, Joaquim; Ramírez, José Luís; Rosell, Rafael

    2017-03-02

    Homologous recombination (HR) is frequently impaired in sporadic high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (sHGSOC) due to deficiencies in BRCA1/2 genes, a situation associated with hypersensitivity to platinum compounds. Alterations in other genes can also cause HR deficiency. Preclinical data show that RAP80 is an HR-pathway-related gene that influences BRCA1 activity. RAP80 has been reported to affect outcome in some solid neoplasms. This study investigates the role of RAP80 in sHGSOC survival. mRNA expression of RAP80 was analyzed in tumor samples from 35 patients who postoperatively received standard platinum-based chemotherapy. The effects of RAP80 expression on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined by means of Cox regressions. The clinical variables known to have prognostic value (FIGO stage, residual disease at surgery, and debulking surgery) were included as covariates in the analysis. BRCA1 was analyzed given the moderate correlations with RAP80. Median follow-up, PFS and OS were 61.3, 20.2 and 62.8 months, respectively. Low RAP80 expression levels were associated with shorter PFS (HR = 1.449, p = 0.007) and OS (HR = 1.331, p = 0.047). This is the first study to show a potential prognostic role of RAP80 expression in patients with HGSOC. The results suggest that HR deficiency due to low RAP80 expression is not associated with hypersensitivity to platinum compounds in sHGSOC.

  16. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M and O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be

  17. Periodic, chaotic, and doubled earthquake recurrence intervals on the deep San Andreas fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R

    2010-06-11

    Earthquake recurrence histories may provide clues to the timing of future events, but long intervals between large events obscure full recurrence variability. In contrast, small earthquakes occur frequently, and recurrence intervals are quantifiable on a much shorter time scale. In this work, I examine an 8.5-year sequence of more than 900 recurring low-frequency earthquake bursts composing tremor beneath the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California. These events exhibit tightly clustered recurrence intervals that, at times, oscillate between approximately 3 and approximately 6 days, but the patterns sometimes change abruptly. Although the environments of large and low-frequency earthquakes are different, these observations suggest that similar complexity might underlie sequences of large earthquakes.

  18. Absence of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT is associated with poor disease-free survival in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Juan Xiang

    Full Text Available Tumor immunosurveillance is known to be of critical importance in controlling tumorigenesis and progression in various cancers. The role of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT in tumor immunosurveillance has recently been studied in several malignant diseases, but its role in breast cancer remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we found GILT as a significant different expressed gene by cDNA microarray analysis. To further determine the role of GILT in breast cancer, we examined GILT expression in breast cancers as well as noncancerous breast tissues by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, and assessed its association with clinicopathologic characteristics and patient outcome. The absence of GILT expression increased significantly from 2.02% (2/99 in noncancerous breast tissues to 15.6% (34/218 in breast cancer tissues (P<0.001. In accordance with its proliferation inhibiting function, GILT expression was inversely correlated with Ki67 index (P<0.05. In addition, absence of GILT was positively correlated with adverse characteristics of breast cancers, such as histological type, tumor size, lymph nodes status, and pTNM stage (P<0.05. Consistently, breast cancers with reduced GILT expression had poorer disease-free survival (P<0.005. Moreover, significantly decreased expression of GILT was found in both primary and metastatic breast cancer cells, in contrast to normal epithelial cells. These findings indicate that GILT may act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, in line with its previously suggested role in anti-tumor immunity. Thus, GILT has the potential to be a novel independent prognostic factor in breast cancer and further studies are needed to illustrate the underlying mechanism of this relationship.

  19. Reduced intensity haplo plus single cord transplant compared to double cord transplant: improved engraftment and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Besien, Koen; Hari, Parameswaran; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Liu, Hong-Tao; Stock, Wendy; Godley, Lucy; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Larson, Richard; Bishop, Michael; Wickrema, Amittha; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Shore, Tsiporah; Tsai, Stephanie; Rhodes, Joanna; Cushing, Melissa M.; Korman, Sandra; Artz, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are commonly used in adults lacking HLA-identical donors. Delays in hematopoietic recovery contribute to mortality and morbidity. To hasten recovery, we used co-infusion of progenitor cells from a partially matched related donor and from an umbilical cord blood graft (haplo-cord transplant). Here we compared the outcomes of haplo-cord and double-cord transplants. A total of 97 adults underwent reduced intensity conditioning followed by haplo-cord transplant and 193 patients received reduced intensity conditioning followed by double umbilical cord blood transplantation. Patients in the haplo-cord group were more often from minority groups and had more advanced malignancy. Haplo-cord recipients received fludarabine-melphalan-anti-thymocyte globulin. Double umbilical cord blood recipients received fludarabine-cyclophosphamide and low-dose total body irradiation. In a multivariate analysis, haplo-cord had faster neutrophil (HR=1.42, P=0.007) and platelet (HR=2.54, Pdisease (HR=0.26, Pdisease (HR=0.06, Pdisease-free, relapse-free survival was superior with haplo-cord (HR 0.63, P=0.002) but not overall survival (HR=0.97, P=0.85). Haplo-cord transplantation using fludarabine-melphalan-thymoglobulin conditioning hastens hematopoietic recovery with a lower risk of relapse relative to double umbilical cord blood transplantation using the commonly used fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-low-dose total body irradiation conditioning. Graft-versus-host disease-free and relapse-free survival is significantly improved. Haplo-cord is a readily available graft source that improves outcomes and access to transplant for those lacking HLA-matched donors. Trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers 00943800 and 01810588. PMID:26869630

  20. Current Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free, Relapse-Free Survival: A Dynamic Endpoint to Better Define Efficacy after Allogenic Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Scott R; Sizemore, Connie; Zhang, Xu; Ridgeway, Michelle; Solh, Melhem; Morris, Lawrence E; Holland, H Kent; Bashey, Asad

    2017-07-01

    An accurate measure of allogeneic transplant efficacy should take into account quality-of-life issues associated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, unlike death and relapse, GVHD morbidity is temporary in many patients, and this fact must be reflected in such an outcome measure. Therefore, we have defined a new composite endpoint, called current GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (CGRFS), which is the probability, at any time post-transplant, of being alive, in remission, and without clinically significant chronic GVHD, defined as moderate-severe by the National Institutes of Health consensus criteria. Chronic GVHD is considered a dynamic event, which can resolve once manifestations are quiescent and systemic immunosuppression discontinued. CGRFS is achieved through linear combination of relevant Kaplan-Meier estimates. We evaluated 422 consecutive patients receiving an allogeneic transplant at a single institution between January 2010 and July 2015. With a median follow-up of 36 months, estimated 3-year overall and disease-free survival was 60% and 54%, respectively. Conventionally defined GRFS at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years was 33%, 26%, 23%, and 22%, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding rates of CGRFS were 45%, 46%, 47%, and 49%, respectively. Patients living with active moderate-severe chronic GVHD decreased over time, quantitated at 23%, 14%, 7%, and 4%, respectively, at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years post-transplant. Whereas only approximately one-fourth of patients achieve transplant success as defined by conventional GRFS, nearly half of patients, by CGRFS, are considered cured without the morbidity of ongoing GVHD. We propose that CGRFS may represent a more dynamic and accurate estimate of long-term transplant effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Postmastectomy radiotherapy improves disease-free survival of high risk of locoregional recurrence breast cancer patients with T1-2 and 1 to 3 positive nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu He

    Full Text Available The indications for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT with T1-2 breast cancer and 1-3 positive axillary lymph nodes is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of PMRT in T1-2 breast cancer with 1-3 positive axillary lymph node.We retrospectively reviewed the file records of 79 patients receiving PMRT and not receiving PMRT (618 patients.The median follow-up was 65 months. Multivariate analysis showed that PMRT was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS (P = 0.010. Subgroup analysis of patients who did not undergo PMRT showed that pT stage, number of positive axillary lymph nodes, and molecular subtype were independent prognostic factors of LRFS. PMRT improved LRFS in the entire group (P = 0.005, but did not affect distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS (P = 0.494, disease-free survival (DFS (P = 0.215, and overall survival (OS (P = 0.645. For patients without PMRT, the 5-year LRFS of low-risk patients (0-1 risk factor for locoregional recurrence of 94.5% was significantly higher than that of high-risk patients (2-3 risk factors for locoregional recurrence (80.9%, P < 0.001. PMRT improved LRFS (P = 0.001 and DFS (P = 0.027 in high-risk patients, but did not improve LRFS, DMFS, DFS, and OS in low-risk patients.PMRT is beneficial in patients with high risk of locoregional recurrence breast cancer patients with T1-2 and 1 to 3 positive nodes.

  2. Integration Pattern of Human Papillomavirus Is a Strong Prognostic Factor for Disease-Free Survival After Radiation Therapy in Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jungnam; Shin, Hye-Jin; Park, Boram; Park, Seog-Yun; Yoo, Chong-Woo; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Youn-Jae; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Joo-Young

    2017-07-01

    The standard chemoradiation therapy currently used for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) patients does not reflect the biological heterogeneity of this disease, and there is an increasing need for the development of biomarkers that can help guide the individualized treatment regimens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of the integration pattern of human papillomavirus (HPV) in LACC patients. The HPV integration pattern was determined by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction, and the tumors were classified as the episomal pattern (group A), as the single-copy integrated or multicopy tandem repetition-integrated pattern (group B), or as undetectable HPV (group C). Ninety-eight LACC patients were included in a development dataset and 106 independent patients in a validation dataset. The multivariate Cox model was used to examine the effect of the HPV integration pattern on disease-free survival (DFS). The model was validated internally by the leave-one-out cross-validation method and externally by an independent dataset. After adjustment for significant prognostic factors (stage, histologic grade, histologic type, and tumor size), the HPV integration pattern was significantly associated with DFS in the development (P=.032) and validation (P=.023) datasets. Survival was worst in group C and best in group A. The multivariate model with HPV integration pattern as an explanatory variable showed good discrimination ability and could separate patients with different risk profiles. This study identified the HPV integration pattern, as determined by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction, as a strong prognostic biomarker for DFS in LACC patients treated by chemoradiation therapy. This finding may open the possibility of personalized treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Pathologic Nodal Classification Is the Most Discriminating Prognostic Factor for Disease-Free Survival in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Curative Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the effects of clinical and pathologic factors on disease-free survival (DFS) with the aim of identifying the most discriminating factor predicting DFS in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and curative resection. Methods and Materials: The study involved 420 patients who underwent preoperative CRT and curative resection between August 2001 and October 2006. Gender, age, distance from the anal verge, histologic type, histologic grade, pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, cT, cN, cStage, circumferential resection margin, type of surgery, preoperative chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, ypT, ypN, ypStage, and tumor regression grade (TRG) were analyzed to identify prognostic factors associated with DFS. To compare the discriminatory prognostic ability of four tumor response-related pathologic factors (ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG), the Akaike information criteria were calculated. Results: The 5-year DFS rate was 75.4%. On univariate analysis, distance from the anal verge, histologic type, histologic grade, pretreatment CEA level, cT, circumferential resection margin, type of surgery, preoperative chemotherapeutic regimen, ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG were significantly associated with DFS. Multivariate analysis showed that the four parameters ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG were, consistently, significant prognostic factors for DFS. The ypN showed the lowest Akaike information criteria value for DFS, followed by ypStage, ypT, and TRG, in that order. Conclusion: In our study, ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG were important prognostic factors for DFS, and ypN was the most discriminating factor.

  4. Factors affecting disease-free survival in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer who receive adjuvant trastuzumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÜNDÜZ, SEYDA; GÖKSU, SEMA SEZGIN; ARSLAN, DENIZ; TATLI, ALI MURAT; UYSAL, MÜKREMIN; GÜNDÜZ, UMUT RIZA; SEVINÇ, MERT MAHSUNI; COŞKUN, HASAN SENOL; BOZCUK, HAKAN; MUTLU, HASAN; SAVAS, BURHAN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. A total of 20–30% of patients with early-stage breast cancer develop recurrence within the first 5 years following diagnosis. Trastuzumab significantly improves overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early and locally advanced breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect DFS following adjuvant transtuzumab therapy. A total of 62 patients treated with trastuzumab for early and locally advanced breast cancer were included in our study. Data, including pathology, treatment and treatment outcome, rate of recurrence and laboratory tests, were retrospectively collected. There was no significant association between DFS and age, menopausal status, disease stage and hormone receptor status. The median follow-up was 48.4 months. The median DFS of patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab was 64.1 months. In addition, the median DFS was 44.3 vs. 66.8 months in patients with platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≤200 vs. >200, respectively (log-rank test; P=0.001), and 70 vs. 45 months in patients with eosinophil count ≤70 vs. >70×103/mm3 (log-rank test; P=0.001). Our data revealed the prognostic relevance of a decrease in the peripheral blood eosinophil count and PLR value following trastuzumab therapy in breast cancer. PLR and eosinophil count measurements are cost-effective, readily available worldwide, non-invasive and safe. Combined with other markers, such as patient age, tumor stage and tumor histology, may be effectively used for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26623060

  5. Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Pérez-Barbería

    Full Text Available Teeth in Cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. Tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. Little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environments and how these relate to life history traits to explain differences in population rates of tooth wear and longevity. We hypothesised that populations under harsh environmental conditions should be selected for more hypsodont teeth while sexual selection may maintain similar sex differences within different populations. We investigated the patterns of tooth wear in males and females of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus in Southern Spain and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus across Scotland, that occur in very different environments, using 10343 samples from legal hunting activities. We found higher rates of both incisor and molar wear in the Spanish compared to Scottish populations. However, Scottish red deer had larger incisors at emergence than Iberian red deer, whilst molars emerged at a similar size in both populations and sexes. Iberian and Scottish males had earlier tooth depletion than females, in support of a similar sexual selection process in both populations. However, whilst average lifespan for Iberian males was 4 years shorter than that for Iberian females and Scottish males, Scottish males only showed a reduction of 1 year in average lifespan with respect to Scottish females. More worn molars were associated with larger mandibles in both populations, suggesting that higher intake and/or greater investment in food comminution may have favoured increased body growth, before later loss of tooth efficiency due to severe wear. These

  6. Reference intervals and longitudinal changes in copeptin and MR-proADM concentrations during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; van der Linden, Ivon J M; Schrauwen, Lianne; Theeuwes, Alisia; de Groot, Monique J M; Ermens, Antonius A M

    2017-11-27

    Vasopressin and adrenomedullin and their stable by-products copeptin and midregional part of proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) are promising biomarkers for the development of preeclampsia. However, clinical use is hampered by the lack of trimester-specific reference intervals. We therefore estimated reference intervals for copeptin and MR-proADM in disease-free Dutch women throughout pregnancy. Apparently healthy low risk pregnant women were recruited. Exclusion criteria included current or past history of endocrine disease, multiple pregnancy, use of medication known to influence thyroid function and current pregnancy as a result of hormonal stimulation. Women who miscarried, developed hyperemesis gravidarum, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, hemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, diabetes or other disease, delivered prematurely or had a small for gestational age neonate were excluded from analyses. Blood samples were collected at 9-13 weeks (n=98), 27-29 weeks (n=94) and 36-39 weeks (n=91) of gestation and at 4-13 weeks post-partum (PP) (n=89). Sixty-two women had complete data during pregnancy and PP. All analyses were performed on a Kryptor compact plus. Copeptin increases during pregnancy, but 97.5th percentiles remain below the non-pregnant upper reference limit (URL) provided by the manufacturer. MR-proADM concentrations increase as well during pregnancy. In trimesters 2 and 3 the 97.5th percentiles are over three times the non-pregnant URL provided by the manufacturer. Trimester- and assay-specific reference intervals for copeptin and MR-proADM should be used. In addition, consecutive measurements and the time frame between measurements should be considered as the differences seen with or in advance of preeclampsia can be expected to be relatively small compared to the reference intervals.

  7. Perceptual biases for rhythm: The Mismatch Negativity latency indexes the privileged status of binary vs non-binary interval ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos Martin, X; Deltenre, P; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Rossion, B; Colin, C

    2007-12-01

    Rhythm perception appears to be non-linear as human subjects are better at discriminating, categorizing and reproducing rhythms containing binary vs non-binary (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:3) as well as metrical vs non-metrical (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:2.5) interval ratios. This study examined the representation of binary and non-binary interval ratios within the sensory memory, thus yielding a truly sensory, pre-motor, attention-independent neural representation of rhythmical intervals. Five interval ratios, one binary, flanked by four non-binary ones, were compared on the basis of the MMN they evoked when contrasted against a common standard interval. For all five intervals, the larger the contrast was, the larger the MMN amplitude was. The binary interval evoked a significantly much shorter (by at least 23 ms) MMN latency than the other intervals, whereas no latency difference was observed between the four non-binary intervals. These results show that the privileged perceptual status of binary rhythmical intervals is already present in the sensory representations found in echoic memory at an early, automatic, pre-perceptual and pre-motor level. MMN latency can be used to study rhythm perception at a truly sensory level, without any contribution from the motor system.

  8. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  9. Confidence Interval Approximation For Treatment Variance In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a random effects model with a single factor, variation is partitioned into two as residual error variance and treatment variance. While a confidence interval can be imposed on the residual error variance, it is not possible to construct an exact confidence interval for the treatment variance. This is because the treatment ...

  10. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  11. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  12. Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the

  13. Temporal processing dysfunction in schizophrenia as measured by time interval discrimination and tempo reproduction tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Karanasiou, Irene S; Kapsali, Fotini; Stachtea, Xanthy; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Tsianaka, Eleni I; Karakatsanis, Nikolaos A; Rabavilas, Andreas D; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K; Papadimitriou, George N

    2013-01-10

    Time perception deficiency has been implicated in schizophrenia; however the exact nature of this remains unclear. The present study was designed with the aim to delineate timing deficits in schizophrenia by examining performance of patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers in an interval discrimination test and their accuracy and precision in a pacing reproduction–replication test. The first task involved temporal discrimination of intervals, in which participants (60 patients with schizophrenia and 35 healthy controls) had to judge whether intervals were longer, shorter or equal than a standard interval. The second task required repetitive self-paced tapping to test accuracy and precision in the reproduction and replication of tempos. Patients were found to differ significantly from the controls in the psychoticism scale of EPQ, the proportion of correct responses in the interval discrimination test and the overall accuracy and precision in the reproduction and replication of sound sequences (p discriminate time intervals were associated with increased scores in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in comparison to good responders (p gender effects and there were no differences between subgroups of patients taking different kinds or combinations of drugs. Analysis has shown that performance on timing tasks decreased with increasing psychopathology and therefore that timing dysfunctions are directly linked to the severity of the illness. Different temporal dysfunctions can be traced to different psychophysiological origins that can be explained using the Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET).

  14. Fetal magnetocardiography: time intervals and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, P

    2004-11-30

    Biomagnetism in the perinatal domain has been dominated by fetal cardiology, and early work pointed out the potential of both fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI) and heart rate variability (HRV) for future clinical applications. Recent improvements in instrumentation have permitted numerous groups to investigate a substantial number of healthy fetuses in these two areas and to lay the groundwork for a delineation of normal ranges. With respect to fetal CTI it is now clear that in particular the duration of P wave, PR interval and QRS complex reflect fetal growth and development. Preliminary studies have shown that the age-adjusted CTI are shorter in growth-retarded fetuses and altered in cases of structural cardiac defects and in specific types of arrhythmia. Less work has been published on MCG-determined fetal HRV although parameters from both the time and frequency domains as well as complexity have been examined. Concomitant with the gradual change in heart rate during pregnancy, increases in time domain variables and complexity have been described for normal pregnancies. Furthermore, gestational age-related changes in specific spectral bands have been noted and increases in power have been documented at frequencies which are associated with fetal breathing movements. The fact that little has been reported to date on discriminatory power with respect to pathological states may be due to the lack of extended data acquisition in a clinical setting documenting acute states. Nonetheless, it may be expected that both fetal HRV and CTI will supplement standard fetal surveillance techniques in the near future.

  15. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  16. Physiology and its Importance for Reference Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    Reference intervals are ideally defined on apparently healthy individuals and should be distinguished from clinical decision limits that are derived from known diseased patients. Knowledge of physiological changes is a prerequisite for understanding and developing reference intervals. Reference intervals may differ for various subpopulations because of differences in their physiology, most obviously between men and women, but also in childhood, pregnancy and the elderly. Changes in laboratory measurements may be due to various physiological factors starting at birth including weaning, the active toddler, immunological learning, puberty, pregnancy, menopause and ageing. The need to partition reference intervals is required when there are significant physiological changes that need to be recognised. It is important that laboratorians are aware of these changes otherwise reference intervals that attempt to cover a widened inter-individual variability may lose their usefulness. It is virtually impossible for any laboratory to directly develop reference intervals for each of the physiological changes that are currently known, however indirect techniques can be used to develop or validate reference intervals in some difficult situations such as those for children. Physiology describes our life’s journey, and it is only when we are familiar with that journey that we can appreciate a pathological departure. PMID:24659833

  17. Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock.

  18. DNA copy number alterations, gene expression changes and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a 10 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; De Filippo, Carlotta; Castagnini, Cinzia; Toti, Simona; Acquadro, Francesco; Giudici, Francesco; Fazi, Marilena; Dolara, Piero; Messerini, Luca; Tonelli, Francesco; Luceri, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression changes have amply been encountered in colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the extent at which CNAs affect gene expression, as well as their relevance for tumor development, are still poorly defined. Here we aimed at assessing the clinical relevance of these parameters in a 10 year follow-up study. Tumors and normal adjacent colon mucosa, obtained at primary surgery from 21 CRC patients, were subjected to (i) high-resolution array CGH (a-CGH) for the detection of CNAs and (ii) microarray-based transcriptome profiling for the detection of gene expression (GE) changes. Correlations between these genomic and transcriptomic changes and their associations with clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed with the aim to identify molecular signatures associated with disease-free survival of the CRC patients during a 10 year follow-up. DNA copy number gains were frequently detected in chromosomes 7, 8q, 13, 19, 20q and X, whereas DNA copy number losses were frequently detected in chromosomes 1p, 4, 8p, 15, 17p, 18, 19 and 22q. None of these alterations were observed in all samples. In addition, we found that 2,498 genes were up- and that 1,094 genes were down-regulated in the tumor samples compared to their corresponding normal mucosa (p number gains, whereas decreased expression levels of the MUC1, E2F2, HRAS and SIRT3 genes were associated with copy number losses. Pathways related to cell cycle progression, eicosanoid metabolism, and TGF-β and apoptosis signaling, were found to be most significantly affected. Our results suggest that CNAs in CRC tumor tissues are associated with concomitant changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. In other genes epigenetic mechanism may be at work. Up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, appear to be associated with a poor survival. These alterations may, in addition to Dukes' staging

  19. Generalized production planning problem under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Abass

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.

  20. Dijet production at large rapidity intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.; Schmidt, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    We examine dijet production at large rapidity intervals at Tevatron energies, by using the theory of Lipatov and collaborators which resums the leading powers of the rapidity interval. We analyze the growth of the Mueller-navelet K-factor in this context and find it to be negligible. However, we do find a considerable enhancement of jet production at large transverse momenta. In addition, we show that the correlation in transverse momentum and azimuthal angle of the tagging jets fades away as the rapidity interval is increased. (orig.)

  1. PD-L1 marks a subset of melanomas with a shorter overall survival and distinct genetic and morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, D; Brusa, D; Merelli, B; Ciano, M; Audrito, V; Serra, S; Buonincontri, R; Baroni, G; Nassini, R; Minocci, D; Cattaneo, L; Tamborini, E; Carobbio, A; Rulli, E; Deaglio, S; Mandalà, M

    2014-12-01

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a cell surface molecule that plays a critical role in suppressing immune responses, mainly through binding of the PD-1 receptor on T lymphocytes. PD-L1 may be expressed by metastatic melanoma (MM). However, its clinical and biological significance remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether expression of PD-L1 in MM identifies a biologically more aggressive form of the disease, carrying prognostic relevance. PD-L1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using two different antibodies in primary tumors and paired metastases from 81 melanoma patients treated at a single institution. Protein expression levels were correlated with PD-L1 mRNA, BRAF mutational status and clinical outcome. PD-L1(+) and PD-L1(-) subsets of the A375 cell line were stabilized in vitro and compared using gene expression profiling and functional assays. Results were confirmed using xenograft models. PD-L1 membrane positivity was detected in 30/81 (37%) of patients. By multivariate analysis, Breslow thickness and PD-L1 membrane positivity were independent risk factors for melanoma-specific death {PD-L1 5% cutoff [hazard ratio (HR) 3.92, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.61-9.55 P melanoma. If confirmed, our clinical and experimental data suggest that PD-L1(+) melanomas should be considered a disease subset with distinct genetic and morpho-phenotypic features, leading to enhanced aggressiveness and invasiveness. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Direct Interval Forecasting of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness, wit......, without the prior knowledge of forecasting errors. The proposed approach has been proved to be highly efficient and reliable through preliminary case studies using real-world wind farm data, indicating a high potential of practical application.......This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness...

  3. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  4. Optimal prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Wu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness to ensure the quality. The proposed method does not involve the statistical inference or distribution assumption of forecasting errors needed in most existing methods. Case studies using real wind farm data from Australia have been...... penetration beforehand. This paper proposes a novel hybrid intelligent algorithm approach to directly formulate optimal prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization. Prediction intervals with Associated confidence levels are generated through...

  5. Establishing reference intervals in the coagulation laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellone, D D

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining a reference interval (RI) is a challenge for any laboratory and becomes more complicated in the coagulation laboratory due to testing on samples with limited stability on reagents that are poorly standardized. Reference intervals are required to be able to evaluate results in relation to a patients' hemostatic disorder. This becomes one of the most important tasks conducted in the coagulation laboratory. However, many laboratories lack the time, finances and in many cases the expertise to conduct this study. Many RI are obtained from package inserts, or from publications written by experts in lieu of laboratories conducting their own studies. An overview of validating reference intervals and options for verifying or transference of reference intervals is discussed. Based on the confidence interval and the acceptability of risk laboratories are willing to accept, coagulation laboratories have options to conduct robust studies for their RI. Data mining or global reference studies may help to provide data for age specific ranges. Pre-analytical variables and selection of healthy subjects have the largest impact on coagulation testing outcomes and need to be well controlled during the establishment of reference intervals. Laboratories have options in lieu of conducting a full validation on how to verify RI based on smaller RI studies or transference of RI after determining compatibility of the original RI study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Interval Size and Affect: An Ethnomusicological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarha Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses Huron and Davis's question of whether "The Harmonic Minor Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues" within any non-Western musical cultures. The harmonic minor scale and other semitone-heavy scales, such as Bhairav raga and Hicaz makam, are featured widely in the musical cultures of North India and the Middle East. Do melodies from these genres also have a preponderance of semitone intervals and low incidence of the augmented second interval, as in Huron and Davis's sample? Does the presence of more semitone intervals in a melody affect its emotional connotations in different cultural settings? Are all semitone intervals equal in their effect? My own ethnographic research within these cultures reveals comparable connotations in melodies that linger on semitone intervals, centered on concepts of tension and metaphors of falling. However, across different musical cultures there may also be neutral or lively interpretations of these same pitch sets, dependent on context, manner of performance, and tradition. Small pitch movement may also be associated with social functions such as prayer or lullabies, and may not be described as "sad." "Sad," moreover may not connote the same affect cross-culturally.

  7. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  8. The effect of shorter exposure versus prolonged exposure on treatment outcome in Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders - an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Griendt, Jolande M T M; van Dijk, Maarten K; Verdellen, Cara W J; Verbraak, Marc J P M

    2018-01-11

    Exposure and response prevention has shown to be an effective strategy and is considered a first-line intervention in the behavioural treatment of tic disorders. Prior research demonstrated significant tic reduction after 12 two hour sessions. In this open trial, the question is addressed whether, relative to these prolonged sessions, exposure sessions of shorter duration yield differential outcome for patients with tic disorders. A total of 29 patients diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder were treated with shorter exposure sessions (1 h), and these data were compared to the data from a study about prolonged exposure (2 h, n = 21). Outcome was measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Results suggest that after taking the difference in illness duration between the two groups into account, the effectiveness of shorter exposure sessions is not inferior to that of prolonged exposure. Results suggest that treatment with shorter exposure might be more efficient and more patients can be reached. Future research is needed to gain more insight into the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of behavioural treatments for tics.

  9. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding...

  10. N-Terminal Domains in Two-Domain Proteins Are Biased to Be Shorter and Predicted to Fold Faster Than Their C-Terminal Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etai Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis of proteomes in all kingdoms of life reveals a strong tendency for N-terminal domains in two-domain proteins to have shorter sequences than their neighboring C-terminal domains. Given that folding rates are affected by chain length, we asked whether the tendency for N-terminal domains to be shorter than their neighboring C-terminal domains reflects selection for faster-folding N-terminal domains. Calculations of absolute contact order, another predictor of folding rate, provide additional evidence that N-terminal domains tend to fold faster than their neighboring C-terminal domains. A possible explanation for this bias, which is more pronounced in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, is that faster folding of N-terminal domains reduces the risk for protein aggregation during folding by preventing formation of nonnative interdomain interactions. This explanation is supported by our finding that two-domain proteins with a shorter N-terminal domain are much more abundant than those with a shorter C-terminal domain.

  11. Discrimination of Urban Spaces with Different Level of Restorativeness Based on the Original and on a Shorter Version of Hartig et al.’s Perceived Restorativeness Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Negrín

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Restorativeness is defined as the potential of the environment to re-establish certain cognitive capacities related to human information processing. The most frequently used instrument for evaluating the restorativeness of places is the Perceived Restorativeness Scale, proposed by Hartig et al. (1991. Later on, shorter versions of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale were proposed. The aim of this work is to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of the original and of a shorter Spanish version of the PRS, considering urban settings previously selected for having different level of restorativeness, according to expert’s criteria. The study involved 244 students and used a 3 × 2 mixed experimental design, with two independent variables: Restorativeness of a place (between-subjects, which was manipulated by showing pictures of settings selected with varying levels of restorativeness (high, medium, low, and length of the scale (within-subjects, which was manipulated by asking subjects to fill in both the original and a shorter version of the PRS. The order of presentation of the two scales was counterbalanced. Results show an appropriate reliability for both version of the scale. Items of being-away, fascination, and coherence of the shorter scale correlate more strongly with the corresponding factor of the original scale, compared to the others factors. Both scales produce similar values for the perceived restorativeness of the different places, except for places with low restorativeness.

  12. Mifepristone-misoprostol dosing interval and effect on induction abortion times: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kate A; Topp, Nicole J; Shaw, Jonathan G; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effect of the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol administration on induction time (first misoprostol dose to abortion), total procedure time (mifepristone administration to abortion), and safety and efficacy in second-trimester induction abortion (13-24 weeks). We searched MEDLINE (1966-2012), ClinicalTrials.gov, POPLINE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register using search terms for second trimester, abortion, misoprostol, and mifepristone and reviewed reference lists of published reports. Our search revealed 138 articles of which 29 met inclusion criteria: 20 randomized controlled trials and nine observational studies. Studies were included if, in any study arm, mifepristone and misoprostol were used for medical abortion in the second trimester. Two authors independently reviewed the articles and abstracted the data using standardized data abstraction templates to summarize data. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Three studies directly compared a 1-day to 2-day mifepristone-misoprostol interval; they showed small differences in median induction times (weighted average 7.3 hours, range 7-8.5 for a 1-day interval; weighted average 6.8 hours, range 6.3-7.2 for a 2-day interval) and no significant difference in percent expelled by 12 hours or 24 hours. When all randomized studies using mifepristone and misoprostol were pooled by comparable mifepristone-misoprostol interval and misoprostol dose, induction times (first misoprostol dose to expulsion) were only 1-2 hours longer for a 12- to 24-hour interval compared with a 36-48-hour interval, whereas total abortion times (mifepristone to expulsion) were at least 18 hours longer in the 36- to 48-hour group. Induction times varied by misoprostol dosing, with 400-microgram misoprostol protocols resulting in shorter induction times than 200-microgram protocols. Shortening the mifepristone-misoprostol interval, thereby reducing total abortion time, does not compromise the safety or

  13. Interpregnancy Interval and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Record-Linkage Study Using the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coo, Helen; Brownell, Marni D; Ruth, Chelsea; Flavin, Michael; Au, Wendy; Day, Andrew G

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between the interpregnancy interval (IPI) and preterm birth, low birth weight, and SGA birth in a developed country with universal health coverage. We conducted a secondary analysis of data housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. All live births in Manitoba hospitals over a 29-year period were identified and consecutive births to the same mother were grouped into sibling pairs to calculate the IPI for the younger siblings. Logistic regression models were fit to examine the association between the IPI and adverse perinatal outcomes, adjusted for potentially confounding sociodemographic and clinical factors. In a cohort of more than 171 000 births and relative to IPIs of 18 to 23 months, IPIs shorter than 12 and longer than 23 months were associated with significantly increased odds of preterm birth overall and both medically indicated and spontaneous preterm births, low birth weight, and SGA birth. The strongest association observed was for intervals shorter than 6 months and spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.65-2.03). When the outcome was modelled as GA categories, the strongest association observed was for intervals shorter than 6 months and early preterm birth (health messaging in Canada. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kuzio

    2004-01-01

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  15. Association of a clinical knowledge support system with improved patient safety, reduced complications and shorter length of stay among Medicare beneficiaries in acute care hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonis, Peter A; Pickens, Gary T; Rind, David M; Foster, David A

    2008-11-01

    Electronic clinical knowledge support systems have decreased barriers to answering clinical questions but there is little evidence as to whether they have an impact on health outcomes. We compared hospitals with online access to UpToDate with other acute care hospitals included in the Thomson 100 Top Hospitals Database (Thomson database). Metrics used in the Thomson database differentiate hospitals on a variety of performance dimensions such as quality and efficiency. Prespecified outcomes were risk-adjusted mortality, complications, the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators, and hospital length of stay among Medicare beneficiaries. Linear regression models were developed that included adjustment for hospital region, teaching status, and discharge volume. Hospitals with access to UpToDate (n=424) were associated with significantly better performance than other hospitals in the Thomson database (n=3091) on risk-adjusted measures of patient safety (P=0.0163) and complications (P=0.0012) and had significantly shorter length of stay (by on average 0.167 days per discharge, 95% confidence interval 0.081-0.252 days, PUpToDate was used at each hospital. Mortality was not significantly different between UpToDate and non-UpToDate hospitals. The study was retrospective and observational and could not fully account for additional features at the included hospitals that may also have been associated with better health outcomes. An electronic clinical knowledge support system (UpToDate was associated with improved health outcomes and shorter length of stay among Medicare beneficiaries in acute care hospitals in the United States. Additional studies are needed to clarify whether use of UpToDate is a marker for the better performance, an independent cause of it, or a synergistic part of other quality improvement characteristics at better-performing hospitals.

  16. Confidence interval construction for the difference between two correlated proportions with missing observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nian-Sheng; Li, Hui-Qiong; Tang, Man-Lai; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Under the assumption of missing at random, eight confidence intervals (CIs) for the difference between two correlated proportions in the presence of incomplete paired binary data are constructed on the basis of the likelihood ratio statistic, the score statistic, the Wald-type statistic, the hybrid method incorporated with the Wilson score and Agresti-Coull (AC) intervals, and the Bootstrap-resampling method. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of the presented CIs in terms of coverage probability and expected interval width. Our empirical results evidence that the Wilson-score-based hybrid CI and the Wald-type CI together with the constrained maximum likelihood estimates perform well for small-to-moderate sample sizes in the sense that (i) their empirical coverage probabilities are quite close to the prespecified confidence level, (ii) their expected interval widths are shorter, and (iii) their ratios of the mesial non-coverage to non-coverage probabilities lie in interval [0.4, 0.6]. An example from a neurological study is used to illustrate the proposed methodologies.

  17. Computed assisted detection of interval breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, Kerstin; Bjurstam, Nils; Wilczek, Brigitte; Rostgaard, Lars; Egge, Elisabeth; Muren, Catharina

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine interval cancer detection rate for a system of computer assisted detection (CAD) and its influence on radiologists' sensitivity/specificity in a screen-like retrospective review situation. Materials and methods: Three screening radiologists reviewed previous screen images of 59 interval cancers mixed with other screening mammograms (ratio 1:5) and non-mixed. Mixed interval cases were interpreted both without and with aid of CAD. Results: CAD detected a number of 14 interval cancers while the three radiologists detected 17, 12 and 11 without and 16, 10 and 13 with CAD. Although CAD specificity was low (38%) no reduction in radiologists' specificity occurred using CAD (73%, 82% and 89% without and 78%, 90% and 92% with CAD). Non-mixed reading increased radiologists' detection rate to 21, 17 and 19 interval cancers respectively. Conclusion: Despite sufficiently high sensitivity for CAD alone no increase in radiologist sensitivity (or decrease in specificity) occurred with CAD. Improving CAD specificity, with unaffectedly high sensitivity, should make radiologists more inclined to revise interpretations according to CAD. The potential sensitivity increase, noted when using CAD as a double reader, could be realised in this way

  18. Return Intervals Approach to Financial Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    Financial fluctuations play a key role for financial markets studies. A new approach focusing on properties of return intervals can help to get better understanding of the fluctuations. A return interval is defined as the time between two successive volatilities above a given threshold. We review recent studies and analyze the 1000 most traded stocks in the US stock markets. We find that the distribution of the return intervals has a well approximated scaling over a wide range of thresholds. The scaling is also valid for various time windows from one minute up to one trading day. Moreover, these results are universal for stocks of different countries, commodities, interest rates as well as currencies. Further analysis shows some systematic deviations from a scaling law, which are due to the nonlinear correlations in the volatility sequence. We also examine the memory in return intervals for different time scales, which are related to the long-term correlations in the volatility. Furthermore, we test two popular models, FIGARCH and fractional Brownian motion (fBm). Both models can catch the memory effect but only fBm shows a good scaling in the return interval distribution.

  19. Sequence analysis of leg movements during sleep with different intervals (90 s) in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the time structure of leg movements during sleep occurring with an intermovement interval (onset-to-onset) shorter than 10 s in patients with restless legs syndrome and controls, and to compare it to the structure of movements with intervals of 10-90 s or >90 s. Polysomnographic recordings of 141 untreated patients and 68 age-matched normal controls were analysed. All movements were detected and classified into three categories, separated by intervals of 90 s. The number of movements included in each category was significantly higher in patients than in controls. The movements with an interval of >90 s occurred steadily during the night, whereas the hourly distribution of movements with intervals of 90 s. The time structure features of the three categories of movements considered in this study were found to be clearly different. This, together with previous observations on the differential effects of dopamine agonists on movements with different intervals, suggests that movements with intervals of 90 s are regulated by neurotransmitter mechanisms different from those modulating movements with an interval of 10-90 s. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. The Case for Common Reference Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham RD; Barker, Antony; Tate, Jill; Lim, Chen-Fee; Robertson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The current paradigm for pathology reference intervals is for each laboratory to determine its own interval for use with each test offered by the laboratory. It is our contention that this approach does not best serve the medical community, especially at a time when electronic databases of health information are being expanded and integrated. We also believe that this approach is not performed well in many laboratories and is excessively expensive in practice. In contrast, we believe that the preferable option is to develop and apply common reference intervals throughout Australia and New Zealand, together with common reporting formats and assay standardisation wherever this is possible. We are aware that these are neither trivial nor simple issues, however we believe that failure to achieve this goal where technically possible will be a failure of the pathology profession to meet the challenges of the modern health community. PMID:18458709

  1. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  2. Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2002-01-01

    of a direction of an interval, and present a sound and complete Hilbert proof system for it. Because of its generality, SIL can conveniently act as a general formalism in which other interval logics can be encoded. We develop proof theory for SIL including both a sequent calculus system and a labelled natural...... deduction system. We conduct theoretical investigations of the systems with respect to subformula properties, proof search, etc. The generic theorem proving system Isabelle is used as a framework for encoding both proof theoretical systems. We consider a number of examples/small case-studies and discuss...

  3. POSTMORTAL CHANGES AND ASSESSMENT OF POSTMORTEM INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in a simple way the changes that occur in the body after death.They develop in a specific order, and the speed of their development and their expression are strongly influenced by various endogenous and exogenous factors. The aim of the authors is to indicate the characteristics of the postmortem changes, and their significance in establishing time since death, which can be established precisely within 72 hours. Accurate evaluation of the age of the corpse based on the common changes is not possible with longer postmortem intervals, so the entomological findings become the most significant change on the corpse for determination of the postmortem interval (PMI.

  4. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... of the situation-specific uncertainty of point forecasts. In order to avoid a restrictive assumption on the shape of forecast error distributions, focus is given to an empirical and nonparametric approach named adapted resampling. This approach employs a fuzzy inference model that permits to integrate expertise...

  5. Risk based surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    First step towards the risk based regulation is to determine the optimal surveillance test intervals for the safety equipment which is tested at nuclear power plant operation. In the paper we have presented the process of optimal surveillance test interval optimization from our perspective. It consist of three levels: component level, system level and plant level. It bases on the results of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment and is focused to minimize risk. At component and system level the risk measure is component or system mean unavailability respectively. At plant level the risk measure is core damage frequency. (author)

  6. Is an interval the right result of arithmetic operations on intervals?

    OpenAIRE

    Piegat Andrzej; Landowski Marek

    2017-01-01

    For many scientists interval arithmetic (IA, I arithmetic) seems to be easy and simple. However, this is not true. Interval arithmetic is complicated. This is confirmed by the fact that, for years, new, alternative versions of this arithmetic have been created and published. These new versions tried to remove shortcomings and weaknesses of previously proposed options of the arithmetic, which decreased the prestige not only of interval arithmetic itself, but also of fuzzy arithmetic, which, to...

  7. Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Kireenkov, Igor S; Nifontov, Eugene M

    2009-01-01

    We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function P Q (r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability W Q (t; Δt) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next Δt heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

  8. Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392, Giessen (Germany); Kireenkov, Igor S; Nifontov, Eugene M [Faculty Therapy Department, Pavlov State Medical University, Lev Tolstoy Street 6/8, 197022, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Mikhail.Bogachev@physik.uni-giessen.de

    2009-06-15

    We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function P{sub Q}(r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability W{sub Q}(t; {delta}t) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next {delta}t heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

  9. Humoral immune failure defined by immunoglobulin class and immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency is associated with shorter treatment-free and overall survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassini, Kyle R; Zhang, Eva; Balendran, Shalini; Freeman, Jane A; Best, O Giles; Forsyth, Cecily J; Mackinlay, Naomi J; Han, Ping; Stevenson, William S; Mulligan, Stephen P

    2018-04-01

    Immune dysfunction attributed to hypogammaglobulinaemia is common in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. A higher incidence of multiple immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency was associated with more advanced disease (P < 0·001 and P < 0·001, respectively) in a cohort of 147 CLL patients. Multiple immunoglobulin and IgG subclass deficiency were significantly associated with shorter treatment-free survival (TFS) (P < 0·001 and P = 0·006, respectively). The association between disease stage and immune dysfunction demonstrated by these data suggest aspects of immune deficiency correlate with disease severity and may be associated with shorter TFS in CLL. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  11. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  12. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  13. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  14. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  15. Quinsy tonsillectomy or interval tonsillectomy - a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-one patients with peritonsillar abscesses were randomised to undergo either quinsy tonsillectomy (aT) or interval tonsillectomy (IT), and the two groups were compared. The QT group lost fewer (10,3 v. 17,9) working days and less blood during the operation (158,6 ml v. 205,7 ml); haemostasis was easier and the ...

  16. Linear chord diagrams on two intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, Christian

    generating function ${\\bf C}_g(z)=z^{2g}R_g(z)/(1-4z)^{3g-{1\\over 2}}$ for chords attached to a single interval is algebraic, for $g\\geq 1$, where the polynomial $R_g(z)$ with degree at most $g-1$ has integer coefficients and satisfies $R_g(1/4)\

  17. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  18. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  19. A sequent calculus for signed interval logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2001-01-01

    We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SIL...

  20. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval...

  1. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  2. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  3. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  4. Point prevalence of access block and overcrowding in New Zealand emergency departments in 2010 and their relationship to the 'Shorter Stays in ED' target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter G; Olsen, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    To document the extent of access block and ED overcrowding in New Zealand in 2010 and to determine whether these were linked to the hospital's ability to meet the Shorter Stays in ED target. Surveys of all New Zealand EDs were undertaken at two points in time in 2010 to determine ED occupancy. Data on target achievement during corresponding time periods were obtained from the Ministry of Health. In tertiary and secondary hospitals, respectively, access block was seen in 64% versus 23% (P= 0.05) and overcrowding was seen in 57.1% versus 39% (P= 0.45). No hospital with access block met the 'Shorter Stays' target, compared with 60% without access block (P= 0.001). Twenty-three per cent of hospitals with ED overcrowding met the target compared with 43% without ED overcrowding (P= 0.42). The number of patients experiencing ≥8 h delay to admission were 25 in May and 59 in August (P= 0.04). This represented 45.5% and 79.7% of patients waiting for admission, respectively (P= 0.08). Hospital access block was seen more often in larger hospitals and significantly associated with failure to meet the 'Shorter Stays in ED' health target, whereas ED overcrowding was seen in both small and large hospitals, but not associated with failure to meet the target. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  5. Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to Presumed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mexican-American Men in NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48–2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52–2.62, resp.. Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006–0.79 and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006–0.24. Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.

  6. Retention interval and intertrial interval in a serial learning or delayed discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, E J; Miller, D J; Nawrocki, T M

    1986-01-01

    In each of four experiments, rats were provided with the same three-event decreasing series (18-1-0) of 0.045-g food pellets in a runway. Tracking, running fast to 18 pellets and running slow to 1 and 0 pellets, was investigated as a function of the temporal interval elapsing between the events of the series (the retention interval), shifts in retention interval, and number of trials each day (or the intertrial interval), a trial being defined as presentation of each of the three events of the series. Neither retention interval, which varied from 15 s to 30 min in various investigations, nor shifts in retention interval affected tracking when only one trial was given each day. But when more than one daily trial was given, tracking was acquired more slowly and was disrupted by a shift in retention interval from 15 s to 5 min. Tracking was also disrupted by a shift from one to two trials each day. These results indicate that when given one 18-1-0 trial each day, the rat partitions events on a first-event/subsequent-event basis; that little forgetting occurs even at long retention intervals; that somewhat different memories signal events when one or more than one 18-1-0 trial occurs each day; and that retention interval deficits can arise owing to the same or similar memories' signaling different events. The results described limit the generality of three hypotheses suggested in two recent investigations: that as retention interval increases, rats find it increasingly difficult to remember and utilize serial position cues; that tracking in serial tasks is not influenced by number of trials each day; and that there are specific stimuli associated with each retention interval which, when changed, necessarily disrupt performance.

  7. Haematological reference intervals in a multiethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeli Ambayya

    Full Text Available Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals.Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup.Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800.Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs.

  8. Selecting clinically relevant populations for reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert F; Palomaki, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    The selection of individuals to represent a group for any purpose can commit the effort to success or failure from the very outset. The description of this group must reflect what is, in reality, the purpose for which the group is being studied. Considering that reference intervals are designed to assist clinicians during diagnostic triage, criteria must reflect the nature of the subjects entering the system for care. The majority of people seeking care have non-life-threatening, yet troublesome complaints. In other words, persons who are in a reasonable state of health and who are not suffering from significant illness. Therefore the relevant cohort should fit this description, not individuals who lack any clinical or laboratory issues. Our focus is to employ reference intervals to exclude disease and not to define normality. Normality in the eyes of statisticians is quite different from the word as viewed by clinical staff, yet the term is used interchangeably without concern for its ultimate use. As a result medicine today stumbles over this issue at every turn. Scientists and artists do not speak the same language. Compounding this awkward situation has been the conviction that by increasing laboratory precision and accuracy, the utility of laboratory data, reference intervals in particular, will improve clinical understanding. This has, after many years, not proven to be the case. What has become very evident, however, is that unsustainably large sums of money are being devoted to improving laboratory performance. To what end, when we are unable to grasp the significance of what is available now including published reference intervals for common test values? A realistic perspective on the value of prevailing laboratory performance, as illustrated by reference intervals, must be adopted. The obligation of laboratories, its regulators and professional groups is to create a sustainable mechanism to provide clinically usable information, in a timely and affordable

  9. Nutritive Value Response of Native Warm-Season Forage Grasses to Harvest Intervals and Durations in Mixed Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temu, Vitalis W.; Rude, Brian J.; Baldwin, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Interest in management of native warm-season grasses for multiple uses is growing in southeastern USA. Forage quality response of early-succession mixed stands of big bluestem (BB, Andropogon gerardii), indiangrass (IG, Sorghastrum nutans), and little bluestem (SG, Schizachyrium scoparium) to harvest intervals (30-, 40-, 60-, 90 or 120-d) and durations (one or two years) were assessed in crop-field buffers. Over three years, phased harvestings were initiated in May, on sets of randomized plots, ≥90 cm apart, in five replications (blocks) to produce one-, two-, and three-year-old stands, by the third year. Whole-plot regrowths were machine-harvested after collecting species (IG and LB) sample tillers for leafiness estimates. Species-specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf-to-stem ratio (LSR) were greater for early-season harvests and shorter intervals. In a similar pattern, whole-plot crude protein concentrations were greatest for the 30-d (74 g·kg−1 DM) and the least (40 g·kg−1 DM) for the 120-d interval. Corresponding neutral detergent fiber (NDF) values were the lowest (620 g·kg−1 DM) and highest (710 g·kg−1 DM), respectively. In vitro dry matter and NDF digestibility were greater for early-season harvests at shorter intervals (63 and 720 g·kg−1 DM). With strategic harvesting, similar stands may produce quality hay for beef cattle weight gain. PMID:27135504

  10. Is an interval the right result of arithmetic operations on intervals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piegat Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For many scientists interval arithmetic (IA, I arithmetic seems to be easy and simple. However, this is not true. Interval arithmetic is complicated. This is confirmed by the fact that, for years, new, alternative versions of this arithmetic have been created and published. These new versions tried to remove shortcomings and weaknesses of previously proposed options of the arithmetic, which decreased the prestige not only of interval arithmetic itself, but also of fuzzy arithmetic, which, to a great extent, is based on it. In our opinion, the main reason for the observed shortcomings of the present IA is the assumption that the direct result of arithmetic operations on intervals is also an interval. However, the interval is not a direct result but only a simplified representative (indicator of the result. This hypothesis seems surprising, but investigations prove that it is true. The paper shows what conditions should be satisfied by the result of interval arithmetic operations to call it a “result”, how great its dimensionality is, how to perform arithmetic operations and solve equations. Examples illustrate the proposed method of interval computations.

  11. Optimizing Time Intervals of Meteorological Data Used with Atmospheric Dose Modeling at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Measured tritium oxide concentrations in air have been compared with calculated values using routine release Gaussian plume models for different time intervals of meteorological data. These comparisons determined an optimum time interval of meteorological data used with atmospheric dose models at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Meteorological data of varying time intervals (1-yr to 10-yr) were used for the comparison. Insignificant differences are seen in using a one-year database as opposed to a five-year database. Use of a ten-year database results in slightly more conservative results. For meteorological databases of length one to five years the mean ratio of predicted to measured tritium oxide concentrations is approximately 1.25 whereas for the ten-year meteorological database the ration is closer to 1.35. Currently at the Savannah River Site a meteorological database of five years duration is used for all dose models. This study suggests no substantially improved accuracy using meteorological files of shorter or longer time intervals

  12. Circadian profile of QT interval and QT interval variability in 172 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Wiegand, Uwe K H; Braasch, Wiebke

    2003-01-01

    The limited prognostic value of QT dispersion has been demonstrated in recent studies. However, longitudinal data on physiological variations of QT interval and the influence of aging and sex are few. This analysis included 172 healthy subjects (89 women, 83 men; mean age 38.7 +/- 15 years). Beat......-to-beat QT interval duration (QT, QTapex [QTa], Tend [Te]), variability (QTSD, QTaSD), and the mean R-R interval were determined from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms after exclusion of artifacts and premature beats. All volunteers were fully active, awoke at approximately 7:00 AM, and had 6-8 hours...... lower at day- and nighttime. Aging was associated with an increase of QT interval mainly at daytime and a significant shift of the T wave apex towards the end of the T wave. The circadian profile of ventricular repolarization is strongly related to the mean R-R interval, however, there are significant...

  13. Time-Interval Measurement of Stuttering: Modifying Interjudge Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigating interval-by-interval interjudge and intrajudge agreement for stuttered and nonstuttered speech intervals found that training of judges could improve reliability levels; judges with relatively high intrajudge agreement also showed relatively higher interjudge agreement; and interval-by-interval interjudge agreement was…

  14. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  15. Appendix mass: conservative management without interval appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J; Lindhard, A; Jensen, H E

    1984-09-01

    Forty-nine patients had conservative treatment of an appendix mass without interval appendectomy. Five were lost to follow-up within 6 months, and 44 patients were followed for between 6 months and 22 years. In nine patients (20 percent) recurrent appendicitis developed, and six (14 percent) suffered chronic pain not thought to be due to appendicitis. Of the recurrences, 66 percent occurred within 2 years of the initial attack. Barium examination of the cecum was successful in diagnosing two of three additional patients in whom a right iliac fossa mass was not due to appendicitis. The morbidity and expense of routine interval appendectomy was thus eliminated in 80 percent of the patients.

  16. Systolic Time Intervals and New Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2016-06-01

    Systolic time intervals have been used to detect and quantify the directional changes of left ventricular function. New methods of recording these cardiac timings, which are less cumbersome, have been recently developed and this has created a renewed interest and novel applications for these cardiac timings. This manuscript reviews these new methods and addresses the potential for the application of these cardiac timings for the diagnosis and prognosis of different cardiac diseases.

  17. Quinsy tonsillectomy or interval tonsillectomy - a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-one patients with peritonsillar abscesses were randomised to undergo either quinsy tonsillectomy (aT) or interval tonsillectomy (IT), and the two groups were compared. The aT group lost fewer (10,3 v. 17,9) working days and less blood during the operation (158,6 ml v. 205,7 ml); haemostasis was easier and the ...

  18. Understanding Confidence Intervals With Visual Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Navruz, Bilgin; Delen, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we showed how confidence intervals (CIs) are valuable and useful in research studies when they are used in the correct form with correct interpretations. The sixth edition of the APA (2010) Publication Manual strongly recommended reporting CIs in research studies, and it was described as “the best reporting strategy” (p. 34). Misconceptions and correct interpretations of CIs were presented from several textbooks. In addition, limitations of the null hypothesis statistica...

  19. Prolonged QT interval in Rett syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ellaway, C; Sholler, G; Leonard, H; Christodoulou, J

    1999-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. A prolonged QT interval has been described previously in patients with Rett syndrome. To investigate QT prolongation and the presence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias in Rett syndrome electrocardiography and 24 hour Holter monitoring were performed prospectively in a cohort of 34 girls with Rett syndrome. The corrected QT value was prolonged in nine patients. Compared with a group of healthy controls of a...

  20. Interval type–2 fuzzy decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Runkler, Thomas; Coupland, Simon; John, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full text on Nottingham eprints - http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/36609/ This paper concerns itself with decision making under uncertainty and the consideration of risk. Type-1 fuzzy logic by its (essentially) crisp nature is limited in modelling decision making as there is no uncertainty in the membership function. We are interested in the role that interval type-2 fuzzy sets might play in enhancing decision making. Previous work by Bellman and Zadeh considered decision making to be based...

  1. INTERVALS OPTIMIZATION OF SYSTEMS INFORMATION SECURITY INSPECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bogatyrev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Markov model is suggested for secure information systems, functioning under conditions of destructive impacts, which aftereffects are found by on-line and test control. It is assumed that on-line control, in contrast to the test one, is char- acterized by the limited control completeness, but does not require the stopping of computational process. The aim of re- search is to create models that optimize intervals of test control initialization by the criterion of probability maximization for system stay in the ready state to secure fulfillment of the functional requests and minimization of the dangerous system states in view of the uncertainty and intensity variance of the destructive impacts. Variants of testing intervals optimization are con- sidered depending on the intensity of destructive impacts by the criterion of the maximum system availability for the safe execution of queries. Optimization is carried out with and without adaptation to the actual intensity change of destructive impacts. The efficiency of adaptive change for testing periods is shown depending on the observed activity of destructive impacts. The solution of optimization problem is obtained by built-in tools of computer mathematics Mathcad 15, including symbolic mathematics for solution of systems of algebraic equations. The proposed models and methods of determining the optimal testing intervals can find their application in the system design of computer systems and networks of critical applications, working under conditions of destabilizing actions with the increased requirements for their safety.

  2. Early diastolic time intervals during hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, L; Ferro, G; Nappi, C; Farace, M J; Talarico, G; Cinquegrana, G; Condorelli, M

    1987-10-01

    Early diastolic time intervals have been assessed by means of the echopolycardiographic method in 17 pregnant women who developed hypertension during pregnancy (HP) and in 14 normal pregnant women (N). Systolic time intervals (STI), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and mean velocity of myocardial fiber shortening (VCF) were also evaluated. Recordings were performed in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) and then in the supine decubitus (SD). In LLD, isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) was prolonged in the hypertensive pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women (HP 51 +/- 12.5 ms, N 32.4 +/- 15 ms p less than 0.05), whereas time of the mitral valve maximum opening (DE) was not different in the groups. There was no difference in SV, EF, and mean VCF, whereas STI showed only a significant (p less than 0.05) lengthening of pre-ejection period (PEP) in HP. When the subjects shifted from the left lateral to the supine decubitus position, left ventricular ejection time index (LVETi) and SV decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in both normotensive hypertensive pregnant women. IRP and PEP lengthened significantly (p less than 0.05) only in normals, whereas they were unchanged in HP. DE time did not vary in either group. In conclusion, hypertension superimposed on pregnancy induces lengthening of IRP, as well as of PEP, and minimizes the effects of the postural changes in preload on the above-mentioned time intervals.

  3. Simplified interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang-Yin; Liao, Shih-Hui; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a self-evolving interval type-2 fuzzy neural network (FNN) for various applications. As type-1 fuzzy systems cannot effectively handle uncertainties in information within the knowledge base, we propose a simple interval type-2 FNN, which uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets in the premise and the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type in the consequent of the fuzzy rule. The TSK-type consequent of fuzzy rule is a linear combination of exogenous input variables. Given an initially empty the rule-base, all rules are generated with on-line type-2 fuzzy clustering. Instead of the time-consuming K-M iterative procedure, the design factors ql and qr are learned to adaptively adjust the upper and lower positions on the left and right limit outputs, using the parameter update rule based on a gradient descent algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that our approach yields fewer test errors and less computational complexity than other type-2 FNNs.

  4. Urban blackbirds have shorter telomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez-Alamo, Juan Diego; Pineda-Pampliega, Javier; Thomson, Robert L.; Aguirre, Jose I.; Diez-Fernandez, Alazne; Faivre, Bruno; Figuerola, Jordi; Verhulst, Simon

    Urbanization, one of the most extreme human-induced environmental changes, represents a major challenge for many organisms. Anthropogenic habitats can have opposing effects on different fitness components, for example, by decreasing starvation risk but also health status. Assessment of the net

  5. Too much of a good thing? Physician practices and patient willingness for less frequent pap test screening intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Helen I; Tiro, Jasmin A; Yabroff, K Robin; Haggstrom, David A; Coughlin, Steven S

    2010-03-01

    Recent guidelines recommend longer Pap test intervals. However, physicians and patients may not be adopting these recommendations. Identify (1) physician and practice characteristics associated with recommending a less frequent interval, and (2) characteristics associated with women's willingness to adhere to a 3-year interval. We used 2 national surveys: (1) a 2006/2007 National Survey of Primary Care Physicians for physician cervical cancer screening practices (N = 1114), and (2) the 2005 Health Information Trends Survey for women's acceptance of longer Pap intervals (N = 2206). MEASURES AND METHODS: Physician recommendation regarding Pap intervals was measured using a clinical vignette involving a 35-year-old with no new sexual partners and 3 consecutive negative Pap tests; associations with independent variables were evaluated with logistic regression. In parallel models, we evaluated women's willingness to follow a 3-year Pap test interval. A minority of physicians (32%) have adopted-but more than half of women are willing to adopt-3-year Pap test intervals. In adjusted models, physician factors associated with less frequent screening were: serving a higher proportion of Medicaid patients, white, non-Hispanic race, fewer years since medical school graduation, and US Preventive Services Task Force being very influential in physician clinical practice. Women were more willing to follow a 3-year interval if they were older, but less willing if they had personal or family experiences with cancer or followed an annual Pap test schedule. Many women are accepting of a 3-year interval for Pap tests, although most primary care physicians continue to recommend shorter intervals.

  6. Adjuvant treatment for resected rectal cancer: impact of standard and intensified postoperative chemotherapy on disease-free survival in patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation-a propensity score-matched analysis of an observational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlipp, Benjamin; Ptok, Henry; Benedix, Frank; Otto, Ronny; Popp, Felix; Ridwelski, Karsten; Gastinger, Ingo; Benckert, Christoph; Lippert, Hans; Bruns, Christiane

    2016-12-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected rectal cancer is widely used. However, studies on adjuvant treatment following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME) have yielded conflicting results. Recent studies have focused on adding oxaliplatin to both preoperative and postoperative therapy, making it difficult to assess the impact of adjuvant oxaliplatin alone. This study was aimed at determining the impact of (i) any adjuvant treatment and (ii) oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant treatment on disease-free survival in CRT-pretreated, R0-resected rectal cancer patients. Patients undergoing R0 TME following 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-only-based CRT between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010, were selected from a nationwide registry. After propensity score matching (PSM), comparison of disease-free survival (DFS) using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test was performed in (i) patients receiving no vs. any adjuvant treatment and (ii) patients treated with adjuvant 5FU/capecitabine without vs. with oxaliplatin. Out of 1497 patients, 520 matched pairs were generated for analysis of no vs. any adjuvant treatment. Mean DFS was significantly prolonged with adjuvant treatment (81.8 ± 2.06 vs. 70.1 ± 3.02 months, p rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT and TME surgery under routine conditions, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved DFS. No benefit was observed for the addition of oxaliplatin to adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting.

  7. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Atif J.; Rafique, Raza; Zafar, Waleed; Shah, Chirag; Haffty, Bruce G.; Vicini, Frank; Jamshed, Arif; Zhao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  8. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Atif J; Rafique, Raza; Zafar, Waleed; Shah, Chirag; Haffty, Bruce G; Vicini, Frank; Jamshed, Arif; Zhao, Yao

    2017-02-01

    Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif.j.khan@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rafique, Raza [Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Zafar, Waleed [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Jamshed, Arif [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhao, Yao [Rutgers University School of Business, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus and vitamin D deficiency are associated with shorter telomere length among African Americans: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Hoffecker

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects African American females. The causes of SLE are unknown but postulated to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the possible environmental triggers. In this study we evaluated relationships between vitamin D status, cellular aging (telomere length and anti-telomere antibodies among African American Gullah women with SLE. The study population included African American female SLE patients and unaffected controls from the Sea Island region of South Carolina. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using a nonchromatographic radioimmunoassay. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR. Anti-telomere antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Patients with SLE had significantly shorter telomeres and higher anti-telomere antibody titers compared to age- and gender-matched unaffected controls. There was a positive correlation between anti-telomere antibody levels and disease activity among patients and a significant correlation of shorter telomeres with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both patients and controls. In follow-up examination of a subset of the patients, the patients who remained vitamin D deficient tended to have shorter telomeres than those patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were repleted. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in African American patients with SLE may be beneficial in maintaining telomere length and preventing cellular aging. Moreover, anti-telomere antibody levels may be a promising biomarker of SLE status and disease activity.

  11. Approximation of the semi-infinite interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. McD. Mercer

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of a function f∈C[a,b] by Bernstein polynomials is well-known. It is based on the binomial distribution. O. Szasz has shown that there are analogous approximations on the interval [0,∞ based on the Poisson distribution. Recently R. Mohapatra has generalized Szasz' result to the case in which the approximating function is αe−ux∑k=N∞(uxkα+β−1Γ(kα+βf(kαuThe present note shows that these results are special cases of a Tauberian theorem for certain infinite series having positive coefficients.

  12. Estimating the generation interval of influenza A (H1N1) in a range of social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Beest, Dennis E; Wallinga, Jacco; Donker, Tjibbe; van Boven, Michiel

    2013-03-01

    A proper understanding of the infection dynamics of influenza A viruses hinges on the availability of reliable estimates of key epidemiologic parameters such as the reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate, and generation interval. Often the generation interval is assumed to be similar in different settings although there is little evidence justifying this. Here we estimate the generation interval for stratifications based on age, cluster size, and social setting (camp, school, workplace, household) using data from 16 clusters of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in the Netherlands. Our analyses are based on a Bayesian inferential framework, enabling flexible handling of both missing infection links and missing times of symptoms onset. The analysis indicates that a stratification that allows the generation interval to differ by social setting fits the data best. Specifically, the estimated generation interval was shorter in households (2.1 days [95% credible interval = 1.6-2.9]) and camps (2.3 days [1.4-3.4]) than in workplaces (2.7 days [1.9-3.7]) and schools (3.4 days [2.5-4.5]). Our findings could be the result of differences in the number of contacts between settings, differences in prophylactic use of antivirals between settings, and differences in underreporting.

  13. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  14. una experiencia de intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Villarreal Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume la experiencia de intervención con una familia de la escuela de Villa Esperanza de Pavas. Se trata de un matrimonio con dificultades para disciplinar a sus tres hijos varones de ocho, seis, y cuatro años. En primer lugar, se exponen los principios teóricos y metodológicos, para luego mostrar la aplicación de ellos en el proceso vivido por la familia. Se aplica el modelo de intervención estructural, que busca que la misma familia logre realizar, paso a paso, los cambios requeridos en la dinámica y estructura familiar. En la situación específica de esta familia, se observa el fortalecimiento de la pareja como tal y como madre y padre en la medida que van logrando asumir la autoridad en forma compartida para disciplinar a los hijos. Al compartir esta experiencia, la autora pretende estimular a profesionales en Orientación a asumir el reto de considerar a las familias de la comunidad estudiantil, de las instituciones educativas donde laboran, como parte importante en el quehacer orientador.

  15. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  16. Confidence intervals for directly standardized rates using mid-p gamma intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Michael P; Kim, Sungwook

    2017-03-01

    Directly standardized rates continue to be an integral tool for presenting rates for diseases that are highly dependent on age, such as cancer. Statistically, these rates are modeled as a weighted sum of Poisson random variables. This is a difficult statistical problem, because there are k observed Poisson variables and k unknown means. The gamma confidence interval has been shown through simulations to have at least nominal coverage in all simulated scenarios, but it can be overly conservative. Previous modifications to that method have closer to nominal coverage on average, but they do not achieve the nominal coverage bound in all situations. Further, those modifications are not central intervals, and the upper coverage error rate can be substantially more than half the nominal error. Here we apply a mid-p modification to the gamma confidence interval. Typical mid-p methods forsake guaranteed coverage to get coverage that is sometimes higher and sometimes lower than the nominal coverage rate, depending on the values of the parameters. The mid-p gamma interval does not have guaranteed coverage in all situations; however, in the (not rare) situations where the gamma method is overly conservative, the mid-p gamma interval often has at least nominal coverage. The mid-p gamma interval is especially appropriate when one wants a central interval, since simulations show that in many situations both the upper and lower coverage error rates are on average less than or equal to half the nominal error rate. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Improved Metastasis- and Disease-Free Survival With Preoperative Sequential Short-Course Radiation Therapy and FOLFOX Chemotherapy for Rectal Cancer Compared With Neoadjuvant Long-Course Chemoradiotherapy: Results of a Matched Pair Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovina, Stephanie; Youssef, Fady; Roy, Amit; Aggarwal, Sonya; Khwaja, Shariq; DeWees, Todd; Tan, Benjamin; Hunt, Steven; Myerson, Robert J; Chang, Daniel T; Parikh, Parag J; Olsen, Jeffrey R

    2017-10-01

    To compare treatment and toxicity outcomes between a phase 2 institutional trial of near total neoadjuvant therapy (nTNT) for locally advanced rectal cancer and a similar historical control cohort treated at Washington University in St. Louis with the current US standard of care, defined as neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT), total mesorectal excision (TME), and adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy; to expand the comparison to an additional institution, patients treated with similar NCRT at Stanford University were included. Sixty-nine patients with cT3-4N0-2M0 rectal adenocarcinoma enrolled on the Washington University in St. Louis phase 2 study of nTNT were included for analysis. Patients treated at the same institution with conventional NCRT and adjuvant FOLFOX were matched for exact cTNM stage. Forty-one patients treated with NCRT at Stanford University were included in a second analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to compare local control, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Median follow-up was 49 and 54 months for nTNT and NCRT, respectively. Pathologic complete response and T-downstaging rates were 28% versus 16% (P=.21) and 75% versus 41% (P<.001) in the nTNT and NCRT cohorts, respectively. Three-year disease-free survival (85% vs 68%, P=.032) was significantly better in the nTNT group. Actuarial 3-year local control (92% vs 96%, P=.36) and overall survival (96% vs 88%, P=.67) were similar. The Stanford cohort had significantly lower clinical stage. After controlling for clinical stage, age, tumor location, institution, and number of chemotherapy cycles, nTNT treatment remained significantly associated with lower risk of recurrence (P=.006). Patients treated with nTNT had higher T-downstaging and superior distant metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival compared with conventional NCRT when matched for tumor location and exact cTNM stage. Near total neoadjuvant therapy remained a

  18. The fallacy of placing confidence in confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Hoekstra, Rink; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Lee, Michael D.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Interval estimates – estimates of parameters that include an allowance for sampling uncertainty – have long been touted as a key component of statistical analyses. There are several kinds of interval estimates, but the most popular are confidence intervals (CIs): intervals that contain the true

  19. The fallacy of placing confidence in confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.D.; Hoekstra, R.; Rouder, J.N.; Lee, M.D.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    Interval estimates – estimates of parameters that include an allowance for sampling uncertainty – have long been touted as a key component of statistical analyses. There are several kinds of interval estimates, but the most popular are confidence intervals (CIs): intervals that contain the true

  20. Radiation-Induced Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Is Associated with Improved Overall Survival but Not Thyroid Cancer-Specific Mortality or Disease-Free Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Cipriani, Nicole A; Abdulrasool, Layth; Kaplan, Sharone; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Angelos, Peter; Kaplan, Edwin L; Grogan, Raymon H; Onel, Kenan

    2016-08-01

    Radiation is a well-described risk factor for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Although the natural history of DTC following nuclear disasters and in healthcare workers with chronic radiation exposure (RE) has been described, little is known about DTC following short-term exposure to therapeutic medical radiation for benign disease. This study compares DTC morphology and outcomes in patients with and without a prior history of therapeutic external RE. A retrospective review was performed of patients with DTC treated at The University of Chicago between 1951 and 1987, with a median follow-up of 27 years (range 0.3-60 years). Patients were classified as either having (RE+) or not having (RE-) a history of therapeutic RE. Variables examined included sex, age at RE, dose of RE, indication for RE, DTC histology, and outcome. Morphology was determined by blinded retrospective review of all available histologic slides. Outcomes were assessed using Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves. Of 257 DTC patients, 165 (64%) were RE- and 92 (36%) were RE+, with males comprising a greater proportion of the RE+ group (43.5% vs. 27.3%; p = 0.01). A total of 94.2% of DTC cases were classic papillary cancers; histology did not differ between RE+ and RE- cohorts (p = 0.73). RE was associated with an increased median overall survival (OS; 43 years vs. 38 years; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.55 [confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.89]; p = 0.01). Survival for males in the RE- group was significantly worse than it was for RE- females (HR = 1.78 [CI 1.05-3.03]; p = 0.03) or RE+ males (HR = 2.98 [CI 1.39-6.38]; p = 0.01). Recurrence did not differ between the RE+ and RE- groups (HR = 0.85 [CI 0.52-1.41]; p = 0.54), nor did DTC-specific mortality (HR = 0.54 [CI 0.21-1.37]; p = 0.20). While DTC following RE has historically been considered a more aggressive variant than DTC in the absence of RE, the present data indicate that RE+ DTC

  1. Effect of the cancer specific shorter form of human 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase on the metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejc, Darjan; Možir, Alenka; Legiša, Matic

    2017-05-08

    At first glance, there appears to be a high degree of similarity between the metabolism of yeast (the Crabtree effect) and human cancer cells (the Warburg effect). At the root of both effects is accelerated metabolic flow through glycolysis which leads to overflows of ethanol and lactic acid, respectively. It has been proposed that enhanced glycolytic flow in cancer cells is triggered by the altered kinetic characteristics of the key glycolytic regulatory enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (Pfk). Through a posttranslational modification, highly active shorter Pfk-M fragments, which are resistant to feedback inhibition, are formed after the proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus of the native human Pfk-M. Alternatively, enhanced glycolysis is triggered by optimal growth conditions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To assess the deregulation of glycolysis in yeast cells, the sfPFKM gene encoding highly active human shorter Pfk-M fragments was introduced into pfk-null S. cerevisiae. No growth of the transformants with the sfPFKM gene was observed on glucose and fructose. Glucose even induced rapid deactivation of Pfk1 activities in such transformants. However, Pfk1 activities of the sfPFKM transformants were detected in maltose medium, but the growth in maltose was possible only after the addition of 10 mM of ethanol to the medium. Ethanol seemed to alleviate the severely unbalanced NADH/NADPH ratio in the sfPFKM cells. However, the transformants carrying modified Pfk-M enzymes grew faster than the transformants with the human native human Pfk-M enzyme in a narrow ecological niche with a low maltose concentration medium that was further improved by additional modifications. Interestingly, periodic extracellular accumulation of phenylacetaldehyde was detected during the growth of the strain with modified Pfk-M but not with the strain encoding the human native enzyme. Highly active cancer-specific shorter Pfk-M fragments appear to trigger several controlling

  2. Interval-based reconstruction for uncertainty quantification in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczak, Florentin; Loquin, Kevin; Buvat, Irène; Strauss, Olivier; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2018-02-01

    A new directed interval-based tomographic reconstruction algorithm, called non-additive interval based expectation maximization (NIBEM) is presented. It uses non-additive modeling of the forward operator that provides intervals instead of single-valued projections. The detailed approach is an extension of the maximum likelihood—expectation maximization algorithm based on intervals. The main motivation for this extension is that the resulting intervals have appealing properties for estimating the statistical uncertainty associated with the reconstructed activity values. After reviewing previously published theoretical concepts related to interval-based projectors, this paper describes the NIBEM algorithm and gives examples that highlight the properties and advantages of this interval valued reconstruction.

  3. Appendiceal mass: Is interval appendicectomy “something of the past”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir

    2011-01-01

    The need for interval appendicectomy (I.A) after successful conservative management of appendiceal mass has recently been questioned. Furthermore, emergency appendicectomy for appendiceal mass is increasingly performed with equal success and safety to that performed in non-mass forming acute appendicitis. There is an increasing volume of evidence -although mostly retrospective- that if traditional conservative management is adopted, there is no need for routine I.A except for a small number of patients who continue to develop recurrent symptoms. On the other hand, the routine adoption of emergency laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) in patients presenting with appendiceal mass obviates the need for a second admission and an operation for I.A with a considerable complication rate. It also abolishes misdiagnoses and deals promptly with any unexpected ileo-cecal pathology. Moreover, it may prove to be more cost-effective than conservative treatment even without I.A due to a much shorter hospital stay and a shorter period of intravenous antibiotic administration. If emergency LA is to become the standard of care for appendiceal mass, I.A will certainly become ‘something’ of the past. PMID:21799642

  4. Confidence intervals for annual wind power production******

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensoussan Alain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is an intermittent resource due to wind speed intermittency. However wind speed can be described as a stochastic process with short memory. This allows us to derive a central limit theorem for the annual or pluri-annual wind power production and then get quantiles of the wind power production for one, ten or twenty years future periods. On the one hand, the interquantile spread offers a measurement of the intrinsic uncertainties of wind power production. On the other hand, different quantiles with different periods of time are used by financial institutions to quantify the financial risk of the wind turbine. Our method is then applied to real datasets corresponding to a French wind turbine. Since confidence intervals can be enhanced by taking into account seasonality, we present some tools for change point analysis on wind series.

  5. Supersymmetry and electroweak breaking in the interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diego, David; Gersdorff, Gero von; Quiros, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Hypermultiplets are considered in the five-dimensional interval where all fields are continuous and the boundary conditions are dynamically obtained from the action principle. The orbifold boundary conditions are obtained as particular cases. We can interpret the Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking as a misalignment of boundary conditions while a new source of supersymmetry breaking corresponding to a mismatch of different boundary parameters is identified. The latter can be viewed as coming from boundary supersymmetry breaking masses for hyperscalars and the nature of the corresponding supersymmetry breaking parameter is analyzed. For some regions of the parameter space where supersymmetry is broken (either by Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions or by boundary hyperscalar masses) electroweak symmetry breaking can be triggered at the tree level

  6. Fusing photovoltaic data for improved confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Steland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing and testing photovoltaic modules requires carefully made measurements on important variables such as the power output under standard conditions. When additional data is available, which has been collected using a different measurement system and therefore may be of different accuracy, the question arises how one can combine the information present in both data sets. In some cases one even has prior knowledge about the ordering of the variances of the measurement errors, which is not fully taken into account by commonly known estimators. We discuss several statistical estimators to combine the sample means of independent series of measurements, both under the assumption of heterogeneous variances and ordered variances. The critical issue is then to assess the estimator’s variance and to construct confidence intervals. We propose and discuss the application of a new jackknife variance estimator devised by [1] to such photovoltaic data, in order to assess the variability of common mean estimation under heterogeneous and ordered variances in a reliable and nonparametric way. When serial correlations are present, which usually a ect the marginal variances, it is proposed to construct a thinned data set by downsampling the series in such a way that autocorrelations are removed or dampened. We propose a data adaptive procedure which downsamples a series at irregularly spaced time points in such a way that the autocorrelations are minimized. The procedures are illustrated by applying them to real photovoltaic power output measurements from two different sun light flashers. In addition, focusing on simulations governed by real photovoltaic data, we investigate the accuracy of the jackknife approach and compare it with other approaches. Among those is a variance estimator based on Nair’s formula for Gaussian data and, as a parametric alternative, two Bayesian models. We investigate the statistical accuracy of the resulting confidence

  7. Selection-based Approach to Cooperative Interval Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Jan; Hladík, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative interval games are a generalized model of cooperative games in which the worth of every coalition corresponds to a closed interval representing the possible outcomes of its cooperation. Selections are all possible outcomes of the interval game with no additional uncertainty. We introduce new selection-based classes of interval games and prove their characterization theorems and relations to existing classes based on the interval weakly better operator. We show new results regardin...

  8. Intractable properties of responding under a fixed-interval schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, G. David; Marr, M. Jackson

    1982-01-01

    The behavior engendered by the fixed-interval schedule is characterized by its variability within and across intervals. The present experiment was designed to assess further the magnitude of interval-to-interval dynamics and to explore conditions which might enhance control by response number for subsequent output. Pigeons were exposed to three experimental manipulations after responding had stabilized under a fixed-interval five-minute schedule. First, a discrete five-stimulus counter was ad...

  9. High lung cancer surgical procedure volume is associated with shorter length of stay and lower risks of re-admission and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Riaz, Sharma P; Holmberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    calendar year, and patients were assigned to a hospital volume quintile on the basis of the volume of their hospital. Hospitals with large lung cancer surgical resection volumes were less restrictive in their selection of patients for surgical management and provided a higher resection rate...... for this analysis was based on cancer registration and hospital discharge data and comprised information on 15,738 non-small-cell lung cancer patients resident and diagnosed in England in 2006-2010 and treated by surgical resection. The number of lung cancer resections was computed for each hospital in each......It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset...

  10. Full recovery of a 13-year-old boy with pediatric Ramsay Hunt syndrome using a shorter course of aciclovir and steroid at lower doses: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibwowa Sheenah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reports on children with Ramsay Hunt syndrome are limited in the literature, resulting in uncertainty regarding the clinical manifestations and outcome of this syndrome. Treatment for Ramsay Hunt syndrome is usually with antivirals, although there is no evidence for beneficial effect on the outcome of Ramsay Hunt syndrome in adults (insufficient data on children exists. Here, we report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome occurring in a child who inadvertently received a lower dose of aciclovir and steroid administered for shorter than is usual. Our patient made a full recovery. Case presentation A 13-year-old African boy presented to our out-patients department with an inability to move the right side of his face for one week. He had previously been seen by the doctor on call, who prescribed aciclovir 200 mg three times per day and prednisone 20 mg once daily, both orally for five days, with a working diagnosis of Bell's palsy. After commencement of aciclovir-prednisone, while at home, our patient had headache, malaise, altered taste, vomiting after feeds, a ringing sound in his right ear as well as earache and ear itchiness. Additionally, he developed numerous fluid-filled pimples on his right ear. On presentation, a physical examination revealed a right-sided lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy and a healing rash on the right pinna. On direct questioning, our patient admitted having had chicken pox about three months previously. Based on the history and physical examination, Ramsay Hunt syndrome was diagnosed. Our patient was lost to follow-up until 11 months after the onset of illness; at this time, his facial nerve function was normal. Conclusions This case report documents the clinical manifestations and outcome of pediatric Ramsay Hunt syndrome; a condition with few case reports in the literature. In addition, our patient made a full recovery despite inadvertently receiving a lower dose of aciclovir and steroid

  11. HCV kinetic and modeling analyses project shorter durations to cure under combined therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir in chronic HCV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Canini

    Full Text Available High cure rates are achieved in HCV genotype-1b patients treated with daclatasvir and asunaprevir, DCV/ASV. Here we analyzed early HCV kinetics in genotype-1b infected Japanese subjects treated with DCV/ASV and retrospectively projected, using mathematical modeling, whether shorter treatment durations might be effective.HCV RNA levels were measured frequently during DCV/ASV therapy in 95 consecutively treated patients at a single center in Japan. Mathematical modeling was used to predict the time to cure, i.e, <1 virus copy in the extracellular body fluid. Patients with HCV<15 IU/ml at week 1 (n = 27 were excluded from modeling analysis due to insufficient HCV RNA data points.Eighty nine of the 95 included patients (94% achieved cure, 3 (3% relapsed due to treatment-emergent resistance, and 3 (3% completed therapy but were lost during follow up. Model fits from 68 patients with sufficient data points indicate that after a short pharmacological delay (15.4 min [relative standard error, rse = 26%], DCV/ASV effectiveness in blocking HCV production was 0.999 [rse~0%], HCV half-life in blood was t1/2 = 1.7 hr [rse = 21%], and HCV-infected cell loss rate was 0.391/d [rse = 5%]. Modeling predicted that 100% and 98.5% of patients who had HCV<15 IU/ml at days 14 and 28 might have been cured with 6 and 8 weeks of therapy, respectively. There was a trend (p = 0.058 between younger age and shorter time to cure.Modeling early HCV kinetics under DCV/ASV predicts that most patients would achieve cure with short treatment durations, suggesting that 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment can be significantly shortened.

  12. HCV kinetic and modeling analyses project shorter durations to cure under combined therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir in chronic HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canini, Laetitia; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Uprichard, Susan L; Cotler, Scott J; Dahari, Harel; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    High cure rates are achieved in HCV genotype-1b patients treated with daclatasvir and asunaprevir, DCV/ASV. Here we analyzed early HCV kinetics in genotype-1b infected Japanese subjects treated with DCV/ASV and retrospectively projected, using mathematical modeling, whether shorter treatment durations might be effective. HCV RNA levels were measured frequently during DCV/ASV therapy in 95 consecutively treated patients at a single center in Japan. Mathematical modeling was used to predict the time to cure, i.e, <1 virus copy in the extracellular body fluid. Patients with HCV<15 IU/ml at week 1 (n = 27) were excluded from modeling analysis due to insufficient HCV RNA data points. Eighty nine of the 95 included patients (94%) achieved cure, 3 (3%) relapsed due to treatment-emergent resistance, and 3 (3%) completed therapy but were lost during follow up. Model fits from 68 patients with sufficient data points indicate that after a short pharmacological delay (15.4 min [relative standard error, rse = 26%]), DCV/ASV effectiveness in blocking HCV production was 0.999 [rse~0%], HCV half-life in blood was t1/2 = 1.7 hr [rse = 21%], and HCV-infected cell loss rate was 0.391/d [rse = 5%]. Modeling predicted that 100% and 98.5% of patients who had HCV<15 IU/ml at days 14 and 28 might have been cured with 6 and 8 weeks of therapy, respectively. There was a trend (p = 0.058) between younger age and shorter time to cure. Modeling early HCV kinetics under DCV/ASV predicts that most patients would achieve cure with short treatment durations, suggesting that 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment can be significantly shortened.

  13. Influence of inter-train interval on the plastic effects of rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Robin F H; Dar, Aisha; Hui, Jeanette; De Ruiter, Leo; Baarbé, Julianne; Fettes, Peter; Peters, Sarah; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Downar, Jonathan; Chen, Robert

    High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) elicits plastic effects in excitatory and inhibitory circuits. Inter-train intervals (ITI) were initially incorporated into rTMS paradigms to avoid overheating and for safety considerations. Recent studies have shown that inclusion of ITI, as opposed to continuous stimulation, is essential for eliciting excitatory effects, but the optimal ITI remains unknown. Moreover, if ITI duration has no effect, it may be possible to substantially reduce treatment time for rTMS. ITI duration modulates the excitatory and disinhibitory effects of rTMS. rTMS (20 Hz, 2 s trains, 1200 pulses, 100% RMT) was applied in 14 healthy individuals with ITI of 4s (duration: ∼3 min), 8s (∼5 min), 16s (∼9 min) or 32s (16.5 min) in sessions separated by ≥5 days. Effects on cortical excitability and GABA A receptor mediated short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) were measured for 75 min following rTMS. The time-course of increased cortical excitability following rTMS was independent of ITI duration. There was a striking influence of ITI on SICI, whereby disinhibition increased with shorter ITI duration. Changes in cortical excitability and SICI were independent of each other. These findings provide the first evidence to suggest that ITI may be substantially shortened without loss of rTMS effects, and warrant further investigation where rTMS is applied therapeutically. Furthermore, shorter ITIs result in greater disinhibitory effects which may be desirable in some clinical disorders and accelerated treatment paradigms. The tuning of the plasticity of cortical excitatory and inhibitory circuits to rTMS parameters in human cortex are independent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of intervening interference on working memory for sound location as a function of inter-comparison interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Dennis T; Hamilton, Traci R; Grossmann, Aurora J

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the effects of inter-comparison interval duration and intervening interference on auditory working memory (AWM) for auditory location. Interaural phase differences were used to produce localization cues for tonal stimuli and the difference limen for interaural phase difference (DL-IPD) specified as the equivalent angle of incidence between two sound sources was measured in five different conditions. These conditions consisted of three different inter-comparison intervals [300 ms (short), 5000 ms (medium), and 15,000 ms (long)], the medium and long of which were presented both in the presence and absence of intervening tones. The presence of intervening stimuli within the medium and long inter-comparison intervals produced a significant increase in the DL-IPD compared to the medium and long inter-comparison intervals condition without intervening tones. The result obtained in the condition with a short inter-comparison interval was roughly equivalent to that obtained for the medium inter-comparison interval without intervening tones. These results suggest that the ability to retain information about the location of a sound within AWM decays slowly; however, the presence of intervening sounds readily disrupts the retention process. Overall, the results suggest that the temporal decay of information within AWM regarding the location of a sound from a listener's environment is so gradual that it can be maintained in trace memory for tens of seconds in the absence of intervening acoustic signals. Conversely, the presence of intervening sounds within the retention interval may facilitate the use of context memory, even for shorter retention intervals, resulting in a less detailed, but relevant representation of the location that is resistant to further degradation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Restricted Interval Guelph permeameter: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    A constant head permeameter system has been developed for use in small diameter boreholes with any orientation. It is based upon the original Guelph permeameter concept of using a Mariotte siphon reservoir to control the applied head. The new tool, called a Restricted Interval Guelph (RIG) permeameter uses either a single pneumatic packer or straddle packer to restrict the area through which water is allowed to flow so that the borehole wetted area is independent of the applied head. The RIG permeameter has been used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in the nonwelded rhyolitic Paintbrush Tuff. Analysis of the acquired data is based upon saturated-unsaturated flow theory that relies upon the quasi-linear approximation to estimate field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) and the a parameter (sorptive number) of the exponential relative hydraulic conductivity pressure head relationship. These results are compared with a numerical model based upon the solution of the Richards equation using a van Genuchten capillary pressure-saturation formulation. The numerical model incorporates laboratory capillary pressure versus saturation functions measured from cores taken from nearby boreholes. Comparison between the analytical and numerical approaches shows that the simple analytic model is valid for analyzing the data collected. Sensitivity analysis performed with the numerical model shows that the RIG permeameter is an effective tool for estimating permeability and sorptive number for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff

  16. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p interval training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  18. On randomized confidence intervals for the binomial probability

    OpenAIRE

    Kabaila, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Suppose that X_1,X_2,...,X_n are independent and identically Bernoulli(theta) distributed. Also suppose that our aim is to find an exact confidence interval for theta that is the intersection of a 1-\\alpha/2 upper confidence interval and a 1-\\alpha/2 lower confidence interval. The Clopper-Pearson interval is the standard such confidence interval for theta, which is widely used in practice. We consider the randomized confidence interval of Stevens, 1950 and present some extensions, including p...

  19. Confidence Intervals from Normalized Data: A correction to Cousineau (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Morey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Presenting confidence intervals around means is a common method of expressing uncertainty in data. Loftus and Masson (1994 describe confidence intervals for means in within-subjects designs. These confidence intervals are based on the ANOVA mean squared error. Cousineau (2005 presents an alternative to the Loftus and Masson method, but his method produces confidence intervals that are smaller than those of Loftus and Masson. I show why this is the case and offer a simple correction that makes the expected size of Cousineau confidence intervals the same as that of Loftus and Masson confidence intervals.

  20. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  1. Setting reinspection intervals for seam welded piping by use of probabilistic fracture mechanics and target reliability values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.O.; Dedhia, D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure for the selection of a reinspection interval for defects found during an inspection. The procedure is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations of the reliability of the component into the future and selection of an inspection time based on maintaining the target value reliability. The selection of a target value based on the risk of everyday activities is discussed. The procedure is applied to high temperature seam welded piping as an example, because the probabilistic fracture mechanics tools are relatively readily available and this is a problem of great current interest. The results obtained in the example problem indicate reinspection intervals much shorter than field experience would suggest. This indicates a conservatism in the fracture mechanics procedures and/or lack of accurate characterization of scatter in material properties due to lack of data. The general procedure should prove useful in the disposition of detected cracks in a wide variety of situations

  2. Progesterone-releasing devices for cattle estrus induction and synchronization: Device optimization to anticipate shorter treatment durations and new device developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, W; Grimard, B

    2018-05-01

    Synchronization programs using progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices that allow for fixed time artificial insemination are still finding increasing application in bovine reproduction. This practice is useful for rationalizing livestock management because an increased number of cows can be inseminated in one session without the need for estrus detection. Although much of the innovation related to the design and development of intravaginal devices for use in cattle took place in the previous century, progress in understanding the physiology of the bovine estrous cycle resulted in shorter treatment durations, a trend which is still continuing. In this competitive market, with little functional differentiation between the existing devices, the shorter treatment duration prompted for optimization of the progesterone content in the device, as the cost of the drug significantly contributes to the price per unit. For CIDR ® a reduction of the progesterone content of about 30 per cent was realized. Price reduction remained an important target for further device development. Next to reduction of progesterone content, cheaper and easier to process materials like polyethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers have been explored to replace the commonly used silicone elastomers. The reengineering effort of CIDR ® demonstrated that knowledge of release kinetics and insight into gradual depletion patterns in the device is critical for optimization of drug content without compromising performance (blood levels). More recent publications related to the use of alternative polymers like EVA and polyisoprene (IP) indicated encouraging results regarding further reduction of progesterone content. The use of EVA seems most promising, because it is in principle a low-cost polymer available in many grades and this thermoplastic polymer can be processed easily by means of commonly used techniques like injection molding and extrusion. The use of thermoplastic polymers, however, requires

  3. Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1–2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals (1,650 mg/m2/day). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.

  4. Interbirth interval is associated with childhood type 1 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Svensson, Jannet; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to sibling infections. A possible association between interbirth interval and subsequent risk...

  5. VT Mile Points - 1/10-Mile Intervals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The mile points data layer is comprised of discrete locations based on specific measured intervals along a route. These intervals are represented along a...

  6. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Shu-Yu; Tian, Gui-Xian

    2012-01-01

    We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  7. Two-sorted Point-Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbiani, Philippe; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    There are two natural and well-studied approaches to temporal ontology and reasoning: point-based and interval-based. Usually, interval-based temporal reasoning deals with points as particular, duration-less intervals. Here we develop explicitly two-sorted point-interval temporal logical framework...... whereby time instants (points) and time periods (intervals) are considered on a par, and the perspective can shift between them within the formal discourse. We focus on fragments involving only modal operators that correspond to the inter-sort relations between points and intervals. We analyze...... their expressiveness, comparative to interval-based logics, and the complexity of their satisfiability problems. In particular, we identify some previously not studied and potentially interesting interval logics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V....

  8. Traces of times past : Representations of temporal intervals in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2011-01-01

    Theories of time perception typically assume that some sort of memory represents time intervals. This memory component is typically underdeveloped in theories of time perception. Following earlier work that suggested that representations of different time intervals contaminate each other (Grondin,

  9. Numerical calculation of economic uncertainty by intervals and fuzzy numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This paper emphasizes that numerically correct calculation of economic uncertainty with intervals and fuzzy numbers requires implementation of global optimization techniques in contrast to straightforward application of interval arithmetic. This is demonstrated by both a simple case from managerial...

  10. An Interval Bound Algorithm of optimizing reactor core loading pattern by using reactivity interval schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhaohu; Wang Kan; Yao Dong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We present a new Loading Pattern Optimization method - Interval Bound Algorithm (IBA). → IBA directly uses the reactivity of fuel assemblies and burnable poison. → IBA can optimize fuel assembly orientation in a coupled way. → Numerical experiment shows that IBA outperforms genetic algorithm and engineers. → We devise DDWF technique to deal with multiple objectives and constraints. - Abstract: In order to optimize the core loading pattern in Nuclear Power Plants, the paper presents a new optimization method - Interval Bound Algorithm (IBA). Similar to the typical population based algorithms, e.g. genetic algorithm, IBA maintains a population of solutions and evolves them during the optimization process. IBA acquires the solution by statistical learning and sampling the control variable intervals of the population in each iteration. The control variables are the transforms of the reactivity of fuel assemblies or the worth of burnable poisons, which are the crucial heuristic information for loading pattern optimization problems. IBA can deal with the relationship between the dependent variables by defining the control variables. Based on the IBA algorithm, a parallel Loading Pattern Optimization code, named IBALPO, has been developed. To deal with multiple objectives and constraints, the Dynamic Discontinuous Weight Factors (DDWF) for the fitness function have been used in IBALPO. Finally, the code system has been used to solve a realistic reloading problem and a better pattern has been obtained compared with the ones searched by engineers and genetic algorithm, thus the performance of the code is proved.

  11. Application of the entropic coefficient for interval number optimization during interval assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynynyka A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In solving many statistical problems, the most precise choice of the distribution law of a random variable is required, the sample of which the authors observe. This choice requires the construction of an interval series. Therefore, the problem arises of assigning an optimal number of intervals, and this study proposes a number of formulas for solving it. Which of these formulas solves the problem more accurately? In [9], this question is investigated using the Pearson criterion. This article describes the procedure and on its basis gives formulas available in literature and proposed new formulas using the entropy coefficient. A comparison is made with the previously published results of applying Pearson's concord criterion for these purposes. Differences in the estimates of the accuracy of the formulas are found. The proposed new formulas for calculating the number of intervals showed the best results. Calculations have been made to compare the work of the same formulas for the distribution of sample data according to the normal law and the Rayleigh law.

  12. RCPAQAP First Combined Measurement and Reference Interval Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Graham RD; Koetsier, Sabrina DA

    2014-01-01

    Reference intervals are commonly considered to allow for between-laboratory bias. The RCPAQAP Liquid Serum Chemistry Program has collected data on laboratory measurements as well as reference intervals. This allows assessment of the between-laboratory variation in results, reference intervals and the information transmitted by the combination of these factors. For the majority of common chemistry analytes, the between-laboratory variation in reference intervals is greater than the variation i...

  13. [The effect of esmolol on corrected-QT interval, corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceker, Zahit; Takmaz, Suna Akın; Baltaci, Bülent; Başar, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    The importance of minimizing the exaggerated sympatho-adrenergic responses and QT interval and QT interval dispersion changes that may develop due to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction in the hypertensive patients is clear. Esmolol decreases the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. However, the effect of esmolol in decreasing the prolonged QT interval and QT interval dispersion as induced by laryngoscopy and intubation is controversial. We investigated the effect of esmolol on the hemodynamic, and corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. 60 ASA I-II patients, with essential hypertension using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were included in the study. The esmolol group received esmolol at a bolus dose of 500mcg/kg followed by a 100mcg/kg/min infusion which continued until the 4th min after intubation. The control group received 0.9% saline similar to the esmolol group. The mean blood pressure, heart rate values and the electrocardiogram records were obtained as baseline values before the anesthesia, 5min after esmolol and saline administration, 3min after the induction and 30s, 2min and 4min after intubation. The corrected-QT interval was shorter in the esmolol group (p=0.012), the corrected-QT interval dispersion interval was longer in the control group (p=0.034) and the mean heart rate was higher in the control group (p=0.022) 30s after intubation. The risk of arrhythmia frequency was higher in the control group in the 4-min period following intubation (p=0.038). Endotracheal intubation was found to prolong corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion, and increase the heart rate during anesthesia induction with propofol in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. These effects were prevented with esmolol (500mcg/kg bolus, followed by

  14. Disparate patterns of age-related changes in lipid peroxidation in long-lived naked mole-rats and shorter-lived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Blazej; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2006-12-01

    A key tenet of the oxidative stress theory of aging is that levels of accrued oxidative damage increase with age. Differences in damage generation and accumulation therefore may underlie the natural variation in species longevity. We compared age-related profiles of whole-organism lipid peroxidation (urinary isoprostanes) and liver lipid damage (malondialdehyde) in long living naked mole-rats [maximum lifespan (MLS) > 28.3 years] and shorter-living CB6F1 hybrid mice (MLS approximately 3.5 years). In addition, we compared age-associated changes in liver non-heme iron to assess how intracellular conditions, which may modulate oxidative processes, are affected by aging. Surprisingly, even at a young age, concentrations of both markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as of iron, were at least twofold (P naked mole tats than in mice. This refutes the hypothesis that prolonged naked mole-rat longevity is due to superior protection against oxidative stress. The age-related profiles of all three parameters were distinctly species specific. Rates of lipid damage generation in mice were maintained throughout adulthood, while accrued damage in old animals was twice that of young mice. In naked mole-rats, urinary isoprostane excretion declined by half with age (P naked mole-rats is independent of oxidative stress parameters.

  15. Shorter Exciton Lifetimes via an External Heavy-Atom Effect: Alleviating the Effects of Bimolecular Processes in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einzinger, Markus; Zhu, Tianyu; de Silva, Piotr; Belger, Christian; Swager, Timothy M; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Multiexcited-state phenomena are believed to be the root cause of two exigent challenges in organic light-emitting diodes; namely, efficiency roll-off and degradation. The development of novel strategies to reduce exciton densities under heavy load is therefore highly desirable. Here, it is shown that triplet exciton lifetimes of thermally activated delayed-fluorescence-emitter molecules can be manipulated in the solid state by exploiting intermolecular interactions. The external heavy-atom effect of brominated host molecules leads to increased spin-orbit coupling, which in turn enhances intersystem crossing rates in the guest molecule. Wave function overlap between the host and the guest is confirmed by combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. Shorter triplet exciton lifetimes are observed, while high photoluminescence quantum yields and essentially unaltered emission spectra are maintained. A change in the intersystem crossing rate ratio due to increased dielectric constants leads to almost 50% lower triplet exciton densities in the emissive layer in the steady state and results in an improved onset of the photoluminescence quantum yield roll-off at high excitation densities. Efficient organic light-emitting diodes with better roll-off behavior based on these novel hosts are fabricated, demonstrating the suitability of this concept for real-world applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. [More patients in a shorter inpatient stay with better outcome in treatment of femoral neck fracture: external quality assurance in Westfalia-Lippe on 50,354 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smektala, R; Schulze-Raestrup, U; Müller-Mai, C; Siebert, H

    2014-11-01

    We show a comparison between two patient groups of the inpatient population suffering from femoral neck fractures registered in the external quality assurance between 1993 and 1997 and between 2005 and 2009. The comparison between two patient groups showed the following developments: an increase in patient numbers per year from 4,229 to 5,842 where the average age remained constant but the proportion of elderly patients over 70 years old increased; the period of hospitalization was clearly shorter (from 27 days to 18 days); an increase in comorbidities (according to the ASA classification) with simultaneous decrease of the complication rate (from 11.1% to 7.6%). The inhospital mortality remained constant at 5.3%. At the same time the number of hospitals which treat patients with femoral neck fractures decreased from 166 to 150. Concurrently the number of patients per hospital and year increased from 23.6 to 41.3 cases. The technique of operative treatment changed and while during the 1990s many patients with femoral neck fractures were treated by implanting a total endoprosthesis, in the 2000s treatment was dominated by the hemi prosthesis. During the two periods of study use of the osteosynthesis technique decreased. In conclusion, the study showed an obvious compression of performance in trauma surgery but despite everything there was a clear improvement of treatment quality with respect to complication rates.

  17. Aiming for a shorter rheumatoid arthritis MRI protocol: can contrast-enhanced MRI replace T2 for the detection of bone marrow oedema?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stomp, Wouter; Bloem, Johan L.; Reijnierse, Monique [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Krabben, Annemarie; Heijde, Desiree van der; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Helm-van Mil, Annette H.M. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    To determine whether T1 post-gadolinium chelate images (T1Gd) can replace T2-weighted images (T2) for evaluating bone marrow oedema (BME), thereby allowing a shorter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 179 early arthritis patients and 43 advanced RA patients, wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints were examined on a 1.5-T extremity MRI system with a standard protocol (coronal T1, T2 fat-saturated and coronal and axial T1 fat-saturated after Gd). BME was scored according to OMERACT RAMRIS by two observers with and without T2 images available. Agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for semi-quantitative scores and test characteristics with T2 images as reference. Agreement between scores based on T2 and T1Gd images was excellent ICC (0.80-0.99). At bone level, sensitivity and specificity of BME on T1Gd compared to T2 were high for both patient groups and both readers (all ≥80 %). T1Gd and T2 images are equally suitable for evaluating BME. Because contrast is usually administered to assess (teno)synovitis, a short MRI protocol of T1 and T1Gd is sufficient in RA. (orig.)

  18. The role of retinopathy distribution and other lesion types for the definition of examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Erlandsen, Mogens; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-06-01

    It has previously been shown that the intervals between screening examinations for diabetic retinopathy can be optimized by including individual risk factors for the development of the disease in the risk assessment. However, in some cases, the risk model calculating the screening interval may recommend a different interval than an experienced clinician. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of factors unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the distribution of lesions for discrepancies between decisions made by the clinician and the risk model. Therefore, fundus photographs from 90 screening examinations where the recommendations of the clinician and a risk model had been discrepant were evaluated. Forty features were defined to describe the type and location of the lesions, and classification and ranking techniques were used to assess whether the features could predict the discrepancy between the grader and the risk model. Suspicion of tumours, retinal degeneration and vascular diseases other than diabetic retinopathy could explain why the clinician recommended shorter examination intervals than the model. Additionally, the regional distribution of microaneurysms/dot haemorrhages was important for defining a photograph as belonging to the group where both the clinician and the risk model had recommended a short screening interval as opposed to the other decision alternatives. Features unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the regional distribution of retinal lesions may affect the recommendation of the examination interval during screening for diabetic retinopathy. The development of automated computerized algorithms for extracting information about the type and location of retinal lesions could be expected to further optimize examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clustering and classification of music using interval categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Bod, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to clustering and classification of music, based on the concept of interval categories. Six interval categories exist, each with its own musical character. A piece of music can be represented by six numbers, reflecting the percentages of occurrences of each interval

  20. Rigorous Verification for the Solution of Nonlinear Interval System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We survey a general method for solving nonlinear interval systems of equations. In particular, we paid special attention to the computational aspects of linear interval systems since the bulk of computations are done during the stage of computing outer estimation of the including linear interval systems. The height of our ...

  1. A method to elicit beliefs as most likely intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the

  2. DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT TRANSFER PRICING BY APPLICATION OF THE INTERVAL ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Shuvalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of the method of interval estimation of conformity of the transaction price the market price. A comparative analysis of interval and point estimate. Identified the positive and negative effects of using interval estimation.

  3. A filtering method for the interval eigenvalue problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hladik, Milan; Daney, David; Tsigaridas, Elias

    2011-01-01

    We consider the general problem of computing intervals that contain the real eigenvalues of interval matrices. Given an outer approximation (superset) of the real eigenvalue set of an interval matrix, we propose a filtering method that iteratively improves the approximation. Even though our method...

  4. Learning about confidence intervals with software R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariela Gonçalves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 202 1111 USAL 9 2 1311 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This work was to study the feasibility of implementing a teaching method that employs software, in a Computational Mathematics course, involving students and teachers through the use of the statistical software R in carrying out practical work, such as strengthening the traditional teaching. The statistical inference, namely the determination of confidence intervals, was the content selected for this experience. It was intended show, first of all, that it is possible to promote, through the proposal methodology, the acquisition of basic skills in statistical inference and to promote the positive relationships between teachers and students. It presents also a comparative study between the methodologies used and their quantitative and qualitative results on two consecutive school years, in several indicators. The data used in the study were obtained from the students to the exam questions in the years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, from the achievement of a working group in 2011/2012 and via the responses to a questionnaire (optional and anonymous also applied in 2011 / 2012. In terms of results, we emphasize a better performance of students in the examination questions in 2011/2012, the year that students used the software R, and a very favorable student’s perspective about

  5. Simulation training is useful for shortening the decision-to-delivery interval in cases of emergent cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Yukako; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yumiko; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nakano, Tomoko; Imai, Kenji; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2017-08-16

    We examined the effect of simulation training for medical staff on the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) in cases of emergent cesarean delivery and the effect of a shortened DDI on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our hospital is a tertiary perinatal center. As the simulation training was performed in March 2014, the study population was divided into two groups: pretraining group (November 2011-March 2014, 29 months: n = 15) and post-training group (April 2014-August 2016, 29 months: n = 35). The DDI was significantly shorter in the post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .009). In particular, the decision-to-entering the operating room interval was significantly shorter in the post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .003). The umbilical artery pH was significantly better in post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .019). Furthermore, the umbilical artery pH was significantly improved by simulation training only in "irreversible" cases (p = .012). The DDI was significantly shortened by introducing simulation training. We also demonstrated a beneficial effect of the simulation training on the umbilical artery pH, especially in "irreversible" cases, without increasing the rate of maternal adverse outcome.

  6. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  7. Oral contraceptive use and the ECG: evidence of an adverse QT effect on corrected QT interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Tara; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Iribarren, Carlos; Lyon, Liisa L; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2013-07-01

    A prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval is a marker for an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We evaluated the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) use, type of OC, and QTc interval. We identified 410,782 ECGs performed at Northern California Kaiser Permanente on female patients between 15 and 53 years from January, 1995 to June, 2008. QT was corrected for heart rate using log-linear regression. OC generation (first, second and third) was classified by increasing progestin androgenic potency, while the fourth generation was classified as antiandrogenic. Among 410,782 women, 8.4% were on OC. In multivariate analysis after correction for comorbidities, there was an independent shortening effect of OCs overall (slope = -0.5 ms; SE = 0.12, P effect on the QTc. Shorter QTc is seen with first and second generation OC while fourth generation OC use has a lengthening effect on the QTc. Careful examination of adverse event rates in fourth generation OC users is needed. ©2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of "Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor /Ligand" Genotypes on Outcome following Surgery among Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Activating KIRs Are Associated with Long-Term Disease Free Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Beksac

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer develop recurrence following surgery. How individual regulation of host mediated anti-tumor cytotoxicity is modified by the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIRs genotype is essential for prediction of outcome. We analyzed the frequency of KIR and KIR ligand Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I genotypes, and their effects on recurrence and disease-free survival (DFS. Out of randomly selected 87 colorectal cancer patients who underwent R0 resection operations between 2005 and 2008, 29 patients whose cancers progressed within a median five-year follow-up period were compared with 58 patients with no recurrence within the same time period. Recurrent cases shared similar tumor stages with non-recurrent cases, but had different localizations. We used DNA isolated from pathological archival lymphoid and tumor tissues for KIR and KIR ligand (HLA-C, group C1, group C2, and HLA-A-Bw4 genotyping. Among cases with recurrence, KIR2DL1 (inhibitory KIR and A-Bw4 (ligand for inhibitory KIR3DL1 were observed more frequently (p=0.017 and p=0.024; and KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS3 (both activating KIRs were observed less frequently (p=0.005 and p=0.043. Similarly, in the non-recurrent group, inhibitory KIR-ligand combinations 2DL1-C2 and 2DL3-C1 were less frequent, while the activating combination 2DS2-C1 was more frequent. The lack of KIR2DL1, 2DL1-C2, and 2DL3-C1 improved disease-free survival (DFS (100% vs. 62.3%, p=0.05; 93.8% vs. 60.0%, p=0.035; 73.6% vs. 55.9%, p=0.07. The presence of KIR2DS2, 2DS3, and 2DS2-C1 improved DFS (77.8% vs. 48.5%, p=0.01; 79.4% vs. 58.5%, p=0.003; 76.9% vs. 51.4%, p=0.023. KIR2DS3 reduced the risk of recurrence (HR=0.263, 95% CI = 0.080-0.863, p=0.028. The number of activating KIRs are correlated strongly with DFS, none/ one/ two KIR : 54/77/98 months (p=0.004. In conclusion the inheritance of increasing numbers of activating KIRs and lack of inhibitory KIRs

  9. Combined aberrant expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 and CD24 is associated with disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Shao, Qing; Ji, Dong; Li, Fan; Guo, Xiaodong; Chen, Guofeng

    2014-10-23

    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), as a tumor suppressor, has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by reducing the expression of CD24, which has been identified as a prognostic factor for HCC patients. However, the clinical significance of combined NDRG2 and CD24 expression in HCC remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of NDRG2 and CD24 expression with clinicopathological parameters and patients' survival. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression and subcellular localizations of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins in 130 pairs of HCC and adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues. NDRG2 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of hepatocytes in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues, whereas its immunostaining was weak or negative in HCC tissues. In contrast, CD24 protein exhibited the cytoplasm immunostaining in tumor cells of HCC tissues but showed negative expression in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues. The statistical analysis also showed that the expression levels of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins in HCC tissues were respectively lower and higher than those in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues significantly (both Pexpression and CD24 expression in HCC tissues (P=0.02). Moreover, combined NDRG2 downregulation and CD24 upregulation (NDRG2-low/CD24-high) more frequently occurred in HCC tissues with high serum AFP (P=0.03), advanced tumor stage (P=0.001) and high tumor grade (P=0.02). Furthermore, HCC patients with NDRG2-low/CD24-high expression showed shortest 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both Pexpression of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins was an independent prognostic factor for both 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P=0.01) in HCC. These findings suggest that the downregulation of NDRG2 combined with the upregulation of CD24 may play a synergistic role in the occurrence and

  10. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  11. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2011-01-01

    manifesting antipsychotic-associated TdP and subsequently SCD have well established risk factors for SCD, i.e. older age, female gender, hypokalaemia and cardiovascular disease. QT interval prolongation is the most widely used surrogate marker for assessing the risk of TdP but it is considered somewhat...... imprecise, partly because QT interval changes are subject to measurement error. In particular, drug-induced T-wave changes (e.g. flattening of the T-wave) may complicate the measurement of the QT interval. Furthermore, the QT interval depends on the heart rate and a corrected QT (QTc) interval is often used...

  12. A multicentric randomized controlled trial on the impact of lengthening the interval between neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery on complete pathological response in rectal cancer (GRECCAR-6 trial): rationale and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Jérémie H; Rousseau, Alexandra; Svrcek, Magali; Parc, Yann; Simon, Tabassome; Tiret, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) is now part of the armamentarium of cancer of the lower and middle rectum. It is recommended in current clinical practice prior to surgical excision if the lesion is classified T3/T4 or N+. Histological complete response, defined by the absence of persistent tumor cell invasion and lymph node (ypT0N0) after pathological examination of surgical specimen has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor of overall survival and disease-free survival. Surgical excision is usually performed between 6 and 8 weeks after completion of CRT and pathological complete response rate ranges around 12%. In retrospective studies, a lengthening of the interval after RCT beyond 10 weeks was found as an independent factor increasing the rate of pathological complete response (between 26% and 31%), with a longer disease-free survival and without increasing the operative morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate in 264 patients the rate of pathological complete response rate of rectal cancer after RCT by lengthening the time between RCT and surgery. The current study is a multicenter randomized trial in two parallel groups comparing 7 and 11 weeks of delay between the end of RCT and cancer surgery of rectal tumors. At the end of the RCT, surgery is planified and randomization is performed after patient’s written consent for participation. The histological complete response (ypT0N0) will be determined with analysis of the complete residual tumor and double reading by two pathologists blinded of the group of inclusion. Patients will be followed in clinics for 5 years after surgery. Participation in this trial does not change patient’s management in terms of treatment, investigations or visits. Secondary endpoints will include overall and disease free survival, rate of sphincter conservation and quality of mesorectal excision. The number of patients needed is 264. ClinicalTrial.gov: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT01648894

  13. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean . We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  14. Modeling shows that the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir has two modes of action and yields a shorter estimate of the hepatitis C virus half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Dahari, Harel; Rong, Libin; Sansone, Natasha D; Nettles, Richard E; Cotler, Scott J; Layden, Thomas J; Uprichard, Susan L; Perelson, Alan S

    2013-03-05

    The nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein is a target for drug development against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interestingly, the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (BMS-790052) caused a decrease in serum HCV RNA levels by about two orders of magnitude within 6 h of administration. However, NS5A has no known enzymatic functions, making it difficult to understand daclatasvir's mode of action (MOA) and to estimate its antiviral effectiveness. Modeling viral kinetics during therapy has provided important insights into the MOA and effectiveness of a variety of anti-HCV agents. Here, we show that understanding the effects of daclatasvir in vivo requires a multiscale model that incorporates drug effects on the HCV intracellular lifecycle, and we validated this approach with in vitro HCV infection experiments. The model predicts that daclatasvir efficiently blocks two distinct stages of the viral lifecycle, namely viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly/secretion with mean effectiveness of 99% and 99.8%, respectively, and yields a more precise estimate of the serum HCV half-life, 45 min, i.e., around four times shorter than previous estimates. Intracellular HCV RNA in HCV-infected cells treated with daclatasvir and the HCV polymerase inhibitor NM107 showed a similar pattern of decline. However, daclatasvir treatment led to an immediate and rapid decline of extracellular HCV titers compared to a delayed (6-9 h) and slower decline with NM107, confirming an effect of daclatasvir on both viral replication and assembly/secretion. The multiscale modeling approach, validated with in vitro kinetic experiments, brings a unique conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of agents in development for the treatment of HCV.

  15. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Di Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa, and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa, lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA whose 5′ end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF21. The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA.

  16. Shorter lunch breaks lead secondary-school students to make less healthy dietary choices: multilevel analysis of cross-sectional national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    At the time of the study a number of schools within Wales had shortened the amount of time they allow for lunch break. The study investigated the association between length of lunch break and the dietary choices of students in secondary schools. Student-level data, collected through anonymised questionnaires, included reported dietary choices and correlates of these; data on school approaches to food were collected through postal surveys. Multilevel analysis was used to study the independent association between lunch-break length and student dietary choice. Data were collected from secondary schools in Wales that were part of the 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The final sample for analysis included data from 6693 students aged 11-16 years and 289 teachers from sixty-four secondary schools in Wales. Once controlling for many individual-level and school-level factors, the length of time allowed for lunch across the range for schools included in the study (minimum =25 min, maximum =62.5 min) was associated with higher odds of students eating fruit for lunch (2.20; 95% CI 1.18, 4.11) and fruit and vegetables on a daily basis (2.15; 95% CI 1.33, 3.47) but lower odds of eating unhealthy foods on a daily basis (0.44; 95% CI 0.24, 0.80). Shorter lunch breaks are associated with less healthy dietary choices by students. Schools should consider the impact that lunch-break length has on student dietary choice as well as on other behaviours. Policy makers should work with schools in encouraging them to maintain lunch breaks of a length that allow pupils to make healthy choices.

  17. The confidence-accuracy relationship for eyewitness identification decisions: Effects of exposure duration, retention interval, and divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Brewer, Neil; Weber, Nathan; Nagesh, Ambika

    2013-03-01

    Prior research points to a meaningful confidence-accuracy (CA) relationship for positive identification decisions. However, there are theoretical grounds for expecting that different aspects of the CA relationship (calibration, resolution, and over/underconfidence) might be undermined in some circumstances. This research investigated whether the CA relationship for eyewitness identification decisions is affected by three, forensically relevant variables: exposure duration, retention interval, and divided attention at encoding. In Study 1 (N = 986), a field experiment, we examined the effects of exposure duration (5 s vs. 90 s) and retention interval (immediate testing vs. a 1-week delay) on the CA relationship. In Study 2 (N = 502), we examined the effects of attention during encoding on the CA relationship by reanalyzing data from a laboratory experiment in which participants viewed a stimulus video under full or divided attention conditions and then attempted to identify two targets from separate lineups. Across both studies, all three manipulations affected identification accuracy. The central analyses concerned the CA relation for positive identification decisions. For the manipulations of exposure duration and retention interval, overconfidence was greater in the more difficult conditions (shorter exposure; delayed testing) than the easier conditions. Only the exposure duration manipulation influenced resolution (which was better for 5 s than 90 s), and only the retention interval manipulation affected calibration (which was better for immediate testing than delayed testing). In all experimental conditions, accuracy and diagnosticity increased with confidence, particularly at the upper end of the confidence scale. Implications for theory and forensic settings are discussed.

  18. The Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension Version 2 Provides Interval Measure Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Fellinghauer, Carolina; Abel, Rainer; Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Rupp, Rüdiger; Curt, Armin

    2018-01-16

    The Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP) is a valid, reliable, and responsive outcome measure to evaluate upper limb function in individuals with tetraplegia. GRASSP generates ordinal total scores; therefore, applicability as an interval level measurement requires testing of its measurement properties. This study examined the metric characteristics with Rasch Analysis to derive interval level scales of the respective GRASSP subtests. The GRASSP was recorded within 10 days, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Rasch analysis was performed for each GRASSP subscale to assess the following metric assumptions: absence of local item dependency (LID), unidimensionality, monotonicity, item and model fit, reliability, and absence of differential item functioning (DIF) for side (left and right) and examination stage. If these assumptions could not be met, adjustments were undertaken to achieve a good fit to the Rasch model. Seventy-seven individuals with cervical SCI were included (n = 154 arms). Stacking the data for the side (left and right) resulted in a total of 614 observations, which were based on the repeated measurements. With minor adjustments, the GRASSP subscales showed good reliability, item fit, and ordered response options. Local item dependencies were found in the strength and sensibility subscales. Redundancies among some measurement items allowed shortening of the subscales without reasonable loss of reliability. Absence of DIF for the examination stage supported robustness of the subscales over time. The modified GRASSP, now Version 2, subtest scores can be applied as interval level measurements, and the reduction of items within subscales allows for shorter assessment times in clinical studies without degrading metric properties.

  19. Preoperative radiation with concurrent chemotherapy for resectable rectal cancer: Effect of dose escalation on pathologic complete response, local recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Ward, Iain G.; Swallow, Carol; Oza, Amit M.; Cummings, Bernard; Pond, Gregory R.; Catton, Pamela; Kim, John; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Chong S.; Wong, Rebecca; Siu, Lillian L.; Moore, Malcolm; Brierley, James

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Three Phase II studies of preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent 5FU chemotherapy were undertaken. The primary endpoints were acute toxicity and pathologic complete response rate (pCR). Secondary endpoints were local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: A total of 134 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum (clinical T3/T4 or N1/N2) were treated. The initial cohort received 40 Gy in 20 fractions, the second 46 Gy in 23 fractions, and the third 50 Gy in 25 fractions. 5FU (225 mg/m 2 /day) was given continuously throughout radiotherapy. A total of 121 patients underwent surgical resection. Results: Treatment was well tolerated. Grade 3/4 acute toxicity was observed in 13%, 4%, and 14% of patients in the 40 Gy, 46 Gy, and 50 Gy cohorts, respectively (p = 0.20). pCR was documented in 15%, 23%, and 33% of patients, respectively (p = 0.07). The 2-year actuarial LRFS was 72%, 90%, and 89% (p = 0.02); DFS was 62%, 84%, and 78% (p = 0.02); and OS was 72%, 94%, and 92%, respectively (p = 0.03). Conclusions: All treatment schedules were well tolerated. There was a trend toward increased pCR with higher doses. A statistically significant increase in LRFS, DFS, and OS was seen with radiation doses of 46 Gy and greater, but there was no difference between 46 Gy and 50 Gy

  20. Targeting Human Serum Fucome by an Integrated Liquid-phase Multi Column Platform Operating in “Cascade” to Facilitate Comparative Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Disease-Free and Breast Cancer Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Subhashini; Rassi, Ziad El

    2013-01-01

    A fully integrated platform was developed for capturing/fractionating human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera. It comprised multicolumn operated by HPLC pumps and switching valves for the simultaneous depletion of high abundance proteins via affinity-based subtraction and the capturing of fucosylated glycoproteins via lectin affinity chromatography followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) were utilized. The platform allowed the “cascading” of the serum sample from column-to-column in the liquid phase with no sample manipulation between the various steps. This guaranteed no sample loss and no propagation of experimental biases between the various columns. Finally, the fucome was fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to trypsinolysis for LC-MS/MS analysis. This permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in breast cancer serum yielding a broad panel of 35 DEP from the combined LTA and AAL captured proteins and a narrower panel of 8 DEP that were commonly differentially expressed in both LTA and AAL fractions, which are considered as more representative of cancer altered fucome. PMID:23533108

  1. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  2. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  3. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  4. Cerebellar Roles in Self-Timing for Sub- and Supra-Second Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmae, Shogo; Kunimatsu, Jun; Tanaka, Masaki

    2017-03-29

    Previous studies suggest that the cerebellum and basal ganglia are involved in sub-second and supra-second timing, respectively. To test this hypothesis at the cellular level, we examined the activity of single neurons in the cerebellar dentate nucleus in monkeys performing the oculomotor version of the self-timing task. Animals were trained to report the passage of time of 400, 600, 1200, or 2400 ms following a visual cue by making self-initiated memory-guided saccades. We found a sizeable preparatory neuronal activity before self-timed saccades across delay intervals, while the time course of activity correlated with the trial-by-trial variation of saccade latency in different ways depending on the length of the delay intervals. For the shorter delay intervals, the ramping up of neuronal firing rate started just after the visual cue and the rate of rise of neuronal activity correlated with saccade timing. In contrast, for the longest delay (2400 ms), the preparatory activity started late during the delay period, and its onset time correlated with self-timed saccade latency. Because electrical microstimulation applied to the recording sites during saccade preparation advanced self-timed but not reactive saccades, regardless of their directions, the signals in the cerebellum may have a causal role in self-timing. We suggest that the cerebellum may regulate timing in both sub-second and supra-second ranges, although its relative contribution might be greater for sub-second than for supra-second time intervals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How we decide the timing of self-initiated movement is a fundamental question. According to the prevailing hypothesis, the cerebellum plays a role in monitoring sub-second timing, whereas the basal ganglia are important for supra-second timing. To verify this, we explored neuronal signals in the monkey cerebellum while animals reported the passage of time in the range 400-2400 ms by making eye movements. Contrary to our expectations, we

  5. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Anderson Dik Wai; Lee, Pamela P; Mao, Huawei; Chan, Koon-Wing; Chen, Xiang Yuan; Chen, Tong-Xin; He, Jian Xin; Kechout, Nadia; Suri, Deepti; Tao, Yin Bo; Xu, Yong Bin; Jiang, Li Ping; Liew, Woei Kang; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa; Gupta, Anju; Singh, Surjit; Rawat, Amit; Abdul Latiff, Amir Hamzah; Lee, Anselm Chi Wai; Shek, Lynette P; Nguyen, Thi Van Anh; Chin, Tek Jee; Chien, Yin Hsiu; Latiff, Zarina Abdul; Le, Thi Minh Huong; Le, Nguyen Ngoc Quynh; Lee, Bee Wah; Li, Qiang; Raj, Dinesh; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Thong, Meow-Keong; Ang, Maria Carmen D; Wang, Xiao Chuan; Xu, Chen Guang; Yu, Hai Guo; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Lee, Tsz Leung; Yau, Felix Yat Sun; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Tu, Wenwei; Yang, Wangling; Chong, Patrick Chun Yin; Ho, Marco Hok Kung; Lau, Yu Lung

    2017-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH) has been associated with earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD) and time to the diagnosis of SCID. From 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP), and AD were selected for study. A total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked ( n  = 57). A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis ( n  = 27) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine infection ( n  = 19) were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was 1.05 × 10 9 /L with over 88% patients below 3 × 10 9 /L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month ( p  = 0.002) and diagnosis by 2 months ( p  = 0.008), but not shorter time to diagnosis ( p  = 0.494). Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months ( p  = 0.008) and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months ( p  = 0.003). BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis. FH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of SCID were not recognized by

  6. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dik Wai Luk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH has been associated with earlier diagnosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD and time to the diagnosis of SCID.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP, and AD were selected for study.ResultsA total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57. A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27 and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine infection (n = 19 were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC was 1.05 × 109/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 109/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002 and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008, but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494. Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008 and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003. BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.ConclusionFH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of

  7. In Vitro Comparison of Holmium Lasers: Evidence for Shorter Fragmentation Time and Decreased Retropulsion Using a Modern Variable-pulse Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Roger; Penniston, Kristina L; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2017-09-01

    To compare the performance of variable- and fixed-pulse lasers on stone phantoms in vitro. Seven-millimeter stone phantoms were made to simulate calcium oxalate monohydrate stones using BegoStone plus. The in vitro setting was created with a clear polyvinyl chloride tube. For each trial, a stone phantom was placed at the open end of the tubing. The Cook Rhapsody H-30 variable-pulse laser was tested on both long- and short-pulse settings and was compared to the Dornier H-20 fixed-pulse laser; 5 trials were conducted for each trial arm. Fragmentation was accomplished with the use of a flexible ureteroscope and a 273-micron holmium laser fiber using settings of 1 J × 12 Hz. The treatment time (in minute) for complete fragmentation was recorded as was the total retropulsion distance (in centimeter) during treatment. Laser fibers were standardized for all repetitions. The treatment time was significantly shorter with the H-30 vs the H-20 laser (14.3 ± 2.5 vs 33.1 ± 8.9 minutes, P = .008). There was no difference between the treatment times using the long vs short pulse widths of the H-30 laser (14.4 ± 3.4 vs 14.3 ± 1.7 minutes, P = .93). Retropulsion differed by laser type and pulse width, H-30 long pulse (15.8 ± 5.7 cm), H-30 short pulse (54.8 ± 7.1 cm), and H-20 (33.2 ± 12.5 cm) (P laser fragmented stone phantoms in half the time of the H-20 laser regardless of the pulse width. Retropulsion effects differed between the lasers, with the H-30 causing the least retropulsion. Longer pulse widths result in less stone retropulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. QT interval prolongation after sertraline overdose: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman Nicole D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most common antidepressants used in first-world countries and are generally well tolerated. Specifically, less cardiovascular toxicity has been reported in comparison with tricyclic antidepressants. Here we report QT interval prolongation after an overdose of the SSRI sertraline. Case presentation A previously healthy female patient presented with an attempted suicide with overdoses sertraline (2250 mg, diazepam (200 mg, and temazepam (400 mg. Routine laboratory studies were normal and her ECG upon admission showed a normal QT interval. The next day, her ECG showed prolongation of the QTc interval up to 525 ms. After discontinuation of sertraline the QT interval normalized. Echocardiography and exercise electrocardiography were normal. After hospitalization, the patient resumed sertraline in the normally recommended dose and QT interval remained within normal ranges. Conclusion It seems that the SSRI sertraline in overdose may cause QT interval prolongation.

  9. Contrasting Diversity Values: Statistical Inferences Based on Overlapping Confidence Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). PMID:23437239

  10. Risk prediction of cardiovascular death based on the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Graff, Claus; Rasmussen, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    interval resulted in the worst prognosis for men whereas in women, a very short QTc interval was equivalent in risk to a borderline prolonged QTc interval. The effect of the QTc interval on the absolute risk of CVD was most pronounced in the elderly and in those with cardiovascular disease whereas.......1 years, 6647 persons died from cardiovascular causes. Long-term risks of CVD were estimated for subgroups defined by age, gender, cardiovascular disease, and QTc interval categories. In general, we observed an increased risk of CVD for both very short and long QTc intervals. Prolongation of the QTc...... the effect was negligible for middle-aged women without cardiovascular disease. The most important improvement in prediction accuracy was noted for women aged 70-90 years. In this subgroup, a total of 9.5% were reclassified (7.2% more accurately vs. 2.3% more inaccurately) within clinically relevant 5-year...

  11. Reference intervals for the P-Albumin bromocresol purple method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup

    2017-10-01

    Correct reference intervals are an important part of test results. As establishing own reference intervals is a very expensive task, the NORIP reference intervals are often transferred for use in Nordic laboratories. The NORIP reference interval on P-Albumin was here compared to current results for laboratories using the bromocresol purple (BCP) method for P-Albumin. External quality control reports were used to investigate the change in levels between the BCP and BCG methods on P-Albumin. An algorithm was built for extracting and isolating the laboratory's healthy subject population. The algorithm was used to extract test results from the laboratory information system. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to evaluate the P-Albumin test result populations. The indirect method used here clearly shows that the NORIP reference intervals for P-Albumin are not fit for the current bromocresol purple methods. The method was also used to suggest new reference interval limits.

  12. Time interval between maternal electrocardiogram and venous Doppler waves in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsin, K; Mesens, T; Molenberghs, G; Peeters, L; Gyselaers, W

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the time interval between maternal electrocardiogram (ECG) and venous Doppler waves at different stages of uncomplicated pregnancy (UP) and in preeclampsia (PE). Cross-sectional pilot study in 40 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, categorized in four groups of ten according to gestational age: 10 - 14 weeks (UP1), 18 - 23 weeks (UP2), 28 - 33 weeks (UP3) and ≥ 37 weeks (UP4) of gestation. A fifth group of ten women with PE was also included. A Doppler flow examination at the level of renal interlobar veins (RIV) and hepatic veins (HV) was performed according to a standard protocol, in association with a maternal ECG. The time interval between the ECG P-wave and the corresponding A-deflection of the venous Doppler waves was measured (PA), and expressed relative to the duration of the cardiac cycle (RR), and labeled PA/RR. In hepatic veins, the PA/RR is longer in UP 4 than in UP 1 (0.48 ± 0.15 versus 0.29 ± 0.09, p ≤ 0.001). When all UP groups were compared, the PA/RR increased gradually with gestational age. In PE, the HV PA/RR is shorter than in UP 3 (0.25 ± 0.09 versus 0.42 ± 0.14, p advanced gestational stages are consistent with known features of maternal cardiovascular adaptation. Shorter values in preeclampsia are consistent with maternal cardiovascular maladaptation mechanisms. Our pilot study invites more research of the relevance of the time interval between maternal ECG and venous Doppler waves as a new parameter for studying the gestational cardiovascular (patho)physiology of the maternal venous compartment by duplex sonography. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....

  14. The Interval Stability of an Electricity Market Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the electric power market dynamic model put forward by Alvarado, an interval model of electricity markets is established and investigated in this paper pertaining to the range of demand elasticity with suppliers and consumers. The stability of an electricity market framework with demand elasticity interval is analyzed. The conclusions characterizing the interval model provided are derived by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function and using the theory of interval dynamical system in differential equations and matrix inequality theory and so forth. Applying the corollary obtained can judge the system stability by available data about demand elasticity. The obtained results are validated and illustrated by a case example.

  15. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the “mean sojourn time.” It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs. The clinical and biological features of I-CRC should be elucidated to prevent the development of interval colon cancer.

  16. Closing the Gaps in Paediatric Reference Intervals: The CALIPER Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, Kareena; Chan, Man Khun; Gong, Yanping; Adeli, Khosrow

    2008-01-01

    Screening, diagnosis and monitoring of paediatric diseases relies on the measurement of a spectrum of disease biomarkers in clinical laboratories to guide important clinical decisions. Physicians rely on the availability of suitable and reliable reference intervals to accurately interpret laboratory test results with data collected during medical history and physical examination. However, critical gaps currently exist in accurate and up-to-date reference intervals (normal values) for accurate interpretation of laboratory tests performed in children and adolescents. These gaps in the available paediatric laboratory reference intervals have the clear potential of contributing to erroneous diagnosis or misdiagnosis of many diseases of childhood and adolescence. Most of the available reference intervals for laboratory tests were determined over two decades ago on older instruments and technologies, and are no longer relevant considering the current testing technology used by clinical laboratories. It is thus critical and of utmost urgency that a more acceptable and comprehensive database be established. There are however many challenges when attempting to establish paediatric reference intervals. Paediatric specimen collection is a major concern for health care providers as it is frequently difficult to obtain sufficient volumes of blood or urine from paediatric patients. Common reference intervals have not been widely implemented due to lack of harmonisation of methods and differences in patient populations. Consequently, clinical laboratory accreditation organisations and licensing agencies require that each laboratory verify or establish reference intervals for each method. To provide such reference intervals requires selection criteria for suitable reference individuals, defined conditions for specimen collection and analysis, method selection to determine reference limits and validation of the reference interval. The current review will provide a brief

  17. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  18. A probabilistic approach for representation of interval uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Kais; Rangavajhala, Sirisha; McDonald, Mark P.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a probabilistic approach to represent interval data for input variables in reliability and uncertainty analysis problems, using flexible families of continuous Johnson distributions. Such a probabilistic representation of interval data facilitates a unified framework for handling aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. For fitting probability distributions, methods such as moment matching are commonly used in the literature. However, unlike point data where single estimates for the moments of data can be calculated, moments of interval data can only be computed in terms of upper and lower bounds. Finding bounds on the moments of interval data has been generally considered an NP-hard problem because it includes a search among the combinations of multiple values of the variables, including interval endpoints. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms based on continuous optimization to find the bounds on second and higher moments of interval data. With numerical examples, we show that the proposed bounding algorithms are scalable in polynomial time with respect to increasing number of intervals. Using the bounds on moments computed using the proposed approach, we fit a family of Johnson distributions to interval data. Furthermore, using an optimization approach based on percentiles, we find the bounding envelopes of the family of distributions, termed as a Johnson p-box. The idea of bounding envelopes for the family of Johnson distributions is analogous to the notion of empirical p-box in the literature. Several sets of interval data with different numbers of intervals and type of overlap are presented to demonstrate the proposed methods. As against the computationally expensive nested analysis that is typically required in the presence of interval variables, the proposed probabilistic representation enables inexpensive optimization-based strategies to estimate bounds on an output quantity of interest.

  19. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  20. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk recording intervals was studied by analysing 1220 lactation records of Friesian x Arsi crossbred cows kept in south eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Milk Recording Intervals (MRI) comparison was made at 15, 30 and 45 day's length. Accuracy was measured in terms of percentage difference between actual and estimated ...

  1. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short interpregnancy interval among HIVpositive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at r i s k o f mo t h e r ...

  2. Birth interval and its predictors among married women in Dabat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-30

    Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to ...

  3. Evaluation of Healing Intervals of Incisional Skin Wounds of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the healing intervals among simple interrupted (SI), ford interlocking (FI) and subcuticular (SC) suture patterns in goats. We hypothesized that these common suture patterns used for closure of incisional skin wounds may have effect on the healing interval. To test this hypothesis, two ...

  4. An Analysis Of QRS Interval Of The Electrocardiogram In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was undertaken to establish the normal QRS interval of the adult Nigerian from Jos; to find significant correlation coefficients for QRS interval and the various anthropometric measurements and also to establish prediction equations for the QRS ...

  5. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Abstract Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short inter- pregnancy interval among HIV- positive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at.

  6. An approximate confidence interval for recombination fraction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... proposed a two stage Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to calculate an approximate confidence interval (ACI) ... Key words: Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Gibbs sampler, approximate confidence interval, simulation size. ... from local conditional distributions at parameter valuesθ , given the ...

  7. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  8. Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Psilander, Niklas; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved...

  9. Integers without large prime factors in short intervals: Conditional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tenenbaum [HT93] and Pomerance [Po94] for highly readable and informative discus- sions on these topics. This article is about distribution of smooth numbers in short intervals, namely intervals of type (X, X +. √. X]. See the next subsection for basic facts about dis- tribution of smooth numbers. One expects that smooth ...

  10. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Applying Bootstrap Resampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjanovic, Erin S.; Osborne, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Confidence intervals for effect sizes (CIES) provide readers with an estimate of the strength of a reported statistic as well as the relative precision of the point estimate. These statistics offer more information and context than null hypothesis statistic testing. Although confidence intervals have been recommended by scholars for many years,…

  11. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  12. Verified Interval Orbit Propagation in Satellite Collision Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römgens, B.A.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verified interval integration methods enclose a solution set corresponding to interval initial values and parameters, and bound integration and rounding errors. Verified methods suffer from overestimation of the solution, i.e., non-solutions are also included in the solution enclosure. Two verified

  13. Robotic fish tracking method based on suboptimal interval Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohong; Tang, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) research focused on tracking and positioning, precise guidance and return to dock and other fields. The robotic fish of AUV has become a hot application in intelligent education, civil and military etc. In nonlinear tracking analysis of robotic fish, which was found that the interval Kalman filter algorithm contains all possible filter results, but the range is wide, relatively conservative, and the interval data vector is uncertain before implementation. This paper proposes a ptimization algorithm of suboptimal interval Kalman filter. Suboptimal interval Kalman filter scheme used the interval inverse matrix with its worst inverse instead, is more approximate nonlinear state equation and measurement equation than the standard interval Kalman filter, increases the accuracy of the nominal dynamic system model, improves the speed and precision of tracking system. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the optimal trajectory of sub optimal interval Kalman filter algorithm is better than that of the interval Kalman filter method and the standard method of the filter.

  14. Rigorous Verification for the Solution of Nonlinear Interval System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The height of our findings is the synchronization of Hansen's theorem with that due to Rohn to accelerate basic convergence characteristics of our method. We compare computed results with those obtained by Sainz et al where Kaucher interval arithmetic was applied on interval Jacobi iterative type method and found out ...

  15. Effect Of Interval Training On Blood Pressure And Exercise Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Interval Training On Blood Pressure And Exercise Capacity In Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Study. ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of interval training program on MAP in black African subjects with hypertension. Two hundred ...

  16. INTERVAL STATE ESTIMATION FOR SINGULAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SYSTEMS WITH DELAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linear differential equation systems with algebraic restrictions (singular systems and a method of interval observer design for this kind of systems. The systems contain constant time delay, measurement noise and disturbances. Interval observer synthesis is based on monotone and cooperative systems technique, linear matrix inequations, Lyapunov function theory and interval arithmetic. The set of conditions that gives the possibility for interval observer synthesis is proposed. Results of synthesized observer operation are shown on the example of dynamical interindustry balance model. The advantages of proposed method are that it is adapted to observer design for uncertain systems, if the intervals of admissible values for uncertain parameters are given. The designed observer is capable to provide asymptotically definite limits on the estimation accuracy, since the interval of admissible values for the object state is defined at every instant. The obtained result provides an opportunity to develop the interval estimation theory for complex systems that contain parametric uncertainty, varying delay and nonlinear elements. Interval observers increasingly find applications in economics, electrical engineering, mechanical systems with constraints and optimal flow control.

  17. T(peak)T(end) interval in long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, Jørgen Kim; Haarmark, Christian; Vedel-Larsen, Esben

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The T(peak)T(end) (T(p)T(e)) interval is believed to reflect the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Accordingly, it should be a risk factor in long QT syndrome (LQTS). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype on T(p)T(e) interval and test whether it was related...

  18. Reference intervals for serum lipids in coastal males from Fangchenggang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xue; Mo, Cuiju; Zeng, Zhiyu; Chen, Zhiping; Deng, Yan; Peng, Qiliu; Gao, Yong; Yi, Zhen; Li, Shan; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to establish the reference intervals for serum lipids in coastal residents of the Chinese male population. A total of 1436 subjects, aged between 19 and 86 years, were selected from the Fangchenggang Area for Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). Reference intervals of serum lipids were measured by enzymatic endpoint colorimetry and information was obtained using a standard questionnaire. The total nonparametric reference intervals for TC 1.90 mmol/L (73.08 mg/dL), and LDL-C serum lipid levels were correlated with older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and more smoking, but not with alcohol consumption. The established reference intervals of serum lipids for coastal Chinese male residents would be helpful for assessing risk of cardiovascular disease. We recommend establishing population-based reference intervals for serum lipids in clinical laboratories.

  19. BIOCHEMISTRY PANEL REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR JUVENILE GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovicz, Laura A; Trosclair, Macy R; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-09-01

    Reference intervals for diagnostic tests are vitally important for clinical decision making. Despite the popularity of pet goldfish (Carassius auratus), reference intervals have not been generated for routine biochemistry panel analytes in this species. This study establishes de novo reference intervals for packed cell volume and total solids, using 47 apparently healthy immature goldfish, and for 11 common chemistry panel analytes (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, creatine kinase, globulin, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, total protein, and uric acid) using 39 immature goldfish. Robust reference intervals were generated following recommendations of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Linear regression was used to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between body weight and calcium, albumin, total protein, potassium, packed cell volume, and total solids. The results of this study serve as a useful baseline for future reference interval generation in goldfish.

  20. The game of Double-Silver on intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A. Heuer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Silverman's game on intervals was analyzed in a special case by Evans, and later more extensively by Heuer and Leopold-Wildburger, who found that optimal strategies exist (and gave them quite generally when the intervals have no endpoints in common. They exist in about half the parameter plane when the intervals have a left endpoint or a right endpoint, but not both, in common, and (as Evans had earlier found exist only on a set of measure zero in this plane if the intervals are identical. The game of Double-Silver, where each player has its own threshold and penalty, is examined. There are several combinations of conditions on relative placement of the intervals, the thresholds and penalties under which optimal strategies exist and are found. The indications are that in the other cases no optimal strategies exist.

  1. Age of marriage and length of the first birth interval in a traditional Indian society: life table and hazards model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Singh, K K; Land, K C; Talukdar, P K

    1993-10-01

    The length of the first birth interval is one of the strongest and most persistent factors affecting fertility in noncontracepting populations, with longer intervals usually associated with lower fertility. Compared to Western society, the average length of the first birth interval is much longer in traditional Indian society. Yet Indian fertility rates are higher because of either ineffective family planning procedures or deliberate nonuse of birth control and because of the high proportion of the population that is married. Here, we examine the effects of various sociodemographic covariates (with an emphasis on the role of age at marriage) on the length of the first birth interval for two states of India: Assam and Uttar Pradesh. Life table and multivariate hazards modeling techniques are applied to the data. Covariates such as age at marriage, present age of mother, female's occupation, family income, and place of residence have strong effects on the variation of the length of the first birth interval. For each subgroup of females (classified according to different levels of the covariates), the median length of the first birth interval for the Assam (Bengali-speaking) sample is shorter than that of the Uttar Pradesh (Hindi-speaking) sample.

  2. Quick benefits of interval training versus continuous training on bone: a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Maurel, Delphine B; Pallu, Stéphane; Ingrand, Isabelle; Boisseau, Nathalie; Jaffré, Christelle; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    To delay age-related bone loss, physical activity is recommended during growth. However, it is unknown whether interval training is more efficient than continuous training to increase bone mass both quickly and to a greater extent. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 10-week interval training regime with a 14-week continuous training regime on bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-four male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were separated into four groups: control for 10 weeks (C10), control for 14 weeks (C14), moderate interval training for 10 weeks (IT) and moderate continuous training for 14 weeks (CT). Rats were exercised 1 h/day, 5 day/week. Body composition and BMD of the whole body and femur respectively were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after training to determine raw gain and weight-normalized BMD gain. Both trained groups had lower weight and fat mass gain when compared to controls. Both trained groups gained more BMD compared to controls when normalized to body weight. Using a 30% shorter training period, the IT group showed more than 20% higher whole body and femur BMD gains compared to the CT. Our data suggest that moderate IT was able to produce faster bone adaptations than moderate CT. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  3. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  4. Predicting fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach and SWAT in the Miyun watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu; Qiu, Jiali; Li, Yangyang

    2017-06-01

    Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site. An interval-to-interval approach was designed and incorporated into the processes of fecal coliform calibration and validation. The 95% confidence interval of the predicted values and the 95% confidence interval of measured values were considered during calibration and validation in the interval-to-interval approach. Compared with the traditional point-to-point comparison, this method can improve simulation accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation of fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach was reasonable for the watershed. This method could provide a new research direction for future model calibration and validation studies.

  5. Simple parametric survival analysis with anonymized register data: A cohort study with truncated and interval censored event and censoring times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To preserve patient anonymity, health register data may be provided as binned data only. Here we consider as example, how to estimate mean survival time after a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer from Norwegian register data on time to death or censoring binned into 30 day intervals. All events occurring in the first three months (90 days after diagnosis were removed to achieve comparability with a clinical trial. The aim of the paper is to develop and implement a simple, and yet flexible method for analyzing such interval censored and truncated data. Methods Considering interval censoring a missing data problem, we implement a simple multiple imputation strategy that allows flexible sensitivity analyses with respect to the shape of the censoring distribution. To allow identification of appropriate parametric models, a χ2-goodness-of-fit test--also imputation based--is derived and supplemented with diagnostic plots. Uncertainty estimates for mean survival times are obtained via a simulation strategy. The validity and statistical efficiency of the proposed method for varying interval lengths is investigated in a simulation study and compared with simpler alternatives. Results Mean survival times estimated from the register data ranged from 1.2 (SE = 0.09 to 3.2 (0.31 years depending on period of diagnosis and choice of parametric model. The shape of the censoring distribution within intervals did generally not influence results, whereas the choice of parametric model did, even when different models fit the data equally well. In simulation studies both simple midpoint imputation and multiple imputation yielded nearly unbiased analyses (relative biases of -0.6% to 9.4% and confidence intervals with near-nominal coverage probabilities (93.4% to 95.7% for censoring intervals shorter than six months. For 12 month censoring intervals, multiple imputation provided better protection against bias, and coverage probabilities

  6. Effect of different rest intervals between sets in the growth hormone concentrations in trained older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Jambassi Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p216   The use of shorter rest intervals (RI between sets of weight exercises has demonstrated to be a strategy to cause elevations of growth hormone concentrations (GH in young adults. However, is not yet well established whether the magnitude of these elevations is influenced by the aging process. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of different RI between sets of weight exercises on GH concentrations. Eighteen trained older women (65.8 ± 4.4 years; 70.2 ± 11.8 kg; 158.2 ± 5.1 cm were submitted to two experimental exercise sessions in the leg press (separated by intervals between 48 and 72 hours. Both sessions consisted of three sets all performed with absolute loads of 15 maximal repetitions. Participants were instructed to perform maximum repetitions possible in each set until volitional muscle fatigue. In each experimental session, one of the different RI between sets was used: one minute (RI-1 or three minutes (RI-3. A randomized cross-over balanced design was used to determine the order of experimental sessions. Blood samples were collected to determine GH concentrations immediately before and after leg press exercise. Only the session performed with RI-1 showed significant elevations (50.7%; P 0.05. The results suggest that the use of different RI between sets does not influence the GH concentrations in trained older women.

  7. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.J.R.; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.C.; Lee, A.H.S.; Chakrabarti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups

  8. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: garethporter@doctors.org.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Burrell, H.C. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chakrabarti, J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups.

  9. Hematological Reference Intervals for Healthy Iranian Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mahboubeh; Pourmokhtar, Mojgan; Sarkardeh, Shaghayegh

    2017-10-01

    Background: Development of locally-derived hematological reference intervals is necessary for improving the quality of health care and clinical trials. However hematological reference intervals are affected by several variables including age, gender and environmental factors. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the gender and age-specific hematological reference intervals of healthy Iranian blood donors. Materials and Methods: Selected hematological indices of 394 healthy blood donor volunteers, donating blood at Tehran Blood Transfusion Center were analyzed. Hematological reference intervals, stratified by age and gender were compared. The results of current study were also compared with those of US population. Results: There were significant gender-related differences for mean values of hematological indices, with males having higher mean values of RBC, HCG, HCT and MCV than females. While the mean of PLT and MCH were higher in women. Age-related differences for mean values of RBC and MCH were also significant. The comparison of reference intervals, stratified by both gender and age showed that RBC, HGB and HCT values were higher in males than females in all age groups. But MCH values of females in all age groups and WBC and PLT counts in females older than 30 years were higher compared to the males in the same age group. The results of this study showed some similarity with US population, with narrower intervals. Conclusion: This study suggests that gender and age-specific, locally derived hematological reference intervals should be referred to, before interpretation of any laboratory test result.

  10. Complete blood count reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhong Wu

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi'an. Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples.Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles.We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently.

  11. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  12. The association between atrium electromechanical interval and pericardial fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Fan Chao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pericardial fat (PCF may induce local inflammation and subsequent structural remodeling of the left atrium (LA. However, the adverse effects of PCF on LA are difficult to be evaluated and quantified. The atrial electromechanical interval determined by transthoracic echocardiogram was shown to be a convenient parameter which can reflect the process of LA remodeling. The goal of the present study was to investigate the association between the electromechanical interval and PCF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 337 patients with mean age of 51.9 ± 9.0 years were enrolled. The electromechanical interval (PA-PDI defined as the time interval from the initiation of the P wave deflection to the peak of the mitral inflow A wave on the pulse wave Doppler imaging was measured for every patient. The amount of PCF was determined by multi-detector computed tomography. The PA-PDI interval was significantly correlated with the amount of PCF (r = 0.641, p value <0.001. Graded prolongation of PA-PDI interval was observed across 3 groups of patients divided according to the tertile values of PCF. The AUC for the PA-PDI interval in predicting an increased amount of PCF (third tertile was 0.796. At a cutoff value of 130 ms identified by the ROC curve, the sensitivity and specificity of PA-PDI interval in identifying patients with a highest tertile of PCF were 63.4% and 85.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PA-PDI intervals were longer in patients with an increased amount of PCF. It may be a useful parameter to represent the degree of PCF-related atrial remodeling.

  13. The Role of Higher Harmonics In Musical Interval Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Using an alternative parameterization of the roughness curve we make direct use of critical band results to investigate the role of higher harmonics on the perception of tonal consonance. We scale the spectral amplitudes in the complex home tone and complex interval tone to simulate acoustic signals of constant energy. Our analysis reveals that even with a relatively small addition of higher harmonics the perfect fifth emerges as a consonant interval with more, musically important, just intervals emerging as consonant as more and more energy is shifted into higher frequencies.

  14. MRI of the rotator interval of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Guy, S. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Connell, D. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom) and Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University College London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Lambert, S. [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The rotator interval of the shoulder joint is located between the distal edges of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons and contains the insertions of the coracohumeral and superior glenohumeral ligaments. These structures form a complex pulley system that stabilizes the long head of the biceps tendon as it enters the bicipital groove of the humeral head. The rotator interval is the site of a variety of pathological processes including biceps tendon lesions, adhesive capsulitis and anterosuperior internal impingement. This article describes the anatomy, function and pathology of the rotator interval using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  15. Estimation of individual reference intervals in small sample sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Eller, Nanna Hurwitz

    2007-01-01

    of that order of magnitude for all topics in question. Therefore, new methods to estimate reference intervals for small sample sizes are needed. We present an alternative method based on variance component models. The models are based on data from 37 men and 84 women taking into account biological variation...... presented in this study. The presented method enables occupational health researchers to calculate reference intervals for specific groups, i.e. smokers versus non-smokers, etc. In conclusion, the variance component models provide an appropriate tool to estimate reference intervals based on small sample...

  16. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  17. Optimizing calibration intervals for specific applications to reduce maintenance costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Steve; Holland, Jack [Servomex Group, Crowborough (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-01

    The introduction of the Servomex MultiExact 5400 analyzer has presented an opportunity to review the cost of ownership and how improvements to an analyzer's performance may be used to reduce this. Until now, gas analyzer manufacturers have taken a conservative approach to calibration intervals based on site practices and experience covering a wide range of applications. However, if specific applications are considered, then there is an opportunity to reduce costs by increasing calibration intervals. This paper demonstrates how maintenance costs may be reduced by increasing calibration intervals for those gas analyzers used for monitoring Air Separation Units (ASUs) without detracting from their performance.(author)

  18. Time interval approach to the pulsed neutron logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Su Weining

    1994-01-01

    The time interval of neighbouring neutrons emitted from a steady state neutron source can be treated as that from a time-dependent neutron source. In the rock space, the neutron flux is given by the neutron diffusion equation and is composed of an infinite terms. Each term s composed of two die-away curves. The delay action is discussed and used to measure the time interval with only one detector in the experiment. Nuclear reactions with the time distribution due to different types of radiations observed in the neutron well-logging methods are presented with a view to getting the rock nuclear parameters from the time interval technique

  19. Effects of caffeine on prospective duration judgements of various intervals depend on task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P; Block, Richard A

    2005-06-01

    The effects of caffeine on prospective duration judgements were investigated in two double-blind placebo-controlled experiments. After taking either 200 mg of caffeine or a placebo, participants performed a task that demanded considerable attention, driving a car in a simulator (Experiment 1) or a task that demanded relatively little attention, watching a videotaped scene from a driven car (Experiment 2). Each participant made duration judgements of three target intervals: 15 s, 60 s and 300 s. Actively driving participants in the caffeine condition judged it as shorter than did those in the placebo condition. Caffeine had no effect on duration judgements following passive viewing. When people must perform a relatively difficult task, caffeine causes participants to allocate relatively more of their attentional resources to the task and relatively less to duration timing. Although caffeine may increase the pacemaker rate of an internal clock (via dopamine D(1) agonism), when external events are attention-demanding, caffeine mainly influences the relative allocation of attention to external events or to time (via dopamine D(2) agonism) in cerebral areas subserving the executive control of attention. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Influence of object material and inter-trial interval on novel object recognition test in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-jian; Huang, Zhu-yan; Ye, Yi-lu; Yu, Yue-ping; Zhang, Wei-ping; Wei, Er-qing; Zhang, Qi

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of novel object recognition (NOR) test in assessment of learning and memory ability in ICR mice in different experimental conditions. One hundred and thirty male ICR mice were randomly divided into 10 groups: 4 groups for different inter-trial intervals (ITI: 10 min, 90 min, 4 h, 24 h), 4 groups for different object materials (wood-wood, plastic-plastic, plastic-wood, wood-plastic) and 2 groups for repeated test (measured once a day or every 3 days, totally three times in each group). The locomotor tracks in the open field were recorded. The amount of time spent exploring the novel and familiar objects, the discrimination ratio (DR) and the discrimination index (DI) were analyzed. Compared with familiar object, DR and DI of novel object were both increased at ITI of 10 min and 90 min (P<0.01). Exploring time, DR and DI were greatly influenced by different object materials. DR and DI remained stable by using identical object material. NOR test could be done repeatedly in the same batch of mice. NOR test can be used to assess the learning and memory ability in mice at shorter ITI and with identical material. It can be done repeatedly.

  1. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  2. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; G. Fadel, J.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    an extended compared with a shorter lactation. Increasing CInt increased the dry period length with 3 to 5 d. In conclusion, the group of cows with longer CInt were able to produce at least equivalent amounts of ECM per feeding day when the CInt was up to 17 to 19 mo on these 4 commercial dairy farms....... that cows are able to maintain milk yield per feeding day when the length of the calving interval (CInt) is increased. Milk yield per feeding day is defined as the cumulated lactation milk yield divided by the sum of days between 2 consecutive calvings. The main objective of this study was to investigate...... the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM...

  3. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  4. Organ Preservation in Rectal Adenocarcinoma: a phase II randomized controlled trial evaluating 3-year disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation plus induction or consolidation chemotherapy, and total mesorectal excision or nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J Joshua; Chow, Oliver S; Gollub, Marc J; Nash, Garrett M; Temple, Larissa K; Weiser, Martin R; Guillem, José G; Paty, Philip B; Avila, Karin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-10-23

    Treatment of patients with non-metastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) includes pre-operative chemoradiation, total mesorectal excision (TME) and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. This trimodality treatment provides local tumor control in most patients; but almost one-third ultimately die from distant metastasis. Most survivors experience significant impairment in quality of life (QoL), due primarily to removal of the rectum. A current challenge lies in identifying patients who could safely undergo rectal preservation without sacrificing survival benefit and QoL. This multi-institutional, phase II study investigates the efficacy of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) and selective non-operative management (NOM) in LARC. Patients with MRI-staged Stage II or III rectal cancer amenable to TME will be randomized to receive FOLFOX/CAPEOX: a) before induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy (INCT); or b) after consolidation neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CNCT), with 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemoradiation. Patients in both arms will be re-staged after completing all neoadjuvant therapy. Those with residual tumor at the primary site will undergo TME. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) will receive non-operative management (NOM). NOM patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. TME patients will be followed according to NCCN guidelines. All will be followed for at least 5 years from the date of surgery or--in patients treated with NOM--the last day of treatment. The studies published thus far on the safety of NOM in LARC have compared survival between select groups of patients with a cCR after NOM, to patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after TME. The current study compares 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in an entire population of patients with LARC, including those with cCR and those with pCR. We will compare the two arms of the study with respect to organ preservation at 3 years, treatment compliance

  5. The combination of FDG PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI improves the prediction of disease-free survival in patients with advanced breast cancer after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ilhan; Kim, Byung II; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, 75 Nowongil, Nowon Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jihyun; Byun, Byung Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, 75 Nowongil, Nowon Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Ae; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ko Woon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Pathology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); You, Eun Young [Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Department of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of FDG PET/CT and MRI in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery in patients with advanced breast cancer. The analysis included 54 women with advanced breast cancer. All patients received three cycles of NAC, underwent curative surgery, and then received three cycles of additional chemotherapy. Before and after the first cycle of NAC, all patients underwent sequential PET/CT and MRI. All patients were analysed using a diverse range of parameters. including maximal standardized uptake value (SUV), percent change in SUV (ΔSUV), initial slope of the enhancement curve (MRslope), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tumour size, change in MRslope (ΔMRslope), change in ADC (ΔADC), change in tumour size (Δsize) and other clinicopathological parameters. The relationships between covariates and DFS after surgery were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cut-off values of imaging parameters for DFS. Of the 54 patients, 13 (24 %) experienced recurrence at a median follow-up of 38 months (range 25 - 45 months). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that a lesser decline in SUV, a lesser decline in MRslope, a lesser increase in ADC, and ER negativity were significantly associated with a poorer DFS (P = 0.0006, ΔSUV threshold -41 %; P = 0.0016, ΔMRslope threshold -6 %; P = 0.011, ΔADC threshold 11 %; and P = 0.0086, ER status, respectively). Patients with a combination of ΔSUV >-41 % and ΔMRslope >-6 % showed a significantly higher recurrence rate (77.8 %) than the remaining of patients (13.3 %, P < 0.0001). Functional parameters of both FDG PET and MRI after the first cycle of NAC are useful for predicting DFS in patients with advanced breast cancer. This approach could lead to an improvement in patient care because

  6. MRE11-deficiency associated with improved long-term disease free survival and overall survival in a subset of stage III colon cancer patients in randomized CALGB 89803 trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pavelitz

    Full Text Available Colon cancers deficient in mismatch repair (MMR may exhibit diminished expression of the DNA repair gene, MRE11, as a consequence of contraction of a T11 mononucleotide tract. This study investigated MRE11 status and its association with prognosis, survival and drug response in patients with stage III colon cancer.Cancer and Leukemia Group B 89803 (Alliance randomly assigned 1,264 patients with stage III colon cancer to postoperative weekly adjuvant bolus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FU/LV or irinotecan+FU/LV (IFL, with 8 year follow-up. Tumors from these patients were analyzed to determine stability of a T11 tract in the MRE11 gene. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS, and a secondary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS. Non-proportional hazards were addressed using time-dependent covariates in Cox analyses.Of 625 tumor cases examined, 70 (11.2% exhibited contraction at the T11 tract in one or both MRE11 alleles and were thus predicted to be deficient in MRE11 (dMRE11. In pooled treatment analyses, dMRE11 patients showed initially reduced DFS and OS but improved long-term DFS and OS compared with patients with an intact MRE11 T11 tract. In the subgroup of dMRE11 patients treated with IFL, an unexplained early increase in mortality but better long-term DFS than IFL-treated pMRE11 patients was observed.Analysis of this relatively small number of patients and events showed that the dMRE11 marker predicts better prognosis independent of treatment in the long-term. In subgroup analyses, dMRE11 patients treated with irinotecan exhibited unexplained short-term mortality. MRE11 status is readily assayed and may therefore prove to be a useful prognostic marker, provided that the results reported here for a relatively small number of patients can be generalized in independent analyses of larger numbers of samples.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00003835.

  7. On interval methods applied to robot reliability quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, C.; Walker, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Interval methods have recently been successfully applied to obtain significantly improved robot reliability estimates via fault trees for the case of uncertain and time-varying input reliability data. These initial studies generated output distributions of failure probabilities by extending standard interval arithmetic with new abstractions called interval grids which can be parameterized to control the complexity and accuracy of the estimation process. In this paper different parameterization strategies are evaluated in order to gain a more complete understanding of the potential benefits of the approach. A canonical example of a robot manipulator system is used to show that an appropriate selection of parameters is a key issue for the successful application of such novel interval-based methodologies

  8. A Statistical Approach for Interval Forecasting of the Electricity Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jun Hua; Dong, Zhao Yang; Xu, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Electricity price forecasting is a difficult yet essential task for market participants in a deregulated electricity market. Rather than forecasting the value, market participants are sometimes more interested in forecasting the prediction interval of the electricity price. Forecasting...... the prediction interval is essential for estimating the uncertainty involved in the price and thus is highly useful for making generation bidding strategies and investment decisions. In this paper, a novel data mining-based approach is proposed to achieve two major objectives: 1) to accurately forecast the value...... of the electricity price series, which is widely accepted as a nonlinear time series; 2) to accurately estimate the prediction interval of the electricity price series. In the proposed approach, support vector machine (SVM) is employed to forecast the value of the price. To forecast the prediction interval, we...

  9. From special relativity to quantum mechanics through interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcor, R.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is an optics with one more spatial dimension, the angle of phase. Wave-particle duality is nothing else than geometric tangent-point duality. The 'interval' of special relativity is proportional to the phase

  10. Discrete-time optimal control and games on large intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2017-01-01

    Devoted to the structure of approximate solutions of discrete-time optimal control problems and approximate solutions of dynamic discrete-time two-player zero-sum games, this book presents results on properties of approximate solutions in an interval that is independent lengthwise, for all sufficiently large intervals. Results concerning the so-called turnpike property of optimal control problems and zero-sum games in the regions close to the endpoints of the time intervals are the main focus of this book. The description of the structure of approximate solutions on sufficiently large intervals and its stability will interest graduate students and mathematicians in optimal control and game theory, engineering, and economics. This book begins with a brief overview and moves on to analyze the structure of approximate solutions of autonomous nonconcave discrete-time optimal control Lagrange problems.Next the structures of approximate solutions of autonomous discrete-time optimal control problems that are discret...

  11. Spectral of electrocardiographic RR intervals to indicate atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryani, Nuryani; Satrio Nugroho, Anto

    2017-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart diseases, which is associated on the risk of death, and thus an early detection of atrial fibrillation is necessary. We have investigated spectral pattern of electrocardiogram in relation to atrial fibrillation. The utilized feature of electrocardiogram is RR interval. RR interval is the time interval between a two-consecutive R peaks. A series of RR intervals in a time segment is converted to a signal with a frequency domain. The frequency components are investigated to find the components which significantly associate to atrial fibrillation. A segment is defined as atrial fibrillation or normal segments by considering a defined number of atrial fibrillation RR in the segment. Using clinical data of 23 patients with atrial fibrillation, we find that the frequency components could be used to indicate atrial fibrillation.

  12. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Paediatric reference intervals based on samples from healthy children are difficult to establish and consequently data are often from hospitalized children. Furthermore, biases may present in published data due to differences in the analytical methods employed. Blood samples from 1429...... healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL...... values of X for the properties and statistical calculations carried out as performed in the NORIP study. Thus commutable (regarding analytical method) reference intervals for 20 properties were established and for LDL-Cholesterol reference intervals were reported for the specific analytical method...

  13. Symbol interval optimization for molecular communication with drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Eckford, Andrew W; Chae, Chan-Byoung

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a symbol interval optimization algorithm in molecular communication with drift. Proper symbol intervals are important in practical communication systems since information needs to be sent as fast as possible with low error rates. There is a trade-off, however, between symbol intervals and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from Brownian motion. Thus, we find proper symbol interval values considering the ISI inside two kinds of blood vessels, and also suggest no ISI system for strong drift models. Finally, an isomer-based molecule shift keying (IMoSK) is applied to calculate achievable data transmission rates (achievable rates, hereafter). Normalized achievable rates are also obtained and compared in one-symbol ISI and no ISI systems.

  14. Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Mazen M. (Inventor); Hinedi, Sami M. (Inventor); Shah, Biren N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.

  15. Experimental uncertainty estimation and statistics for data having interval uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreinovich, Vladik (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Oberkampf, William Louis (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ginzburg, Lev (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ferson, Scott (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Hajagos, Janos (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York)

    2007-05-01

    This report addresses the characterization of measurements that include epistemic uncertainties in the form of intervals. It reviews the application of basic descriptive statistics to data sets which contain intervals rather than exclusively point estimates. It describes algorithms to compute various means, the median and other percentiles, variance, interquartile range, moments, confidence limits, and other important statistics and summarizes the computability of these statistics as a function of sample size and characteristics of the intervals in the data (degree of overlap, size and regularity of widths, etc.). It also reviews the prospects for analyzing such data sets with the methods of inferential statistics such as outlier detection and regressions. The report explores the tradeoff between measurement precision and sample size in statistical results that are sensitive to both. It also argues that an approach based on interval statistics could be a reasonable alternative to current standard methods for evaluating, expressing and propagating measurement uncertainties.

  16. A study of intensity, fatigue and precision in two specific interval trainings in young tennis players: high-intensity interval training versus intermittent interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Rodríguez, David; Del Valle Soto, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the differences between two specific interval exercises. We begin with the hypothesis that the use of microintervals of work and rest allow for greater intensity of play and a reduction in fatigue. Thirteen competition-level male tennis players took part in two interval training exercises comprising nine 2 min series, which consisted of hitting the ball with cross-court forehand and backhand shots, behind the service box. One was a high-intensity interval training (HIIT), made up of periods of continuous work lasting 2 min, and the other was intermittent interval training (IIT), this time with intermittent 2 min intervals, alternating periods of work with rest periods. Average heart rate (HR) and lactate levels were registered in order to observe the physiological intensity of the two exercises, along with the Borg Scale results for perceived exertion and the number of shots and errors in order to determine the intensity achieved and the degree of fatigue throughout the exercise. There were no significant differences in the average heart rate, lactate or the Borg Scale. Significant differences were registered, on the other hand, with a greater number of shots in the first two HIIT series (series 1 p>0.009; series 2 p>0.056), but not in the third. The number of errors was significantly lower in all the IIT series (series 1 ptraining allows for greater intensity of play in relation to the real time spent on the exercise, reduced fatigue levels and the maintaining of greater precision in specific tennis-related exercises.

  17. Hybrid Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics with Interval Length Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the question of how much hybrid machinery can be added to the interval neighbourhood logic PNL and its metric extension MPNL without losing the decidability of their satisfiability problem in N. In particular, we consider the natural hybrid extension of MPNL obtained by adding...... over interval lengths. These results show that MPNL itself is, in this sense, a maximal decidable (weakly) hybrid extension of PNL. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz.

  19. Clinical laboratory reference intervals in pediatrics: the CALIPER initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Benjamin; Adeli, Khosrow

    2009-11-01

    Reference intervals provided on laboratory reports are essential for appropriate interpretation of test results, and can significantly impact clinical decision-making and the quality of patient care. Careful determination and/or validation of reference intervals by the laboratory for use in the patient population it serves are therefore important to ensure their proper utility. Unfortunately, critical gaps currently exist in accurate and up-to-date pediatric reference intervals for accurate interpretation of laboratory tests performed in children and adolescents. These critical gaps in the available pediatric laboratory reference intervals have the clear potential of contributing to erroneous diagnosis or misdiagnosis of many diseases of childhood and adolescence. Most of the available "normal" ranges for laboratory tests were determined over 2 decades ago on older instruments and technologies, and are no longer relevant considering the current testing technology used by clinical laboratories. It is thus critical and of utmost urgency that a more acceptable and comprehensive database be established. In the present review, we discuss the considerations and challenges faced when generating and validating reference intervals in accordance to the current guidelines published by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). We raise particular attention to the present-day deficiencies in available pediatric reference intervals, and highlight the special issues and unique difficulties that are additionally faced when establishing reference intervals in children. Finally, we highlight a recent Canadian initiative, the CALIPER project, whose mandate is to establish and maintain a database of comprehensive and up-to-date pediatric reference intervals to be eventually made available to all clinical laboratories worldwide.

  20. Military Applicability of Interval Training for Health and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J; Gagnon, Patrick J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Militaries from around the globe have predominantly used endurance training as their primary mode of aerobic physical conditioning, with historical emphasis placed on the long distance run. In contrast to this traditional exercise approach to training, interval training is characterized by brief, intermittent bouts of intense exercise, separated by periods of lower intensity exercise or rest for recovery. Although hardly a novel concept, research over the past decade has shed new light on the potency of interval training to elicit physiological adaptations in a time-efficient manner. This work has largely focused on the benefits of low-volume interval training, which involves a relatively small total amount of exercise, as compared with the traditional high-volume approach to training historically favored by militaries. Studies that have directly compared interval and moderate-intensity continuous training have shown similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism, despite large differences in total exercise and training time commitment. Interval training can also be applied in a calisthenics manner to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, and this approach could easily be incorporated into a military conditioning environment. Although interval training can elicit physiological changes in men and women, the potential for sex-specific adaptations in the adaptive response to interval training warrants further investigation. Additional work is needed to clarify adaptations occurring over the longer term; however, interval training deserves consideration from a military applicability standpoint as a time-efficient training strategy to enhance soldier health and performance. There is value for military leaders in identifying strategies that reduce the time required for exercise, but nonetheless provide an effective training stimulus.

  1. Establishment of reference intervals and transfusion criterion for Sonoclot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Lu; Chen, You-Ping; Tao, Cui-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Meng-Ya; Zhou, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Sonoclot analyzer has been widely used in many countries. But the reference intervals provided by the manufacturer were derived from only 45 participants, and there was no cut-off value for transfusion for Sonoclot analysis. This study aimed to establish reference intervals and transfusion criterion for Sonoclot analysis. Volunteers were recruited from healthy Chinese adults and patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Blood samples were withdrawn from forearm vein and measured for activated clotting time (ACT), clot rate (CR), platelet function (PF), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen concentration (FIB), and platelet count (PLT). The reference intervals were determined by the nonparametric method. Cut-off values were determined by the receiver operating characteristics curve. A total of 135 healthy volunteers and 281 patients were enrolled. The 95% reference intervals were 96-195 s, 22-51 signal U/min, >1.6 for ACT, CR, PF respectively. In the 281 patients, the results of APTT, FIB, PLT, ACT, CR, and PF ranged from 20.5-300.0 s, 0.28-4.11 g/L, (19.0-387.3)×109/L, 80-514 s, 2.9-74 signal U/min, and 0.1-5.1 respectively. The cut-off values for transfusion were >208, ≤14, and ≤1.3 for ACT, CR, PF respectively. The cut-off values of Sonoclot analysis were within the manufacturer's reference intervals, while they were outside the reference intervals established in this study. The results suggested that the manufacturer's reference intervals were not suitable for Chinese. The reference intervals and cut-off values established in this study will be helpful to Chinese patients.

  2. Bone turnover marker reference intervals in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Emma T; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M; Chiang, Cherie Y; Wark, John D

    2017-07-01

    Background The use of bone turnover markers in clinical practice and research in younger people is limited by the lack of normative data and understanding of common causes of variation in bone turnover marker values in this demographic. To appropriately interpret bone turnover markers, robust reference intervals specific to age, development and sex are necessary. This study aimed to determine reference intervals of bone turnover markers in females aged 16-25 years participating in the Safe-D study. Methods Participants were recruited through social networking site Facebook and were asked to complete an extensive, online questionnaire and attend a site visit. Participants were tested for serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and total procollagen type 1 N-propeptide using the Roche Elecsys automated analyser. Reference intervals were determined using the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles of normalized bone turnover marker values. Results Of 406 participants, 149 were excluded due to medical conditions or medication use (except hormonal contraception) which may affect bone metabolism. In the remaining 257 participants, the reference interval was 230-1000 ng/L for serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and 27-131  µg/L for procollagen type 1 N-propeptide. Both marker concentrations were inversely correlated with age and oral contraceptive pill use. Therefore, intervals specific to these variables were calculated. Conclusions We defined robust reference intervals for cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and procollagen type 1 N-propeptide in young females grouped by age and contraceptive pill use. We examined bone turnover markers' relationship with several lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors. Our normative intervals should aid interpretation of bone turnover markers in young females particularly in those aged 16 to 19 years where reference intervals are currently provisional.

  3. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz. The -variations of wave ...

  4. A Neural Network-Based Interval Pattern Matcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles in the machine learning area is to classify, and neural networks are very important classifiers. However, traditional neural networks cannot identify intervals, let alone classify them. To improve their identification ability, we propose a neural network-based interval matcher in our paper. After summarizing the theoretical construction of the model, we take a simple and a practical weather forecasting experiment, which show that the recognizer accuracy reaches 100% and that is promising.

  5. The Outlier Interval Detection Algorithms on Astronautical Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Outlier Interval Detection is a crucial technique to analyze spacecraft fault, locate exception, and implement intelligent fault diagnosis system. The paper proposes two OID algorithms on astronautical Time Series Data, that is, variance based OID (VOID and FFT and k nearest Neighbour based OID (FKOID. The VOID algorithm divides TSD into many intervals and measures each interval’s outlier score according to its variance. This algorithm can detect the outlier intervals with great fluctuation in the time domain. It is a simple and fast algorithm with less time complexity, but it ignores the frequency information. The FKOID algorithm extracts the frequency information of each interval by means of Fast Fourier Transform, so as to calculate the distances between frequency features, and adopts the KNN method to measure the outlier score according to the sum of distances between the interval’s frequency vector and the K nearest frequency vectors. It detects the outlier intervals in a refined way at an appropriate expense of the time and is valid to detect the outlier intervals in both frequency and time domains.

  6. Diverticulosis and the risk of interval colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Xu, Fang; Schluchter, Mark D; Koroukian, Siran M; Barnholtz Sloan, Jill S

    2014-11-01

    Diverticulosis, a prevalent condition at screening colonoscopy, has been associated with colorectal cancers that develop after a clearing colonoscopy, or interval cancers. To quantify the overall risk of diverticulosis in the development of interval cancers and examine this association in relevant subgroups. Using a linked database containing SEER tumor registry data and Medicare claims, we identified patients aged ≥69 years with colorectal cancer who underwent colonoscopy within 6 months of diagnosis. Patients with an additional colonoscopy from 36 to 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis were characterized as having interval cancers. We compared characteristics of patients with interval cancers and detected cancers according to a diagnosis of diverticulosis not associated with a colonoscopy procedure from 1991 through the date of the most recent colonoscopy in both univariate and multivariate models. A previous diagnosis of diverticulosis was documented in 14,452 (26.9 %) patients with detected cancers compared to 2,905 (69.3 %) patients with interval cancers (p diverticulosis diagnoses were without complications such as hemorrhage or diverticulitis. Diverticulosis was strongly associated with interval colorectal cancers in all segments of the colon. Given its known predominance in the left colon, the findings argue against impaired visualization of lesions at colonoscopy as the only pathogenic factor.

  7. Evidence-based approach to harmonised reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Sikaris, Ken Andrew; Jones, Graham Ross Dallas; Ryan, Julie; Reed, Maxine; Tate, Jill

    2014-05-15

    Although we are in the era of evidence-based medicine, there is still a substantial gap between theory and current practice with the application of reference intervals as decision making tools. Different laboratories may have different reference intervals for the same tests using the same analytical methods and platforms. These differences have the potential to confuse physicians making the assessment and monitoring of patients more difficult by providing discordant information. This paper attempts to demonstrate how to use evidence-based approach for harmonising reference intervals. In order to consider harmonisation we must first have an appreciation of the various factors that influence the determination of that reference interval such as the choice of individuals within the population studied, biological variability of the analyte studied, partitioning, sample collection, analytical aspects such as bias and statistical models. An a priori approach for determining reference intervals, whilst recommended, may be beyond the scope of most laboratories and consideration should be given to the use of a validated indirect a posteriori approach. Regardless of method used, the continuing application of an evidence-based approach in harmonised reference intervals to meet the quality expectations of physicians should be pursued. © 2013.

  8. Establishment of hematological reference intervals for healthy adults in Asmara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Nejat; Issac, John; Anwar, Mohammed; Mehari, Yohannes; Russom, Shushan; Kahsay, Semere; Frezghi, Haben

    2018-01-22

    Clinical laboratory reference intervals used in a specific area should be derived from the local population as they are influenced by many factors. The purpose of this quantitative cross sectional study was to establish hematological reference intervals for healthy adults in Asmara and to determine whether the currently used reference interval do represent the adult population in the city. In addition, the established reference intervals were compared to findings from similar studies conducted in selected countries in Africa. There was a significant difference between males and females in the reference intervals for erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration and differential white blood cell count. All the evaluated hematological analytes were found to be higher in males than in females except for platelet count. The out of range percentage for the parameters extends from 3.5 to 46.7%; with red blood cell count having the lowest while mean cell volume having the highest out of range percentage. The results indicated that the currently used reference interval does not represent the population in Asmara and are different from those obtained elsewhere in Africa.

  9. Identification of atrial fibrillation using electrocardiographic RR-interval difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliana, M.; Nuryani, N.

    2017-11-01

    Automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) is an interesting topic. It is an account of very dangerous, not only as a trigger of embolic stroke, but it’s also related to some else chronical disease. In this study, we analyse the presence of AF by determining irregularities of RR-interval. We utilize the interval comparison to measure the degree of irregularities of RR-interval in a defined segment. The series of RR-interval is segmented with the length of 10 of them. In this study, we use interval comparison for the method. We were comparing all of the intervals there each other. Then we put the threshold to define the low difference and high difference (δ). A segment is defined as AF or Normal Sinus by the number of high δ, so we put the tolerance (β) of high δ there. We have used this method to test the 23 patients data from MIT-BIH. Using the approach and the clinical data we find accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 84.98%, 91.99%, and 77.85% respectively.

  10. Influence Of Inspection Intervals On Mechanical System Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberman, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a methodology of reliability analysis of mechanical systems with latent failures is described. Reliability analysis of such systems must include appropriate usage of check intervals for latent failure detection. The methodology suggests, that based on system logic the analyst decides at the beginning if a system can fail actively or latently and propagates this approach through all system levels. All inspections are assumed to be perfect (all failures are detected and repaired and no new failures are introduced as a result of the maintenance). Additional assumptions are that mission time is much smaller, than check intervals and all components have constant failure rates. Analytical expressions for reliability calculates are provided, based on fault tree and Markov modeling techniques (for two and three redundant systems with inspection intervals). The proposed methodology yields more accurate results than are obtained by not using check intervals or using half check interval times. The conventional analysis assuming that at the beginning of each mission system is as new, give an optimistic prediction of system reliability. Some examples of reliability calculations of mechanical systems with latent failures and establishing optimum check intervals are provided

  11. Event- and interval-based measurement of stuttering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; Jesus, Luis M T; Hall, Andreia; Leahy, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Event- and interval-based measurements are two different ways of computing frequency of stuttering. Interval-based methodology emerged as an alternative measure to overcome problems associated with reproducibility in the event-based methodology. No review has been made to study the effect of methodological factors in interval-based absolute reliability data or to compute the agreement between the two methodologies in terms of inter-judge, intra-judge and accuracy (i.e., correspondence between raters' scores and an established criterion). To provide a review related to reproducibility of event-based and time-interval measurement, and to verify the effect of methodological factors (training, experience, interval duration, sample presentation order and judgment conditions) on agreement of time-interval measurement; in addition, to determine if it is possible to quantify the agreement between the two methodologies The first two authors searched for articles on ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, B-on, CENTRAL and Dissertation Abstracts during January-February 2013 and retrieved 495 articles. Forty-eight articles were selected for review. Content tables were constructed with the main findings. Articles related to event-based measurements revealed values of inter- and intra-judge greater than 0.70 and agreement percentages beyond 80%. The articles related to time-interval measures revealed that, in general, judges with more experience with stuttering presented significantly higher levels of intra- and inter-judge agreement. Inter- and intra-judge values were beyond the references for high reproducibility values for both methodologies. Accuracy (regarding the closeness of raters' judgements with an established criterion), intra- and inter-judge agreement were higher for trained groups when compared with non-trained groups. Sample presentation order and audio/video conditions did not result in differences in inter- or intra-judge results. A duration of 5 s for an interval appears to be

  12. Interval MULTIMOORA method with target values of attributes based on interval distance and preference degree: biomaterials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Arian; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2017-12-01

    A target-based MADM method covers beneficial and non-beneficial attributes besides target values for some attributes. Such techniques are considered as the comprehensive forms of MADM approaches. Target-based MADM methods can also be used in traditional decision-making problems in which beneficial and non-beneficial attributes only exist. In many practical selection problems, some attributes have given target values. The values of decision matrix and target-based attributes can be provided as intervals in some of such problems. Some target-based decision-making methods have recently been developed; however, a research gap exists in the area of MADM techniques with target-based attributes under uncertainty of information. We extend the MULTIMOORA method for solving practical material selection problems in which material properties and their target values are given as interval numbers. We employ various concepts of interval computations to reduce degeneration of uncertain data. In this regard, we use interval arithmetic and introduce innovative formula for interval distance of interval numbers to create interval target-based normalization technique. Furthermore, we use a pairwise preference matrix based on the concept of degree of preference of interval numbers to calculate the maximum, minimum, and ranking of these numbers. Two decision-making problems regarding biomaterials selection of hip and knee prostheses are discussed. Preference degree-based ranking lists for subordinate parts of the extended MULTIMOORA method are generated by calculating the relative degrees of preference for the arranged assessment values of the biomaterials. The resultant rankings for the problem are compared with the outcomes of other target-based models in the literature.

  13. Psychoacoustic Factors in Musical Intonation: Beats, Interval Tuning, and Inharmonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keislar, Douglas Fleming

    Three psychoacoustic experiments were conducted using musically experienced subjects. In the first two experiments, the interval tested was the perfect fifth F4-C5; in the final one it was the major third F4-A4. The beat rate was controlled by two different methods: (1) simply retuning the interval, and (2) frequency-shifting one partial of each pair of beating partials without changing the overall interval tuning. The second method introduces inharmonicity. In addition, two levels of beat amplitude were introduced by using either a complete spectrum of 16 equal-amplitude partials per note, or by deleting one partial from each pair of beating partials. The results of all three experiments indicate that, for these stimuli, beating does not contribute significantly to the percept of "out-of-tuneness," because it made no difference statistically whether the beat amplitude was maximal or minimal. By contrast, mistuning the interval was highly significant. For the fifths, frequency-shifting the appropriate partials had about as much effect on the perceived intonation as mistuning the interval. For thirds, this effect was weaker, presumably since there were fewer inharmonic partials and they were higher in the harmonic series. Subjects were less consistent in their judgments of thirds than of fifths, perhaps because the equal-tempered and just thirds differ noticeably, unlike fifths. Since it is unlikely that beats would be more audible in real musical situations than under these laboratory conditions, these results suggest that the perception of intonation in music is dependent on the actual interval tuning rather than the concomitant beat rate. If beating partials are unimportant vis-a-vis interval tuning, this strengthens the argument for a cultural basis for musical intonation and scales, as opposed to the acoustical basis set forth by Helmholtz and others.

  14. Contribution of the calving interval to dairy farm profitability: results of a cluster analysis of FADN data for a major milk production area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the potential economic impact of good management of the calving interval on dairy farms. This involved the assessment of economics and production of a sample of farms, selected from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN, and located in Sardinia, Italy. Two farm models were derived from clustering the sample by k-means, which were validated by verifying their consistency in relation to nutritional needs, feed supply and milk production of the herds. Differences in indices of performance and dynamics were found (e.g. ROE is -0.8% vs 4.7%, with evident linkages between economic performance, greater efficiency, reproductive capacity, and potential turnover. The model better performing reflected greater economic feeding efficiency and a shorter calving interval. Hence, management, more than structural aspects, determined the economic results of the sampled farms.

  15. Interval forecasting of cyber-attacks on industrial control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyo, Y. M.; Krakovsky, Y. M.; Luzgin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    At present, cyber-security issues of industrial control systems occupy one of the key niches in a state system of planning and management Functional disruption of these systems via cyber-attacks may lead to emergencies related to loss of life, environmental disasters, major financial and economic damage, or disrupted activities of cities and settlements. There is then an urgent need to develop protection methods against cyber-attacks. This paper studied the results of cyber-attack interval forecasting with a pre-set intensity level of cyber-attacks. Interval forecasting is the forecasting of one interval from two predetermined ones in which a future value of the indicator will be obtained. For this, probability estimates of these events were used. For interval forecasting, a probabilistic neural network with a dynamic updating value of the smoothing parameter was used. A dividing bound of these intervals was determined by a calculation method based on statistical characteristics of the indicator. The number of cyber-attacks per hour that were received through a honeypot from March to September 2013 for the group ‘zeppo-norcal’ was selected as the indicator.

  16. Interval vs massed training: how best do we teach surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesser, Bradley W; Hallman, Matthew; Murphy, Loren; Tillar, Maggie; Keeley, Meg; Peirce, Shayn

    2014-01-01

    To compare 2 different training paradigms, massed vs interval training, when novice students learn a surgical procedure, myringotomy with ventilation tube insertion, on a validated surgical simulator. Medical students were randomized into 2 training groups: the interval group (n = 19) was trained to perform the procedure in 5 trials/d over 3 days, and the massed group (n = 21) was trained to perform the procedure in 15 trials all in 1 session. One week later, all students were tested in 5 additional final trials. Pre- and posttest surveys were administered. Academic medical center. Forty medical students: 19 students in the interval group were compared with 21 students in the massed group. Time to complete the procedure and number and type of error made were recorded and compared between groups. Pre- and poststudy surveys examined confidence levels working under a microscope and with the procedure. Students in both groups had a significant decrease in time between practice and final trials. In the final 5 trials, there was no difference in average time to complete the procedure between the massed and interval training groups. No difference was observed in the number of errors committed per trial between initial and final trials (both groups) or between massed and interval training groups. The students' confidence levels significantly increased across the trials, regardless of group. Surgical training improves proficiency, but method of training had little impact on proficiency in performing a simulated surgical procedure in this setting.

  17. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  18. Interval-Valued Rank in Finite Ordered Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff; Pogel, Alex; Purvine, Emilie

    2016-11-12

    We consider the concept of rank as a measure of the vertical levels and positions of elements of partially ordered sets (posets). We are motivated by the need for algorithmic measures on large, real-world hierarchically-structured data objects like the semantic hierarchies of ontolog- ical databases. These rarely satisfy the strong property of gradedness, which is required for traditional rank functions to exist. Representing such semantic hierarchies as finite, bounded posets, we recognize the duality of ordered structures to motivate rank functions which respect verticality both from the bottom and from the top. Our rank functions are thus interval-valued, and always exist, even for non-graded posets, providing order homomorphisms to an interval order on the interval-valued ranks. The concept of rank width arises naturally, allowing us to identify the poset region with point-valued width as its longest graded portion (which we call the “spindle”). A standard interval rank function is naturally motivated both in terms of its extremality and on pragmatic grounds. Its properties are examined, including the relation- ship to traditional grading and rank functions, and methods to assess comparisons of standard interval-valued ranks.

  19. A Comparative Study on Decision Making Methods with Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM models are used to solve a number of decision making problems universally. Most of these methods require the use of integers as input data. However, there are problems which have indeterminate values or data intervals which need to be analysed. In order to solve problems with interval data, many methods have been reported. Through this study an attempt has been made to compare and analyse the popular decision making tools for interval data problems. Namely, I-TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, DI-TOPSIS, cross entropy, and interval VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimiza-cija I Kompromisno Resenje have been compared and a novel algorithm has been proposed. The new algorithm makes use of basic TOPSIS technique to overcome the limitations of known methods. To compare the effectiveness of the various methods, an example problem has been used where selection of best material family for the capacitor application has to be made. It was observed that the proposed algorithm is able to overcome the known limitations of the previous techniques. Thus, it can be easily and efficiently applied to various decision making problems with interval data.

  20. Chinese Pediatric Reference Intervals for Serum Cortisol on IMMULITE 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling Li; Zhang, Li Yue; Wang, Hui Yan; Wen, Huai Kai; Tao, Hong Qun; Zhao, Xiao Wei

    2018-01-01

    Clinical interpretation of the test results for cortisol based on continuous reference intervals with appropriate partitions improves pediatric diagnosis; however, these values are available only for Caucasians. To develop the pediatric reference intervals for Chinese population, we examined the serum cortisol levels in 1,143 healthy Chinese children aged 4-18 years (566 boys and 577 girls), using an IMMULITE 2000 Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare GmbH). Phlebotomy was performed at 7-9 a.m. for 284 boys and 287 girls and at 1-3 p.m. for the others. They were divided into four age groups according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline EP28-A3c, with the last group further stratified according to sampling time. Separate reference intervals of 49.6-323.7, 70.9-395.3, and 90.1-448.7 nmol/L were established for children aged 4-8, 9-12, and 13-15 years, respectively. Further, reference intervals of 118.2-464.7 and 71.4-446.7 nmol/L were established for morning and afternoon cortisol levels, respectively, in children aged 16-18 years. Further studies are necessary to transfer and validate these reference intervals in other analytical systems and pediatric populations, and to allow for broader applications. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  1. Confidence intervals in temperature-based death time determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubig, Michael; Muggenthaler, Holger; Mall, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Marshall and Hoare's double exponential model with Henßge's parameters is a well known method for temperature based death time estimation. The authors give 95%-confidence intervals for their method. Since body cooling is a complex thermodynamical process, one has to take into account a potential bias of the estimator. This quantity measures the systematic error of the estimators underlying model. For confidence interval radius calculation a bias of 0 is presupposed, therefore the actual probability of the true death time value to lie in the 95%-confidence interval can be much lower than 95% in case of nonvanishing bias. As in case of nonstandard conditions the confidence intervals have a probability of containing the true death time value which even in case of small corrective factor errors of Δ = ± 0.1 can be substantially smaller than the 95% claimed, the paper presents a formula for confidence intervals which keep a 95% probability in case of error Δc ⩽ ± 0.1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bootstrap confidence intervals for the process capability index under half-logistic distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Wararit Panichkitkosolkul

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns the construction of bootstrap confidence intervals for theprocess capability index in the case of half-logistic distribution. The bootstrap confidence intervals applied consist of standard bootstrap confidence interval, percentile bootstrap confidence interval and bias-corrected percentile bootstrap confidence interval. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated coverage probabilities and average widths ofbootstrap confidence intervals are compared, with results showing ...

  3. Rationalizing method of replacement intervals by using Bayesian statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Notoya, Junichi; Kusakari, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study represents the formulations for rationalizing the replacement intervals of equipments and/or parts taking into account the probability density functions (PDF) of the parameters of failure distribution functions (FDF) and compares the optimized intervals by our formulations with those by conventional formulations which uses only representative values of the parameters of FDF instead of using these PDFs. The failure data are generated by Monte Carlo simulations since the real failure data can not be available for us. The PDF of PDF parameters are obtained by Bayesian method and the representative values are obtained by likelihood estimation and Bayesian method. We found that the method using PDF by Bayesian method brings longer replacement intervals than one using the representative of the parameters. (author)

  4. INTERVALS OF ACTIVE PLAY AND BREAK IN BASKETBALL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.

  5. Trajectory Optimization Based on Multi-Interval Mesh Refinement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningbo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the optimization accuracy and convergence rate for trajectory optimization of the air-to-air missile, a multi-interval mesh refinement Radau pseudospectral method was introduced. This method made the mesh endpoints converge to the practical nonsmooth points and decreased the overall collocation points to improve convergence rate and computational efficiency. The trajectory was divided into four phases according to the working time of engine and handover of midcourse and terminal guidance, and then the optimization model was built. The multi-interval mesh refinement Radau pseudospectral method with different collocation points in each mesh interval was used to solve the trajectory optimization model. Moreover, this method was compared with traditional h method. Simulation results show that this method can decrease the dimensionality of nonlinear programming (NLP problem and therefore improve the efficiency of pseudospectral methods for solving trajectory optimization problems.

  6. Interpregnancy intervals: impact of postpartum contraceptive effectiveness and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Chang, Richard; Howell, Mike; Darney, Philip

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of contraceptive methods, which was defined by effectiveness, length of coverage, and their association with short interpregnancy intervals, when controlling for provider type and client demographics. We identified a cohort of 117,644 women from the 2008 California Birth Statistical Master file with second or higher order birth and at least 1 Medicaid (Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment [Family PACT] program or Medi-Cal) claim within 18 months after index birth. We explored the effect of contraceptive method provision on the odds of having an optimal interpregnancy interval and controlled for covariates. The average length of contraceptive coverage was 3.81 months (SD = 4.84). Most women received user-dependent hormonal contraceptives as their most effective contraceptive method (55%; n = 65,103 women) and one-third (33%; n = 39,090 women) had no contraceptive claim. Women who used long-acting reversible contraceptive methods had 3.89 times the odds and women who used user-dependent hormonal methods had 1.89 times the odds of achieving an optimal birth interval compared with women who used barrier methods only; women with no method had 0.66 times the odds. When user-dependent methods are considered, the odds of having an optimal birth interval increased for each additional month of contraceptive coverage by 8% (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.09). Women who were seen by Family PACT or by both Family PACT and Medi-Cal providers had significantly higher odds of optimal birth intervals compared with women who were served by Medi-Cal only. To achieve optimal birth spacing and ultimately to improve birth outcomes, attention should be given to contraceptive counseling and access to contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  8. Fuzzy Investment Portfolio Selection Models Based on Interval Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs fuzzy set theory to solve the unintuitive problem of the Markowitz mean-variance (MV portfolio model and extend it to a fuzzy investment portfolio selection model. Our model establishes intervals for expected returns and risk preference, which can take into account investors' different investment appetite and thus can find the optimal resolution for each interval. In the empirical part, we test this model in Chinese stocks investment and find that this model can fulfill different kinds of investors’ objectives. Finally, investment risk can be decreased when we add investment limit to each stock in the portfolio, which indicates our model is useful in practice.

  9. An interval-valued reliability model with bounded failure rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures described in this paper is distinctive from other imprecise reliability models in that it overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure. It rests on the presupposition that a constant interval-valued failure...... rate is known possibly along with other reliability measures, precise or imprecise. The Lagrange method is used to solve the constrained optimization problem to derive new reliability measures of interest. The obtained results call for an exponential-wise approximation of failure probability density...... function if only partial failure information is available. An example is provided. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  10. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  11. Explicit Inverse of an Interval Matrix with Unit Midpoint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 138-150 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * unit midpoint * inverse interval matrix * regularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol22_pp138-150.pdf

  12. Robust Control with Enlaeged Interval of Uncertain Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Keresturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust control is advantageous for systems with defined interval of uncertain parameters. This can be substantially enlarged dividing it into a few sub-intervals. Corresponding controllers for each of them may be set after approximate identification of some uncertain plant parameters. The paper deals with application of the pole region assignment method for position control of the crane crab. The same track form is required for uncertain burden mass and approximate value of rope length. Measurement of crab position and speed is supposed, burden deviation angle is observed. Simulation results have verified feasibility of this design procedure.

  13. New Inner Product Quasilinear Spaces on Interval Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primarily we examine the new example of quasilinear spaces, namely, “IRn interval space.” We obtain some new theorems and results related to this new quasilinear space. After giving some new notions of quasilinear dependence-independence and basis on quasilinear functional analysis, we obtain some results on IRn interval space related to these concepts. Secondly, we present Is,Ic0,Il∞, and Il2 quasilinear spaces and we research some algebraic properties of these spaces. We obtain some new results and provide an important contribution to the improvement of quasilinear functional analysis.

  14. Infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations with continuous coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhaojun; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions to a class of 1-dimensional infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) under the conditions that the coefficients are continuous and have linear growths. We also obtain the existence of a minimal solution. Furthermore, we study the existence and uniqueness theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions of infinite time interval BSDEs with non-uniformly Lipschitz coefficients. It should be pointed out that the assumptions of this result is weaker than that of Theorem 3.1 in Zong (Turkish J Math 37:704-718, 2013).

  15. Estimation and interpretation of keff confidence intervals in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbatsch, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    MCNP's criticality methodology and some basic statistics are reviewed. Confidence intervals are discussed, as well as how to build them and their importance in the presentation of a Monte Carlo result. The combination of MCNP's three k eff estimators is shown, theoretically and empirically, by statistical studies and examples, to be the best k eff estimator. The method of combining estimators is based on a solid theoretical foundation, namely, the Gauss-Markov Theorem in regard to the least squares method. The confidence intervals of the combined estimator are also shown to have correct coverage rates for the examples considered

  16. Frequency Interval Cross Gramians for Linear and Bilinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jazlan, Ahmad; Sreeram, Victor; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    the frequency interval cross gramians are derived in order to be used to obtain information regarding controllability and observability within a single matrix. The advantage of the proposed method is that it is computationally more efficient compared to existing gramian-based techniques since only half...... of the number of equations need to be solved in order to obtain information regarding the controllability and observability of a system compared to existing techniques. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed method which uses frequency interval cross gramians...

  17. Influence of Interfraction Interval on Local Tumor Control in Patients With Limited-Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, Branislav; Milicic, Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of interfraction interval (IFI) on local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) in patients with limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC) treated with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Acc Hfx RT) and concurrent cisplatin and etoposide (PE). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 patients were treated with either 'early' (Cycle 1) or 'late' (Cycle 4) concurrent Acc Hfx RT/PE. Two daily fractions were nonrandomly given using an IFI of either 4.5-5.0 h ('shorter') (n = 52) or 5.5-6.0 h ('longer') (n = 51). Results: The median LRFS and 5-year LRFS rate for all 103 patients were 52 months and 48%, respectively. Besides gender, Karnofsky performance status, and treatment group, IFI also influenced LRFS, whereas age and weight loss did not. When a multivariate model was used, IFI was marginally insignificant (p = 0.0770) as a predictor of LRFS. In terms of individual treatment groups, IFI was not significant in 'early' Acc Hfx RT/PE but showed a strong trend in a 'late' Acc Hfx RT/PE regimen. Although a shorter IFI led to a higher incidence of high-grade (≥3) esophagitis, leukopenia, and infection, a correlation analysis of toxicities with all potential prognostic factors showed that a shorter IFI was not an independent predictor of any acute high-grade toxicity. Conclusion: 'Shorter' IFI had a marginally insignificant influence on LRFS. A strong trend favoring it was observed in patients treated with 'late' concurrent Acc Hfx RT/PE. This may be of interest because it could contribute to further understanding of potential biologic parameters influencing treatment outcome

  18. Altering the rest interval during high-intensity interval training does not affect muscle or performance adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Johann; Eynon, Nir; McKenna, Michael J; Goodman, Craig A; Harris, Roger C; Bishop, David J

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that exercise-induced changes in metabolites and ions are crucial in the adaptation of contracting muscle. We tested this hypothesis by comparing adaptations to two different interval-training protocols (differing only in the rest duration between intervals), which provoked different perturbations in muscle metabolites and acid-base status. Prior to and immediately after training, 12 women performed the following tests: (1) a graded exercise test to determine peak oxygen uptake (V(O2)); (2) a high-intensity exercise bout (followed 60 s later by a repeated-sprint-ability test; and (3) a repeat of the high-intensity exercise bout alone with muscle biopsies pre-exercise, immediately postexercise and after 60 s of recovery. Subjects performed 5 weeks (3 days per week) of training, with either a short (1 min; HIT-1) or a long rest period (3 min; HIT-3) between intervals; training intensity and volume were matched. Muscle [H(+)] (155 ± 15 versus 125 ± 8 nmol l(-1); P performance or muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content. Following training, both groups had a significant decrease in postexercise muscle [H(+)] and lactate content, but not postexercise ATP or PCr. Postexercise PCr resynthesis increased following both training methods. In conclusion, intense interval training results in marked improvements in muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content, PCr resynthesis and . However, manipulation of the rest period during intense interval training did not affect these changes.

  19. Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

  20. The lucid interval associated with epidural bleeding: evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to elucidate the evolution of our understanding of the term "lucid interval." A number of texts were reviewed to assess their suitability for analysis. The primary requirement was that the text contain detailed descriptions of a series of patients. Details of the clinical course, the findings and timing of surgery, and, when relevant, the time of death and postmortem findings were required. Books written by Henri-François Le Dran, Percival Pott, and James Hill fulfilled these criteria. Surgical findings included the presence and type of fractures, changes in the bone, separation of periosteum, malodorous or purulent material, tense brain, and hematoma. Postmortem findings supplemented and/or complemented the surgical findings. The courses of the patients were then tabulated, and the correlation between different clinical and operative findings was thereby determined. Our understanding of a lucid interval began in the early 18th century with the work of Henri-François Le Dran and Percival Pott in London. They did not, however, demonstrate an interval without symptoms between trauma and deterioration in patients with epidural hematomas (EDHs). The interval they described was longer than usually expected with EDHs and occurred exclusively in patients who had a posttraumatic infection. In 1751, James Hill, from Dumfries, Scotland, described the first hematoma-related lucid interval in a patient with a subdural hematoma. The first case of a lucid interval associated with an EDH was described by John Abernethy. In the 19th century, Jonathan Hutchinson and Walter Jacobson described the interval as it is known today, in cases of EDH. The most recent work on the topic came from studies in Cincinnati and Oslo, where it was demonstrated that bleeding can separate dura mater and that hemorrhage into the epidural space can be shunted out via the veins. This shunting could delay the accumulation of a hematoma and thus the rise in intracranial pressure