WorldWideScience

Sample records for shortened interbirth intervals

  1. Interbirth interval is associated with childhood type 1 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Svensson, Jannet; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals...... of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used...

  2. Levels and correlates of non-adherence to WHO recommended inter-birth intervals in Rufiji, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exavery Amon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poorly spaced pregnancies have been documented worldwide to result in adverse maternal and child health outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends a minimum inter-birth interval of 33 months between two consecutive live births in order to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, birth spacing practices in many developing countries, including Tanzania, remain scantly addressed. Methods Longitudinal data collected in the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS from January 1999 to December 2010 were analyzed to investigate birth spacing practices among women of childbearing age. The outcome variable, non-adherence to the minimum inter-birth interval, constituted all inter-birth intervals Results A total of 15,373 inter-birth intervals were recorded from 8,980 women aged 15–49 years in Rufiji district over the follow-up period of 11 years. The median inter-birth interval was 33.4 months. Of the 15,373 inter-birth intervals, 48.4% were below the WHO recommended minimum length of 33 months between two live births. Non-adherence was associated with younger maternal age, low maternal education, multiple births from the preceding pregnancy, non-health facility delivery of the preceding birth, being an in-migrant resident, multi-parity and being married. Conclusion Generally, one in every two inter-birth intervals among 15–49 year-old women in Rufiji district is poorly spaced, with significant variations by socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of mothers and newborns. Maternal, newborn and child health services should be improved with a special emphasis on community- and health facility-based optimum birth spacing education in order to enhance health outcomes of mothers and their babies, especially in rural settings.

  3. Inter-birth interval in zebras is longer following the birth of male foals than after female foals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Florian; Grange, Sophie; Ganswindt, Andre; Ncube, Hlengisizwe; Duncan, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    Mammalian reproductive rates vary among individuals for physiological and environmental reasons. This study aims to determine reproductive rates from an individually monitored population of wild Plains zebras Equus quagga, and to assess the sources of variability in inter-birth intervals. The animals were monitored, where possible, every six months from 2004 to 2011. Thirty nine intervals corresponding to 65 births in 26 mares were identified, using direct observations and faecal steroid monitoring. Mean foaling rate of the population is 0.74 foal/year, and comparable with the literature. There was no significant effect of mother's age, nor of the season of previous birth on the length of inter-birth intervals. Inter-birth interval was significantly longer when the first foal was a male. This finding indicates that additional costs of having a son may delay future reproduction and thus reduce the total number of offspring a mare can have during her lifetime. Individually-based data provide critical information on the determinants of reproductive rates, and are therefore a key to understanding the causes of variations in life-history traits.

  4. Parturition lines in modern human wisdom tooth roots: do they exist, can they be characterized and are they useful for retrospective determination of age at first reproduction and/or inter-birth intervals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Elamin, Fadil

    2014-01-01

    Parturition lines have been described in the teeth of a number of animals, including primates, but never in modern humans. These accentuated lines in dentine are comprised of characteristic dark and light component zones. The aim of this study was to review the physiology underlying these lines and to ask if parturition lines exist in the third molar tooth roots of mothers known to have had one or more children during their teenage years. Brief retrospective oral medical obstetric histories were taken from four mothers and compared with histological estimates for the timing of accentuated markings visible in longitudinal ground sections of their wisdom teeth. Evidence of accentuated markings in M3 root dentine matched the age of the mother at the time their first child was born reasonably well. However, the dates calculated for inter-birth intervals did not match well. Parturition lines corresponding to childbirth during the teenage years can exist in human M3 roots, but may not always do so. Without a written medical history it would not be possible to say with confidence that an accentuated line in M3 root dentine was caused by stress, illness or was a parturition line.

  5. Shortening of ventriculoatrial interval after ablation of an accessory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alasti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year old man with history of 8 year palpitation was referred for electrophysiologic study and possible radiofrequency ablation. Physical examination and transthoracic echocardiographic study did not disclose any abnormality. Baseline ECG showed normal sinus rhythm with normal PR and QRS intervals and no evidence of preexcitation. Antiarrhythmic drugs (propranolol and verapamil were discontinued two days before the procedure. Baseline intervals in sinus rhythm were as follows: sinus cycle length=690 msec, AH=74 msec, HV=37 msec, QRS=90 msec, PR=133 msec. The minimal pacing cycle length maintaining 1:1 antegrade conduction (AVWP was 320 msec and the minimal pacing cycle length maintaining 1:1 retrograde conduction (VAWP was 400 msec. Single extrastimulus testing in the right atrium and the right ventricular apex leaded to a sustained narrow complex tachycardia. The arrhythmia was a short PR- long RP tachycardia with following characteristics: cycle length=376 msec, AH=141 msec, HV=42 msec, VA=200 msec, HA (HRA =236 msec, HA (His =243 msec and eccentric atrial activation during the arrhythmia (Figure 1. The arrhythmia was easily reproducible with stable hemodynamic.

  6. Factors affecting inter-birth in rural areas of Zarrindasht (Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Zare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper time intervals among pregnancies has a major role in family provision. Investigating the dynamism of the birth spacing, identify factors and their effects on the time interval among pregnancies and determination of optimal spacing is the utmost importance for health planners and families. The purpose was to study the abortion and stillbirth due to short inter-birth spacing, factors affecting inter-births and optimal birth spacing. Material and Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 1064 women of childbearing age in Fars province by multistage random sampling. Information on reproductive history was collected by resident health workers. Variables affecting inter-births were checked by the frailty recurrent events model using S-plus 2000 and SPSS 13 software. Results: The rate of abortion or stillbirth was 1.7%, which fell with increasing interval between births and reached their lowest (1.9% at 36-48 months. Mother's level of education, duration of breastfeeding of previous infant, maternal age at birth and father's job showed positive correlation with inter-birth. Mother's age at marriage, having a job other than household, socioeconomic status was negatively correlated with the the time interval to the next delivery. With increasing birth order, inter-birth of each delivery with regard to previous delivery increased on average by one to two months. Conclusion: The risk of abortion and stillbirth were observed more in subsequent delivery with very low or very long gap interval.

  7. Onset of decreased heart work is correlated with increased heart rate and shortened QT interval in high-carbohydrate fed overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Aysegul; Olgar, Yusuf; Tuncay, Erkan; Karaomerlioglu, Irem; Kayki Mutlu, Gizem; Arioglu Inan, Ebru; Altan, Vecdi Melih; Turan, Belma

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical activity of the heart is adversely affected in metabolic syndrome (MetS) characterized by increased body mass and marked insulin resistance. Herein, we examined the effects of high carbohydrate intake on cardiac function abnormalities by evaluating in situ heart work, heart rate, and electrocardiograms (ECGs) in rats. MetS was induced in male Wistar rats by adding 32% sucrose to drinking water for 22-24 weeks and was confirmed by insulin resistance, increased body weight, increased blood glucose and serum insulin, and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures in addition to significant loss of left ventricular integrity and increased connective tissue around myofibrils. Analysis of in situ ECG recordings showed a markedly shortened QT interval and decreased QRS amplitude with increased heart rate. We also observed increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense characterized by decreases in serum total thiol level and attenuated paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. Our data indicate that increased heart rate and a shortened QT interval concomitant with higher left ventricular developed pressure in response to β-adrenoreceptor stimulation as a result of less cyclic AMP release could be regarded as a natural compensation mechanism in overweight rats with MetS. In addition to the persistent insulin resistance and obesity associated with MetS, one should consider the decreased heart work, increased heart rate, and shortened QT interval associated with high carbohydrate intake, which may have more deleterious effects on the mammalian heart.

  8. Interbirth interval and history of previous preeclampsia: a case–control study among multiparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Armenian, Haroutune; Petrosyan, Varduhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a disorder with a reported incidence of 2%-8% among all pregnancies, accounting for more than 50,000 deaths worldwide each year. In low- and middle- income countries maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia are high due to the lack of proper prenatal and hospital care and limited access to neonatal intensive care. The objectives of our study were to determine the association of long in...

  9. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  10. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  11. Olanzapine induced Q-Tc shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Fallah Jahromi, Parisa

    2014-12-01

    Prolongation of Q-Tc interval is commonly accepted as a surrogate marker for the ability of a drug to cause torsade de pointes. In the present study, safety of olanzapine versus risperidone was compared among a group of patients with schizophrenia to see the frequency of the electrocardiographic alterations induced by those atypical antipsychotics. Two hundred and sixty-eight female inpatients with schizophrenia entered in one of the two parallel groups to participate in an open study for random assignment to olanzapine (n = 148) or risperidone (n = 120). Standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from each patient at baseline, before initiation of treatment, and then at the end of management, just before discharge. The parameters that were assessed included heart rate (HR), P-R interval, QRS interval, Q-T interval (corrected = Q-Tc), ventricular activation time (VAT), ST segment, T wave, axis of QRS, and finally, interventricular conduction process. A total of 37.83% of cases in the olanzapine group and 30% in the risperidone group showed some Q-Tc changes; 13.51% and 24.32% of the patients in the olanzapine group showed prolongation and shortening of the Q-Tc, respectively, while changes in the risperidone group were restricted to only prolongation of Q-Tc. Comparison of means showed a significant increment in Q-Tc by risperidone (p = 0.02). Also, comparison of proportions in the olanzapine group showed significantly more cases with shortening of Q-Tc versus its prolongation (p = 0.01). No significant alterations with respect to other variables were evident. Olanzapine and risperidone had comparable potentiality for induction of Q-Tc changes, while production of further miscellaneous alterations in ECG was more observable in the olanzapine group compared with the risperidone group. Also shortening of Q-Tc was specific to olanzapine.

  12. Determinants of birth interval in a rural Mediterranean population (La Alpujarra, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, V; Luna, F; Fuster, V

    2000-10-01

    The fertility pattern, in terms of birth intervals, in a rural population not practicing contraception belonging to La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (southeast Spain) is analyzed. During the first half of the 20th century, this population experienced a considerable degree of geographical and cultural isolation. Because of this population's high variability in fertility and therefore in birth intervals, the analysis was limited to a homogenous subsample of 154 families, each with at least five pregnancies. This limitation allowed us to analyze, among and within families, effects of a set of variables on the interbirth pattern, and to avoid possible problems of pseudoreplication. Information on birth date of the mother, age at marriage, children's birth date and death date, birth order, and frequency of miscarriages was collected. Our results indicate that interbirth intervals depend on an exponential effect of maternal age, especially significant after the age of 35. This effect is probably related to the biological degenerative processes of female fertility with age. A linear increase of birth intervals with birth order within families was found as well as a reduction of intervals among families experiencing an infant death. Our sample size was insufficient to detect a possible replacement behavior in the case of infant death. High natality and mortality rates, a secular decrease of natality rates, a log-normal birth interval, and family-size distributions suggest that La Alpujarra has been a natural fertility population following a demographic transition process.

  13. Bone shortening of clavicular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsmark, A H; Muhareb Udby, P; Ban, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim of this ......BACKGROUND: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim......-fracture bone lengthening that indicated methodological problems. The Hill et al. and Silva et al. methods had high minimal detectable change, making their use unreliable. CONCLUSION: As all three measurement methods had either reliability or methodological issues, we found it likely that differences...

  14. T2 shortening in childhood moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, J.; Sugita, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ito, C.; Date, H.; Niimi, H.

    1996-01-01

    We examined T2 shortening in six children with infarcts due to moyamoya disease to clarify whether there are characteristic patterns of T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter. Profound T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter was observed in the acute stage of infarct in two cases, which changed to high intensity in the chronic stage; in this stage no T2 shortening was demonstrated in any case. Neither haemorrhagic infarction nor calcification was seen on CT or MRI. There could be longitudinally different T2 shortening patterns between infarcts due to moyamoya disease and other disorders. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Radiation-induced life shortening. Annex K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this Annex is to review the cumulative evidence in the field of non-neoplastic long-term effects of whole-body irradiation. In particular, the existence and extent of life-span shortening in irradiated animals and man, and the relationships of life shortening to the physical and biological variables which may influence this effect of radiation are examined.

  16. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Haan, A. de

    2001-01-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a

  17. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Creugers, N H; Kreulen, C M; de Haan, A F

    2001-02-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a function over time. Occlusal stability indicators were: 'interdental spacing', 'occlusal contacts of anterior teeth in Intercuspal Position', 'overbite', 'occlusal tooth wear', and 'alveolar bone support'. Subjects with shortened dental arches (n = 74) were compared with subjects with complete dental arches (controls, n = 72). Repeated-measurement regression analyses were applied to assess age-dependent variables in the controls and to relate the occlusal changes to the period of time since the treatment that led to the shortened dental arches. Compared with complete dental arches, shortened dental arches had similar overbite and occlusal tooth wear. They showed more interdental spacing in the premolar regions, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact, and lower alveolar bone scores. Since the differences remained constant over time, we conclude that shortened dental arches can provide long-term occlusal stability. Occlusal changes were self-limiting, indicating a new occlusal equilibrium.

  18. A Shortened versus Standard Matched Postpartum Magnesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulphate is currently the most ideal drug for the treatment of eclampsia but its use in Nigeria is still limited due its cost and clinicians inexperience with the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a shortened postpartum course of magnesium sulphate is as effective as the standard Pritchard ...

  19. Diabetes mellitus as a cause of life span shortening in locally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the development of remote radiation pathology of pancreas in male rats after local irradiation of abdomen with doses of 5, 10 (two fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval) and 15 Gy (three fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval). The clinical and morphological estimates show the dose-dependent development of diabetes mellitus and 1.8-fold shortening of the life span, as compared to biological control

  20. Shortening Scarf osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus. Does shortening affect the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Prasad; Killen, Marie C; Pollock, Raymond D; Limaye, Rajiv

    2016-12-01

    Translation and shortening of Scarf osteotomy allows correction of severe hallux valgus deformity. Shortening may result in transfer metatarsalgia. To evaluate outcome of patients undergoing shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Fifteen patients (20feet, mean age 58 years) underwent shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Outcomes were pre and postoperative AOFAS scores, IM and HV angles, patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 25 months (range 22-30). The IM angle improved from a median of 18.60 (range 13.4-26.20) preoperatively to 9.70 (range 8.0-13.70) postoperatively (8.9; 95% CI=7.6-10.3; phallux valgus deformities with no transfer metatarsalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may... descending order of predominance. ...

  2. [Carotid endarterectomy. Experiences with shortening of interval between symptom and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, L.K.; Baekgaard, N.; Jensen, Leif Pandora

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) prevents transient ischemic attack and stroke in patients with symptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. In 2004 Rothwell et al showed that maximal benefit is gained if CEA is performed less than three weeks after the onset of the symptom. With the aim...... of observing this recommendation, in 2005 the Department of Vascular Surgery, Gentofte Hospital, introduced an accelerated course of examinations, a fast track, prior to CEA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the course of all patients operated with CEA during the period from June 2003 through...... September 2006. RESULTS: A total of 147 CEAs were performed on 145 patients, 51 before and 96 after the introduction of fast track. The period between the first symptom and CEA was reduced after the introduction of fast track to 31 days. It was easiest to reduce the time up to CEA in our own department...

  3. Shortening of construction period of nuclear power plant. Activities of construction industry on construction period shortening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Total construction period could be shorten by prefabricating structures efficiently in another yard and reducing working hours on site, which would reduce work at height or congestion work and also upgrade safety at work. Construction period shortening would surely reduce expenses during work and advance operation start of electric utilities. Construction of reactor building, turbine building, water intake and drainage canal was performed on a relatively large scale and a big share of whole schedule. This article summarized basic technologies to shorten construction period for reactor building/turbine building and water intake and drainage canal. Advanced methods of reactor building/turbine building; (1) modularization of equipment and skeleton, (2) utilization of concrete mold, reinforcing bar and steel frame, (3) precedent steel frame method and (4) steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) method, were outlined and their application examples were shown to reduce work on site and improve work efficiency. As for water intake and drainage canal construction, (1) precast concrete method, (2) SC method and (3) steel plate shell method were described with application examples. Construction procedures and problems using mega block method for water intake and drainage canal were also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I.

  5. Optimal shortening of uniform covering arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Torres-Jimenez

    Full Text Available Software test suites based on the concept of interaction testing are very useful for testing software components in an economical way. Test suites of this kind may be created using mathematical objects called covering arrays. A covering array, denoted by CA(N; t, k, v, is an N × k array over [Formula: see text] with the property that every N × t sub-array covers all t-tuples of [Formula: see text] at least once. Covering arrays can be used to test systems in which failures occur as a result of interactions among components or subsystems. They are often used in areas such as hardware Trojan detection, software testing, and network design. Because system testing is expensive, it is critical to reduce the amount of testing required. This paper addresses the Optimal Shortening of Covering ARrays (OSCAR problem, an optimization problem whose objective is to construct, from an existing covering array matrix of uniform level, an array with dimensions of (N - δ × (k - Δ such that the number of missing t-tuples is minimized. Two applications of the OSCAR problem are (a to produce smaller covering arrays from larger ones and (b to obtain quasi-covering arrays (covering arrays in which the number of missing t-tuples is small to be used as input to a meta-heuristic algorithm that produces covering arrays. In addition, it is proven that the OSCAR problem is NP-complete, and twelve different algorithms are proposed to solve it. An experiment was performed on 62 problem instances, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of solving the OSCAR problem to facilitate the construction of new covering arrays.

  6. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. Methods We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Results Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R 2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Conclusion Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I. PMID:26448623

  7. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusaku Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases.We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts.Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047. In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003. In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence.Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I.

  8. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  9. [Extension of (extremely) shortened dental arches by fixed or removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Hoefnagel, R.A.; Snoek, P.A.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Whether a shortened dental arch needs to be extended depends on the degree of the shortening. Four categories of shortened dental arches can be distinguished: 1. slightly shortened dental arches; 2. moderately shortened dental arches; 3. extremely shortened dental arches; and 4. asymmetrical

  10. Community-level and individual-level influences of intimate partner violence on birth spacing in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kristin J; Scott, Jennifer; Ricciotti, Hope A; Johnson, Timothy R; Tsai, Alexander C

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the extent to which intimate partner violence (IPV), at the levels of the individual and the community, is associated with shortened interbirth intervals among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed demographic and health survey data from 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Only multiparous women were included in the analysis. Interbirth interval was the primary outcome. Personal history of IPV was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale. Community prevalence of IPV was measured as the proportion of women in each village reporting a personal history of IPV. We used multilevel modeling to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, allowing us to partition the variation in birth intervals to the four different levels (births, individuals, villages, and countries). Among the 46,697 women in the sample, 11,730 (25.1%) reported a personal history of physical violence and 4,935 (10.6%) reported a personal history of sexual violence. In the multivariable regression model, interbirth intervals were inversely associated with personal history of physical violence (regression coefficient b=-0.60, 95% confidence interval -0.91 to -0.28) and the community prevalence of physical violence (b=-1.41, 95% confidence interval -2.41 to -0.40). Estimated associations with sexual violence were of similar statistical significance and magnitude. Both personal history of IPV and the community prevalence of IPV have independent and statistically significant associations with shorter interbirth intervals. II.

  11. Interval selection with machine-dependent intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Bohmova K.; Disser Y.; Mihalak M.; Widmayer P.

    2013-01-01

    We study an offline interval scheduling problem where every job has exactly one associated interval on every machine. To schedule a set of jobs, exactly one of the intervals associated with each job must be selected, and the intervals selected on the same machine must not intersect.We show that deciding whether all jobs can be scheduled is NP-complete already in various simple cases. In particular, by showing the NP-completeness for the case when all the intervals associated with the same job...

  12. A Shortened Stress Measure in Military Nursing Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From- To) 10/17/2017 Abstract 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER A Shortened Stress Measure in Military...Psychology 14. ABSTRACT A Shortened Stress Measure with Military Nursing Personnel Abstract Stress is a psychological construct with important...consequences for human health. A substantial number of stress measures are available that vary in length and dimensionality. The purpose of this study was to

  13. Telomere Shortening in Neurological Disorders: An Abundance of Unanswered Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Eitan, Erez; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres, ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, typically shorten in leukocytes with aging. Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), and a common assumption has arisen that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) can serve as a predictor of neurological disease. However, the evidence for shorter LTL in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients is inconsistent. The diverse causes of telomere shortening may explain variability in LTL between studies and indi...

  14. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P pulp...... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  15. A study on occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarita, Paulo T N; Kreulen, Cees M; Witter, Dick J; van't Hof, Martin; Creugers, Nico H J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that shortened dental arches constitute a risk to occlusal stability. Using cluster samples, 725 subjects with shortened dental arches comprising intact anterior regions and zero to eight occluding pairs of posterior teeth and 125 subjects with complete dental arches were selected. Subjects with shortened dental arches were classified into eight categories according to arch length and symmetry. Parameters for occlusal stability were interdental spacing, occlusal tooth wear, occlusal contact of incisors in intercuspal position, and vertical and horizontal overlap. Additionally, tooth mobility and overeruption of unopposed teeth were assessed. Influence of independent variables (dental arch category, age, gender, and residence) on the parameters for occlusal stability was assessed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range tests. Extreme shortened dental arches (zero to two pairs of occluding premolars) had significantly more interdental spacing, occlusal contact of incisors, and vertical overlap compared to complete dental arches. Occlusal wear and prevalence of mobile teeth were highest in these categories. The category with three to four occluding premolars had significantly more interdental spacing and, for the older age group, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact compared to complete dental arches. Age was consistently associated with increased changes in occlusal integrity. Signs of increased risk to occlusal stability seemed to occur in extreme shortened dental arches, whereas no such evidence was found for intermediate categories of shortened dental arches.

  16. Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, convex interval games are introduced and some characterizations are given. Some economic situations leading to convex interval games are discussed. The Weber set and the Shapley value are defined for a suitable class of interval games and their relations with the interval core for

  17. Shortened stapedius tendon: a rare cause of conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, F; Varshney, R; Schloss, M D

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies of the stapedius tendon have been reported to cause conductive hearing loss; in theory, such anomalies limit the movement of the stapes. To demonstrate a rare cause of conductive hearing loss resulting from anomaly of the stapedius tendon and to compare the clinical findings of this patient to other stapedius tendon anomalies reported in the literature. Case report of a single case of shortened stapedius tendon and a review of the English literature on stapedius tendon anomalies. This is a case report of a 15-year-old boy with shortened stapedius tendon causing unilateral hearing loss, accompanied by a review of the literature. Contrary to other reported cases, this patient did not have an ossified tendon, but rather an extremely short tendon. The boy regained normal hearing following excision of the stapedius tendon. A shortened stapedius tendon is a very rare diagnosis, yet it should be considered as a possible cause of conductive hearing loss.

  18. Augmentation of Deglutitive Thyrohyoid Muscle Shortening by the Shaker Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation. PMID:18685891

  19. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  20. Device and method for shortening reactor process tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Charles E.; Alexander, William K.; Lander, Walter E. B.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a device and method for in situ shortening of nuclear reactor zirconium alloy process tubes which have grown as a result of radiation exposure. An upsetting technique is utilized which involves inductively heating a short band of a process tube with simultaneous application of an axial load sufficient to cause upsetting with an attendant decrease in length of the process tube.

  1. Telomere shortening reduces Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Scheffold, Annika; Heinrich, Annette; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; Langkopf, Britta Heike; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M.; Liss, Birgit; Wurst, Wolfgang; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Biber, Knut; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly and advancing age is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease development. Telomere shortening represents one of the molecular causes of ageing that limits the proliferative capacity of cells, including neural stem cells.

  2. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identifie...

  3. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency in subjects with shortened dental arch (SDA) before and after restoration with removable partial denture (RPD). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on 36 consecutive patients. The subjects were asked to chew 5 g of ...

  4. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  5. Knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch (SDA) therapy in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, self‑designed‑structured questionnaires were distributed among specialists (SP), residents (RES), and ...

  6. Masticatory Efficiency of Shortened Dental Arch Subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... of shortened dental arch subjects with removable partial denture: A comparative ... at the post- and pre-treatment phases was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The .... after the delivery of metal-based RPD with the denture in.

  7. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian h...

  8. Telomere shortening and survival in free-living corvids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, H.M.; Mulder, G.A.; Zande, L. van de; Haussmann, M.F.; Linskens, M.H.K.; Verhulst, S.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence accumulates that telomere shortening reflects lifestyle and predicts remaining lifespan, but little is known of telomere dynamics and their relation to survival under natural conditions. We present longitudinal telomere data in free-living jackdaws (Corvus monedula) and test hypotheses on

  9. Shortening a loop can increase protein native state entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Yulian; Dagan, Shlomi; Levy, Yaakov

    2015-12-01

    Protein loops are essential structural elements that influence not only function but also protein stability and folding rates. It was recently reported that shortening a loop in the AcP protein may increase its native state conformational entropy. This effect on the entropy of the folded state can be much larger than the lower entropic penalty of ordering a shorter loop upon folding, and can therefore result in a more pronounced stabilization than predicted by polymer model for loop closure entropy. In this study, which aims at generalizing the effect of loop length shortening on native state dynamics, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study how gradual shortening a very long or solvent-exposed loop region in four different proteins can affect their stability. For two proteins, AcP and Ubc7, we show an increase in native state entropy in addition to the known effect of the loop length on the unfolded state entropy. However, for two permutants of SH3 domain, shortening a loop results only with the expected change in the entropy of the unfolded state, which nicely reproduces the observed experimental stabilization. Here, we show that an increase in the native state entropy following loop shortening is not unique to the AcP protein, yet nor is it a general rule that applies to all proteins following the truncation of any loop. This modification of the loop length on the folded state and on the unfolded state may result with a greater effect on protein stability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Programming with Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  11. Strategies for shortening the output pulse of silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Antoranz Canales, Pedro; Miranda Pantoja, José Miguel; Yebras Rivera, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three strategies for shortening the output pulse of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) are reported. The first strategy is passive filtering, where band-pass filtering removes the lowest frequency components in the signal, getting a noticeable reduction in pulse width (a compression ratio of 10: 1 was obtained). In the second place, a reflectometric scheme is proposed where the amplified signal coming from the SiPM is injected into a signal splitter with one of its stubs connected...

  12. The psychometric properties of a shortened corporate entrepreneurship assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2017-08-01

    Aim: The aim of this research was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of entrepreneurial climate. Entrepreneurial climate was measured using a shortened version of the Hornsby, Kuratko and Zahra (2002 instrument, called the Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI. Making information on the psychometric properties of the instrument available directly relates to its utility. Setting: The setting was medium to large South African companies. A random sample of employees was drawn from 53 selected companies across South Africa, with 60 respondents per company (N = 3 180. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Several instruments were administered, including the shortened version of the CEAI. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test for reliability and several methods were used to test for validity. Correlation analysis was used to test for concurrent validity, convergent validity and divergent validity. Principle component factor analysis was used to test for factorial validity and a t-test to test for known-group validity. Results: The results showed that the reliability for the total score of the shortened version of the CEAI was acceptable at 0.758. The results also showed some evidence of concurrent validity, as well as homogeneity among the items. With regard to factorial validity, all items loaded in accordance with the subscales of the instrument. The measure was able to distinguish, as expected, between government organisations and private business entities, suggesting known-group validity. Convergent validity and divergent validity were also assessed. Interesting to note was that entrepreneurship climate correlates more with general employee attitude (e.g. employee engagement; R= 0.420, p < 0.001 and organisational commitment, R = 0.331, p < 0.001 than with self-reported innovation (R = 0.277, p < 0.001 and R = 0.267, p < 0.001. Contribution: This paper not only provided information on the reliability

  13. Muscle damage induced by stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyröläinen, H; Takala, T E; Komi, P V

    1998-03-01

    Strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise was used as a model to study the leakage of proteins from skeletal muscle. The analysis included serum levels of creatine kinase (S-CK), myoglobin (S-Mb), and carbonic anhydrase (S-CA III). Blood samples from power- (N=11) and endurance-trained (N=10) athletes were collected before, 0, and 2 h after the exercise, which consisted of a total of 400 jumps. The levels of all determined myocellular proteins increased immediately after the exercise (P exercise, and the ratio of S-CA III and S-Mb decreased (P recruitment order of motor units, and/or differences in training background.

  14. The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.

  15. A shortened protocol for assessing cognitive bias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Nichola M; Hall, Lynsey

    2017-07-15

    Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals. In particular, the 'cognitive bias' assay has gained popularity in recent years. Major disadvantages of this technique include length of time taken for animals to acquire the task (typically several weeks), negative experiences associated with task training, and issues of motivation. Here we present a shortened cognitive bias protocol using only positive reinforcers which must actively be responded to. The protocol took an average of 4days to complete, and produced similar results to previous, longer methods (minimum 30days). Specifically, rats housed in standard laboratory conditions demonstrated negative cognitive biases when presented with ambiguous stimuli, and took longer to make a decision when faced with an ambiguous stimulus. Compared to previous methods, this protocol is significantly shorter (average 4days vs. minimum 30days), utilises only positive reinforcers to avoid inducing negative affective states, and requires active responses to all cues, avoiding potential confounds of motivational state. We have successfully developed a shortened cognitive bias protocol, suitable for use with laboratory rats. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed....... The procedure has been employed as the key step in a short five-step synthesis of the unnatural sugar L-threose in 74% overall yield from D-glucose. A zinc-mediated one-pot fragmentation-allylation reaction has been used to elongate D-glucose and D-ribose by three carbon atoms thereby producing carbohydrate......-derived α,ω-dienes, which have been converted into the natural products calystegine A3 and gabosine A. The glycosidase inhibitor calystegine A3 was produced by two similar routes from commercially available methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in 13 and 14 steps with 8.3 and 5.3% overall yield, respectively...

  17. Early diastolic time intervals during hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, L; Ferro, G; Nappi, C; Farace, M J; Talarico, G; Cinquegrana, G; Condorelli, M

    1987-10-01

    Early diastolic time intervals have been assessed by means of the echopolycardiographic method in 17 pregnant women who developed hypertension during pregnancy (HP) and in 14 normal pregnant women (N). Systolic time intervals (STI), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and mean velocity of myocardial fiber shortening (VCF) were also evaluated. Recordings were performed in the left lateral decubitus (LLD) and then in the supine decubitus (SD). In LLD, isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) was prolonged in the hypertensive pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women (HP 51 +/- 12.5 ms, N 32.4 +/- 15 ms p less than 0.05), whereas time of the mitral valve maximum opening (DE) was not different in the groups. There was no difference in SV, EF, and mean VCF, whereas STI showed only a significant (p less than 0.05) lengthening of pre-ejection period (PEP) in HP. When the subjects shifted from the left lateral to the supine decubitus position, left ventricular ejection time index (LVETi) and SV decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in both normotensive hypertensive pregnant women. IRP and PEP lengthened significantly (p less than 0.05) only in normals, whereas they were unchanged in HP. DE time did not vary in either group. In conclusion, hypertension superimposed on pregnancy induces lengthening of IRP, as well as of PEP, and minimizes the effects of the postural changes in preload on the above-mentioned time intervals.

  18. Overconfidence in Interval Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, Jack B.; Klayman, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…

  19. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Sasaki

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0 of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005. In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0 of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC. The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95. Regression analysis showed that V(0 of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2 = 0.52, P<0.001. By contrast, V(0 of electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles remained unchanged (R(2<0.001, P = 0.98 among three different stimulus conditions showing a large variation of tetanic torque. These results suggest that the recruitment pattern of motor units, which is quite different between voluntary and electrically elicited contractions, plays an important role in determining shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  20. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  1. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    with similar investigations in 1992 and 1995. A gradual decline of TFA in Danish margarines was observed. From 1992 to 1995, a reduction of TFA from 10.4 to 3.6% took place in margarines with 20-40% linoleic acid. In 1999, TFA was practically absent in all the margarines, but it remained unchanged...... in shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years...

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the shortened resilience scale among Alzheimer's caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the shortened Resilience Scale (15-item version RS15) among a sample of Alzheimer's caregivers. Self-reported data were collected from 229 participants at 2 Alzheimer's caregiver conferences. RS15 principal axis factoring indicated a single-dimensional solution with all items loaded. Reliability was strong. Convergent validity for the RS15 was suggested through its correlations with stress, family support, and friend support. Odds ratios showed significant likelihoods of high resilience given low stress and high social support. The results confirmed the RS15 to be a psychometrically sound measure that can be used to appraise the efficacy of adaptability among Alzheimer's caregivers.

  3. Physico-chemical properties and performance of high oleic and palm-based shortenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Muhamad Roddy; Lin, Siew Wai; Yoo, Cheah Kien; Idris, Nor Aini; Sahri, Miskandar Mat

    2008-01-01

    Solid fat from fractionation of palm-based products was converted into cake shortening at different processing conditions. High oleic palm stearin with an oleic content of 48.2 % was obtained from fractionation of high oleic palm oil which was produced locally. Palm product was blended with different soft oils at pre-determined ratio and further fractionated to obtain the solid fractions. These fractions were then converted into cake shortenings named as high oleic, N1 and N2 blends. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental shortenings were compared with those of control shortenings in terms of fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic forms. Unlike the imported commercial shortenings as reported by other studies and the control, experimental shortenings were trans-free. The SMP and SFC of experimental samples, except for the N2 sample, fell within the ranges of commercial and control shortenings. The IV was higher than those of domestic shortenings but lower when compared to imported and control shortenings. They were also observed to be beta tending even though a mixture of beta and beta' was observed in the samples after 3 months of storage. The shortenings were also used in the making of pound cake and sensory evaluation showed the good performance of high oleic sample as compared to the other shortenings.

  4. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Institute of Radiology, Linz (Austria); Schmid, A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  5. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B.; Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A.; Schmid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  6. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  7. Binge-type behavior in rats consuming trans-fat-free shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W

    2008-07-05

    Studies from this and another laboratory involving an animal model of binge-type behavior have used vegetable shortening containing trans-fats. Due to reformulations by vegetable shortening manufacturers to remove trans-fats from their products, only trans-fat-free shortenings are now available. The goal of the present study was to assess binge-type behavior in rats with trans-fat and trans-free vegetable shortening. Trans-fat-free shortening was provided to three different groups of non-food-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats on different schedules of access: continuous access (24 h/day-7 days/week), daily access (1 h every day), and intermittent access (1 h on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays). Trans-fat shortening was provided to a fourth group on the intermittent access schedule. A fifth group had no shortening access (chow only). Both intermittent groups (trans-fat-free and trans-fat) consumed significantly more shortening during the 1-h period of availability than did the daily group, and there was no difference in shortening intakes between the intermittent groups. These results are identical to previous reports of binge-type behavior in rats using this model. Thus, binge-type behavior in the present behavioral model depends upon the schedule of access, not the presence of trans-fats in the shortening.

  8. Surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    Technical specifications have been developed on the bases of deterministic analyses, engineering judgment, and expert opinion. This paper introduces our risk-based approach to surveillance test interval (STI) optimization. This approach consists of three main levels. The first level is the component level, which serves as a rough estimation of the optimal STI and can be calculated analytically by a differentiating equation for mean unavailability. The second and third levels give more representative results. They take into account the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculated by a personal computer (PC) based code and are based on system unavailability at the system level and on core damage frequency at the plant level

  9. Chaos on the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruette, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to survey the relations between the various kinds of chaos and related notions for continuous interval maps from a topological point of view. The papers on this topic are numerous and widely scattered in the literature; some of them are little known, difficult to find, or originally published in Russian, Ukrainian, or Chinese. Dynamical systems given by the iteration of a continuous map on an interval have been broadly studied because they are simple but nevertheless exhibit complex behaviors. They also allow numerical simulations, which enabled the discovery of some chaotic phenomena. Moreover, the "most interesting" part of some higher-dimensional systems can be of lower dimension, which allows, in some cases, boiling it down to systems in dimension one. Some of the more recent developments such as distributional chaos, the relation between entropy and Li-Yorke chaos, sequence entropy, and maps with infinitely many branches are presented in book form for the first time. The author gi...

  10. Do right-ventricular trabeculae gain energetic advantage from having a greater velocity of shortening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan; Han, June-Chiew; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis

    2017-10-15

    We designed a study to test whether velocity of shortening in right-ventricular tissue preparations is greater than that of the left side under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo. Our experiments allowed us to explore whether greater velocity of shortening results in any energetic advantage. We found that velocity of shortening was higher in the rat right-ventricular trabeculae. These results at the tissue level seem paradoxical to the velocity of ventricular ejection at the organ level, and are not always in accord with shortening of unloaded cells. Despite greater velocity of shortening in right-ventricular trabeculae, they neither gained nor lost advantage with respect to both mechanical efficiency and the heat generated during shortening. Our study aimed to ascertain whether the interventricular difference of shortening velocity, reported for isolated cardiac tissues in vitro, affects interventricular mechano-energetic performance when tested under physiological conditions using a shortening protocol designed to mimic those in vivo. We isolated trabeculae from both ventricles of the rat, mounted them in a calorimeter, and performed experiments at 37°C and 5 Hz stimulus frequency to emulate conditions of the rat heart in vivo. Each trabecula was subjected to two experimental protocols: (i) isotonic work-loop contractions at a variety of afterloads, and (ii) isometric contractions at a variety of preloads. Velocity of shortening was calculated from the former protocol during the isotonic shortening phase of the contraction. Simultaneous measurements of force-length work and heat output allowed calculation of mechanical efficiency. The shortening-dependent thermal component was quantified from the difference in heat output between the two protocols. Our results show that both extent of shortening and velocity of shortening were higher in trabeculae from the right ventricle. Despite these differences, trabeculae from both ventricles

  11. Options for shortening nuclear power plant refueling outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastl, H.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation of the European electricity market on 01.01.1999 forced a large number of electric utilities- especially nuclear power plant operators - to find ways of drastically cutting down their costs in order to be able to compete successfully within the new market environment. Nuclear power plants currently in operation mainly have three potential ways of reducing their power generating costs: by increasing plant availability, reducing fuel costs and cutting down operating costs. The optimization of plant refueling outages offers considerable potential for enhancing plant availability, but also helps bring down operating costs by reducing expenditure on maintenance. In order to optimize an outage in terms of its duration and costs, a variety of approaches are possible - all of which, however, involve certain key factors such as good organization, planning, logistics and control, improvement of equipment and tools, as well as motivation of personnel. Another aspect is the introduction of innovative technologies. In the last few years, such technologies have frequently enabled maintenance effort to be reduced, thus saving considerable time, and have also resulted in a need for fewer personnel to carry out the work, thus reducing radiation exposure. In many instances they have also improved the quality of work and outage performance as a whole. The paper uses recent examples to show how innovative technologies can contribute to-wards reducing nuclear plant maintenance costs and shorten the duration of refueling out-ages. (author)

  12. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  13. Is the shortened dental arch still a satisfactory option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, M; Hussain, F; Millar, B J

    2017-07-21

    Aims Dental practitioners may hold the view that missing posterior teeth should be replaced to ensure a healthy masticatory system and satisfactory oral function. However, the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept is still in use, but after 35 years is it acceptable? This review searches the literature for the evidence and opinions regarding the suitability of the SDA as a current treatment modality.Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for relevant terms, all the abstracts were assessed and articles selected according to the pre-set exclusion and inclusion criteria.Results The search yielded 1,895 articles and after the assessment of the abstracts and application of the exclusion and inclusion criteria, 44 articles were selected for this review. These included 11 cohort studies, two longitudinal studies, two animal studies, three cross sectional studies, eight clinical studies and 18 case control studies. There appears to be a trend over the past three decades for more papers to be opposed to the SDA concept.Conclusion Evidence that the SDA causes pathology is lacking. Clinicians, healthcare authorities and patients have shown favourable attitudes towards the SDA and this continues, although there is an increase in studies opposing the concept and some are dissatisfied with this option. The concept remains viable particularly for the medically compromised patient or where restorations are considered unsuitable but further more specific studies are warranted.

  14. Placental telomere shortening in stillbirth: a sign of premature senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Facchinetti, Fabio; Saade, George; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate placental telomere shortening in unexplained stillbirths (SBs) as an indication of premature senescence. Placentas were collected from 42 unexplained SB (>22 weeks), 43 term and 15 preterm live births, at the Policlinico Hospital of Modena (Italy). DNA extracted from placentae was studied for telomere length by real time PCR. Standard curves were generated for telomere lengths from single copy gene amplifications using a reference DNA. The telomere length for each sample was derived based on the ratio of telomere length between the sample and single copy gene standard (T/S ratio). The mean ratio of placental telomere in term live births was 5.181 ± 3.841. A twofold decrease in telomere length was seen in SBs (over all 2.455 ± 1.239; p PTBs) (6.382 ± 5.525; p < 0.01), whereas SBs telomere length were similar to those of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) (3.296 ± 3.599; p = ns). Substantial reduction in telomere length in SBs is indicative of placental senescence. These data provide mechanistic insights that premature aging may lead to placental dysfunction as an initiator of fetal demise in unexplained SBs.

  15. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  16. Overexpression of the Large-Conductance, Ca2+-Activated K+ (BK) Channel Shortens Action Potential Duration in HL-1 Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimers, Joseph R; Song, Li; Rusch, Nancy J; Rhee, Sung W

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome is characterized by a prolongation of the interval between the Q wave and the T wave on the electrocardiogram. This abnormality reflects a prolongation of the ventricular action potential caused by a number of genetic mutations or a variety of drugs. Since effective treatments are unavailable, we explored the possibility of using cardiac expression of the large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel to shorten action potential duration (APD). We hypothesized that expression of the pore-forming α subunit of human BK channels (hBKα) in HL-1 cells would shorten action potential duration in this mouse atrial cell line. Expression of hBKα had minimal effects on expression levels of other ion channels with the exception of a small but significant reduction in Kv11.1. Patch-clamped hBKα expressing HL-1 cells exhibited an outward voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K+ current, which was inhibited by the BK channel blocker iberiotoxin (100 nM). This BK current phenotype was not detected in untransfected HL-1 cells or in HL-1 null cells sham-transfected with an empty vector. Importantly, APD in hBKα-expressing HL-1 cells averaged 14.3 ± 2.8 ms (n = 10), which represented a 53% reduction in APD compared to HL-1 null cells lacking BKα expression. APD in the latter cells averaged 31.0 ± 5.1 ms (n = 13). The shortened APD in hBKα-expressing cells was restored to normal duration by 100 nM iberiotoxin, suggesting that a repolarizing K+ current attributed to BK channels accounted for action potential shortening. These findings provide initial proof-of-concept that the introduction of hBKα channels into a cardiac cell line can shorten APD, and raise the possibility that gene-based interventions to increase hBKα channels in cardiac cells may hold promise as a therapeutic strategy for long QT syndrome.

  17. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides...... the potential for solving increasingly difficult computational problems. However, given the complexity of modern computer architectures, the task of realizing this potential needs careful attention. A main concern of HPC is the development of software that optimizes the performance of a given computer....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...

  18. Multichannel interval timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.T.

    1983-10-01

    A CAMAC based modular multichannel interval timer is described. The timer comprises twelve high resolution time digitizers with a common start enabling twelve independent stop inputs. Ten time ranges from 2.5 μs to 1.3 μs can be preset. Time can be read out in twelve 24-bit words either via CAMAC Crate Controller or an external FIFO register. LSB time calibration is 78.125 ps. An additional word reads out the operational status of twelve stop channels. The system consists of two modules. The analog module contains a reference clock and 13 analog time stretchers. The digital module contains counters, logic and interface circuits. The timer has an excellent differential linearity, thermal stability and crosstalk free performance

  19. Experimenting with musical intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    When two tuning forks of different frequency are sounded simultaneously the result is a complex wave with a repetition frequency that is the fundamental of the harmonic series to which both frequencies belong. The ear perceives this 'musical interval' as a single musical pitch with a sound quality produced by the harmonic spectrum responsible for the waveform. This waveform can be captured and displayed with data collection hardware and software. The fundamental frequency can then be calculated and compared with what would be expected from the frequencies of the tuning forks. Also, graphing software can be used to determine equations for the waveforms and predict their shapes. This experiment could be used in an introductory physics or musical acoustics course as a practical lesson in superposition of waves, basic Fourier series and the relationship between some of the ear's subjective perceptions of sound and the physical properties of the waves that cause them.

  20. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  1. Molecular-dynamics simulation of crystalline 18-crown-6: thermal shortening of covalent bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerden, J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of crystalline 18-crown-6 have been performed in a study of the apparent thermal shortening of covalent bonds observed in crystal structures. At 100 K, a shortening of 0.006 _+ 0.001 A for C----C and C----O bonds was obtained. This result was found to be independent of

  2. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanty, N.A.M.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Miskandar, M.S.; Bockstaele, F. Van; Dewettinck, K.; Nusantoro, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD) in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF) with palm stearin (PS) in a 99:1 (w/w) ratio; avocado fat (Avo) with PS and cocoa butter (CB) in a 84:7:9 (w/w) ratio; palm oil (PO) with PS, soybean oil (SBO) and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w) ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure. [es

  3. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  4. Influence of muscle geometry on shortening speed of fibre, aponeurosis and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Huijing, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of muscle geometry on muscle shortening of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat was studied. Using cinematography, GM geometry was studied during isokinetic concentric activity at muscle lengths ranging from 85 to 105% of the optimum muscle length. The shortening speed of

  5. The shortened cochlea: its classification and histopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqing; Schachern, Patricia A; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Mutlu, Cemil; Dijalilian, Hamid; Paparella, Michael M

    2002-03-15

    The term 'Mondini dysplasia' has been used to describe virtually any congenital abnormality of the osseous labyrinth resulting in confusion and seemingly contradictory observations and conclusions about this type of deformity. The purpose of this study is to histopathologically classify and describe temporal bones whose cochleas have less than 2.5 turns. Of the 1800 temporal bones in our collection, 21 from 12 cases were found to have cochleas with less than 2.5 cochlear turns. Ages ranged from stillborn to 50 years. Temporal bones were harvested at autopsy, processed and embedded in celloidin. Sections were cut at a thickness of 20 microm and every 10th section stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined using light microscopy. The number of turns, length of cochlea, integrity of cochlear base, length of modiolus, abnormalities of the semicircular canals and vestibule, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct and middle ears were documented. Twenty-one temporal bones from age-matched patients without cochlear deformities were used as controls for modiolar length measurements. Malformation of the shortened cochlea was histopathologically classified into three groups as follows: (1) Common cavity, cochlear dysplasia (one ear)--severe dysplasia of the cochlea without a complete basal turn; (2) Mondini dysplasia (11 ears)--1.5 cochlear turns, a complete basal turn, an incomplete or absent interscalar septum and a complete bone at the base of the modiolus; and (3) Mondini-like dysplasia type A (five ears)--2 turns to the cochlea including a complete basal turn and complete bone at the base of the modiolus; and type B (four ears)--1.5-2 turns to the cochlea, hypoplasia of or a missing bone at the base of the modiolus (either with or without a communication between the internal auditory canal and the cochlea) and a complete basal turn. The range of congenital malformations in short cochlea is highly variable. Fundamental to the accurate evaluation of a labyrinthine anomaly

  6. Sex Hormones and the QT Interval: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Tara; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Iribarren, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A prolonged QT interval is a marker for an increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Both endogenous and exogenous sex hormones have been shown to affect the QT interval. Endogenous testosterone and progesterone shorten the action potential, and estrogen lengthens the QT interval. During a single menstrual cycle, progesterone levels, but not estrogen levels, have the dominant effect on ventricular repolarization in women. Studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in the form of estrogen-alone therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) have suggested a counterbalancing effect of exogenous estrogen and progesterone on the QT. Specifically, ET lengthens the QT, whereas EPT has no effect. To date, there are no studies on oral contraception (OC) and the QT interval, and future research is needed. This review outlines the current literature on sex hormones and QT interval, including the endogenous effects of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone and the exogenous effects of estrogen and progesterone therapy in the forms of MHT and hormone contraception. Further, we review the potential mechanisms and pathophysiology of sex hormones on the QT interval. PMID:22663191

  7. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  8. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J; Bonneux, Luc

    2011-05-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic groups. We define multistate life tables by the transition rates to cognitive impairment, recovery and death and estimate Cox proportional hazard ratios for the studied determinants. 95% confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrapping. 55 year old white men and women expect to live 25.4 and 30.0 years, of which 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.5; 1.9] years and 2.7 [2.4; 2.9] years with cognitive impairment. Both black men and women live 3.7 [2.9; 4.5] years longer with cognitive impairment than whites, Hispanic men and women 3.2 [1.9; 4.6] and 5.8 [4.2; 7.5] years. BMI makes no difference. Smoking decreases the duration of cognitive impairment with 0.8 [0.4; 1.3] years by high mortality. Highly educated men and women live longer, but 1.6 years [1.1; 2.2] and 1.9 years [1.6; 2.6] shorter with cognitive impairment than lowly educated men and women. The effect of education is more pronounced among ethnic minorities. Higher life expectancy goes together with a longer period of cognitive impairment, but not for higher levels of education: that extends life in good cognitive health but shortens the period of cognitive impairment. The increased duration of cognitive impairment in minority ethnic groups needs further study, also in Europe.

  9. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS-using strength athletes (SA from drug-free endurance athletes (EA, by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. Methods. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite

  10. Vastus lateralis surface and single motor unit EMG following submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.; Verdijk, P.W.L.; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2008-01-01

    A single shortening contraction reduces the force capacity of muscle fibers, whereas force capacity is enhanced following lengthening. However, how motor unit recruitment and discharge rate (muscle activation) are adapted to such changes in force capacity during submaximal contractions remains

  11. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  12. Lengthening of the shortened first metatarsal after Wilson's osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Dudkiewicz, I

    2009-12-01

    Metatarsalgia is a recognised complication following iatrogenic shortening of the first metatarsal in the management of hallux valgus. The traditional surgical treatment is by shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals. We describe the results of lengthening of iatrogenic first brachymetatarsia in 16 females. A Scarf-type osteotomy was used in the first four cases and a step-cut of equal thicknesses along the axis of the first metatarsal was performed in the others. The mean follow-up was 21 months (19 to 26). Relief of metatarsalgia was obtained in the six patients in whom 10 mm of lengthening had been achieved, compared to only 50% relief in those where less than 8 mm of lengthening had been gained. One-stage step-cut lengthening osteotomy of the first metatarsal may be preferable to shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals in the treatment of metatarsalgia following surgical shortening of the first metatarsal.

  13. Quantum gravity removes classical singularities and shortens the life of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1979-07-01

    The problem of the gravitational collapse is considered in the framework of the quantum gravity effective action. It is shown that quantum gravity removes classical singularity and possibly shortens the lifetime of the black hole. (author)

  14. Bit Error Rate Minimizing Channel Shortening Equalizers for Single Carrier Cyclic Prefixed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Richard K; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous work on channel shortening has largely been in the context of digital subscriber lines, a wireline system that allows bit allocation, thus it has focused on maximizing the bit rate for a given bit error rate (BER...

  15. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  16. Lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening: Insights from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Oliver B.; Fernandez, Naiara; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Dooley, Tim P.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Minibasin provinces are widespread and can be found in all types of salt tectonic settings, many of which are prone to shortening. Previous studies of how minibasin provinces shorten assume that the salt between the minibasins is homogeneous and that the base of salt is flat or of low relief, such that minibasins are free to move laterally. Here we investigate how minibasin provinces respond to shortening when the lateral mobility of the minibasins is restricted by intra-salt sediment bodies, in order to gain a greater understanding of the controls on the structural styles and modes of tectono-stratigraphic evolution exhibited in minibasin provinces. We examine a borehole-constrained, 3D seismic reflection dataset from the SE Precaspian Basin (onshore western Kazakhstan). The study area is characterised by large, supra-salt minibasins and an array of smaller intra-salt sediment packages distributed between these larger minibasins. We first outline the evidence of episodic shortening between the Late Triassic and present, after the onset of supra-salt minibasin subsidence. Next, we document spatial variations in shortening style, showing how these relate to the concentration of intra-salt sediment packages. Finally, we develop synoptic models showing how intra-salt sediment packages influence both the lateral mobility of minibasins during shortening and the resultant structural style, and we compare and contrast our findings with existing models and other natural examples of shortened minibasin provinces. We conclude that minibasin provinces may have different degrees of lateral mobility depending on the presence, or absence, of intrasalt barriers, and that these variations provide a first-order control on basin-shortening style and tectono-stratigraphic evolution.

  17. Damage sensing ability of polymer nanocomposites filled with long, shortened and damaged carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Inam, Fawad; Okolo, Chichi; Vo, Thuc

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were aggressively tip-ultrasonicated to produce shortened and damaged carbon nanotubes. High-resolution scanning electron microscopic analysis was performed to measure the dimensions of CNTs. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to evaluate the damage in the sonicated CNTs. Shortened CNTs, in their pristine form (undamaged), were used for comparison with damaged CNTs. Nanocomposite bars, containing CNTs, were indented using Vickers hardness testing machine to pro...

  18. Effect of shortening replacement with oleogels on the rheological and tomographic characteristics of aerated baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongtaek; Jeong, Sungmin; Lee, JaeHwan; Park, Sungkwon; Lee, Jonggil; Lee, Suyong

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of effort has been made to reduce the use of shortening owing to the high level of saturated fats as well as the presence of trans fats. Grape seed oil high in unsaturated fats was structured with candelilla wax to form solid-like oleogels that were utilized as a shortening replacer in aerated baked goods, specifically muffins. Muffin batters with greater amounts of oleogels exhibited lower viscosity, greater shear-thinning behavior and less elastic nature. The shortening replacement with oleogels significantly increased the specific gravity of the batters, consequently affecting the muffin volume after baking. X-ray tomography indicated a lower fragmentation index (i.e. a more connected solid structure) in the oleogel-incorporated muffins, which was correlated with more enclosed and isolated air cells. A stress relaxation test showed that the shortening replacement with oleogels produced muffins with a firmer and springier texture. Based on fatty acid compositions, the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly reduced from 2.81 to 0.41. Use of the oleogels as a shortening replacer at a ratio of 1:3 by weight was effective in producing muffins with comparable quality attributes to the control with shortening. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-12-18

    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Synergistic nonuniform shortening of atrial refractory period induced by autonomic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, M; Furukawa, Y; Narita, M; Ren, L M; Karasawa, Y; Murakami, M; Chiba, S

    1991-12-01

    We investigated the nonuniform effects of autonomic nerve stimulation of the effective refractory period (ERP) of the right atrium in the anesthetized dog. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac sympathetic nerves to the sinoatrial (SA) nodal region uniformly shortened ERPs at three sites in the right atrium after administration of atropine. Right ansa subclavia (RS) stimulation similarly shortened ERPs in the absence of atropine. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac parasympathetic nerves to the SA nodal region (SAP stimulation) shortened ERPs of the right atrium in a nonuniform manner. Simultaneous RS and SAP stimulation additively shortened ERPs at each site and decreased sinus rate much more than SAP stimulation alone. Shortening of ERP induced by SAP stimulation was greater than that induced by RS stimulation at similar absolute changes in heart rate. These results suggest that simultaneous activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves nonuniformly shortens the ERP in the right atrium as the algebraic sum of the individual responses to each stimulation. However, parasympathetics exert the principal neural control over atrial ERP.

  1. Interval stability for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir V.; Kirillov, Sergey; Kurths, Jürgen; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Stability of dynamical systems against strong perturbations is an important problem of nonlinear dynamics relevant to many applications in various areas. Here, we develop a novel concept of interval stability, referring to the behavior of the perturbed system during a finite time interval. Based on this concept, we suggest new measures of stability, namely interval basin stability (IBS) and interval stability threshold (IST). IBS characterizes the likelihood that the perturbed system returns to the stable regime (attractor) in a given time. IST provides the minimal magnitude of the perturbation capable to disrupt the stable regime for a given interval of time. The suggested measures provide important information about the system susceptibility to external perturbations which may be useful for practical applications. Moreover, from a theoretical viewpoint the interval stability measures are shown to bridge the gap between linear and asymptotic stability. We also suggest numerical algorithms for quantification of the interval stability characteristics and demonstrate their potential for several dynamical systems of various nature, such as power grids and neural networks.

  2. Short QTc Interval in Males with Klinefelter Syndrome-Influence of CAG Repeat Length, Body Composition, and Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Norlyk; Skakkebaek, Anne; Andersen, Niels Holmark

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundKlinefelter syndrome (KS) is a sex chromosomal aneuploidy (47,XXY) affecting 1/660 males. Based on findings in Turner syndrome, we hypothesized that electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities would be present in males with KS. ObjectiveTo investigate ECGs in males with KS and compare...... syndrome was determined in participants with a QTc ... interval comparable to controls. No mutations in genes related to short QT syndrome were found. ConclusionWe found short QTc interval in males with KS, with further shortening of the QTc interval by T. These results suggest that genes on the X chromosome could be involved in regulation of the QTc interval...

  3. Hypotensive Anesthesia Is Associated With Shortened Length of Hospital Stay Following Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Kyle S; Yildirim, Yavuz; Weingarten, Toby N; Van Ess, James M; Viozzi, Christopher F; Arce, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of induced hypotensive anesthesia on length of hospital stay (LOS) for patients undergoing maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy in isolation or in combination with mandibular orthognathic surgery. A retrospective cohort study design was implemented and patients undergoing a Le Fort I osteotomy as a component of orthognathic surgery at the Mayo Clinic from 2010 through 2014 were identified. The primary predictor variable was the presence of induced hypotensive anesthesia during orthognathic surgery. Hypotensive anesthesia was defined as at least 10 consecutive minutes of a mean arterial pressure no higher than 60 mmHg documented within the anesthetic record. The primary outcome variable was LOS in hours after completion of orthognathic surgery. The secondary outcome variable was the duration of surgery in hours. Multiple covariates also abstracted included patient age, patient gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, complexity of surgical procedure, and volume of intraoperative fluids administered during surgery. Univariable and multivariable models were developed to evaluate associations between the primary predictor variable and covariates relative to the primary and secondary outcome variables. A total of 117 patients were identified undergoing Le Fort I orthognathic surgery in isolation or in combination with mandibular surgery. Induced hypotensive anesthesia was significantly associated with shortened LOS (odds ratio [OR] = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.88; P = .026) relative to patients with normotensive regimens. This association between hypotensive anesthesia and LOS remained statistically significant in a subgroup analysis of 47 patients in whom isolated Le Fort I surgery was performed (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.62; P = .010). Induced hypotensive anesthesia was not statistically associated with shorter duration of surgery. Induced hypotensive anesthesia represents a potential factor that minimizes

  4. Stochastic variation in telomere shortening rate causes heterogeneity of human fibroblast replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Saretzki, Gabriele; Petrie, Joanne; Ladhoff, Juliane; Jeyapalan, Jessie; Wei, Wenyi; Sedivy, John; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2004-04-23

    The replicative life span of human fibroblasts is heterogeneous, with a fraction of cells senescing at every population doubling. To find out whether this heterogeneity is due to premature senescence, i.e. driven by a nontelomeric mechanism, fibroblasts with a senescent phenotype were isolated from growing cultures and clones by flow cytometry. These senescent cells had shorter telomeres than their cycling counterparts at all population doubling levels and both in mass cultures and in individual subclones, indicating heterogeneity in the rate of telomere shortening. Ectopic expression of telomerase stabilized telomere length in the majority of cells and rescued them from early senescence, suggesting a causal role of telomere shortening. Under standard cell culture conditions, there was a minor fraction of cells that showed a senescent phenotype and short telomeres despite active telomerase. This fraction increased under chronic mild oxidative stress, which is known to accelerate telomere shortening. It is possible that even high telomerase activity cannot fully compensate for telomere shortening in all cells. The data show that heterogeneity of the human fibroblast replicative life span can be caused by significant stochastic cell-to-cell variation in telomere shortening.

  5. [Effects of removable partial dentures on the quality of life in people with shortened dental arches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, D B; Heydecke, G; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2009-12-01

    In order to assess the enhanced value of removable partial dentures on the quality of life, patients at 2 university clinics were screened for the presence of complete or shortened dental arches. Those selected were assigned to 1 of 5 subgroups: 1) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, 2) a shortened dental arch with one or more frontal diastemas, 3) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, restored by a removable partial denture, 4) a shortened dental arch and several diastemas, restored by a removable partial denture, 5) a complete dental arch. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical data recorded were: whether any teeth were missing and if so which, whether or not these had been replaced by a removable partial denture, and the number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars. The results revealed that a shortenend dental arch has a certain impact on the quality of life. However, the participants only experienced benefits from a removable partial denture if the denture also replaced frontal teeth.

  6. Crustal balance and crustal flux from shortening estimates in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas; Oncken, Onno; Sobolev, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The Central Andes of South America form the second largest high elevation plateau on earth. Extreme elevations have formed on a noncollisional margin with abundant associated arc magmatism. It has long been thought that the crustal thickness necessary to support Andean topography was not accounted for by known crustal shortening alone. We show that this may in part be due to a two-dimensional treatment of the problem. A three-dimensional analysis of crustal shortening and crustal thickness shows that displacement of material towards the axis of the bend in the Central Andes has added a significant volume of crust not accounted for in previous comparisons. We find that present-day crustal thickness between 12°S and 25°S is accounted for (∼-10% to ∼+3%)with the same shortening estimates, and the same assumed initial crustal thickness as had previously led to the conclusion of a ∼25-35% deficit in shortening relative to volume of crustal material. We suggest that the present-day measured crustal thickness distribution may not match that predicted due to shortening, and substantial redistribution of crust may have occurred by both erosion and deposition at the surface and lower crustal flow in regions of the thermally weakened middle and lower crust.

  7. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain.

  8. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, K; Peiman, K S; Larsen, M H; Aarestrup, K; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher with cortisol-vegetable shortening than with cortisol-cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol-vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol-cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are both viable techniques for cortisol manipulation in fishes in temperate climates, providing researchers with different options depending on study objectives. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Interpregnancy interval as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Ersoy, Gulcin; Giray, Burak; Subas, Seda; Simsek, Ersin; Sakin, Onder; Turhan, Omer Talip; Bulut, Sadullah

    2015-10-01

    Bone mass loss associated with pregnancy and lactation is usually regained in the postpartum period. However, it is not known whether the bone loss is completely recovered in women with a shortened interpregnancy interval (IPI). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of IPI and gynecological history on postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study was conducted among 537 postmenopausal women who were divided into two groups in accordance with the osteoporosis status. Prior to bone densitometry, the patients were questioned about reproductive history. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure lumbar spinal, femur neck and total femoral bone mineral density. Association between IPI and postmenopausal osteoporosis was analyzed. The comparison of both groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding did not reveal a considerable variation (p=0.288). In the osteoporosis group the age and duration of menopause were found to be significantly higher (ppregnancy and IPI were notably lower in comparison to the controls group (posteoporosis (OR: 4.306; 95% CI, 1.684-11.01). This analysis confirmed that the occurrence of first pregnancy under 27 years of age conveyed a higher risk for osteoporosis, as well. Shortened IPI may have a detrimental effect on bone mineral density in postmenopausal age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Galata

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. Keywords: Achondroplasia, dysplastic coxarthrosis, limb shortening, distal femur osteotomy.

  11. L-Carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lan; Li Qinghuan; Tan Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shortens progressively with cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. L-Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblasts. In this work, we studied the effect of carnosine on the telomeric DNA of cultured human fetal lung fibroblast cells. Cells continuously grown in 20 mM carnosine exhibited a slower telomere shortening rate and extended lifespan in population doublings. When kept in a long-term nonproliferating state, they accumulated much less damages in the telomeric DNA when cultured in the presence of carnosine. We suggest that the reduction in telomere shortening rate and damages in telomeric DNA made an important contribution to the life-extension effect of carnosine

  12. Multiple congenital brachymetatarsia. A one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure without iliac bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Baek, G H; Chung, M S; Yoon, P W

    2004-09-01

    We performed nine metatarsal and three proximal phalangeal lengthenings in five patients with congenital brachymetatarsia of the first and one or two other metatarsal bones, by a one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure using intercalcary autogenous bone grafts from adjacent shortened metatarsal bones. Instead of the isolated lengthening of the first and the other metatarsal bones, we shortened the adjacent normal metatarsal and used the excised bone to lengthen the short toes, except for the great toe, to restore the normal parabola. One skin incision was used. All the operations were performed bilaterally and the patients were followed up for a mean period of 69.5 months (29 to 107). They all regained a nearly normal parabola and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Our technique is straightforward and produces good cosmetic results. Satisfactory, bony union is achieved, morbidity is low, and no additional surgery is required for the removal of metal implants.

  13. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staber, Janice M; Pollpeter, Molly J

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated. To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice. We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death. Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  14. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most direct consequences of the collision of two buoyant continents is large-scale crustal thickening that results in the upward and outward growth of high terrain. As the stronger Indian continent has collided with weaker Asia over at least the past 50 Myr, widespread crustal thickening has occurred over an area that is approximately 2.5 million km^2 at present. The resultant Tibetan crust is the thickest observed on Earth today with an average thickness of 65 km and a maximum that may reach 90 km in places. The mechanisms by which Tibetan crust has thickened, however, as well as the timing and distribution of these mechanisms across the plateau, remain debatable. Two of the most popular mechanisms for thickening the crust beneath the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are: 1) pure shear with faulting and folding in the upper crust and horizontal shortening below; and 2) flow and inflation of lower or middle crust without significant shortening of the upper crust. To help discriminate between the relative contributions of these two mechanisms, well-constrained estimates of upper crustal shortening are needed. Here we document the Cenozoic shortening budget across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin near 36°N 102.5°E with several 100- to 145-km-long balanced cross sections. Thermochronological and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that modest NNE-SSW shortening began in middle Eocene time, shortly after initial India-Asia collision. Accelerated east-west shortening, however, did not commence until ~35 Myr later. A five-fold acceleration in shortening rates in middle Miocene-to-Recent time accounts for more than half of the total Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening in this region. Overall, the balanced cross sections indicate 11 ± 2 % east-west shortening since middle Miocene time, and ~9 ± 2 % NNE-SSW shortening between middle Eocene and middle Miocene times. Given the present-day crustal thickness of 56 ± 4 km in northeastern Tibet, crustal

  15. Shortening of primary operators in N-extended $SCFT_{4}$ and harmonic-superspace analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L.; Sokatchev, E.; Zupnik, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present the analysis of all possible shortenings which occur for composite gauge invariant conformal primary superfields in SU(2,2/N) invariant gauge theories. These primaries have top-spin range N/2 \\leq J_{max} < N with J_{max} = J_1 + J_2, (J_1,J_2) being the SL(2,C) quantum numbers of the highest spin component of the superfield. In Harmonic superspace, analytic and chiral superfields give J_{max}= N/2 series while intermediate shortenings correspond to fusion of chiral with analytic in N=2, or analytic with different analytic structures in N=3,4. In the AdS/CFT language shortenings of UIR's correspond to all possible BPS conditions on bulk states. An application of this analysis to multitrace operators, corresponding to multiparticle supergravity states, is spelled out.

  16. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Bebu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT, and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates.

  17. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  18. Femtosecond pulse self-shortening in Kerr media: role of modulational instability in the spectrum formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudtsyn, Ya. V.; Koribut, A. V.; Mikheev, L. D.; Trofimov, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of femtosecond pulse self-shortening in thin optical materials with Kerr nonlinearity is investigated. The experimentally observed spectral-angular distribution of the radiation intensity on the exit surface of a 1-mm-thick fused silica sample is compared with the results of numerical simulation based on solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for an electromagnetic wave with a transverse perturbation on the axis. Qualitative agreement between the calculated and experimental results confirms the hypothesis about the transient regime of multiple filamentation as a mechanism of femtosecond pulse self-shortening.

  19. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  20. Dynamic Properties of QT Intervals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Vondra, Vlastimil; Lipoldová, J.; Leinveber, Pavel; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Kára, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2009), s. 517-520 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/1129; GA MŠk ME09050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : QT Intervals * arrhythmia diagnosis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2009/pdf/0517.pdf

  1. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  2. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more

  3. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  4. Chaotic dynamics from interspike intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Considering two different mathematical models describing chaotic spiking phenomena, namely, an integrate-and-fire and a threshold-crossing model, we discuss the problem of extracting dynamics from interspike intervals (ISIs) and show that the possibilities of computing the largest Lyapunov expone...

  5. Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajman, Anete; Bastos, Mayara Lisboa; Belo, Marcia; Calaça, Janaína; Gaspar, Júlia; Dos Santos, Alexandre Martins; Dos Santos, Camila Martins; Brito, Raquel Trindade; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Vassall, Anna; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2016-01-01

    Shortened treatment regimens for tuberculosis are under development to improve treatment outcomes and reduce costs. We estimated potential savings from a societal perspective in Brazil following the introduction of a hypothetical four-month regimen for tuberculosis treatment. Data were gathered in

  6. Does Shortened Application Time Affect Long-Term Bond Strength of Universal Adhesives to Dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, P; Matsumoto, M; Chowdhury, Afma; Carvalho, R M; Sano, H

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the effect of shortened application time on long-term bond strength with universal adhesives. Three universal adhesives were used: Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) or G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Sixty molars were cut to expose midcoronal dentin and prepared with a regular diamond bur. Each adhesive was applied either according to the manufacturer's instruction or with shortened time. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then cut into resin-dentin sticks. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was tested after either 24 hours or 1 year of water storage. Data were analyzed by the three-way ANOVA and Duncan tests ( α=0.05). Fracture modes were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). One dentin stick per group was selected after fracture mode analysis and further observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Six additional dentin discs were prepared and conditioned with each adhesive under the different application time to observe the adhesive-smear layer interaction by SEM. Shortened application time affected the μTBS ( puniversal adhesives to bur-cut dentin. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised when applied using a shortened application time.

  7. Decayed/missing/filled teeth and shortened dental arches in Tanzanian adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarita, P.T.N.; Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT), presence of occlusal units, and prevalence of shortened dental arches in a Tanzanian adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dental state of samples of the Tanzanian population was studied. Oral examinations were conducted on

  8. Shortened protocol in practical [11C]SA4503-PET studies for sigma1 receptor quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Kimura, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Masatomo; Oda, Keiichi; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Naganawa, Mika; Hashimoto, Kenji; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2008-01-01

    In practical positron emission tomography (PET) diagnosis, a shortened protocol is preferred for patients with brain disorders. In this study, the applicability of a shortened protocol as an alternative to the 90-min PET scan with [ 11 C]SA4503 for quantitative sigma 1 receptor measurement was investigated. Tissue time-activity curves of 288 regions of interest in the brain from 32 [ 11 C]SA4503-PET scans of 16 healthy subjects prior to and following administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluvoxamine or paroxetine) were applied to two algorithms of quantitative analysis; binding potential (BP) was derived from compartmental analysis based on nonlinear estimation, and total distribution volume (tDV) was derived from Logan plot analysis. As a result, although both BP and tDV tended to be underestimated by the shortened method, the estimates from the shortened protocol had good linear relationships with those of the full-length protocol. In conclusion, if approximately 10% differences in the estimated results are acceptable for a specific purpose, then a 60-min measurement protocol is capable of providing reliable results. (author)

  9. [The concentration of growth factors in patients with inherent and acquired shortenings of limbs bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Novikov, K I

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the results of study of level of growth factors in blood serum of patients with inherent and post-traumatic shortenings of limbs' bones. The detection in blood serum the level of epidermal growth factor insulin-like growth factor I and angiopoetins is proposed to monitor in given patients the reparative bone formation.

  10. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale : Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Polackova Solcova, Iva; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Tavel, Peter

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the

  11. Matters which shorten the ozone layer; Substances qui appauvrissent la couche d'ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    This document, proposed by the ministry of the national development and the environment, gives the list of the main texts relative to the matters which shorten the ozone layer and the evolution of the community regulations in this domain. The concerned matters are the Cfc and the HCFC production and use. (A.L.B.)

  12. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  13. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: A Shortened Form and Considerations for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo

    1995-01-01

    Tested a new, shortened scale for measuring willingness to seek help from mental health professionals. Scores correlated with the 29-item scale developed by Fischer and Turner (1970); the new scale's brevity (10 items) should make it easier and less obtrusive for use in research. Discusses the need for further studies on attitudes toward…

  14. Shortened carbon nanotubes and their influence on the electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inam, F.; Reece, M.J.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes of medium length (mCNTs) were aggressively tip-ultrasonicated to produce shortened and damaged carbon nanotubes (xCNTs). High-resolution electron microscopic analysis was performed to measure the dimensions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman

  15. Common Patterns of Congenital Lower Extremity Shortening: Diagnosis, Classification, and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Maria A; Chauvin, Nancy A; Jaramillo, Diego; Davidson, Richard; Horn, B David; Ho-Fung, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Congenital lower limb shortening is a group of relatively rare, heterogeneous disorders. Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) and fibular hemimelia (FH) are the most common pathologic entities in this disease spectrum. PFFD is characterized by variable degrees of shortening or absence of the femoral head, with associated dysplasia of the acetabulum and femoral shaft. FH ranges from mild hypoplasia to complete absence of the fibula with variable shortening of the tibia. The development of the lower limb requires complex and precise gene interactions. Although the etiologies of PFFD and FH remain unknown, there is a strong association between the two disorders. Associated congenital defects in the lower extremity are found in more than 50% of patients with PFFD, ipsilateral FH being the most common. FH also has a strong association with shortening and bowing of the tibia and with foot deformities such as absence of the lateral rays of the foot. Early diagnosis and radiologic classification of these abnormalities are imperative for appropriate management and surgical planning. Plain radiography remains the main diagnostic imaging modality for both PFFD and FH, and appropriate description of the osseous abnormalities seen on radiographs allows accurate classification, prognostic evaluation, and surgical planning. Minor malformations may commonly be misdiagnosed. ©RSNA, 2015.

  16. Interlayer material transport during layer-normal shortening. Part I. The model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, I. van der

    1985-01-01

    To analyse mass-transfer during deformation, the case is considered of a multilayer experiencing a layer-normal shortening that is volume constant on the scale of many layers. Strain rate is homogeneously distributed on the layer-scale if diffusion is absent; when transport of matter between the

  17. Telomere shortening in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a potential mechanism for late graft failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaya, Norihiro; Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Manley, Thomas J; Sanders, Jean E; Mielcarek, Marco; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres serve to maintain the structural integrity of chromosomes, yet each somatic cell division is associated with a decrease in telomere length. The cumulative decrease in telomere length can impose an upper limit for the number of cell divisions that can occur before a cell senesces. When studied in vitro with fibroblasts, this limit is referred to as the Hayflick limit and usually occurs after 40 to 80 cell doublings. In theory, a similar replicative potential in a hematopoietic stem cell could support hematopoiesis in a person for more than 100 years. However, stem cells differentiate, and the telomere length differs among chromosomes within a single cell, among cell types, and among age-matched individuals. This variation in telomere length raises the possibility that long-term hematopoiesis by transplanted stem cells could, depending on the telomere length of the engrafted stem cell and the proliferative demand to which it is subjected, reach a Hayflick limit during the life span of the patient. Although significant shortening of telomeres is reported to occur within the first year posttransplantation, as yet no evidence has indicated that this shortening is associated with marrow function. In this review, we summarize reports on telomere shortening in stem cell transplantation recipients and report 2 cases in which graft failure is associated with significant telomere shortening.

  18. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  19. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maliňáková, K.; Kopčáková, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Hušek, V.; Klůzová Kračmárová, L.; Dubovská, E.; Kalman, M.; Půžová, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 697-705 ISSN 0022-4197 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Shortened SWBS * Adolescents * Spirituality * Religiosity * Psychometric evaluation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2016

  20. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  1. How does ulnar shortening osteotomy influence morphologic changes in the triangular fibrocartilage complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy often is indicated for treatment of injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). However, the effect of ulnar shortening osteotomy on the changes in shape of the TFCC is unclear. In our study, quantitative evaluations were performed using MRI to clarify the effect of ulnar shortening on triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) thickness attributable to disc regeneration of the TFC and TFC angle attributable to the suspension effect of ulnar shortening on the TFC. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare preoperative and postoperative TFC thickness and TFC angle on MR images to quantitatively evaluate the effect of ulnar shortening osteotomy on disc regeneration and the suspension effect on the TFC; and (2) to assess whether changes in TFC thickness and TFC angle correlated with the Mayo wrist score. Between 1995 and 2008, 256 patients underwent ulnar shortening osteotomy for TFCC injuries. The minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 51 months; range, 24-210 months). A total of 79 patients (31%) with complete followup including preoperative and postoperative MR images and the Mayo wrist score was included in this retrospective study. Evaluation of the postoperative MR images and the Mayo wrist score were performed at the final followup. The remaining 177 patients did not undergo postoperative MRI, or they had a previous fracture, large tears of the disc proper, or were lost to followup. Two orthopaedists, one of whom performed the surgeries, measured the TFC thickness and the TFC angle on coronal MR images before and after surgery for each patient. Correlations of the percent change in the TFC thickness and the magnitude of TFC angle change with age, sex, postoperative MR images, extent of ulnar shortening, preoperative ulnar variance, and postoperative Mayo wrist score were assessed. Stepwise regression analysis showed a correlation between the percent change in TFC thickness and preoperative ulnar variance (R2=0.21; β=-0.33; 95

  2. T1 Shortening in the Globus Pallidus after Multiple Administrations of Gadobutrol: Assessment with a Multidynamic Multiecho Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Hwang, Moonjung; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To determine the association between the administration of the macrocyclic contrast medium gadobutrol and T1 relaxation time in the brains of patients with normal renal function by using multidynamic multiecho (MDME) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the need to obtain written informed consent was waived. This study included 46 patients (revealed by an electronic medical record search) who had received one or more gadobutrol injections and a maximum of one MR imaging contrast medium injection other than gadobutrol before MDME sequence acquisition. One radiologist performed quantitative analyses of regions of interest on quantitative T1 maps twice to cover the normal-appearing globus pallidus (GP), frontal white matter, frontal cortex, and thalamus. The number of administrations and the cumulative dose of gadobutrol, age, intervals between administrations, sex, and treatment were investigated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses of the T1 values in four brain regions and the GP-to-thalamus signal intensity (SI) ratio were performed. P values of less than the Bonferroni-corrected value of .01 were considered to indicate significant differences. Results Intraobserver reproducibility was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.62-0.81). Because of high multicollinearity between the number of gadobutrol administrations and accumulated dose (r = 0.96, P .01). Conclusion Multiple exposures to gadobutrol are associated with T1 shortening in the GP. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  3. Statistical intervals a guide for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    Presents a detailed exposition of statistical intervals and emphasizes applications in industry. The discussion differentiates at an elementary level among different kinds of statistical intervals and gives instruction with numerous examples and simple math on how to construct such intervals from sample data. This includes confidence intervals to contain a population percentile, confidence intervals on probability of meeting specified threshold value, and prediction intervals to include observation in a future sample. Also has an appendix containing computer subroutines for nonparametric stati

  4. Development and assessment of a shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Shane W; Lambrinos, Anastasia I; Ferro, Mark A; Sabaz, Mark; Speechley, Kathy N

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a shortened version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). A secondary aim was to compare baseline risk factors predicting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children newly diagnosed with epilepsy, as identified using the original and shortened version. Data came from the Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES, N = 373), a multicenter prospective cohort study. Principal component analysis reduced the number of items from the original QOLCE, and factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the shortened version. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlating the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) with the shortened QOLCE. Multiple regression identified risk factors at diagnosis for HRQoL at 24 months. A four-factor, higher-order, 55-item solution was obtained. A total of 21 items were removed. The final model represents functioning in four dimensions of HRQoL: Cognitive, Emotional, Social, and Physical. The shortened QOLCE demonstrated acceptable fit: Bentler's Comparative Fit Index = 0.944; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.942; root mean square approximation = 0.058 (90% CI: 0.056-0.061); weighted root mean square residuals (WRMR) = 1.582, and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96, subscales α > 0.80). Factor loadings were good (first-order: λ = 0.66-0.93; higher-order λ = 0.66-0.85; p QOLCE scores correlated strongly with similar subscales of the Child Health Questionnaire (ρ = 0.38-0.70) while correlating weakly with dissimilar subscales (ρ = 0.30-0.31). While controlling for HRQoL at diagnosis, predictors for better HRQoL at 24 months were the following: no cognitive problems reported (p = 0.001), better family functioning (p = 0.014), fewer family demands (p = 0.008), with an interaction between baseline HRQoL and cognitive problems (p = 0.011). Results offer initial evidence regarding reliability and validity of the proposed 55-item shortened

  5. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  6. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others

  7. Protein degradation and post-deboning tenderization in broiler breast meat with different degrees of muscle shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboning broiler breast fillets prior to rigor mortis negatively influences tenderness due to sarcomere shortening. The effects of sarcomere shortening on muscle protein degradation and breast meat tenderization during post-deboning aging are not well understood. The objective of this study was to m...

  8. End-systolic stress-velocity relation and circumferential fiber velocity shortening for analysing left ventricular function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayssoil, A. [Cardiologie, Hopital europeen Georges Pompidou, 20, rue le blanc, Paris (France)], E-mail: fayssoil2000@yahoo.fr; Renault, G. [CNRS UMR 8104, Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Fougerousse, F. [Genethon, RD, Evry (France)

    2009-08-15

    Traditionally, analysing left ventricular (LV) performance relies on echocardiography by evaluating shortening fraction (SF) in mice. SF is influenced by load conditions. End-systolic stress-velocity (ESSV) relation and circumferential fiber velocity (VcF) shortening are more relevant parameters for evaluating systolic function regardless load conditions particularly in mice's models of heart failure.

  9. Kinetic therapy reduces complications and shortens hospital stay in patients with cardiogenic shock - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Gregor; Flemming, Kerstin; Ziegs, Enrico; Haacke, Katrin; Rauwolf, Thomas; Strasser, Ruth H

    2007-03-01

    Kinetic therapy (KT) has been shown to reduce complications and to shorten hospital stay in trauma patients. Data in non-surgical patients are inconclusive, and kinetic therapy has not been tested in patients with cardiogenic shock. The present analysis compares KT with standard care in patients with cardiogenic shock. A retrospective analysis of 133 patients with cardiogenic shock admitted to 1 academic heart center was performed. Patients with standard care (SC, turning every 2 h by the staff) were compared with kinetic therapy (KT, using oscillating air-flotation beds). 68 patients with KT were compared with 65 patients with SC. Length of ventilator therapy was 11 days in KT and 18 days in SC (p=0.048). The mortality was comparable in both groups. Pneumonia occurred in 14 patients in KT and 39 patients in SC (ppatients treated with kinetic therapy. The use of KT shortens hospital stay and reduces rates of pneumonia and pressure ulcers as compared to SC.

  10. Mastication in subjects with extremely shortened dental arches rehabilitated with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Tumbay, Jackelyn; Sanchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; Senna, Plinio Mendes; Campanha, Nara Hellen

    2011-01-01

    Mastication was evaluated in subjects presenting extremely shortened dental arches (ESDAs) rehabilitated with mandibular free-end removable partial dentures (RPDs). Subjects were divided into four groups (n = 10): those with a complete dentition, those with ESDAs, and those with ESDAs who were rehabilitated with an RPD, who were evaluated both with and without their prostheses. Mastication was measured through masticatory performance, time, and ability. RPD wearers showed higher masticatory performance (P mastication in ESDA subjects but without achieving normal mastication levels.

  11. Influence of sex on performance fatigability of the plantar flexors following repeated maximal dynamic shortening contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Amelia C; Power, Geoffrey A; Christie, Anita D; Dalton, Brian H

    2017-10-01

    The purpose was to determine sex differences in fatigability during maximal, unconstrained velocity, shortening plantar flexions. The role of time-dependent measures (i.e., rate of torque development, rate of velocity development, and rate of neuromuscular activation) in such sex-related differences was also examined. By task termination, females exhibited smaller reductions in power and similar changes in rate of neuromuscular activation than males, indicating females were less fatigable than males.

  12. Mini-open spinal column shortening for the treatment of adult tethered cord syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Winkler, Ethan A; Chou, Dean

    2017-10-01

    Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a challenging entity characterized by adhesions at the caudal spinal cord that prevent upward movement during growth and result in stretching of the cord with a concomitant constellation of neurologic symptoms. Although growth in height stops in adulthood, some patients still develop progressive symptoms; many underwent detethering as a child or adolescent, resulting in significant scar tissue and re-tethering. Recent strategies have focused on spinal column shortening to reduce tension on the spinal cord without exposing the previous de-tethering site. Mini-open and minimally invasive approaches avoid the large dissection and exposure associated with traditional approaches and are associated with reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and similar outcomes when compared to conventional open approaches. We describe a technique for mini-open spinal column shortening. Using intraoperative navigation pedicle screws were placed at T10, T11, L1, and L2. A mini-open 3-column "egg shell" decancellation osteotomy of T12 was performed through a transpedicular approach with preservation of the superior and inferior endplates. This procedure was performed on a 28year old male with recurrent TCS and neurogenic bladder. Postoperative imaging showed a reduction in spinal column length of 1.5cm and evidence of decreased tension on the spinal cord. At last follow-up he was recovering well with improved urinary function. Spinal column shortening for adult TCS can be safely achieved through a mini-open approach. Future studies should compare the efficacy of this technique to both traditional de-tethering and open spinal column shortening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of Rate-Compatible LDPC Codes Utilizing Information Shortening and Parity Puncturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for constructing rate-compatible low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The construction considers the problem of optimizing a family of rate-compatible degree distributions as well as the placement of bipartite graph edges. A hybrid approach that combines information shortening and parity puncturing is proposed. Local graph conditioning techniques for the suppression of error floors are also included in the construction methodology.

  14. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and moto...... blocks. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study we investigated these findings in patients undergoing unilateral knee arthroscopy....

  15. Chordee and Penile Shortening Rather Than Voiding Function Are Associated With Patient Dissatisfaction After Urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Conrad C; Haines, Trevor; Rourke, Keith F

    2017-05-01

    To identify factors that predict patient satisfaction after urethroplasty by prospectively examining patient-reported quality of life scores using 3 validated instruments. A 3-part prospective survey consisting of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score, and a urethroplasty quality of life survey was completed by patients who underwent urethroplasty preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. The quality of life score included questions on genitourinary pain, urinary tract infection (UTI), postvoid dribbling, chordee, shortening, overall satisfaction, and overall health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis. Patients were enrolled in the study from February 2011 to December 2014, and a total of 94 patients who underwent a total of 102 urethroplasties completed the study. Patients reported statistically significant improvements in IPSS (P Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis revealed significant improvements in pain scores (P = .02), UTI (P 4 cm and the absence of UTI, pain, shortening, and chordee as predictors of patient satisfaction. Multivariate analysis of quality of life domain scores identified absence of shortening and absence of chordee as independent predictors of patient satisfaction following urethroplasty (P < .01). Patient voiding function and quality of life improve significantly following urethroplasty, but improvement in voiding function is not associated with patient satisfaction. Chordee status and perceived penile shortening impact patient satisfaction, and should be included in patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The slack test does not assess maximal shortening velocity of muscle fascicle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Robin; Dorel, Sylvain; Nordez, Antoine; Rabita, Giuseppe; Couturier, Antoine; Hauraix, Hugo; Duchateau, Jacques; Guilhem, Gaël

    2018-06-14

    The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (V F ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared. Gastrocnemius medialis fascicle behaviour was investigated from 25 participants using high-frame rate ultrasound during quick releases performed at various activation levels (from 0% to 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque) and ballistic contractions. Unloaded joint velocity calculated using the slack test method increased whereas V F decreased with muscle activation level (P≤0.03). Passive and low-level quick releases elicited higher V F values (≥ 41.4±9.7 cm.s -1 ) compared to ballistic condition (36.3±8.7 cm.s -1 ), while quick releases applied at 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque produced the lowest V F These findings suggest that initial fascicle length, complex fascicle-tendon interactions, unloading reflex and motor-driven movement pattern strongly influence and limit the shortening velocity achieved during the slack test. Furthermore, V F elicited by quick releases is likely to reflect substantial contributions of passive processes. Therefore, the slack test is not appropriate to assess maximal muscle shortening velocity in vivo. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Operative shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment after TVT failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Michajłowski, Jerzy; Krajka, Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is defined as an involuntary loss of urine during physical exertion, sneezing, coughing, laughing, or other activities that put pressure on the bladder. In some cases, recurrent or persistent SUI after sling operations may be caused by too loose placement of the sling. In the current study, we describe our method of shortening of the sling as a second-line treatment of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) failure. Materials and methods Four women, aged 46-61, after initial TVT operation were treated for persistent SUI. The severity of SUI was estimated by: physical examinations, cough tests, 24-h pad tests, and King's Health Questionnaire. The shortening procedure, based on excising the fragment of tape and suturing it back, was performed in all patients. Results All cases achieved a good result, which was defined as restoration of full continence. No complications occurred. The 12-month follow-up showed no side-effects. The postoperative control tests: the cough and 24-h pad tests were negative in all women. The general health perceptions increased after the shortening procedure by a mean value 44.25%. The incontinence impact decreased by a mean value 44.6%. In all patients, role and physical limitations significantly decreased (by 88.5% and 80.5%, respectively). The negative emotions connected with SUI significantly decreased after the second procedure. Conclusions The operative shortening of the implanted sling is a simple, cheap, and effective method of second-line treatment in cases of TVT failure and may be offered to the majority of patients with insufficient urethral support after the first procedure. PMID:24578885

  18. Life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated neonatally with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of life-shortening and carcinogenesis were investigated in x-irradiated neonatal B6WFr mice. Animals were irradiated with 24 hr after birth and allowed to complete their normal life span. Mean life span was shortened linearly with doses at a rate of 9.1% per 100 R for females and 9.8% for males. The spectrum of neoplastic diseases was apparently modulated by x irradiation, showing neonatal B6WFr mice to be highly susceptible to the induction of thymic lymphoma, liver tumor, and pituitary tumor. The dose-response relationship for thymice lymphoma could be described by a linear-quadratic model, and linearity could be rejected. Thymic lymphoma developed after a short latent period, resulting in death between 100 and 450 days of age. Liver and pituitary tumors increased with increasing dose up to 400 R and decreased thereafter. The latent period for liver tumor development was apparently shortened with increasing doses. Pituitary tumor developed in excess only in females after a long latent period

  19. Telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Y; Hiwatashi, N; Chida, M; Nagashima, F; Takagi, S; Maekawa, H; Toyota, T

    1998-06-01

    Telomere length in human somatic cells gradually decreases with the number of cell divisions and is regarded as a marker of somatic cell turnover. Mucosal cells of the affected colon show rapid turnover in individuals with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Telomere length was determined by Southern blot analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) from the colonic mucosa of 17 patients with UC in remission, two of whom showed dysplasia, and 17 control subjects without colitis. For each individual, mean TRF length was compared between rectal mucosa and unaffected cecal mucosa. The mean TRF length of the rectal mucosa was significantly less than that of cecal mucosa in UC patients (7.87 +/- 0.36kb versus 8.77 +/- 0.21 kb; P = 0.0015, Wilcoxon signed rank test), whereas no significant difference was detected in the control subjects. The extent of telomere shortening was 10.6 +/- 3.35% in UC patients, compared with 0.8 +/- 0.64% in noncolitis controls (P = 0.0024, Mann-Whitney U-test). Four UC patients, two of whom had dysplasia, showed telomere shortening of more than 20% in the rectal mucosa. These observations suggest that telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of individuals with UC may represent the history of mucosal inflammation during disease of long duration, and that it may contribute to aneuploidy in UC.

  20. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  1. Reversibility of Defective Hematopoiesis Caused by Telomere Shortening in Telomerase Knockout Mice.

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    Aparna Raval

    Full Text Available Telomere shortening is common in bone marrow failure syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenita (DC, aplastic anemia (AA and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. However, improved knowledge of the lineage-specific consequences of telomere erosion and restoration of telomere length in hematopoietic progenitors is required to advance therapeutic approaches. We have employed a reversible murine model of telomerase deficiency to compare the dependence of erythroid and myeloid lineage differentiation on telomerase activity. Fifth generation Tert-/- (G5 Tert-/- mice with shortened telomeres have significant anemia, decreased erythroblasts and reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC populations associated with neutrophilia and increased myelopoiesis. Intracellular multiparameter analysis by mass cytometry showed significantly reduced cell proliferation and increased sensitivity to activation of DNA damage checkpoints in erythroid progenitors and in erythroid-biased CD150hi HSC, but not in myeloid progenitors. Strikingly, Cre-inducible reactivation of telomerase activity restored hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC proliferation, normalized the DNA damage response, and improved red cell production and hemoglobin levels. These data establish a direct link between the loss of TERT activity, telomere shortening and defective erythropoiesis and suggest that novel strategies to restore telomerase function may have an important role in the treatment of the resulting anemia.

  2. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  3. Accelerated telomere shortening: Tracking the lasting impact of early institutional care at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-12-30

    Studies examining the association between early adversity and longitudinal changes in telomere length within the same individual are rare, yet are likely to provide novel insight into the subsequent lasting effects of negative early experiences. We sought to examine the association between institutional care history and telomere shortening longitudinally across middle childhood and into adolescence. Buccal DNA was collected 2-4 times, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, in 79 children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal study exploring the impact of early institutional rearing on child health and development. Children with a history of early institutional care (n=50) demonstrated significantly greater telomere shortening across middle childhood and adolescence compared to never institutionalized children (n=29). Among children with a history of institutional care, randomization to high quality foster care was not associated with differential telomere attrition across development. Cross-sectional analysis of children randomized to the care as usual group indicated shorter telomere length was associated with greater percent of the child's life spent in institutional care up to age 8. These results suggest that early adverse care from severe psychosocial deprivation may be embedded at the molecular genetic level through accelerated telomere shortening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Axpe, Inge; Goñi, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The four-dimensional model of physical self-concept which differentiates the physical self-perceptions of ability, condition, attractiveness and strength is widely accepted. In the last two decades much research has been done on the physical self-concept and its relations with the psychological well-being/distress, anxiety disorders or Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD). To validate a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S) and verify its ability to discriminate between people with different levels of EBD. Responses of 1478 subjects between 13 and 21 years old to the shortened version of the PSQ were analyzed in order to check indexes of reliability and validity. Furthermore, the scores of 96 women aged 14 to 23 years old diagnosed of EBD were compared to 96 others without clinical diagnosis. The results indicate a reliability of 0.93 and confirm the tetrafactorial structure of the physical selfconcept. The highest physical self-concept is that of those without a clinical diagnosis of EBD. The Shortened-PSQ is a simple, reliable and suitable screening tool both for educational and clinical settings. It also provides a sufficient measure of physical self-concept for research purposes.

  5. Some Characterizations of Convex Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on new characterizations of convex interval games using the notions of exactness and superadditivity. We also relate big boss interval games with concave interval games and obtain characterizations of big boss interval games in terms of exactness and subadditivity.

  6. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  7. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard D; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more useful alternative to NHST, and their use is strongly encouraged in the APA Manual. Nevertheless, little is known about how researchers interpret CIs. In this study, 120 researchers and 442 students-all in the field of psychology-were asked to assess the truth value of six particular statements involving different interpretations of a CI. Although all six statements were false, both researchers and students endorsed, on average, more than three statements, indicating a gross misunderstanding of CIs. Self-declared experience with statistics was not related to researchers' performance, and, even more surprisingly, researchers hardly outperformed the students, even though the students had not received any education on statistical inference whatsoever. Our findings suggest that many researchers do not know the correct interpretation of a CI. The misunderstandings surrounding p-values and CIs are particularly unfortunate because they constitute the main tools by which psychologists draw conclusions from data.

  8. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  9. Long-axis fractional shortening and mitral annulus motion in dogs

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    Marlos Gonçalves Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular systolic dynamics involves the contraction of transverse and longitudinal myocardial fibers. Unfortunately, only the activity of the transverse myocardial fibers is foreseen by the standard systolic echocardiographic parameters. Although strain and strain rate have been used to assess the radial, circumferential and longitudinal planes of cardiac contraction, such analysis requires advanced equipment which is not always available in veterinary medicine. On the contrary, some unusual parameters may be recorded via standard methodology, allowing for the specific evaluation of left ventricular longitudinal contractility. In this study, the longitudinal contractile activity was evaluated using the long-axis fractional shortening and the mitral annulus motion, which were compared with several standard echocardiographic parameters in 14 beagles, including seven with asymptomatic mitral valve disease. The long-axis fractional shortening was positively correlated with both the mitral annulus motion and the end-diastolic left-ventricular diameter. Also, a significant correlation was found to exist between the mitral annulus motion and the left-ventricular end-diastolic diameter, which is likely supportive of its preload dependency. Even though no difference was documented in either mitral annulus motion or long-axis fractional shortening between healthy dogs and dogs with mitral valve disease, the latter only included animals with minimal cardiac remodeling, with no overt compromise of systolic function. Since it is possible to obtain these two parameters with any echocardiographic equipment, their inclusion in the routine exam would probably add information regarding the activity of the longitudinal myocardial fibers, whose functional deterioration supposedly occurs prior to the impairment of transverse fibers.

  10. Magellanic penguin telomeres do not shorten with age with increased reproductive effort, investment, and basal corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee

    2017-08-01

    All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival. High basal corticosterone is indicative of stressful conditions. Corticosterone, and stress, has been linked to telomere shortening in other species. Magellanic penguins are a particularly good model organism for this question as they are an unusually long-lived species, exceeding their mass-adjusted predicted lifespan by 26%. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found adults aged 5 years to over 24 years of age had similar telomere lengths. Telomeres of adults did not shorten over a 3-year period, regardless of the age of the individual. Neither telomere length, nor the rate at which the telomeres changed over these 3 years, correlated with breeding frequency or investment. Older females also produced larger volume clutches until approximately 15 years old and larger eggs produced heavier fledglings. Furthermore, reproductive success ( chicks fledged/eggs laid ) is maintained as females aged. Basal corticosterone, however, was not correlated with telomere length in adults and suggests that low basal corticosterone may play a role in the telomere maintenance we observed. Basal corticosterone also declined during the breeding season and was positively correlated with the age of adult penguins. This higher basal corticosterone in older individuals, and consistent reproductive success, supports the prediction that Magellanic penguins invest more in reproduction as they age. Our results

  11. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  12. Cost and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment shortening: a model-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G B; Dowdy, D W; Bastos, M L; Zwerling, A; Sweeney, S; Foster, N; Trajman, A; Islam, M A; Kapiga, S; Sinanovic, E; Knight, G M; White, R G; Wells, W A; Cobelens, F G; Vassall, A

    2016-12-01

    Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration. The model was populated using extensive, empirically-collected data to estimate the economic impact on both health systems and patients of regimen shortening for first-line TB treatment in South Africa, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. We explicitly considered 'real world' constraints such as sub-optimal guideline adherence. From a societal perspective, a shortened regimen, priced at USD1 per day, could be a cost-saving option in South Africa, Brazil, and Tanzania, but would not be cost-effective in Bangladesh when compared to one gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Incorporating 'real world' constraints reduces cost-effectiveness. Patient-incurred costs could be reduced in all settings. From a health service perspective, increased drug costs need to be balanced against decreased delivery costs. The new regimen would remain a cost-effective option, when compared to each countries' GDP per capita, even if new drugs cost up to USD7.5 and USD53.8 per day in South Africa and Brazil; this threshold was above USD1 in Tanzania and under USD1 in Bangladesh. Reducing the duration of first-line TB treatment has the potential for substantial economic gains from a patient perspective. The potential economic gains for health services may also be important, but will be context-specific and dependent on the appropriate pricing of any new regimen.

  13. Mid-term clinical outcome of radial shortening for kienbock disease

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    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes of radius shortening as a treatment for Kienbock′s disease. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort, 16 skeletally mature patients (9 men and 7 women with Kienbock disease, who were treated with radial shortening osteotomy between 2002 and 2012, were reviewed in our study. The mean age of our patients was 30 (range 18-43 years old. According to Litchman staging, there were 7 wrists at stage II and 9 wrists at stage III (6 at stage IIIA and 3 at stage IIIB. The data of grip strength, pain (visual analog scale (VAS score, wrist range of motion (ROM, ulnar variance (according to Palmer method, and the Lichtman stage were gathered before and after surgery. We evaluated overall wrist function using the Mayo Wrist score and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH score before surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: The average of follow-up was 7 years (range from 5 to 9 years. Preoperative ulnar variance was -1.3 mm (range from 2.5 to 1 preoperatively. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was 1 mm positive (range from 0.5 to 1.5. The VAS pain score, the mean arc of wrist flexion and extension, and grip strength improved significantly preoperatively compared to after recovery from surgery. The Lichtman stage was unchanged in nine patients, one grade worse in six patients, and one grade better in one patient. The mean DASH and Mayo scores improved significantly postoperatively compare with preoperation. Comparing preoperative positive, neuter, and negative ulnar variance, there was no significant difference in terms of VAS, DASH, and Mayo scores as well as ROM and grip strength. Conclusion: Our study shows that radius shortening surgery improves pain and disability regardless of ulnar variance.

  14. Action Potential Shortening and Impairment of Cardiac Function by Ablation of Slc26a6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Ledford, Hannah A; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Ren, Lu; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong Han; Dai, Gu; Moshref, Maryam; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Chen, Wei Chun; Timofeyeva, Maria Valeryevna; Jian, Zhong; Shimkunas, Rafael; Izu, Leighton T; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Intracellular pH (pH i ) is critical to cardiac excitation and contraction; uncompensated changes in pH i impair cardiac function and trigger arrhythmia. Several ion transporters participate in cardiac pH i regulation. Our previous studies identified several isoforms of a solute carrier Slc26a6 to be highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. We show that Slc26a6 mediates electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities in cardiomyocytes, suggesting the potential role of Slc26a6 in regulation of not only pH i , but also cardiac excitability. To test the mechanistic role of Slc26a6 in the heart, we took advantage of Slc26a6 knockout ( Slc26a6 -/ - ) mice using both in vivo and in vitro analyses. Consistent with our prediction of its electrogenic activities, ablation of Slc26a6 results in action potential shortening. There are reduced Ca 2+ transient and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ load, together with decreased sarcomere shortening in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes. These abnormalities translate into reduced fractional shortening and cardiac contractility at the in vivo level. Additionally, pH i is elevated in Slc26a6 -/ - cardiomyocytes with slower recovery kinetics from intracellular alkalization, consistent with the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange activities of Slc26a6. Moreover, Slc26a6 -/ - mice show evidence of sinus bradycardia and fragmented QRS complex, supporting the critical role of Slc26a6 in cardiac conduction system. Our study provides mechanistic insights into Slc26a6, a unique cardiac electrogenic Cl - /HCO 3 - transporter in ventricular myocytes, linking the critical roles of Slc26a6 in regulation of pH i , excitability, and contractility. pH i is a critical regulator of other membrane and contractile proteins. Future studies are needed to investigate possible changes in these proteins in Slc26a6 -/ - mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. A Comparison of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Alone Versus Combined Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Debridement and Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Background This study compared the results of patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome using an ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) alone with those treated with combined arthroscopic debridement and USO. Methods The results of 27 wrists were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into three groups: group A (USO alone, 10 cases), group B (combined arthroscopic debridement and USO, 9 cases), and group C (arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex [TFCC] debridement alone, 8 cases). The wrist function was evaluated using the modified Mayo wrist score, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score and Chun and Palmer grading system. Results The modified Mayo wrist score in groups A, B, and C was 74.5 ± 8.9, 73.9 ± 11.6, and 61.3 ± 10.2, respectively (p 0.05). Conclusions Both USO alone and combined arthroscopic TFCC debridement with USO improved the wrist function and reduced the level of pain in the patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome. USO alone may be the preferred method of treatment in patients if the torn flap of TFCC is not unstable. PMID:21909465

  16. Life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Duggal, K.; Lombard, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The primary focus of this program is to obtain information on the late effects of whole body exposure to low doses of a high linear-energy-transfer (LET) and a low-LET ionizing radiation in experimental animals to provide guidance for the prediction of radiation hazards to man. The information obtained takes the form of dose-response curves for life shortening and for the induction of numerous specific types of tumors. The animals are irradiated with fission neutrons from the Janus reactor and with 60 Co gamma rays, delivered as single, weekly, or duration-of-life exposures covering the range of doses and dose rates. 6 refs

  17. Lactose tolerance test shortened to 30 minutes: an exploratory study of its feasibility and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Domínguez-Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactose malabsorption (LM is a very common condition with a high prevalence in our setting. Lactose tolerance test (LTT is a basic, affordable test for diagnosis that requires no complex technology. It has been recently shown that this test can be shortened to 3 measurements (baseline, 30 min, 60 min with no impact on final results. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility and benefits of LTT simplification and shortening to 30 min, as well as the financial impact entailed. Material and methods: A multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing LTT for LM suspicion. Patients received 50 g of lactose following a fasting period of 12 h, and had blood collected from a vein at all 3 time points for the measurement of blood glucose (mg/dl. Differences between the shortened and complete test forms were analyzed using McNemar's test. A comparison of blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal results was performed using Student's T-test for independent mean values. Consistency was assessed using the kappa index. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 270 patients (69.6% females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 16 years. LTT was abnormal for 151 patients (55.9%. We observed no statistically significant differences in baseline blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal LTT results (p = 0.13; however, as was to be expected, such differences were obvious for the remaining time points (p < 0.01. Deleting blood glucose measurements at 60 minutes only led to overdiagnose LM (false positive results in 6 patients (2.22 %, with a kappa index of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99 (p < 0.001 versus the complete test. Suppressing measurements at 60 min would have saved at least € 7,726. Conclusion: The shortening of LTT to only 2 measurements (baseline and 30-min hardly leads to any differences in final results, and would entail savings in

  18. Development of advanced concept for shortening construction period of ABWR plant (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the first building fully applying SC structure, which is indispensable for shortening construction period of ABWR plants (21.5 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading), has been started since August 2002 in Japan. Before the construction start, a pre-construction test with some actual size SC panels was carried out to confirm the SC modular construction method. The outline of the design and the construction of the first full-SC building and the results of the pre-construction test are reported. (author)

  19. Using the confidence interval confidently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Avijit

    2017-10-01

    Biomedical research is seldom done with entire populations but rather with samples drawn from a population. Although we work with samples, our goal is to describe and draw inferences regarding the underlying population. It is possible to use a sample statistic and estimates of error in the sample to get a fair idea of the population parameter, not as a single value, but as a range of values. This range is the confidence interval (CI) which is estimated on the basis of a desired confidence level. Calculation of the CI of a sample statistic takes the general form: CI = Point estimate ± Margin of error, where the margin of error is given by the product of a critical value (z) derived from the standard normal curve and the standard error of point estimate. Calculation of the standard error varies depending on whether the sample statistic of interest is a mean, proportion, odds ratio (OR), and so on. The factors affecting the width of the CI include the desired confidence level, the sample size and the variability in the sample. Although the 95% CI is most often used in biomedical research, a CI can be calculated for any level of confidence. A 99% CI will be wider than 95% CI for the same sample. Conflict between clinical importance and statistical significance is an important issue in biomedical research. Clinical importance is best inferred by looking at the effect size, that is how much is the actual change or difference. However, statistical significance in terms of P only suggests whether there is any difference in probability terms. Use of the CI supplements the P value by providing an estimate of actual clinical effect. Of late, clinical trials are being designed specifically as superiority, non-inferiority or equivalence studies. The conclusions from these alternative trial designs are based on CI values rather than the P value from intergroup comparison.

  20. Direct Interval Forecasting of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel approach to directly formulate the prediction intervals of wind power generation based on extreme learning machine and particle swarm optimization, where prediction intervals are generated through direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness...

  1. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.

    1989-08-01

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  2. Optimal Data Interval for Estimating Advertising Response

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard J. Tellis; Philip Hans Franses

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of highly disaggregate data (e.g., at five-second intervals) raises the question of the optimal data interval to estimate advertising carryover. The literature assumes that (1) the optimal data interval is the interpurchase time, (2) too disaggregate data causes a disaggregation bias, and (3) recovery of true parameters requires assumption of the underlying advertising process. In contrast, we show that (1) the optimal data interval is what we call , (2) too disaggregate data do...

  3. Two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasty using a shortened post-operative course of antibiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Paul B

    2009-04-01

    We present a series of 30 consecutive patients with 31 infected total hip arthroplasties treated by a single surgeon over a 4-year period in whom a shortened post-operative course of antimicrobial chemotherapy was used.

  4. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  5. Consistency and refinement for Interval Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delahaye, Benoit; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Interval Markov Chains (IMC), or Markov Chains with probability intervals in the transition matrix, are the base of a classic specification theory for probabilistic systems [18]. The standard semantics of IMCs assigns to a specification the set of all Markov Chains that satisfy its interval...

  6. Multivariate interval-censored survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Interval censoring means that an event time is only known to lie in an interval (L,R], with L the last examination time before the event, and R the first after. In the univariate case, parametric models are easily fitted, whereas for non-parametric models, the mass is placed on some intervals, de...

  7. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  8. Measurement of clavicular length and shortening after a midshaft clavicular fracture: Spatial digitization versus planar roentgen photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2016-08-01

    Clavicular shortening after fracture is deemed prognostic for clinical outcome and is therefore generally assessed on radiographs. It is used for clinical decision making regarding operative or non-operative treatment in the first 2weeks after trauma, although the reliability and accuracy of the measurements are unclear. This study aimed to assess the reliability of roentgen photogrammetry (2D) of clavicular length and shortening, and to compare these with 3D-spatial digitization measurements, obtained with an electromagnetic recording system (Flock of Birds). Thirty-two participants with a consolidated non-operatively treated two or multi-fragmented dislocated midshaft clavicular fracture were analysed. Two observers measured clavicular lengths and absolute and proportional clavicular shortening on radiographs taken before and after fracture consolidation. The clavicular lengths were also measured with spatial digitization. Inter-observer agreement on the radiographic measurements was assessed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Agreement between the radiographic and spatial digitization measurements was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot. The inter-observer agreement on clavicular length, and absolute and proportional shortening on trauma radiographs was almost perfect (ICC>0.90), but moderate for absolute shortening after consolidation (ICC=0.45). The Bland-Altman plot compared measurements of length on AP panorama radiographs with spatial digitization and showed that planar roentgen photogrammetry resulted in up to 37mm longer and 34mm shorter measurements than spatial digitization. Measurements of clavicular length on radiographs are highly reliable between observers, but may not reflect the actual length and shortening of the clavicle when compared to length measurements with spatial digitization. We recommend to use proportional shortening when measuring clavicular length or shortening on radiographs for clinical decision making. Copyright

  9. On the shortening of Indian summer monsoon season in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeerali, C. T.; Ajayamohan, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Assessing the future projections of the length of rainy season (LRS) has paramount societal impact considering its potential to alter the seasonal mean rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. Here, we explored the projections of LRS using both historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5). RCP8.5 simulations project shortening of the LRS of Indian summer monsoon by altering the timing of onset and withdrawal dates. Most CMIP5 RCP8.5 model simulations indicate a faster warming rate over the western tropical Indian Ocean compared to other regions of the Indian Ocean. It is found that the pronounced western Indian Ocean warming and associated increase in convection results in warmer upper troposphere over the Indian Ocean compared to the Indian subcontinent, reducing the meridional gradient in upper tropospheric temperature (UTT) over the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) domain. The weakening of the meridional gradient in UTT induces weakening of easterly vertical wind shear over the ASM domain during first and last phase of monsoon, facilitate delayed (advanced) monsoon onset (withdrawal) dates, ensues the shortening of LRS of the Indian summer monsoon in a warming scenario.

  10. Investigation on shortening fabrication process of instrumented irradiation capsule of JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Inoue, Shuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2013-06-01

    Refurbishment of The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) was completed in FY2010. For damage caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the repair of facilities was completed in October 2012. Currently, the JMTR is in preparation for restart. Irradiation tests for LWRs safety research, science and technologies and production of RI for medical diagnosis medicine, etc. are expected after the JMTR restart. On the other hand, aiming at the attractive irradiation testing reactor, the usability improvement has been discussed. As a part of the usability improvement, shortening of turnaround time to get irradiation results from an application for irradiation use was discussed focusing on the fabrication process of irradiation capsules, where the fabrication process was analyzed and reviewed by referring a trial fabrication of the mockup capsule. As a result, it was found that the turnaround time can be shortened 2 months from fabrication period of 6 months with communize of irradiation capsule parts, application of ready-made instrumentation including the sheath heater, reconsideration of inspection process, etc. (author)

  11. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  12. Shortening of an existing generic online health-related quality of life instrument for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wiseman-Orr, L; Scott, M

    2017-10-11

    Development, initial validation and reliability testing of a shortened version of a web-based questionnaire instrument to measure generic health-related quality of life in companion dogs, to facilitate smartphone and online use. The original 46 items were reduced using expert judgment and factor analysis. Items were removed on the basis of item loadings and communalities on factors identified through factor analysis of responses from owners of healthy and unwell dogs, intrafactor item correlations, readability of items in the UK, USA and Australia and ability of individual items to discriminate between healthy and unwell dogs. Validity was assessed through factor analysis and a field trial using a "known groups" approach. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. The new instrument comprises 22 items, each of which was rated by dog owners using a 7-point Likert scale. Factor analysis revealed a structure with four health-related quality of life domains (energetic/enthusiastic, happy/content, active/comfortable, and calm/relaxed) accounting for 72% of the variability in the data compared with 64% for the original instrument. The field test involving 153 healthy and unwell dogs demonstrated good discriminative properties and high intraclass correlation coefficients. The 22-item shortened form is superior to the original instrument and can be accessed via a mobile phone app. This is likely to increase the acceptability to dog owners as a routine wellness measure in health care packages and as a therapeutic monitoring tool. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. CO2 laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T.

    2012-01-01

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO 2 laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to ∼2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO 2 pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is ∼10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  14. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2=4.196, P=0.041. T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length.

  15. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i

    2017-01-01

    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  16. Telomere shortening is associated to TRF1 and PARP1 overexpression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'Hammed; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Cama, Annamaria; Lanzano, Natalia; Ciranni, Annamaria; Rodolico, Carmelo; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Vita, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Telomere shortening is thought to contribute to premature senescence of satellite cells in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) muscle. Telomeric repeat binding factor-1 (TRF1) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) are proteins known to modulate telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) activity, which controls telomere elongation. Here we show that an age-dependent telomere shortening occurs in DMD muscles and is associated to overexpression of mRNA and protein levels of TRF1 and PARP1. TERT expression and activity are detectable in normal control muscles and they slightly increase in DMD. This is the first demonstration of TRF1 and PARP1 overexpression in DMD muscles. They can be directly involved in replicative senescence of satellite cells and/or in the pathogenetic cascade through a cross-talk with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Modulation of these events by TRF1 or PARP1 inhibition might represent a novel strategy for treatment of DMD and other muscular dystrophies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge, perceptions and clinical application of the shortened dental arch concept among Malaysian government dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Siti Kamilah Mohd; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd

    2018-02-01

    To assess the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian government dentists regarding the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept and its application in clinical practice. The SDA concept refers to a specific type of dentition with intact anterior teeth and a reduction in posterior occlusal pairs. Dentists' knowledge and perceptions of the SDA concept can influence its application in clinical practice. A self-administered questionnaire on the SDA concept was distributed to 326 government dentists in the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were analysed using SPSS version 22 software. The response rate was 84.0%. The majority of respondents had good knowledge on five of six knowledge items and good attitudes towards 10 of 17 perception items. However, only one-fifth (20.4%) reported having applied the SDA concept in the clinic. A larger number of participants who graduated locally than who graduated abroad perceived that patients 5 years of work experience perceived that the SDA concept enables simpler treatment planning (P concept, it is not widely applied in the clinic. Concerted efforts in SDA training of dentists are needed to help to shorten denture waiting lists and reduce costs. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Early telomere shortening and genomic instability in tubo-ovarian preneoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, Gautier; Tchirkov, Andrei; Pierre-Eymard, Eleonore; Dauplat, Jacques; Raoelfils, Ines; Cayre, Anne; Watkin, Emmanuel; Vago, Philippe; Penault-Llorca, Frederique

    2013-06-01

    Genetic instability plays an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We investigated the level of telomere shortening and genomic instability in early and preinvasive stages of ovarian cancer, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), and tubo-ovarian dysplasia (TOD). Fifty-one TOD from prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies with BRCA1 or 2 mutation, 12 STICs, 53 tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, and 36 noncancerous controls were laser capture microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections, analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and for telomere length (using quantitative real-time PCR based on the Cawthon's method). TOD and STICs were defined by morphologic scores and immunohistochemical expressions of p53, Ki67, and γH2AX. TOD showed marked telomere shortening compared with noncancerous controls (P STICs had even shorter telomeres than TOD (P = 0.0008). Ovarian carcinoma had shorter telomeres than controls but longer than STICs and dysplasia. In TOD, telomeres were significantly shorter in those with BRCA1 mutation than in those with BRCA2 mutation (P = 0.005). In addition, γH2AX expression in TOD and STIC groups with short telomeres was significantly increased (P STICs. The total number of genetic alterations was the highest in ovarian cancers. These findings suggest that genetic instability occurs in early stages of ovarian tumorigenesis. STICs and noninvasive dysplasia are likely an important step in early serous ovarian neoplasia. ©2013 AACR

  19. Study of imaging time shortening in Whole Heart MRCA. Evaluation of slice thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Mitsuhiro; Tateishi, Toshiki; Takeda, Soji; Hayashi, Ryuji

    2005-01-01

    A series of examinations in cardiac MR imaging, such as cine, perfusion, MR coronary angiography (MRCA) and viability, is generally known as One Stop Cardiac Examination. It takes about 40 to 60 minutes to perform One Stop Cardiac Examination, and Whole Heart MRCA accounts for most of the examination time. Therefore, we aimed to shorten imaging time of Whole Heart MRCA, especially in a large imaging area such as that in the case of the postoperative evaluation of a bypass graft, by investigating the depiction of a diameter of mimic blood vessels as changing the slice thickness of Whole Heart MRCA. The results showed that the maximum slice thickness of about 1 mm was excellent considering the diameters of actual coronary arteries are about 3 mm. In this study, we could grasp the relationships among slice thickness of Whole Heart MRCA, the diameter of a blood vessel, and shortened examination time. We suggested that it was useful for selecting the suitable sequence depending on a patient's conditions. (author)

  20. Limiting values for the RBE of fission neutrons at low doses for life shortening in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, J.B.; Mitchell, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have analyzed recently published data on the effects of low doses of fission neutrons on the mean survival times of mice. The analysis for single-dose exposures was confined to doses of 20 rad or less, while for fractionated exposures only total doses of 80 rad or less were considered. They fitted the data to the frequently used power function model: life shortening = βD/sup γ/, where D is the radiation dose. They show that, at low doses per fraction, either the effects are not additive or the dose-effect curve for single exposures cannot show a greater negative curvature than about the 0.9 power of dose. Analysis of the data for γ rays showed that an exponent of 1.0 gave an acceptable fit. They conclude that at neutron doses of 20 rad or less the RBE for life shortening is constant and ranges from 13 to 22 depending on mouse strain and sex

  1. Effect of Shortened Heat Treatment on the Hardness and Microstructure of 320.0 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezda J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of Al-Si alloys properties in scope of classic method is connected with change of Si precipitations morphology through: using modification of the alloy, maintaining suitable temperature of overheating and pouring process, as well as perfection of heat treatment methods. Growing requirements of the market make it necessary to search after such procedures, which would quickly deliver positive results with simultaneous consideration of economic aspects. Presented in the paper shortened heat treatment with soaking of the alloy at temperature near temperature of solidus could be assumed as the method in the above mentioned understanding of the problem. Such treatment consists in soaking of the alloy to temperature of solutioning, keeping in such temperature, and next, quick quenching in water (20 °C followed by artificial ageing. Temperature ranges of solutioning and ageing treatments implemented in the adopted testing plan were based on analysis of recorded curves from the ATD method. Obtained results relate to dependencies and spatial diagrams describing effect of parameters of the solutioning and ageing treatments on HB hardness of the investigated alloy and change of its microstructure. Performed shortened heat treatment results in precipitation hardening of the investigated 320.0 alloy, what according to expectations produces increased hardness of the material.

  2. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  3. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M and O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be

  4. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Solcova, Iva Polackova; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P; Tavel, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the SWBS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α) and Mean Inter-Item Correlation (MIIC) values. The factor structure was evaluated using principal component analyses. After adjustment, our new seven-item version of the scale supports a two-factorial model of the SWBS with satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.814, MIIC = 0.379). This version of the SWBS is suitable for measuring spiritual well-being in a secularising environment.

  5. Semi-automated detection of fractional shortening in zebrafish embryo heart videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrat Sara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying cardiac functions in model organisms like embryonic zebrafish is of high importance in small molecule screens for new therapeutic compounds. One relevant cardiac parameter is the fractional shortening (FS. A method for semi-automatic quantification of FS in video recordings of zebrafish embryo hearts is presented. The software provides automated visual information about the end-systolic and end-diastolic stages of the heart by displaying corresponding colored lines into a Motion-mode display. After manually marking the ventricle diameters in frames of end-systolic and end-diastolic stages, the FS is calculated. The software was evaluated by comparing the results of the determination of FS with results obtained from another established method. Correlations of 0.96 < r < 0.99 between the two methods were found indicating that the new software provides comparable results for the determination of the FS.

  6. Radiation-induced life shortening in neonatally thymectomized germ-free mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation in sufficient amounts is carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and results in a reduced life span. Similar consequences follow neonatal thymectomy (nTx) in some strains of rodents. The tumorigenic effects of irradiation appear to be partly mediated via suppression of the thymus-dependent portion of the immune response. Our purpose was to determine whether a similar relationship exists for radiation-induced accelerated aging. Female germ-free Charles River mice had neonatal or sham thymectomies within 24 hours of birth. Half of each group was exposed to 700 rads at 6 weeks of age. When mice with histologically malignant tumors were excluded, the combined life-shortening effects of nTx and irradiation were less pronounced than the sum of the individual effects. This suggests that some of the decreased longevity associated with irradiation may be mediated by T-cell injury

  7. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on single soleus fiber maximal shortening velocity and ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 1 to 3 wks on the shortening velocity of a soleus fiber, its ATPase content, and the relative contents of the slow and fast myosin was investigated by measuring fiber force, V(0), ATPase activity, and myosin content in SDS protein profiles of a single rat soleus fiber suspended between a motor arm and a transducer. It was found that HU induces a progressive increase in fiber V(0) that is likely caused, at least in part, by an increase in the fiber's myofibrillar ATPase activity. The HU-induced increases in V(0) and ATPase were associated with the presence of a greater percentage of fast type IIa fibers. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 wks of HU showed increases in V(0) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers.

  8. Spontaneous delayed migration/shortening of the pipeline embolization device: report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, N; Tjoumakaris, S I; Gonzalez, L F; Hasan, D; Pema, P J; Gould, G; Rosenwasser, R H; Jabbour, P M

    2013-12-01

    Five patients were found to have spontaneous delayed migration/shortening of their Pipeline Embolization Devices on follow-up angiography. The device migrated proximally in 4 patients and distally in 1 patient. One patient had a subarachnoid hemorrhage and died as a result of migration of the Pipeline Embolization Device, and another patient presented with complete MCA occlusion and was left severely disabled. Mismatch in arterial diameter between inflow and outflow vessels was a constant finding. Migration of the Pipeline Embolization Device was managed conservatively, with additional placement of the device, or with parent vessel occlusion. Obtaining complete expansion of the embolization device by using a longer device, increasing vessel coverage, using adjunctive aneurysm coiling, and avoiding dragging and stretching of the device are important preventive measures. Neurointerventionalists should be aware of this potentially fatal complication and take all necessary preventive measures.

  9. Power electron beam front shortening in magnetically insulated transmission line with inner coaxial dielectric insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galstjan, E.A.; Kazanskiy, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    By now the technology of high-power high-current relativistic electron beams with microsecond duration has been developed. The same technology is used in high-power electric pulse generation. However at present the high-power beams of subnanosecond duration are necessary for some investigations and applications. The maximum power parameter achieved by means of the usual technology is limited by a value in the range of 100-300 MW. For this reason a search for new ways to generate high-power REB (relativistic electron beam) is a topical problem. It is obvious that this problem may be reduced to the generation of pulses with a subnanosecond front duration. There are many methods to shorten a pulse duration to its front duration for instance, by using parts of short-circuited transmission lines

  10. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of using a mitt during shortened constraint-induced movement therapy for patients in the subacute phase after stroke. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four patients with stroke (mean age 57.6 (standard deviation (SD) 8.5) years; average 7 weeks post-stroke) with mild to moderate......, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...... Scale, the Sollerman hand function test, the 2-Point Discrimination test and Motor Activity Log test. RESULTS: Patients in both groups showed significant improvements in arm and hand motor performance and on self-reported motor ability after 2 weeks of therapy and at 3 months follow-up. However...

  11. Correct Bayesian and frequentist intervals are similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper argues that Bayesians and frequentists will normally reach numerically similar conclusions, when dealing with vague data or sparse data. It is shown that both statistical methodologies can deal reasonably with vague data. With sparse data, in many important practical cases Bayesian interval estimates and frequentist confidence intervals are approximately equal, although with discrete data the frequentist intervals are somewhat longer. This is not to say that the two methodologies are equally easy to use: The construction of a frequentist confidence interval may require new theoretical development. Bayesians methods typically require numerical integration, perhaps over many variables. Also, Bayesian can easily fall into the trap of over-optimism about their amount of prior knowledge. But in cases where both intervals are found correctly, the two intervals are usually not very different. (orig.)

  12. Intravenous glutamine does not modify leucocyte count but shortens duration of mucositis after bone marrow transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Andrade Hernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Intravenous administration of Glutamine dipeptides (Gln has been proposed as treatment of oral mucositis following a bone marrow transplant (BMT. Objective: To establish the effects of intravenous Gln supplementation upon the severity of oral mucositis after BMT. Study design: Retrospective, analytical. Study serie: Records from 25 patients (Males: 56.0%; BMT cause: Leukemia: 64.0% who developed oral mucositis (Grades III – IV: 48.0% after BMT (Autologous: 44.0% at the "Juan Tanca Marengo" Hospital (Guayaquil, Ecuador between 2009 – 2017. Glutamine source: Dipeptiven©®: 13 grams of Gln suspended in 100 milliliters of a 20% solution of the alanine-glutamine dipeptide (Fresenius-Kabi©®, Germany. Materials and Methods: Gln-treated patients received 3(4.0% of the treatment leg, 5 (20.0%; 6 (12.0%; 7 (48.0%; or 10 (16.0% doses of the dipeptide until resolution of the symptoms. Impact of Gln was estimated from changes observed in the severity and duration of mucositis, white blood cell counts, and body weight regarding 25 non-Gln treated patients (Males: 68.0%; Leukemias: 32.0%; Autologous graft: 68.0%; Grade III – IV mucositis: 48.0%. Results: Intravenously-administered Gln shortened duration of oral mucositis: Gln-Treated: 12.5 ± 5.1 days vs. Non-Gln Treated: 21.3 ± 17.8 days (p < 0.05. Also, intravenous Gln marginally ameliorated loss of body weight: Gln-Treated -4.5 ± 5.5% vs. Non-Gln Treated: -7.5 ± 5.7% (p = 0.07. Conclusions: Intravenous Gln administration shortens duration of oral mucositis following BMT. Gln effect might be translated to a lesser weight loss in patients with oral mucositis.

  13. Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Drusano

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem, particularly with the advent of multi-drug resistance. Shortening therapy duration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major goal, requiring generation of optimal kill rate and resistance-suppression. Combination therapy is required to attain the goal of shorter therapy.Our objective was to identify a method for identifying optimal combination chemotherapy. We developed a mathematical model for attaining this end. This is accomplished by identifying drug effect interaction (synergy, additivity, antagonism for susceptible organisms and subpopulations resistant to each drug in the combination.We studied the combination of linezolid plus rifampin in our hollow fiber infection model. We generated a fully parametric drug effect interaction mathematical model. The results were subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to extend the findings to a population of patients by accounting for between-patient variability in drug pharmacokinetics.All monotherapy allowed emergence of resistance over the first two weeks of the experiment. In combination, the interaction was additive for each population (susceptible and resistant. For a 600 mg/600 mg daily regimen of linezolid plus rifampin, we demonstrated that >50% of simulated subjects had eradicated the susceptible population by day 27 with the remaining organisms resistant to one or the other drug. Only 4% of patients had complete organism eradication by experiment end.These data strongly suggest that in order to achieve the goal of shortening therapy, the original regimen may need to be changed at one month to a regimen of two completely new agents with resistance mechanisms independent of the initial regimen. This hypothesis which arose from the analysis is immediately testable in a clinical trial.

  14. Anesthetic Sevoflurane Causes Rho-Dependent Filopodial Shortening in Mouse Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Zimering

    Full Text Available Early postnatal anesthesia causes long-lasting learning and memory impairment in rodents, however, evidence for a specific neurotoxic effect on early synaptogenesis has not been demonstrated. Drebrin A is an actin binding protein whose localization in dendritic protrusions serves an important role in dendritic spine morphogenesis, and is a marker for early synaptogenesis. We therefore set out to investigate whether clinically-relevant concentrations of anesthetic sevoflurane, widely- used in infants and children, alters dendritic morphology in cultured fetal day 16 mouse hippocampal neurons. After 7 days in vitro, mouse hippocampal neurons were exposed to four hours of 3% sevoflurane in 95% air/5% CO2 or control condition (95% air/5% CO2. Neurons were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and stained with Alexa Fluor555-Phalloidin, and/or rabbit anti-mouse drebrin A/E antibodies which permitted subcellular localization of filamentous (F-actin and/or drebrin immunoreactivity, respectively. Sevoflurane caused acute significant length-shortening in filopodia and thin dendritic spines in days-in-vitro 7 neurons, an effect which was completely rescued by co-incubating neurons with ten micromolar concentrations of the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Filopodia and thin spine recovered in length two days after sevoflurane exposure. Yet cluster-type filopodia (a precursor to synaptic filopodia were persistently significantly decreased in number on day-in-vitro 9, in part owing to preferential localization of drebrin immunoreactivity to dendritic shafts versus filopodial stalks. These data suggest that sevoflurane induces F-actin depolymerization leading to acute, reversible length-shortening in dendritic protrusions through a mechanism involving (in part activation of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and impairs localization of drebrin A to filopodia required for early excitatory synapse formation.

  15. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollace Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  16. A structural and kinetic study on myofibrils prevented from shortening by chemical cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, C; Sleep, J; Chaussepied, P; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1993-07-20

    In previous work, we studied the early steps of the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils [Houadjeto, M., Travers, F., & Barman, T. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1564-1569]. The myofibrils were free to contract, and the results obtained refer to the ATPase cycle of myofibrils contracting with no external load. Here we studied the ATPase of myofibrils contracting isometrically. To prevent shortening, we cross-linked them with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the myosin rods were extensively cross-linked and that 8% of the myosin heads were cross-linked to the thin filament. The transient kinetics of the cross-linked myofibrils were studied in 0.1 M potassium acetate, pH 7.4 and 4 degrees C, by the rapid-flow quench method. The ATP binding steps were studied by the cold ATP chase and the cleavage and release of products steps by the Pi burst method. In Pi burst experiments, the sizes of the bursts were equal within experimental error to the ATPase site concentrations (as determined by the cold ATP chase methods) for both cross-linked (isometric) and un-cross-linked (isotonic) myofibrils. This shows that in both cases the rate-limiting step is after the cleavage of ATP. When cross-linked, the kcat of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils was reduced from 1.7 to 0.8 s-1. This is consistent with the observation that fibers shortening at moderate velocity have a higher ATPase activity than isometric fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  18. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  19. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  20. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  1. Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2002-01-01

    of a direction of an interval, and present a sound and complete Hilbert proof system for it. Because of its generality, SIL can conveniently act as a general formalism in which other interval logics can be encoded. We develop proof theory for SIL including both a sequent calculus system and a labelled natural...

  2. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  3. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  4. Confidence Interval Approximation For Treatment Variance In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a random effects model with a single factor, variation is partitioned into two as residual error variance and treatment variance. While a confidence interval can be imposed on the residual error variance, it is not possible to construct an exact confidence interval for the treatment variance. This is because the treatment ...

  5. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  6. Expressing Intervals in Automated Service Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; van Splunter, Sander; Brazier, Frances M. T.

    During automated negotiation of services between autonomous agents, utility functions are used to evaluate the terms of negotiation. These terms often include intervals of values which are prone to misinterpretation. It is often unclear if an interval embodies a continuum of real numbers or a subset of natural numbers. Furthermore, it is often unclear if an agent is expected to choose only one value, multiple values, a sub-interval or even multiple sub-intervals. Additional semantics are needed to clarify these issues. Normally, these semantics are stored in a domain ontology. However, ontologies are typically domain specific and static in nature. For dynamic environments, in which autonomous agents negotiate resources whose attributes and relationships change rapidly, semantics should be made explicit in the service negotiation. This paper identifies issues that are prone to misinterpretation and proposes a notation for expressing intervals. This notation is illustrated using an example in WS-Agreement.

  7. Matrix effects on the crystallization behaviour of butter and roll-in shortening in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-06-01

    Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own. Both hydrogenated roll-in shortenings and butter experienced only minor changes, largely retaining their β' polymorphs, but the non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant conversion from β' to the β form. However, this conversion did not take place immediately upon cooling, but after approximately 24h of storage time. The fat contained within the croissants exhibited a significantly lower SFC than the same fats in bulk. Further, DSC results demonstrated that a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat in a croissant than the same fat in bulk, observed visually as broader peaks in the melting endotherms. Analysis of croissant firmness over storage time, measured as the maximum force required to cut a croissant was used as an indication of potential sensory consequences. Results suggested that only croissants prepared with non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant changes in firmness over one week of storage. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the shortenings and the ingredients of the croissant matrix, and given the differences observed between roll-in fats used, the extent of interaction is potentially influenced by the composition of the roll-in fat itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical efficacy comparison of flabby skin excision combined orbicularis oculi muscle shortening surgery in patients with senile entropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Liang Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening and orbicularis muscle shortening in the treatment of elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion, and provide the reference for the clinical treatment.METHODS: Eighty-two(126 eyesclinical diagnosis's elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion were collected from our department, then randomly divided into excised relaxing skin and orbicularis oculi muscle shortening treatment group and the orbicularis muscle shortening treatment group.The general data of the two groups, long term curative effect and short-term curative effect were compared. RESULTS: The age, sex, proportion of patients with the first time operation, course of disease were no statistical significance between the observation group and the control group(P>0.05. The short-term effective rate of the observation group was 95.2%, while the short-term effective rate of the control group was 77.8%, the short-term efficiency differences between the two groups was statistical significance(χ2=4.100, P=0.043. The long-term cure rate of the observation group was 82.5%(34 cases, 52 eyes, recurrence rate was 17.5%(7 cases, 11 eyes, while the cure rate of the control group was 60.3%(25 cases, 38 eyes, recurrence rate was 39.7%(16 cases, 25 eyes, the difference of long term cure rate was statistical significance between the two groups(PCONCLUSION: The clinical curative effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening in the treatment of senile inferior entropion is better than orbicularis muscle shortening operation, recommending application in the clinical.

  9. Reviewing interval cancers: Time well spent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower-Thomas, Kate; Fielder, Hilary M.P.; Branston, Lucy; Greening, Sarah; Beer, Helen; Rogers, Cerilan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To categorize interval cancers, and thus identify false-negatives, following prevalent and incident screens in the Welsh breast screening programme. SETTING: Breast Test Wales (BTW) Llandudno, Cardiff and Swansea breast screening units. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty interval breast cancers identified following negative mammographic screening between 1989 and 1997 were reviewed by eight screening radiologists. The blind review was achieved by mixing the screening films of women who subsequently developed an interval cancer with screen negative films of women who did not develop cancer, in a ratio of 4:1. Another radiologist used patients' symptomatic films to record a reference against which the reviewers' reports of the screening films were compared. Interval cancers were categorized as 'true', 'occult', 'false-negative' or 'unclassified' interval cancers or interval cancers with minimal signs, based on the National Health Service breast screening programme (NHSBSP) guidelines. RESULTS: Of the classifiable interval films, 32% were false-negatives, 55% were true intervals and 12% occult. The proportion of false-negatives following incident screens was half that following prevalent screens (P = 0.004). Forty percent of the seed films were recalled by the panel. CONCLUSIONS: Low false-negative interval cancer rates following incident screens (18%) versus prevalent screens (36%) suggest that lower cancer detection rates at incident screens may have resulted from fewer cancers than expected being present, rather than from a failure to detect tumours. The panel method for categorizing interval cancers has significant flaws as the results vary markedly with different protocol and is no more accurate than other, quicker and more timely methods. Gower-Thomas, K. et al. (2002)

  10. Effects of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration and myoplasmic [Ca2+] in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, R; Claflin, D R; Julian, F J

    1998-01-01

    The effect of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration (dF/dtR) was examined in single, intact frog (Rana temporaria) skeletal muscle fibres (3·0 °C). Step releases leading to unloaded shortening were applied after 500 ms of stimulation, during the plateau of an isometric tetanus. Initial mean sarcomere length ranged from 2·05 to 2·35 μm; force regeneration after shortening was at 2·00 μm.Values for dF/dtR following a 25 nm half-sarcomere−1 release were 3·17 ± 0·17 (mean ± s.e.m., n= 8) times greater than the initial rate of rise of force before release (dF/dtI). As release size was increased from 25 to 175 nm half-sarcomere−1, the relationship between release size and dF/dtR decreased sharply before attaining a plateau value that was 1·34 ± 0·09 times greater than dF/dtI. Despite wide variations in dF/dtR, the velocity of unloaded shortening remained constant (2·92 ± 0·08 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1; n= 8) for the different release amplitudes used in this study.To investigate its role in the attenuation of dF/dtR with increased shortening, the effects of rapid ramp (constant velocity) shortening on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were monitored using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye furaptra. Compared with an isometric contraction, rapid fibre shortening was associated with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i while force regeneration after shortening was associated with a transient reduction in [Ca2+]i. The greatest reductions in [Ca2+]i were associated with the largest amplitude ramps.Cross-bridge-mediated modifications of the Ca2+ affinity of troponin C (TnC) may explain the fluctuations in [Ca2+]i observed during and after ramps. Associated fluctuations in TnC Ca2+ occupancy could play a role in the reduction of dF/dtR with increasing release size. PMID:9679172

  11. 3D T2-weighted imaging to shorten multiparametric prostate MRI protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanec, Stephan H; Lazar, Mathias; Wengert, Georg J; Bickel, Hubert; Spick, Claudio; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh; Clauser, Paola; Baltzer, Pascal A T

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether 3D acquisitions provide equivalent image quality, lesion delineation quality and PI-RADS v2 performance compared to 2D acquisitions in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 T. This IRB-approved, prospective study included 150 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7 years, 35-84 years; mean PSA 7.2 ng/ml, 0.4-31.1 ng/ml). Two uroradiologists (R1, R2) independently rated image quality and lesion delineation quality using a five-point ordinal scale and assigned a PI-RADS score for 2D and 3D T2-weighted image data sets. Data were compared using visual grading characteristics (VGC) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC)/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Image quality was similarly good to excellent for 2D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.81; R2, 4.7 ± 0.83) and 3D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.82; R2, 4.7 ± 0.69), p = 0.269. Lesion delineation was rated good to excellent for 2D (mean score R1, 4.16 ± 0.81; R2, 4.19 ± 0.92) and 3D T2w (R1, 4.19 ± 0.94; R2, 4.27 ± 0.94) without significant differences (p = 0.785). ROC analysis showed an equivalent performance for 2D (AUC 0.580-0.623) and 3D (AUC 0.576-0.629) T2w (p > 0.05, respectively). Three-dimensional acquisitions demonstrated equivalent image and lesion delineation quality, and PI-RADS v2 performance, compared to 2D in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate. Three-dimensional T2-weighted imaging could be used to considerably shorten prostate MRI protocols in clinical practice. • 3D shows equivalent image quality and lesion delineation compared to 2D T2w. • 3D T2w and 2D T2w image acquisition demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance. • Using a single 3D T2w acquisition may shorten the protocol by 40%. • Combined with short DCE, multiparametric protocols of 10 min are feasible.

  12. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  13. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  14. Generalized production planning problem under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. Abass

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in many real life engineering and economical problems suffer from inexactness. Herein we assume that we are given some intervals in which the data can simultaneously and independently perturb. We consider the generalized production planning problem with interval data. The interval data are in both of the objective function and constraints. The existing results concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of basic notions in parametric production planning problem. These notions are the set of feasible parameters, the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind.

  15. Reconstruction of dynamical systems from interspike intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.

    1994-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction from interspike interval (ISI) data is described, in rough analogy with Taken's theorem for attractor reconstruction from time series. Assuming a generic integrate-and-fire model coupling the dynamical system to the spike train, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the system states and interspike interval vectors of sufficiently large dimension. The correspondence has an important implication: interspike intervals can be forecast from past history. We show that deterministically driven ISI series can be distinguished from stochastically driven ISI series on the basis of prediction error

  16. A signal combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Hasna, Mazen Omar

    2010-01-01

    The cooperative relaying process needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems, e.g. wireless sensor networks where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination can capture the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  17. Palliative Sedation in Advanced Cancer Patients: Does it Shorten Survival Time? - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, B; Chandra, Prabha S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST) was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  18. A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-02-01

    The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  20. A Phenomenological Model and Validation of Shortening Induced Force Depression during Muscle Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C.P.; Neptune, R.R.; Herzog, W.

    2009-01-01

    History dependent effects on muscle force development following active changes in length have been measured in a number of experimental studies. However, few muscle models have included these properties or examined their impact on force and power output in dynamic cyclic movements. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a modified Hill-type muscle model that includes shortening induced force depression and assess its influence on locomotor performance. The magnitude of force depression was defined by empirical relationships based on muscle mechanical work. To validate the model, simulations incorporating force depression were developed to emulate single muscle in situ and whole muscle group leg extension experiments. There was excellent agreement between simulation and experimental values, with in situ force patterns closely matching the experimental data (average RMS error pedaling with and without force depression were generated. Force depression decreased maximum crank power by 20% – 40%, depending on the relationship between force depression and muscle work used. These results indicate that force depression has the potential to substantially influence muscle power output in dynamic cyclic movements. However, to fully understand the impact of this phenomenon on human movement, more research is needed to characterize the relationship between force depression and mechanical work in large muscles with different morphologies. PMID:19879585

  1. Fatigue and muscle-tendon stiffness after stretch-shortening cycle and isometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hechmi; Poumarat, Georges; Best, Thomas M; Martin, Alain; Fairclough, John; Benjamin, Mike

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare vertical jump performance after 2 different fatigue protocols. In the first protocol, subjects performed consecutive sets of 10 repetitions of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) contractions. In the second protocol, successive sets of 10 repetitions of isometric contractions were performed for 10 s with the knee at 90 degrees of flexion. The exercises were stopped when the subjects failed to reach 50% of their maximum voluntary isometric contractions. Maximal isometric force and maximal concentric power were assessed by performing supine leg presses, squat jumps, and drop jumps. Surface EMG was used to determine changes in muscle activation before and after fatigue. In both groups, the fatigue exercises reduced voluntary isometric force, maximal concentric power, and drop jump performance. Kinematic data showed a decrease in knee muscle-tendon stiffness accompanied by a lengthened ground contact time. EMG analysis showed that the squat and drop jumps were performed similarly before and after the fatigue exercise for both groups. Although it was expected that the stiffness would decrease more after SSC than after isometric fatigue (as a result of a greater alteration of the reflex sensitivity SSC), our results showed that both protocols had a similar effect on knee muscle stiffness during jumping exercises. Both fatigue protocols induced muscle fatigue, and the decrease in jump performance was linked to a decrease in the strength and stiffness of the knee extensor muscles.

  2. Increased Rate of NAD Metabolism Shortens Plant Longevity by Accelerating Developmental Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Itami, Taketo; Takahara, Kentaro; Hirabayashi, Takayuki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2016-11-01

    NAD is a well-known co-enzyme that mediates hundreds of redox reactions and is the basis of various processes regulating cell responses to different environmental and developmental cues. The regulatory mechanism that determines the amount of cellular NAD and the rate of NAD metabolism remains unclear. We created Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the NAD synthase (NADS) gene that participates in the final step of NAD biosynthesis. NADS overexpression enhanced the activity of NAD biosynthesis but not the amounts of NAD + , NADH, NADP + or NADPH. However, the amounts of some intermediates were elevated, suggesting that NAD metabolism increased. The NAD redox state was greatly facilitated by an imbalance between NAD generation and degradation in response to bolting. Metabolite profiling and transcriptional analysis revealed that the drastic modulation of NAD redox homeostasis increased tricarboxylic acid flux, causing the ectopic generation of reactive oxygen species. Vascular bundles suffered from oxidative stress, leading to a malfunction in amino acid and organic acid transportation that caused early wilting of the flower stalk and shortened plant longevity, probably due to malnutrition. We concluded that the mechanism regulating the balance between NAD synthesis and degradation is important in the systemic plant response to developmental cues during the growth-phase transition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  4. A signal combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2010-06-01

    The cooperative relaying process needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems, e.g. wireless sensor networks where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination can capture the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  5. Psychometric analysis in support of shortening the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Despite recent emphasis on the measurement and treatment of negative symptoms, studies of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) identify different symptom clusters, offer mixed support for its psychometric properties and suggest that it is shortened. The current study objective is to examine the psychometric properties of the SANS and the feasibility of a short research version of the SANS. Data were re-analyzed from three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60 days. Participants had chronic schizophrenia and predominantly negative symptoms (n=487). Baseline data were examined with exploratory factor analysis and Item Response Theory (IRT) to identify a short SANS. The short and original SANS were compared: with confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; and on symptom response with mixed modeling to compare. Results showed that at baseline the SANS consisted of three factors labeled Affective-flattening, Asociality and Alogia-inattentiveness. IRT suggested a short SANS with 11 items and 3 response options. Comparisons of the original and short SANS showed: the short version was a better fit to the data based on confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; similar significant (pnegative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia in research settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory acidosis prolongs, while alkalosis shortens, the duration and recovery time of vecuronium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2002-03-01

    To determine the effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis by mechanical ventilation on the onset, duration, and recovery times of vecuronium. Randomized, prospective study. Operating rooms in the Sapporo Medical University Hospital and Kitami Red Cross Hospital. 90 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups by arterial carbon dioxide tension level (PaCO2; mmHg) after induction: hyperventilation group (PaCO2 = 25-35), normoventilation group (PaCO2 = 35-45), and hypoventilation group (PaCO2 = 45-55). Anesthesia was maintained by spinal block with inhalation of 50% to 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and intermittent intravenous administration of fentanyl and midazolam with tracheal intubation. After vecuronium 0.08 mg/kg was given, onset, duration, and recovery time were measured by mechanomyography (Biometer Myograph 2,000, Odense, Denmark). There were significant differences in the duration and recovery time of vecuronium among the normoventilation group (12.7 +/- 3.3 min and 11.8 +/- 2.8 min, respectively), the hyperventilation group (10.6 +/- 3.5 min and 9.2 +/- 2.7 min, respectively; p respiratory acidosis and shortened in respiratory alkalosis.

  7. Measurement characteristics of the childhood Asthma-Control Test and a shortened, child-only version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bime, Christian; Gerald, Joe K; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, William G; Wise, Robert A; Gerald, Lynn B

    2016-10-20

    The childhood Asthma-Control Test (C-ACT) is validated for assessing asthma control in paediatric asthma. Among children aged 4-11 years, the C-ACT requires the simultaneous presence of both parent and child. There is an unmet need for a tool that can be used to assess asthma control in children when parents or caregivers are not present such as in the school setting. We assessed the psychometric properties and estimated the minimally important difference (MID) of the C-ACT and a modified version, comprising only the child responses (C-ACTc). Asthma patients aged 6-11 years (n=161) from a previously completed multicenter randomised trial were included. Demographic information, spirometry and questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Participants or their guardians kept a daily asthma diary. Internal consistency reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.76 and 0.67 (Cronbach's α), respectively. Test-retest reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.72 and 0.66 (intra-class correlation), respectively. Significant correlations were noted between C-ACT scores and ACQ scores (Spearman's correlation r=-0.56, 95% CI (-0.66, -0.44), Pasthma patients aged 6-11 years, the C-ACT had good psychometric properties. The psychometric properties of a shortened child-only version (C-ACTc), although acceptable, are not as strong.

  8. Palliative sedation in advanced cancer patients: Does it shorten survival time? - A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. Objectives: This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Results: Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. Conclusion: This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  9. Shortened cortical silent period in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: evidence for widespread cortical excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samargia, Sharyl; Schmidt, Rebekah; Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical inhibition in the hand region of the primary motor cortex between subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD), adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD), and healthy controls. Data from 28 subjects were analyzed (FHD n=11, 53.25 ± 8.74 y; AdSD: n=8, 56.38 ± 7.5 y; and healthy controls: n=941.67 ± 10.85 y). All subjects received single pulse TMS to the left motor cortex to measure cortical silent period (CSP) in the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle. Duration of the CSP was measured and compared across groups. A one-way ANCOVA with age as a covariate revealed a significant group effect (p<0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed significantly longer CSP duration in the healthy group vs. AdSD group (p<0.001) and FHD group (p<0.001). These results suggest impaired intracortical inhibition is a neurophysiologic characteristic of FHD and AdSD. In addition, the shortened CSP in AdSD provides evidence to support a widespread decrease in cortical inhibition in areas of the motor cortex that represent an asymptomatic region of the body. These findings may inform future investigations of differential diagnosis as well as alternative treatments for focal dystonias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A systematic review of prosthetic restoration in patients with shortened dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fueki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature regarding the effect of prosthetic restoration in patients having distal extension edentulous space in posterior area (shortened dental arch: SDA is reviewed in the following article. Information retrieval followed a systematic approach using PubMed. Articles in English published between 1966 and March 2011 describing the outcome of treatment with various prostheses were evaluated. From the search results of 98 articles, 21 articles met the inclusion criteria. Treatment with removable partial dentures (RPDs improved masticatory function, patient satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. However, no significant difference was found in the outcomes between patients with RPDs and with cantilever fixed partial dentures (CFPDs. Caries developed more frequently after treatment with RPDs than CFPDs. The time to survival for CFPDs was not longer than that for RPDs, while more visits to maintain RPDs were required than for CFPDs. No significant difference was found in masticatory function, OHRQoL, and occlusal stability between patients with RPDs and those without restoration of missing molars. Consequently, treatment with RPDs for SDA seems to be less advantageous than CFPDs or no restoration for missing molars. Further research is required to validate treatment with implant-supported fixed partial dentures for SDA.

  11. Exome sequencing links mutations in PARN and RTEL1 with familial pulmonary fibrosis and telomere shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bridget D; Choi, Jungmin; Zaidi, Samir; Xing, Chao; Holohan, Brody; Chen, Rui; Choi, Mihwa; Dharwadkar, Pooja; Torres, Fernando; Girod, Carlos E; Weissler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, John; Kershaw, Corey; Klesney-Tait, Julia; Mageto, Yolanda; Shay, Jerry W; Ji, Weizhen; Bilguvar, Kaya; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Garcia, Christine Kim

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related disease featuring progressive lung scarring. To elucidate the molecular basis of IPF, we performed exome sequencing of familial kindreds with pulmonary fibrosis. Gene burden analysis comparing 78 European cases and 2,816 controls implicated PARN, an exoribonuclease with no previous connection to telomere biology or disease, with five new heterozygous damaging mutations in unrelated cases and none in controls (P = 1.3 × 10(-8)); mutations were shared by all affected relatives (odds in favor of linkage = 4,096:1). RTEL1, an established locus for dyskeratosis congenita, harbored significantly more new damaging and missense variants at conserved residues in cases than in controls (P = 1.6 × 10(-6)). PARN and RTEL1 mutation carriers had shortened leukocyte telomere lengths, and we observed epigenetic inheritance of short telomeres in family members. Together, these genes explain ~7% of familial pulmonary fibrosis and strengthen the link between lung fibrosis and telomere dysfunction.

  12. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  13. Socioeconomic position and the primary care interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Anders

    2018-01-01

    to the easiness to interpret the symptoms of the underlying cancer. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study using survey data on time intervals linked at an individually level to routine collected data on demographics from Danish registries. Using logistic regression we estimated the odds......Introduction. Diagnostic delays affect cancer survival negatively. Thus, the time interval from symptomatic presentation to a GP until referral to secondary care (i.e. primary care interval (PCI)), should be as short as possible. Lower socioeconomic position seems associated with poorer cancer...... younger than 45 years of age and older than 54 years of age had longer primary care interval than patients aged ‘45-54’ years. No other associations for SEP characteristics were observed. The findings may imply that GPs are referring patients regardless of SEP, although some room for improvement prevails...

  14. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  15. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, M.; Willekens, F.J.C.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  16. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Lianne S.; Bultmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers

  17. 3’UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Yonit; Bublik, Debora Rosa; P. Ugalde, Alejandro; Elkon, Ran; Biniashvili, Tammy; Agami, Reuven; Oren, Moshe; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2016-01-01

    Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites and hence diverse 3’UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3’UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs) whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3’UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3’UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3’UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes. PMID:26908102

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  19. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; Eiselt, N.; Griesser, H.; Olmos, J. J.V.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Okonkwo, C.

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual

  20. Experimental investigation of impulse response shortening for low-complexity MLSE of a 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transceiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Heide, Sjoerd; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    An optimized channel shortening method for reduced complexity MLSE detection enables the compensation of severe inter-symbol interference. Experimental investigations demonstrate the benefit on the performance for a severely bandwidth limited 112-Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission system with residual chr...

  1. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Gerritsen, DL; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in diagnosing depression in older nursing home patients. Method Three hundred and thirty-three older nursing home patients participated in a prospective cross-sectional study

  3. One-stage lengthening using a locked nailing technique for distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan; Lee, Zhon-Liau

    2004-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a one-stage lengthening using a locked nail technique for the treatment of distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening. Retrospective. University hospital. During a 6-year period, 36 distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening (>1.5 cm) were treated by the one-stage lengthening technique. Indications for this technique were distal femoral shaft aseptic or quiescent infected nonunions, 1.5-5 cm shortening, and a fracture level suitable for the insertion of two distal locked screws. The surgical technique involved skeletal traction using the femoral condyle, local débridement, lengthening by lengthening was 2.5 cm (range 1.5-3.5 cm). One-stage lengthening using the locked nailing technique to treat distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening can achieve a high success rate and low complication rate. The key to successful treatment is the patient's complete cooperation with strictly protected weight bearing until the fracture has healed.

  4. The development of the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL: a shortened questionnaire for cancer patients in palliative care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K.; Arraras, Juan I.; Blazeby, Jane M.; Bottomley, Andrew; Fayers, Peter M.; de Graeff, Alexander; Hammerlid, Eva; Kaasa, Stein; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Bjorner, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a shortened version of the EORTC QLQ-C30, one of the most widely used health-related quality of life questionnaires in oncology, for palliative care research. The study included interviews with 41 patients and 66 health care professionals in palliative care to

  5. 3'UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonit Hoffman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA sites and hence diverse 3'UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3'UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3'UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3'UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3'UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes.

  6. Magnitude of crustal shortening and structural framework of the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Along-strike variation in crustal shortening throughout the Himalayan orogen has been attributed to (1) diachronous, eastward-increasing convergence, or (2) localized controls including pre-collisional stratigraphic configuration and climate. In this study, we present new geologic maps and balanced cross-sections across the easternmost segment of the Himalayan orogen, the N-S-trending N. Indo-Burma Ranges of northeastern India. First order structures are NE-dipping, km-wide ductile thrust shear zones with mylonitic fabrics indicating top-to-the SW motion. Major structures include the Mayodia klippe and Hunli window, generated during folding of the SW-directed Tidding thrust and duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (LHS) at depth. Reconstruction of two balanced cross-sections yields minimum shortening estimates of 70% (48 km) and 71% (133 km), respectively. The widths of the orogen for each transect are 21 km and 54 km, respectively. Our percent strain values are comparable to that of western Arunachal Himalaya, reflecting eastward-increasing strain due to counterclockwise rotation of India during convergence or along-strike variation in India's subduction angle. However, shortening magnitudes much less than that of the Sikkim (641 km), Bhutan (414-615 km), and western Arunachal Himalaya (515-775 km) could signal eastward increasing shortening of a unique Himalayan stratigraphic framework, evidenced by few GHC rocks, absence of Tethyan strata, and an extensive subduction mélange and forearc complex.

  7. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment : A multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J.; Bonneux, Luc

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic

  8. Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability and Volitional Drive in Response to Shortening and Lengthening Strength Training and Changes Following Detraining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallent, Jamie; Goodall, Stuart; Gibbon, Karl C.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited understanding of the neurological adaptations responsible for changes in strength following shortening and lengthening resistance training and subsequent detraining. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in corticospinal and spinal responses to resistance training of

  9. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  10. Interval Size and Affect: An Ethnomusicological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarha Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses Huron and Davis's question of whether "The Harmonic Minor Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues" within any non-Western musical cultures. The harmonic minor scale and other semitone-heavy scales, such as Bhairav raga and Hicaz makam, are featured widely in the musical cultures of North India and the Middle East. Do melodies from these genres also have a preponderance of semitone intervals and low incidence of the augmented second interval, as in Huron and Davis's sample? Does the presence of more semitone intervals in a melody affect its emotional connotations in different cultural settings? Are all semitone intervals equal in their effect? My own ethnographic research within these cultures reveals comparable connotations in melodies that linger on semitone intervals, centered on concepts of tension and metaphors of falling. However, across different musical cultures there may also be neutral or lively interpretations of these same pitch sets, dependent on context, manner of performance, and tradition. Small pitch movement may also be associated with social functions such as prayer or lullabies, and may not be described as "sad." "Sad," moreover may not connote the same affect cross-culturally.

  11. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kuzio

    2004-01-01

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  12. A study of dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches with partial dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Ibraheem, Shukran; Al-Hallak, Khaled Rateb; Ali El Khalifa, Mohammed Othman; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a utility method in order to assess dentists’ preferences for the restoration of shortened dental arches (SDAs) with partial dentures. Also, the impact of patient age and length of the SDA on dentists’ preferences for the partial dentures was investigated. Materials and Methods: Totally, 104 subjects holding a basic degree in dentistry and working as staff members in a private dental college in Saudi Arabia were interviewed and presented with 12 scenarios for patients of different ages and mandibular SDAs of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analog scale how they would value the health of the patient's mouth if the mandibular SDAs were restored with cobalt-chromium removable partial dentures (RPDs). Results: With a utility value of 0.0 representing the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 representing the best, dentists’ average utility value of the RPD for the SDAs was 0.49 (sd= 0.15). Mean utility scores of the RPDs across the 12 SDA scenarios ranged between 0.35 and 0.61. RPDs that restored the extremely SDAs attracted the highest utility values and dentists’ utility of the RPD significantly increased with the increase in the number of missing posterior teeth. No significant differences in dentists’ mean utility values for the RPD were identified among SDA scenarios for patients of different ages. Conclusion: Restoration of the mandibular SDAs by RPDs is not a highly preferred treatment option among the surveyed group of dentists. Length of the SDA affects dentists’ preferences for the RPD, but patient age does not. PMID:26038647

  13. The randomized shortened dental arch study: tooth loss over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M H; Hannak, W; Kern, M; Mundt, T; Gernet, W; Weber, A; Wöstmann, B; Stark, H; Werner, D; Hartmann, S; Range, U; Jahn, F; Passia, N; Pospiech, P; Mitov, G; Brückner, J; Wolfart, S; Busche, E; Luthardt, R G; Heydecke, G; Marré, B

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to provide clinical outcome data for two treatments of the shortened dental arch (SDA). In a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial, patients with complete molar loss in one jaw were provided with either a partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) retained with precision attachments or treated according to the SDA concept preserving or restoring a premolar occlusion. No implants were placed. The primary outcome was tooth loss. Of 152 treated patients, 132 patients reached the 5-year examination. Over 5 years, 38 patients experienced tooth loss. For the primary outcome tooth loss, the Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 5 years were 0.74 (95% CI 0.64, 0.84) in the PRDP group and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.85) in the SDA group. For tooth loss in the study jaw, the survival rates at 5 years were 0.88 (95% CI 0.80, 0.95) in the PRDP group and 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.93) in the SDA group. The differences were not significant. No Cox regression models of appropriate fit explaining tooth loss on the patient level could be found. The overall treatment goals of a sustainable oral rehabilitation and the avoidance of further tooth loss over longer periods were not reliably achievable. The influence of the type of prosthetic treatment on tooth loss might have been overestimated. Regarding our results, the patient's view will gain even more importance in the clinical decision between removable and fixed restorations in SDAs.

  14. Comparison of three shortened questionnaires for assessment of quality of life in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Leonard; Chiu, Nicholas; Chow, Edward; Cella, David; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Lam, Henry; Popovic, Marko; Bedard, Gillian; Poon, Michael; Wong, Erin; Zeng, Liang; Bottomley, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life (QoL) assessment questionnaires can be burdensome to advanced cancer patients, thus necessitating the need for shorter assessment instruments than traditionally available. We compare three shortened QoL questionnaires in regards to their characteristics, validity, and reliability. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that employed or discussed three abridged QoL questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core 15-Palliative Care (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General-7 (FACT-G7), and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care-14 (FACIT-PAL-14). Articles that discussed questionnaire length, intended use, scoring procedure, and validation were included. The 7-item FACT-G7 is the shortest instrument, whereas the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACIT-PAL-14 contain 14 and 15 items, respectively. All three questionnaires have similar recall period, item organization, and subscale components. Designed as core questionnaires, all three maintain content and concurrent validity of their unabridged original questionnaires. Both the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACT-G7 demonstrate good internal consistency and reliability, with Cronbach's α ≥0.7 deemed acceptable. The developmental study for the FACIT-PAL-14 was published in 2013 and subsequent validation studies are not yet available. The EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and the FACT-G7 were found to be reliable and appropriate for assessing health-related QoL issues-the former for palliative cancer patients and the latter for advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Conceptually, the FACIT-PAL-14 holds promise to cover social and emotional support issues that are not completely addressed by the other two questionnaires; however, further validation is needed.

  15. Correction of rabbit model with mandibular ramus shortening by distraction osteogenesis at condylar neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinggong; Yang, Xuewen; Long, Xing; Li, Jian; Cai, Hengxing

    2012-04-01

    The rabbit model has been established to mimic the effect of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroplasty of ankylosis, and distraction at the level of the condylar neck is used to elongate the ascending ramus. The histomorphologic changes of TMJ and distraction gap were investigated. The unilateral condyles and articular discs were extirpated, and the experimental mandibular rami were shortened by 5 mm. An embedded distracter was used to restore the height of the mandibular ramus by unilateral condylar neck distraction (0.8 mm daily for 7 days). A total of 12 adult white rabbits were used, 8 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group. Of the 8 rabbits in the experimental group, 4 each were killed at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of distraction. The TMJ and distracted calluses were harvested and processed for radiographic and histologic examination. An open bite was seen in all rabbits postoperatively that had diminished at the end of distraction. The newly formed condyles radiologically showed remodeling, flattening, and sclerosis. The bony transport disc had gradually remodeled to a new condyle that was similar to the original condyle in appearance and structure. The surface of the transport disc was covered with a fibrous tissue. Moreover, the bony regeneration was perfect in the distraction gap. These results suggest that distraction osteogenesis at the condylar neck using the traditional preauricular approach of TMJ surgery, without the additional incision, can be performed concurrently with arthroplasty of TMJ ankylosis at the same region. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Specialized learning in antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae, pit-digging predators, shortens vulnerable larval stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Hollis

    Full Text Available Unique in the insect world for their extremely sedentary predatory behavior, pit-dwelling larval antlions dig pits, and then sit at the bottom and wait, sometimes for months, for prey to fall inside. This sedentary predation strategy, combined with their seemingly innate ability to detect approaching prey, make antlions unlikely candidates for learning. That is, although scientists have demonstrated that many species of insects possess the capacity to learn, each of these species, which together represent multiple families from every major insect order, utilizes this ability as a means of navigating the environment, using learned cues to guide an active search for food and hosts, or to avoid noxious events. Nonetheless, we demonstrate not only that sedentary antlions can learn, but also, more importantly, that learning provides an important fitness benefit, namely decreasing the time to pupate, a benefit not yet demonstrated in any other species. Compared to a control group in which an environmental cue was presented randomly vis-à-vis daily prey arrival, antlions given the opportunity to associate the cue with prey were able to make more efficient use of prey and pupate significantly sooner, thus shortening their long, highly vulnerable larval stage. Whereas "median survival time," the point at which half of the animals in each group had pupated, was 46 days for antlions receiving the Learning treatment, that point never was reached in antlions receiving the Random treatment, even by the end of the experiment on Day 70. In addition, we demonstrate a novel manifestation of antlions' learned response to cues predicting prey arrival, behavior that does not match the typical "learning curve" but which is well-adapted to their sedentary predation strategy. Finally, we suggest that what has long appeared to be instinctive predatory behavior is likely to be highly modified and shaped by learning.

  17. Admission of people with dementia to psychiatric hospitals in Japan: factors that can shorten their hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takako; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Tohmi; Kajita, Hiroyuki; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Kawamata, Toshio

    2017-11-01

    People exhibiting serious behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are usually voluntarily or involuntarily committed to psychiatric hospitals for treatment. In Japan, the average hospital stay for individuals with dementia is about 2 years. Ideally, individuals should be discharged once their symptoms have subsided. However, we see cases in Japan where individuals remain institutionalized long after behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are no longer apparent. This study will attempt to identify factors contributing to shorter stays in psychiatric hospitals for dementia patients. Questionnaires consisting of 17 items were mailed to 121 psychiatric hospitals with dementia treatment wards in western Japan. Out of 121 hospitals that received the questionnaires, 45 hospitals returned them. The total number of new patient admissions at all 45 hospitals during the month of August 2014 was 1428, including 384 dementia patients (26.9%). The average length of stay in the dementia wards in August 2014 was 482.7 days. Our findings revealed that the rate of discharge after 2 months was 35.4% for the dementia wards. In addition, we found that the average stay in hospitals charging or planning to charge the rehabilitation fee to dementia patients was significantly shorter than in hospitals not charging the rehabilitation fee. In Japan, dementia patients account for over 25% of new admissions to psychiatric hospitals with dementia wards. The average length of stay in a psychiatric hospital dementia ward is more than 1 year. A discharge after fewer than 2 months is exceedingly rare for those in a dementia ward compared with dementia patients in other wards. If institutions focus on rehabilitation, it may be possible to shorten the stay of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Ijichi; Toshio Yamashita; Masahiro Tsutagawa; Hiroya Mori; Nobuaki Ooshima; Jun Miura; Minoru Kanechika; Nobuaki Miura

    2002-01-01

    Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

  19. Role of arterial telomere dysfunction in hypertension: relative contributions of telomere shortening and telomere uncapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Walker, Ashley E; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    Telomere shortening in arteries could lead to telomere uncapping and cellular senescence, which in turn could promote the development of hypertension. To assess the novel role of arterial telomere dysfunction in hypertension, we compared mean telomere length (qPCR), telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X (γ-H2) localized to telomeres: ChIP), and tumor suppressor protein p53 (P53)/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21)-induced senescence (P53 bound to P21 gene promoter: ChIP) in arteries from 55 age-matched hypertensive and nonhypertensive individuals. Arterial mean telomere length was not different in hypertensive patients compared with nonhypertensive individuals (P = 0.29). Arterial telomere uncapping and P53/P21-induced senescence were two-fold greater in hypertensive patients compared with nonhypertensive individuals (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Arterial mean telomere length was not associated with telomere uncapping or P53/P21-induced senescence (r = -0.02, P = 0.44 and r = 0.01, P = 0.50, respectively), but telomere uncapping was a highly influential covariate for the hypertension group difference in P53/P21-induced senescence (r = 0.62, P hypertension status (P = 0.03), whereas mean telomere length was not (P = 0.68). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that arterial telomere uncapping and P53/P21-induced senescence are linked to hypertension independently of mean telomere length, and telomere uncapping influences hypertension status more than mean telomere length.

  20. Life shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at the perinatal period with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1986-01-01

    This study elucidates the life-span radiation effects in mice irradiated at the perinatal period in comparison to mice irradiated at the young adult period. B6C3F 1 female mice were irradiated at 17 days of prenatal age, at 0 days of postnatal age, or as young adults at 15 weeks of age with 190, 380, or 570 rads of 137 Cs gamma rays. Mice irradiated at the late fetal period showed dose-dependent life shortening of somewhat lesser magnitude than that seen after neonatal or young adult irradiation. Mice exposed at the late fetal period were highly susceptible to induction of pituitary tumors for which the latent period was the longest of all induced neoplasms. Incidence of lung tumors in mice irradiated at the late fetal period with 190 and 380 rads was higher than in controls. Malignant lymphomas of the lymphocytic type developed in excess, after a short latent period, in mice irradiated fetally with the highest dose; susceptibility of prenatally exposed mice was lower than that of early postnatally exposed mice. Liver tumors developed more frequently in mice irradiated in utero than in controls; susceptibility to induction of this type of neoplasm was highest at the neonatal period. In general, carcinogenic response of mice exposed at the late fetal period resembled that of neonatally exposed mice but was quite different from that of young adult mice. Mice exposed as young adults have no, or low, susceptibility to induction of pituitary, lung, and liver tumors; and a higher susceptibility to induction of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnes, Nina; Surén, Pål; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hornig, Mady; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W Ian; Magnus, Per; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Susser, Ezra Saul; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2013-11-01

    A recent California study reported increased risk of autistic disorder in children conceived within a year after the birth of a sibling. We assessed the association between interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder using nationwide registry data on pairs of singleton full siblings born in Norway. We defined interpregnancy interval as the time from birth of the first-born child to conception of the second-born child in a sibship. The outcome of interest was autistic disorder in the second-born child. Analyses were restricted to sibships in which the second-born child was born in 1990-2004. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by fitting ordinary logistic models and logistic generalized additive models. The study sample included 223,476 singleton full-sibling pairs. In sibships with interpregnancy intervals autistic disorder, compared with 0.13% in the reference category (≥ 36 months). For interpregnancy intervals shorter than 9 months, the adjusted OR of autistic disorder in the second-born child was 2.18 (95% confidence interval 1.42-3.26). The risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child was also increased for interpregnancy intervals of 9-11 months in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.71 [95% CI = 1.07-2.64]). Consistent with a previous report from California, interpregnancy intervals shorter than 1 year were associated with increased risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child. A possible explanation is depletion of micronutrients in mothers with closely spaced pregnancies.

  2. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  3. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  4. Effect of shortened Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training on classification and treatment of under-five children seeking care in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harerimana JM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Modeste Harerimana,1 Laetitia Nyirazinyoye,1 Jean-Bosco Ahoranayezu,2 Ferdinand Bikorimana,3 Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier,1,4 Katherine A Muldoon,5 Edward J Mills,6,7 Joseph Ntaganira1 1University of Rwanda College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 2Community Vision Initiative, Kigali, Rwanda; 3Maternal and Child Health, Child Unit, Rwandan Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 7Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Background: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is an effective 11-day standard training; however, due to budgetary expenses and human resource constraints, many health professionals cannot take 11 days off work. As a result, shortened training curriculums (6-day have been proposed. We used a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effect of this shortened training on appropriate IMCI classification and treatment of under-five childhood illness management in Rwanda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 22 health centers in Rwanda, comparing data from 121 nurses, where 55 nurses completed the 11-day and 66 nurses completed the 6-day training. Among 768 children, we evaluated clinical outcomes from May 2011 to April 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to display the sociodemographic characteristics of health providers; including level of education, sex, age, and professional experiences. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for differences between nurses in the 6-day versus 11-day training on the appropriate classification and treatment of childhood illness. Results: Our findings show that at the bivariable level and after controlling for confounders in the multivariable analysis, the only significant differences detected between nurses in the long and short training was the classification of fever (adjusted odds

  5. Chosen interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    The paper is devoted to chosen direct interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix. This kind of matrix: band matrix with a parameter, from finite difference problem is obtained. Such linear systems occur while solving one dimensional wave equation (Partial Differential Equations of hyperbolic type) by using the central difference interval method of the second order. Interval methods are constructed so as the errors of method are enclosed in obtained results, therefore presented linear interval systems contain elements that determining the errors of difference method. The chosen direct algorithms have been applied for solving linear systems because they have no errors of method. All calculations were performed in floating-point interval arithmetic.

  6. POSTMORTAL CHANGES AND ASSESSMENT OF POSTMORTEM INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin Šatrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in a simple way the changes that occur in the body after death.They develop in a specific order, and the speed of their development and their expression are strongly influenced by various endogenous and exogenous factors. The aim of the authors is to indicate the characteristics of the postmortem changes, and their significance in establishing time since death, which can be established precisely within 72 hours. Accurate evaluation of the age of the corpse based on the common changes is not possible with longer postmortem intervals, so the entomological findings become the most significant change on the corpse for determination of the postmortem interval (PMI.

  7. A sequent calculus for signed interval logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2001-01-01

    We propose and discuss a complete sequent calculus formulation for Signed Interval Logic (SIL) with the chief purpose of improving proof support for SIL in practice. The main theoretical result is a simple characterization of the limit between decidability and undecidability of quantifier-free SIL....... We present a mechanization of SIL in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and consider techniques for automated reasoning. Many of the results and ideas of this report are also applicable to traditional (non-signed) interval logic and, hence, to Duration Calculus....

  8. Interval Continuous Plant Identification from Value Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to obtain the values of the numerator and denominator Kharitonov polynomials of an interval plant from its value set at a given frequency. Moreover, it is proven that given a value set, all the assigned polynomials of the vertices can be determined if and only if there is a complete edge or a complete arc lying on a quadrant. This algorithm is nonconservative in the sense that if the value-set boundary of an interval plant is exactly known, and particularly its vertices, then the Kharitonov rectangles are exactly those used to obtain these value sets.

  9. On interval and cyclic interval edge colorings of (3,5)-biregular graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casselgren, Carl Johan; Petrosyan, Petros; Toft, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    A proper edge coloring f of a graph G with colors 1,2,3,…,t is called an interval coloring if the colors on the edges incident to every vertex of G form an interval of integers. The coloring f is cyclic interval if for every vertex v of G, the colors on the edges incident to v either form an inte...

  10. The dark side of the QT interval. The Short QT Syndrome: pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Comelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies has been carried out to investigate the pathophysiology and the clinical implications of QT interval prolongation in the ECG over recent years (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. It was only in the last decade, however, that the scientists have focused on the specular aspects of the long QT syndrome (LQTS, and it is now well established that the abnormal shortening of the QT interval is associated with meaningful clinical consequences and adverse outcomes. The aim of the present article is to summarize knowledge and existing evidence about the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS. SQTS is a rare, albeit largely underdiagnosed, genetically determined disease, which is characterized by a high tendency to develop life-threatening arrhythmias. The two clinical landmarks of SQTS are the presence of a short QT interval (i.e., less than 320 ms in a structurally normal heart. The disease is now classified as a “channellopathy”, and is principally caused by a defective functioning of both potassium and calcium ion channels. The underlying genetic anomalies cause an abnormal ripolarization and a reduced refractoriness of myocardiocites. Pharmacologic treatments are mainly tailored to slow the conduction and to prolong the refractory period of myocardiocites. The implantable cardioverter and defibrillator (ICD is currently considered the therapeutic gold standard (7.

  11. Statistics of return intervals between long heartbeat intervals and their usability for online prediction of disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Kireenkov, Igor S; Nifontov, Eugene M

    2009-01-01

    We study the statistics of return intervals between large heartbeat intervals (above a certain threshold Q) in 24 h records obtained from healthy subjects. We find that both the linear and the nonlinear long-term memory inherent in the heartbeat intervals lead to power-laws in the probability density function P Q (r) of the return intervals. As a consequence, the probability W Q (t; Δt) that at least one large heartbeat interval will occur within the next Δt heartbeat intervals, with an increasing elapsed number of intervals t after the last large heartbeat interval, follows a power-law. Based on these results, we suggest a method of obtaining a priori information about the occurrence of the next large heartbeat interval, and thus to predict it. We show explicitly that the proposed method, which exploits long-term memory, is superior to the conventional precursory pattern recognition technique, which focuses solely on short-term memory. We believe that our results can be straightforwardly extended to obtain more reliable predictions in other physiological signals like blood pressure, as well as in other complex records exhibiting multifractal behaviour, e.g. turbulent flow, precipitation, river flows and network traffic.

  12. Circadian profile of QT interval and QT interval variability in 172 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Wiegand, Uwe K H; Braasch, Wiebke

    2003-01-01

    of sleep. QT and R-R intervals revealed a characteristic day-night-pattern. Diurnal profiles of QT interval variability exhibited a significant increase in the morning hours (6-9 AM; P ... lower at day- and nighttime. Aging was associated with an increase of QT interval mainly at daytime and a significant shift of the T wave apex towards the end of the T wave. The circadian profile of ventricular repolarization is strongly related to the mean R-R interval, however, there are significant...

  13. Is it Possible to Shorten the Duration of Schirmer Test I?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Recep

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Schirmer test I is commonly used in the diagnosis of dry eye, but its longer duration is a major problem in crowded clinics. In this study, Schirmer tests shorter than 5 minutes were compared with the results of 5-min Schirmer test. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, 540 eyes of 270 patients having dry eye symptoms were evaluated. Those patients having lid abnormalities were not included in the study. The measurements were performed in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th minutes using 5x37 mm Whatman No. 41 test papers. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Then probable wetting values were calculated for every minute and the results were compared with 5-min results. Re sults: Of the cases, 214 were female and 56 were male. The mean age was 57.62 years (range: 12-90 years, standard deviation: 14.35. We could not find any statistical significance among the measurements performed every minute (p>0.05. We found statistically significant difference between the measurements performed in the 1st and 3rd minutes, 1st and 4th minutes, and 1st and 5th minutes ( p<0,05. The same tests were applied to the cases having 9 mm or below Schirmer test results at the end of 5 minutes and the only statistical significance was found between the measurement taken in the 1st and 4th minutes (p<0.05. The probable dry eye values in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th minutes were compared with the result of 5th minute and the nearest values were obtained in the 2nd-minute measurements. Out of 114 dry eye cases according to 5-min results, 87 (76.32% were detected at the end of 2-min test. Dis cus si on: The values obtained in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th minutes did not correspond to the Schirmer test result obtained in the 5th minute. If the results obtained in the early minutes were regarded as correct, a lot of dry eye patients could not be diagnosed. So, we found inappropriate to shorten the duration of Schirmer test I. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012

  14. The randomized shortened dental arch study (RaSDA: design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern Matthias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the long time required for the treatment impede respective clinical trials. Methods/design This 14-center randomized controlled investigator-initiated trial is ongoing. Last patient out will be in 2010. Patients over 35 years of age with all molars missing in one jaw and with at least both canines and one premolar left on each side were eligible. One group received a treatment with removable dental prostheses for molar replacement (treatment A. The other group received a treatment limited to the replacement of all missing anterior and premolar teeth using fixed bridges (treatment B. A pilot trial with 32 patients was carried out. Two hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled in the main trial where 109 patients were randomized for treatment A and 106 for treatment B. The primary outcome measure is further tooth loss during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures encompassed clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG WA 831/2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5. Discussion The particular value of this trial is the adaptation of common design components to the very specific features of complex dental prosthetic treatments. The pilot trial proved to be indispensable because it led to a number of adjustments in the study protocol that considerably improved the practicability. The expected results are of high clinical relevance and will show the efficacy of two common

  15. Enhancement of Skeletal Muscle in Aged Rats Following High-Intensity Stretch-Shortening Contraction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Chetlin, Robert D; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-04-01

    Exercise is the most accessible, efficacious, and multifactorial intervention to improve health and treat chronic disease. High-intensity resistance exercise, in particular, also maximizes skeletal muscle size and strength-outcomes crucial at advanced age. However, such training is capable of inducing muscle maladaptation when misapplied at old age. Therefore, characterization of parameters (e.g., mode and frequency) that foster adaptation is an active research area. To address this issue, we utilized a rodent model that allowed training at maximal intensity in terms of muscle activation and tested the hypothesis that muscles of old rats adapt to stretch-shortening contraction (SSC) training, provided the training frequency is sufficiently low. At termination of training, normalized muscle mass (i.e., muscle mass divided by tibia length) and muscle quality (isometric force divided by normalized muscle mass) were determined. For young rats, normalized muscle mass increased by ∼20% regardless of training frequency. No difference was observed for muscle quality values after 2 days versus 3 days per week training (0.65 ± 0.09 N/mg/mm vs. 0.59 ± 0.05 N/mg/mm, respectively). For old rats following 3 days per week training, normalized muscle mass was unaltered and muscle quality was 30% lower than young levels. Following 2 days per week training at old age, normalized muscle mass increased by 17% and muscle quality was restored to young levels. To investigate this enhanced response, oxidative stress was assessed by lipid peroxidation quantification. For young rats, lipid peroxidation levels were unaltered by training. With aging, baseline levels of lipid peroxidation increased by 1.5-fold. For old rats, only 2 days per week training decreased lipid peroxidation to levels indistinguishable from young values. These results imply that, appropriately scheduled high-intensity SSC training at old age is capable of restoring muscle to a younger phenotype in terms

  16. Ancestral telomere shortening: a countdown that will increase mean life span?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Radu G

    2006-01-01

    Like cells, all mammals have a limited life span. Among cells there are a few exceptions (e.g., immortal cells), among mammals not, even if some of them live longer. Many in vitro and in vivo studies support the consensus that telomere length is strongly correlated with life span. At the somatic cellular level, long telomeres have been associated with longer life span. A different situation can be seen in immortal cells, such as cancer, germ and stem cells, where telomeres are maintained by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that is involved in synthesis of telomeres. Irrespective of telomere length, if telomerase is active, telomeres can be maintained at a sufficient length to ensure cell survival. To the contrary, telomeres shorten progressively with each cell division and when a critical telomere length (Hayflick limit) is reached, the cells undergo senescence and subsequently apoptosis. In mammals, those with the longest telomeres (e.g., mice) have the shortest life span. Furthermore, the shorter the mean telomere length, the longer the mean life span, as observed in humans (10-14 kpb) and bowhead-whales (undetermined telomere length), which have the longest mean life span among mammals. Over the past centuries, human average life span has increased. The hypothesis presented here suggests that this continual increase in the mean life span could be due to a decrease of mean telomere length over the last hundreds years. Actually, the life span is not directly influenced by length of telomeres, but rather by telomere length - dependent gene expression pattern. According to Greider, "rather than average telomere length, it is the shortest telomere length that makes the biggest difference to a cell". In the context of fast-growing global elderly population due to increase in life expectancy, it also seem to be an age related increase in cancer incidence. Nevertheless, extending healthy life span could depend on how good cells achieve, during the

  17. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  18. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  19. Gelatinized wheat starch influences crystallization behaviour and structure of roll-in shortenings in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-03-15

    One hydrogenated and one non-hydrogenated shortening were baked with isolated components of a croissant matrix, including crystalline wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch, gluten, and formed gluten network. The impact of the matrix components on fat crystallization was analyzed for polymorphism using powder X-ray diffraction, solid fat content by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry. When compared to results obtained from croissants prepared with the respective shortenings, samples containing gelatinized wheat starch displayed notably similar results: polymorphic conversion, from the β' to β form over storage, and visually broader peaks in the melting endotherms indicating a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat. All other component mixtures behaved similar to the respective fats in bulk. The measured rate of crystallization was greater in samples containing gelatinized wheat starch, indicating that the gelatinized starch could act as a nucleation site to speed crystallization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  1. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  2. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  3. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  4. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study w...

  5. The Total Interval of a Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    about them in a mathematical con- text. A thorough treatment of multiple interval representations, including applications, is given by Roberts [21...8217-. -- + .".-)’""- +_ .. ,_ _ CA6 46 operation applied to a member of .4 U 3 T U.) U.3 UU- T T i Figure 11.2.18 I Fieure 11.2.19 ,* This completes the proof

  6. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  7. Quinsy tonsillectomy or interval tonsillectomy - a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-one patients with peritonsillar abscesses were randomised to undergo either quinsy tonsillectomy (aT) or interval tonsillectomy (IT), and the two groups were compared. The QT group lost fewer (10,3 v. 17,9) working days and less blood during the operation (158,6 ml v. 205,7 ml); haemostasis was easier and the ...

  8. Linear chord diagrams on two intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, Christian

    generating function ${\\bf C}_g(z)=z^{2g}R_g(z)/(1-4z)^{3g-{1\\over 2}}$ for chords attached to a single interval is algebraic, for $g\\geq 1$, where the polynomial $R_g(z)$ with degree at most $g-1$ has integer coefficients and satisfies $R_g(1/4)\

  9. Learned Interval Time Facilitates Associate Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…

  10. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  11. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-09-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  12. Use of TCSR with Split Windings for Shortening the Spar Cycle Time in 500 kV Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matinyan, A. M., E-mail: al-drm@mail.ru; Peshkov, M. V.; Karpov, V. N.; Alekseev, N. A. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of Unified Power System,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The arc-fault recharge phenomenon in single-phase automatic reclosure (SPAR) of a line is examined. Abrief description is given of the design of a 500 kV thyristor controlled shunt reactor (TCSR) with split valve-side windings. This type of TCSR is shown to effectively quench a single-phase arc fault in a power transmission line and shortens the SPAR cycle time.

  13. Statistical inference for extended or shortened phase II studies based on Simon's two-stage designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjun; Yu, Menggang; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-06-07

    Simon's two-stage designs are popular choices for conducting phase II clinical trials, especially in the oncology trials to reduce the number of patients placed on ineffective experimental therapies. Recently Koyama and Chen (2008) discussed how to conduct proper inference for such studies because they found that inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan used. In particular, they proposed an inference method for studies when the actual second stage sample sizes differ from planned ones. We consider an alternative inference method based on likelihood ratio. In particular, we order permissible sample paths under Simon's two-stage designs using their corresponding conditional likelihood. In this way, we can calculate p-values using the common definition: the probability of obtaining a test statistic value at least as extreme as that observed under the null hypothesis. In addition to providing inference for a couple of scenarios where Koyama and Chen's method can be difficult to apply, the resulting estimate based on our method appears to have certain advantage in terms of inference properties in many numerical simulations. It generally led to smaller biases and narrower confidence intervals while maintaining similar coverages. We also illustrated the two methods in a real data setting. Inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan. Reported P-values, point estimates and confidence intervals for the response rate are not usually adjusted for the design's adaptiveness. Proper statistical inference procedures should be used.

  14. [Effect of removable partial dentures restoration on oral health-related quality of life of patients with shortened dental arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen-nan; Lin, Xue-feng

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of removable partial dentures (PRD) restoration on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of subjects with shortened dental arches (SDA) using the Chinese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Consecutive patients with shortened dental arches were recruited from the Department of Prosthodontics, Foshan Chancheng Hospital of Stomatology. The Chinese version of OHIP-14 was administered to each subject before treatment and after treatment. The subjective outcomes of removable partial dentures therapy on SDA were collected and the pre- and post-treatment scores of the Chinese version of OHIP-14 were compared. After treatment, significant decrease in patients' total score of OHRQOL [before: 9 (6, 12) ; after: 4 (2.25, 6)] was detected, as well as physical pain subscale, physical disability subscale and handicap subscale; and the score of OHRQOL in function limitation subscale increased [before: 0(0,0); after: 2(1, 2)]. The main impacts of shortened dental arch with intact anterior region affecting patients' OHRQOL are physical disability.From a quality-of-life perspective, patients with SDA can perceive benefits from RPD.

  15. Charcot arthropathy of the lumbar spine treated using one-staged posterior three-column shortening and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Kenny Samuel; Agarwala, Amit Omprakash; Rampersaud, Yoga Raja

    2010-06-15

    Case report. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy successfully treated surgically using posterior 3-column resection, spinal shortening, and fusion. The operative treatment of Charcot arthropathy of the spine has conventionally been a combination of anterior and posterior surgery. The morbidity associated with these surgical procedures can be considerable. A posterior-only approach to the problem would avoid the additional morbidity associated with an anterior approach. We present a case of lumbar Charcot arthropathy with deformity treated successfully using such a procedure. Discussion of the patient's clinical and radiologic history, the technical merits of the operative intervention and a review of the relevant background literature are presented. A multilevel, single-stage, posterior 3-column resection with primary shortening and instrumented fusion augmented with rhBMP2 in a multiply operated patient with deformity provided a optimal biologic and mechanical environment for healing of the Charcot arthropathy and improved the sagittal and coronal profile of the spine. A single-stage, multilevel, posterior 3-column resection and primary shortening can be a useful surgical strategy in symptomatic patients with Charcot arthropathy of the spine.

  16. Synergistic shortening of the bleeding time by desmopressin and ethamsylate in patients with various constitutional bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrinsky, N L; Israels, E D; Bickis, M G

    1991-01-01

    Desmopressin and ethamsylate were evaluated for possible synergistic effects on the bleeding time. The drugs were administered individually and together to 12 patients with markedly prolonged bleeding times known to be relatively or absolutely unresponsive to desmopressin alone. The bleeding disorders studied included Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (one), other disorders of platelet function (four), pseudo-von Willebrand disease (one), and von Willebrand disease type I (three), type II (two), and type III (one). Desmopressin alone shortened the bleeding time from 23.9 +/- 1.5 to 19.5 +/- 2.3 min (p = 0.03). Ethamsylate alone was without effect. Desmopressin and ethamsylate together shortened the bleeding time to 11.2 +/- 1.4 min (p less than 0.01 compared to baseline, p = 0.02 compared to desmopressin alone). The combination was ineffective in three patients, with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (one), and von Willebrand disease type I (one) and type III (one). Toxic effects of the drugs were not observed. Five patients received desmopressin and ethamsylate prior to dental work with mandibular block (one), heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (two), and adenotonsillectomy surgery (two). Normal hemostasis was achieved in each case. A synergistic shortening of the bleeding time was observed with the combination of desmopressin and ethamsylate in a wide range of bleeding disorders.

  17. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  18. Spinal column shortening for tethered cord syndrome associated with myelomeningocele, lumbosacral lipoma, and lipomyelomeningocele in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldave, Guillermo; Hansen, Daniel; Hwang, Steven W; Moreno, Amee; Briceño, Valentina; Jea, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Tethered cord syndrome is the clinical manifestation of an abnormal stretch on the spinal cord, presumably causing mechanical injury, a compromised blood supply, and altered spinal cord metabolism. Tethered cord release is the standard treatment for tethered cord syndrome. However, direct untethering of the spinal cord carries potential risks, such as new neurological deficits from spinal cord injury, a CSF leak from opening the dura, and retethering of the spinal cord from normal scar formation after surgery. To avoid these risks, the authors applied spinal column shortening to children and transitional adults with primary and secondary tethered cord syndrome and report treatment outcomes. The authors' aim with this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of spinal column shortening for tethered cord syndrome by analyzing their experience with this surgical technique. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the demographic and procedural data of children and young adults who had undergone spinal column shortening for primary or secondary tethered cord syndrome. RESULTS Seven patients with tethered cord syndrome caused by myelomeningocele, lipomyelomeningocele, and transitional spinal lipoma were treated with spinal column shortening. One patient with less than 24 months of follow-up was excluded from further analysis. There were 3 males and 4 females; the average age at the time was surgery was 16 years (range 8-30 years). Clinical presentations for our patients included pain (in 5 patients), weakness (in 4 patients), and bowel/bladder dysfunction (in 4 patients). Spinal column osteotomy was most commonly performed at the L-1 level, with fusion between T-12 and L-2 using a pedicle screw-rod construct. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy was performed in 6 patients, and vertebral column resection was performed in 1 patient. The average follow-up period was 31 months (range 26-37 months). Computed tomography-based radiographic outcomes showed solid

  19. Deposition, clearance, and shortening of Kevlar para-aramid fibrils in acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D P; Merriman, E A; Kennedy, G L; Lee, K P

    1993-10-01

    The deposition and clearance of lung-deposited Kevlar para-aramid fibrils (subfibers) have been investigated as part of a subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity testing program. Fibrils recovered from lung tissue in para-aramid-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats were microscopically counted and measured after exposures to airborne fibrils which were about 12 microns median length (ML) and < 0.3 micron median diameter. In each of three studies lung-recovered fibrils were progressively shorter with increasing residence time in the lungs. Twenty-eight days after a single 6-hr exposure at 400 respirable fibrils per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) the ML of recovered fibrils decreased to about 5 microns. Twenty-four months after a 3-week exposure to 25 or 400 f/cm3, fibrils reached about 2 microns ML. After 2 years of continuous exposure at 2.5, 25, or 100 f/cm3 or 1 year exposure plus 1 year recovery at 400 f/cm3, fibril ML approached 4 microns. In the 2-year study, the lung-fiber accumulation rate/exposure concentration was similar for the three highest concentrations and was about 3 x greater than that seen at 2.5 f/cm3, indicating that concentrations of about 25 f/cm3 or more may overwhelm clearance mechanisms. Time required for fibrils to be reduced to < 5 microns in the lung was markedly less at lower exposure concentration and shorter exposure time. The primary shortening mechanism is proposed to be long fibril cutting by enzymatic attack at fibril defects. However, length-selective fibril deposition and clearance may contribute to shortening in the first few days after exposure. The enzymatic cutting hypothesis is supported by measured increases in numbers of short fibers following cessation of exposures, continued shortening of the fibril length distribution up to 2 years following exposure, and in vitro fibril shortening after 3 months in a proteolytic enzyme preparation. The conclusion is that para-aramid fibrils are less durable in the lungs of rats than expected from

  20. Novel Method of Unambiguous Moving Target Detection in Pulse-Doppler Radar with Random Pulse Repetition Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blind zones and ambiguities in range and velocity measurement are two important issues in traditional pulse-Doppler radar. By generating random deviations with respect to a mean Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI, this paper proposes a novel algorithm of Moving Target Detection (MTD based on the Compressed Sensing (CS theory, in which the random deviations of the PRIare converted to the Restricted Isometry Property (RIP of the observing matrix. The ambiguities of range and velocity are eliminated by designing the signal parameters. The simulation results demonstrate that this scheme has high performance of detection, and there is no ambiguity and blind zones as well. It can also shorten the coherent processing interval compared to traditional staggered PRI mode because only one pulse train is needed instead of several trains.

  1. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  2. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  3. The Effect of the Type of Hemodialysis Buffer on the QTc Interval in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis

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    Reza Hekmat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the sources of variation in QTc measurementsis important for preventing arrhythmias during and afterhemodialysis. The present study was designed to determine thecorrelation between the type of hemodialysis buffer and thechanges in QTc interval in patients on chronic hemodialysis.Methods: Fifty-nine patients on chronic hemodialysis whoreferred in winter 2007 to hemodialysis centers of Ghaem andHashemi Nejad hospitals, in Mashhad, Iran, were divided intotwo groups according to their last dialysate buffer: acetate orbicarbonate. Electrocardiography, arterial blood gas parameters,serum K+, Na+, ionized calcium, and albumin levels weremeasured prior to and after hemodialysis in all patients.Results: All arterial blood gas parameters and serum electrolytesconcentrations were increased except K+ levels that weresignificantly decreased with hemodialysis. PCO2 and QTc intervalswere slightly increased in all patients, however thisincrease was not statistically significant. We found that thetype of dialysate affected the QTc interval, HCO3, base excess,base excess of extra cellular fluid, and base bufferchanges with no effect on ionized calcium, pH, PCO2, andserum albumin concentration. QTc interval was prolonged byusing bicarbonate and shortened by using acetate dialysatebuffer. We found no correlation between the variations of QTcinterval and serum electrolytes or arterial blood gas parametersin either group.Conclusion: Bicarbonate buffer use in hemodialysis prolongedQTc interval and acetate buffer shortened it. This effectis independent of serum electrolytes and pH changes duringhemodialysis. The effect of bicarbonate buffer is probablydue to more tolerability of ultra filtration, more effectiveedema reduction and augmented body electro-conductivity.

  4. Understanding Confidence Intervals With Visual Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Navruz, Bilgin; Delen, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we showed how confidence intervals (CIs) are valuable and useful in research studies when they are used in the correct form with correct interpretations. The sixth edition of the APA (2010) Publication Manual strongly recommended reporting CIs in research studies, and it was described as “the best reporting strategy” (p. 34). Misconceptions and correct interpretations of CIs were presented from several textbooks. In addition, limitations of the null hypothesis statistica...

  5. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  6. Estrategia de tratamiento acortado y estrictamente supervisado en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar confirmada Strategy of strictly monitored and shortened treatment in patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis René Tablada del Risco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal para caracterizar a los pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar, cuyos esputos fueran positivos para bacilos-ácido-alcohol-resistente, en una población abierta del municipio de Santiago de Cuba, desde el 2003 hasta el 2007, los cuales se acogieron a la estrategia de tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado. En la casuística predominaron el sexo masculino, los adultos jóvenes, así como los factores de riesgo: hábito tabáquico, alcoholismo y antecedente de contactos con personas afectadas por dicha enfermedad. La atención primaria de salud no cumplió el indicador operacional del diagnóstico de estos pacientes ni el seguimiento baciloscópico mensual. Se recomienda elaborar una estrategia de intervención que contemple un proyecto capacitante, encaminado a elevar la competencia profesional del personal sanitario en relación con la asistencia integral incluida en el Programa Nacional de Control de la Tuberculosis.A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to characterize patients with pulmonary tuberculosis whose sputa were positive for acid-alcohol resistant bacilli, in a general population of Santiago de Cuba municipality, from 2003 to 2007, who opted for the strategy of strictly monitored and shortened treatment. Male sex, young adults as well as risk factors: smoking habit, alcoholism and history of contacts with people affected by this disease prevailed in the case material. Primary health care neither meet the operational indicator of the diagnosis of these patients nor the monthly bacilloscopy. It is recommended to develop an intervention strategy that includes a project aimed at improving the professional competence of health personnel with regard to comprehensive care included in the National Program of Tuberculosis Control.

  7. Study on the pupal morphogenesis of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2015-08-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is one of the most common species of blow flies at the scene of death in Southern China. Pupae are useful in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation due to their sedentary nature and longer duration of association with the corpse. However, to determine the age of a pupa is more difficult than that of a larva, due to the fact that morphological changes are rarely visible during pupal development. In this study, eggs of C. rufifacies were reared in climatic chambers under four different constant temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32°C each±1°C, respectively) with same rearing conditions such as foodstuff, substrate, photoperiod and relative humidity. Ten duplicate pupae were sampled at 8-h intervals from prepupae to emergence under the different constant temperatures, respectively. The pupae were sampled, killed, fixed, dissected and with the puparium removed, the external morphological changes of the pupae were observed, recorded and photographed. The morphological characters of C. rufifacies pupae were described. Based on the visible external morphological characters during pupal morphogenesis at 28°C±1°C, the developmental period of C. rufifacies was divided into nine developmental stages and recorded in detailed description. Based on above-mentioned nine developmental stages, some visible external morphological characters were selected as indications for developmental stages. These indications mapped to 8-h sampling intervals at the four different constant temperatures were also described in this study. It is demonstrated that generally the duration of each developmental stage of C. rufifacies pupae is inversely correlated to appropriate developmental temperatures. This study provides relatively systematic pupal developmental data of C. rufifacies for the estimation of PMI. In addition, further work may improve by focus on other environmental factors, histological analysis, more thorough external examination by shortening sampling

  8. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

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    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  9. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona

    2012-02-01

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial

  10. Mechanisms of breast cancer risk in shift workers: association of telomere shortening with the duration and intensity of night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samulin Erdem, Johanna; Notø, Heidi Ødegaard; Skare, Øivind; Lie, Jenny-Anne S; Petersen-Øverleir, Marte; Reszka, Edyta; Pepłońska, Beata; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh

    2017-08-01

    Occupational factors such as shiftwork and especially night work that involves disruption of the circadian rhythm may contribute to increased breast cancer risk. Circadian disruption may also affect telomere length (TL). While short TL generally is associated with increased cancer risk, its association with breast cancer risk is inconclusive. We suggest that working schedules might be an important factor in assessment of effects of TL on breast cancer risk. Moreover, telomere shortening might be a potential mechanism for night work-related breast cancer. In this study, effects of shift work on TL and its association with breast cancer risk were investigated in a nested breast cancer case-control study of Norwegian nurses. TL was assessed by qPCR in DNA from 563 breast cancer patients and 619 controls. Here, we demonstrate that TL is affected by intensive night work schedules, as work with six consecutive night for a period of more than 5 years was associated with decreased telomere lengths (-3.18, 95% CI: -6.46 to -0.58, P = 0.016). Furthermore, telomere shortening is associated with increased breast cancer risk in workers with long periods of consecutive night shifts. Thus, nurses with longer telomere lengths had a lower risk for breast cancer if they had worked more than four (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.79, P = 0.014) or five (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.10-0.83, P = 0.029) consecutive night shifts for a period of 5 years or more. These data suggest that telomere shortening is associated with the duration and intensity of night work and may be a contributing factor for breast cancer risk among female shift workers. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Lianne S; Bültmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W; Joling, Catelijne I; Twisk, Jos W R; Roelen, Corné A M

    2016-04-01

    The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of LTSA. Prospective study including two samples of non-sicklisted workers participating in occupational health checks between 2010 and 2012. A heterogeneous development sample (N= 2899) was used to estimate logistic regression coefficients for the complete WAI, a shortened WAI version without the list of diseases, and single-item Work Ability Score (WAS). These three instruments were calibrated for predictions of different (≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks) LTSA durations in a validation sample of non-sicklisted workers (N= 3049) employed at a steel mill, differentiating between manual (N= 1710) and non-manual (N= 1339) workers. The discriminative ability was investigated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. All three instruments under-predicted the LTSA risks in both manual and non-manual workers. The complete WAI discriminated between individuals at high and low risk of LTSA ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks in manual and non-manual workers. Risk predictions and discrimination by the shortened WAI without the list of diseases were as good as the complete WAI. The WAS showed poorer discrimination in manual and non-manual workers. The WAI without the list of diseases is a good alternative to the complete WAI to identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of future LTSA durations ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Telomere shortening impairs regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in response to injury but not under homeostatic conditions.

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    Masami Watabe-Rudolph

    Full Text Available Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE associated with impaired olfaction and dry nose represents one of the most common phenotypes of human aging. Impairment in regeneration of a functional olfactory epithelium can also occur in response to injury due to infection or nasal surgery. These complications occur more frequently in aged patients. Although age is the most unifying risk factor for atrophic changes and functional decline of the olfactory epithelium, little is known about molecular mechanisms that could influence maintenance and repair of the olfactory epithelium. Here, we analyzed the influence of telomere shortening (a basic mechanism of cellular aging on homeostasis and regenerative reserve in response to chemical induced injury of the OE in late generation telomere knockout mice (G3 mTerc(-/- with short telomeres compared to wild type mice (mTerc(+/+ with long telomeres. The study revealed no significant influence of telomere shortening on homeostatic maintenance of the OE during mouse aging. In contrast, the regenerative response to chemical induced injury of the OE was significantly impaired in G3 mTerc(-/- mice compared to mTerc(+/+ mice. Seven days after chemical induced damage, G3 mTerc(-/- mice exhibited significantly enlarged areas of persisting atrophy compared to mTerc(+/+ mice (p = 0.031. Telomere dysfunction was associated with impairments in cell proliferation in the regenerating epithelium. Deletion of the cell cycle inhibitor, Cdkn1a (p21 rescued defects in OE regeneration in telomere dysfunctional mice. Together, these data indicate that telomere shortening impairs the regenerative capacity of the OE by impairing cell cycle progression in a p21-dependent manner. These findings could be relevant for the impairment in OE function in elderly people.

  13. Intervención familiar: programa EDUCA

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Sibajas, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este taller será el de presentar un programa de escuela de padres protocolizado en grupo para la prevención primaria y secundaria de los trastornos del comportamiento perturbador (el trastorno negativista desafiante y el trastorno disocial) en la infancia y la adolescencia. Se describirán las principales estrategias y dinámicas de intervención con el objetivo de que el taller sea eminentemente práctico, incidiendo en no sólo “ qué hacer", sino en "cómo podemos hace...

  14. Approximation of the semi-infinite interval

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    A. McD. Mercer

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of a function f∈C[a,b] by Bernstein polynomials is well-known. It is based on the binomial distribution. O. Szasz has shown that there are analogous approximations on the interval [0,∞ based on the Poisson distribution. Recently R. Mohapatra has generalized Szasz' result to the case in which the approximating function is αe−ux∑k=N∞(uxkα+β−1Γ(kα+βf(kαuThe present note shows that these results are special cases of a Tauberian theorem for certain infinite series having positive coefficients.

  15. Measurement of nucleotide exchange rate constants in single rabbit soleus myofibrils during shortening and lengthening using a fluorescent ATP analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, I; Chaen, S; Bagshaw, C R; Sugi, H

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of displacement of a fluorescent nucleotide, 2'(3')-O-[N[2-[[Cy3]amido]ethyl]carbamoyl]-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP), bound to rabbit soleus muscle myofibrils were studied using flash photolysis of caged ATP. Use of myofibrils from this slow twitch muscle allowed better resolution of the kinetics of nucleotide exchange than previous studies with psoas muscle myofibrils (, Biophys. J. 73:2033-2042). Soleus myofibrils in the presence of Cy3-EDA-nucleotides (Cy3-EDA-ATP or Cy3-EDA-ADP) showed selective fluorescence staining of the A-band. The K(m) for Cy3-EDA-ATP and the K(d) for Cy3-EDA-ADP binding to the myofibril A-band were 1.9 microM and 3.8 microM, respectively, indicating stronger binding of nucleotide to soleus cross-bridges compared to psoas cross-bridges (2.6 microM and 50 microM, respectively). After flash photolysis of caged ATP, the A-band fluorescence of the myofibril in the Cy3-EDA-ATP solution under isometric conditions decayed exponentially with a rate constant of 0.045 +/- 0.007 s(-1) (n = 32) at 10 degrees C, which was about seven times slower than that for psoas myofibrils. When a myofibril was allowed to shorten with a constant velocity, the nucleotide displacement rate constant increased from 0.066 s(-1) (isometric) to 0.14 s(-1) at 20 degrees C with increasing shortening velocity up to 0.1 myofibril length/s (V(max), the shortening velocity under no load was approximately 0. 2 myofibril lengths/s). The rate constant was not significantly affected by an isovelocity stretch of up to 0.1 myofibril lengths/s. These results suggest that the cross-bridge kinetics are not significantly affected at higher strain during lengthening but depend on the lower strain during shortening. These data also indicate that the interaction distance between a cross-bridge and the actin filament is at least 16 nm for a single cycle of the ATPase.

  16. Agonist muscle adaptation accompanied by antagonist muscle atrophy in the hindlimb of mice following stretch-shortening contraction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-02-02

    The vast majority of dynamometer-based animal models for investigation of the response to chronic muscle contraction exposure has been limited to analysis of isometric, lengthening, or shortening contractions in isolation. An exception to this has been the utilization of a rat model to study stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), a sequence of consecutive isometric, lengthening, and shortening contractions common during daily activity and resistance-type exercise. However, the availability of diverse genetic strains of rats is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a dynamometer-based SSC training protocol to induce increased muscle mass and performance in plantarflexor muscles of mice. Young (3 months old) C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 1 month of plantarflexion SSC training. Hindlimb muscles were analyzed for muscle mass, quantitative morphology, myogenesis/myopathy relevant gene expression, and fiber type distribution. The main aim of the research was achieved when training induced a 2-fold increase in plantarflexion peak torque output and a 19% increase in muscle mass for the agonist plantaris (PLT) muscle. In establishing this model, several outcomes emerged which raised the value of the model past that of being a mere recapitulation of the rat model. An increase in the number of muscle fibers per transverse muscle section accounted for the PLT muscle mass gain while the antagonist tibialis anterior (TA) muscle atrophied by 30% with preferential atrophy of type IIb and IIx fibers. These alterations were accompanied by distinct gene expression profiles. The findings confirm the development of a stretch-shortening contraction training model for the PLT muscle of mice and demonstrate that increased cross-sectional fiber number can occur following high-intensity SSC training. Furthermore, the TA muscle atrophy provides direct evidence for the concept of muscle imbalance in phasic non-weight bearing muscles, a concept largely

  17. Confidence intervals for the lognormal probability distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Naberejnev, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    The present communication addresses the topic of symmetric confidence intervals for the lognormal probability distribution. This distribution is frequently utilized to characterize inherently positive, continuous random variables that are selected to represent many physical quantities in applied nuclear science and technology. The basic formalism is outlined herein and a conjured numerical example is provided for illustration. It is demonstrated that when the uncertainty reflected in a lognormal probability distribution is large, the use of a confidence interval provides much more useful information about the variable used to represent a particular physical quantity than can be had by adhering to the notion that the mean value and standard deviation of the distribution ought to be interpreted as best value and corresponding error, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that if the uncertainty is very large a disturbing anomaly can arise when one insists on interpreting the mean value and standard deviation as the best value and corresponding error, respectively. Reliance on using the mode and median as alternative parameters to represent the best available knowledge of a variable with large uncertainties is also shown to entail limitations. Finally, a realistic physical example involving the decay of radioactivity over a time period that spans many half-lives is presented and analyzed to further illustrate the concepts discussed in this communication

  18. una experiencia de intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Villarreal Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume la experiencia de intervención con una familia de la escuela de Villa Esperanza de Pavas. Se trata de un matrimonio con dificultades para disciplinar a sus tres hijos varones de ocho, seis, y cuatro años. En primer lugar, se exponen los principios teóricos y metodológicos, para luego mostrar la aplicación de ellos en el proceso vivido por la familia. Se aplica el modelo de intervención estructural, que busca que la misma familia logre realizar, paso a paso, los cambios requeridos en la dinámica y estructura familiar. En la situación específica de esta familia, se observa el fortalecimiento de la pareja como tal y como madre y padre en la medida que van logrando asumir la autoridad en forma compartida para disciplinar a los hijos. Al compartir esta experiencia, la autora pretende estimular a profesionales en Orientación a asumir el reto de considerar a las familias de la comunidad estudiantil, de las instituciones educativas donde laboran, como parte importante en el quehacer orientador.

  19. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  20. Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulė Sipavičienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n=18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7 yr participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72 h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue between the two menstrual cycle phases were small.

  1. The Mini-OAKHQOL for knee and hip osteoarthritis quality of life was obtained following recent shortening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Francis; Rat, Anne-Christine; Goetz, Christophe; Spitz, Elisabeth; Pouchot, Jacques; Coste, Joël

    2016-01-01

    To develop a short form of the knee and hip osteoarthritis quality of life questionnaire, the Mini-OAKHQOL, preserving the conceptual model and, as far as possible, the content and the psychometric properties of the original instrument. A two-step shortening procedure was used: (1) a consensus Delphi method, with a panel of patients and another of professionals independently asked to select items and (2) a nominal group, where patients, professionals, and methodologists reached consensus on the final selection of items, using information from the panels and from modern measurement and classical test theory analyses. The psychometric properties of the Mini-OAKHQOL were assessed in an independent population-based sample of 581 subjects with knee or hip osteoarthritis. The two-step shortening procedure resulted in a 20-item questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis showed preservation of the original five-dimensional structure. Rasch analyses showed the unidimensionality and invariance by sex, age, and joint of the main dimensions. Convergent validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were similar to or better than those of the original OAKHQOL. The 20-item Mini-OAKHQOL has good psychometric properties and can be used for the measurement of quality of life in subjects with osteoarthritis of the lower limbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the seismically imaged Tuscarora fold system and implications for layer parallel shortening in the Pennsylvania salient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Van S.; Wilkins, Scott; Comiskey, Cody S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tuscarora fold system (TFS) is located in the Pennsylvania salient in the foreland of the Valley and Ridge province. The TFS is imaged in high quality 3D seismic data and comprises a system of small-scale folds within relatively flat-lying Lower Silurian Tuscarora Formation strata. We characterize the TFS structures and infer layer parallel shortening (LPS) directions and magnitudes associated with deformation during the Alleghany Orogeny. Previously reported LPS data in our study area are from shallow Devonian and Carboniferous strata (based on outcrop and core analyses) above the shallowest of three major detachments recognized in the region. Seismic data allows us to characterize LPS at depth in strata beneath the shallow detachment. Our LPS data (orientations and inferred magnitudes) are consistent with the shallow data leading us to surmise that LPS during Alleghanian deformation fanned around the salient and was distributed throughout the stratigraphic section - and not isolated to strata above the shallow detachment. We propose that a NW-SE oriented Alleghanian maximum principal stress was perturbed by deep structure associated with the non-linear margin of Laurentia resulting in fanning of shortening directions within the salient.

  3. Intramedullary stabilization and over-nail lengthening as two-stage treatment of femoral nonunion with shortening. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kącki, Wojciech; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Radło, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Nonunion is one of the most serious complications of long bone fractures. It may be accompanied by a shortening of the segment. The authors describe the case of a 21-year-old woman with a post-traumatic nonunion with shortening of the femur. Treatment was divided into two stages: first, a previously placed nail was removed and new intramedullary stabilization was carried out while bone defects were filled with a bone graft substitute and platelet rich plasma was administered. After the nonunion had healed, the femur was lengthened over an external fixator and an intramedullary nail, resulting in equality of limb length. After eight years of follow-up, the lower limbs remain equal with a properly aligned long axis of the lower limb operated on and a full range of motion in the joints. The treatment strategy described in our article may be an alternative to one-stage surgery if the patient does not consent to it or in the presence of contraindications, but it is associated with a longer treatment time and necessity of additional surgeries.

  4. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  5. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  6. Interval-based reconstruction for uncertainty quantification in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczak, Florentin; Loquin, Kevin; Buvat, Irène; Strauss, Olivier; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2018-02-01

    A new directed interval-based tomographic reconstruction algorithm, called non-additive interval based expectation maximization (NIBEM) is presented. It uses non-additive modeling of the forward operator that provides intervals instead of single-valued projections. The detailed approach is an extension of the maximum likelihood—expectation maximization algorithm based on intervals. The main motivation for this extension is that the resulting intervals have appealing properties for estimating the statistical uncertainty associated with the reconstructed activity values. After reviewing previously published theoretical concepts related to interval-based projectors, this paper describes the NIBEM algorithm and gives examples that highlight the properties and advantages of this interval valued reconstruction.

  7. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  8. Tracking gauge symmetry factorizability on intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc-Khanh Tran

    2006-01-01

    We track the gauge symmetry breaking pattern by boundary conditions on fifth and higher-dimensional intervals. It is found that, with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions, the Kaluza-Klein decomposition in five-dimension for arbitrary gauge group can always be factorized into that for separate subsets of at most two gauge symmetries, and so is completely solvable. Accordingly, we present a simple and systematic geometric method to unambiguously identify the gauge breaking/mixing content by general set of Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions. We then formulate a limit theorem on gauge symmetry factorizability to recapitulate this interesting feature. Albeit the breaking/mixing, a particularly simple check of orthogonality and normalization of fields' modes in effective 4-dim picture is explicitly obtained. An interesting chained-mixing of gauge symmetries in higher dimensions by Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is also explicitly constructed. This study has direct applications to higgsless/GUT model building

  9. Intervals between multiple fractions per day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Assuming the linear quadratic model for dose-response curves enables the proportion of repairable damage to be calculated for any size of dose per fraction. It is given by the beta (dose squared) term, and represents a larger proportion of the total damage for larger doses per fraction, but also for late-reacting than for early-reacting tissues. For example at 2 Gy per fraction, repairable damage could represent nearly half the total damage in late-reacting tissues but only one fifth in early-reacting tissues. Even if repair occurs at the same rate in both tissues, it will obviously take longer for 50% of the damage to fade to an undetectable level (3 or 5%) than for 20% to do so. This means that late reactions require longer intervals than early reactions when multiple fraction per day radiotherapy is planned, even if the half-lives of repair are not different. (orig.)

  10. Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost Control of an Interval System with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Min

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability and guaranteed cost control for an interval system with time-varying delay. The interval system with matrix factorization is provided and leads to less conservative conclusions than solving a square root. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and the derivative of the interval time-varying delay is not a restriction, which allows a fast time-varying delay; also its applicability is broad. Based on the Lyapunov-Ktasovskii approach, a delay-dependent criterion for the existence of a state feedback controller, which guarantees the closed-loop system stability, the upper bound of cost function, and disturbance attenuation lever for all admissible uncertainties as well as out perturbation, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The criterion is derived by free weighting matrices that can reduce the conservatism. The effectiveness has been verified in a number example and the compute results are presented to validate the proposed design method.

  11. Modal interval analysis new tools for numerical information

    CERN Document Server

    Sainz, Miguel A; Calm, Remei; Herrero, Pau; Jorba, Lambert; Vehi, Josep

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an innovative new approach to interval analysis. Modal Interval Analysis (MIA) is an attempt to go beyond the limitations of classic intervals in terms of their structural, algebraic and logical features. The starting point of MIA is quite simple: It consists in defining a modal interval that attaches a quantifier to a classical interval and in introducing the basic relation of inclusion between modal intervals by means of the inclusion of the sets of predicates they accept. This modal approach introduces interval extensions of the real continuous functions, identifies equivalences between logical formulas and interval inclusions, and provides the semantic theorems that justify these equivalences, along with guidelines for arriving at these inclusions. Applications of these equivalences in different areas illustrate the obtained results. The book also presents a new interval object: marks, which aspire to be a new form of numerical treatment of errors in measurements and computations.

  12. Statistical coding and decoding of heartbeat intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems.

  13. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  14. para la intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Parada Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas de fertilidad y concepción han sido tratados habitualmente en sus dimensiones biomédicas. Sin embargo, estos problemas reclaman cada día mayor intervención de equipos interdisciplinarios que permitan una atención integral, pues la imposibilidad de concepción no sólo está asociada a limitaciones biofísicas. Este artículo se desarrolla en torno a tres cuestiones: la primera, sobre la infertilidad, su dimensión biomédica y las aproximaciones que ha propuesto la Psicología para comprender las implicaciones de este fenómeno; la segunda, sobre la pareja, resaltando las posturas orientadas a discernir su naturaleza, sus formas de funcionamiento y las condiciones que las mueven al cambio; la tercera, relacionada con la narrativa como posibilidad para comprender e interpretar los fenómenos clínicos, entre ellos, las experiencias de las parejas en procesos de fertilidad asistida.

  15. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Restricted Interval Guelph permeameter: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    A constant head permeameter system has been developed for use in small diameter boreholes with any orientation. It is based upon the original Guelph permeameter concept of using a Mariotte siphon reservoir to control the applied head. The new tool, called a Restricted Interval Guelph (RIG) permeameter uses either a single pneumatic packer or straddle packer to restrict the area through which water is allowed to flow so that the borehole wetted area is independent of the applied head. The RIG permeameter has been used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in the nonwelded rhyolitic Paintbrush Tuff. Analysis of the acquired data is based upon saturated-unsaturated flow theory that relies upon the quasi-linear approximation to estimate field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) and the a parameter (sorptive number) of the exponential relative hydraulic conductivity pressure head relationship. These results are compared with a numerical model based upon the solution of the Richards equation using a van Genuchten capillary pressure-saturation formulation. The numerical model incorporates laboratory capillary pressure versus saturation functions measured from cores taken from nearby boreholes. Comparison between the analytical and numerical approaches shows that the simple analytic model is valid for analyzing the data collected. Sensitivity analysis performed with the numerical model shows that the RIG permeameter is an effective tool for estimating permeability and sorptive number for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff

  17. Statistical coding and decoding of heartbeat intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Lucena

    Full Text Available The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems.

  18. Two-sorted Point-Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbiani, Philippe; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    There are two natural and well-studied approaches to temporal ontology and reasoning: point-based and interval-based. Usually, interval-based temporal reasoning deals with points as particular, duration-less intervals. Here we develop explicitly two-sorted point-interval temporal logical framework...... whereby time instants (points) and time periods (intervals) are considered on a par, and the perspective can shift between them within the formal discourse. We focus on fragments involving only modal operators that correspond to the inter-sort relations between points and intervals. We analyze...

  19. Confidence Intervals from Normalized Data: A correction to Cousineau (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Morey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Presenting confidence intervals around means is a common method of expressing uncertainty in data. Loftus and Masson (1994 describe confidence intervals for means in within-subjects designs. These confidence intervals are based on the ANOVA mean squared error. Cousineau (2005 presents an alternative to the Loftus and Masson method, but his method produces confidence intervals that are smaller than those of Loftus and Masson. I show why this is the case and offer a simple correction that makes the expected size of Cousineau confidence intervals the same as that of Loftus and Masson confidence intervals.

  20. Presence of a nail in the medullary canal; is it enough to prevent femoral neck shortening in trochanteric fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoon, Han Kuk; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Presence of a cephalomedullary nail (CMN) in the medullary canal has been thought as advantageous in the control of femoral neck shortening (FNS) and lag screw sliding in trochanteric fracture compared to extramedullary fixation system. However, researches on the factors that influence the degree of FNS after cephalomedullary nailing are lacking. We observed 95 patients (mean age, 75±2.8 years) with trochanteric fractures who were treated with a CMN, and evaluated the relationship between FNS and patient factors including age, gender, fracture type (AO/OTA), bone mineral density, medullary canal diameter, canal occupancy ratio (COR=nail size/canal diameter), and tip-apex distance using initial, immediate postoperative, and follow-up radiography. Univariate regression analyses revealed that the degree of FNS was significantly correlated with fracture type (A1 versus A3, pfracture type (pfracture.

  1. Shortened screening method for phosphorus fractionation in sediments A complementary approach to the standards, measurements and testing harmonised protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Patricia; Rauret, Gemma; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Fermin

    2004-01-01

    The SMT protocol, a sediment phosphorus fractionation method harmonised and validated in the frame of the standards, measurements and testing (SMT) programme (European Commission), establishes five fractions of phosphorus according to their extractability. The determination of phosphate extracted is carried out spectrophotometrically. This protocol has been applied to 11 sediments of different origin and characteristics and the phosphorus extracted in each fraction was determined not only by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, but also by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The use of these two determination techniques allowed the differentiation between phosphorus that was present in the extracts as soluble reactive phosphorus and as total phosphorus. From the comparison of data obtained with both determination techniques a shortened screening method, for a quick evaluation of the magnitude and importance of the fractions given by the SMT protocol, is proposed and validated using two certified reference materials

  2. Laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication for reflux esophagitis complicated by a penetrating ulcer and shortened esophagus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Fumiaki; Omura, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Nakada, Koji; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2007-08-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old man, who was referred to us at the beginning of July 2005 with a chief complaint of difficulty with swallowing. After a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with a penetrating ulcer due to reflux esophagitis, lower esophageal stricture, Barrett esophagus, and shortened esophagus. After administration of a proton pump inhibitor and 2 sessions of endoscopic dilatation, esophagitis was cured and the stricture was eliminated. Subsequently, Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication, which seemed appropriate to certainly avoid injuring communication with the mediastinum created by the penetrating ulcer and provide radical cure, were performed laparoscopically. The patient made a good postoperative progress, was discharged on the 11th hospital day, and is now being followed up on an outpatient basis. There have been no signs of recurrence of esophagitis, and the penetrating ulcer was cured. To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication in the English literature.

  3. Phenytoin shortens the half-life of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer misonidazole in man: implications for possible reduced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, P.; Bleehen, N.M.; Wiltshire, C.R.; Cambridge Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Results are described of a preliminary study of the effects of phenytoin, (commonly used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of patients with brain tumours), on the plasma pharmacokinetics of misonidazole (MISO) in man. Previous studies have shown that pretreatment with phenytoin shortens the half-life of MISO in dogs and mice by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, and also reduces the acute lethal effects of MISO in mice. In this study patients with various types of malignancy and with cerebral metastases were given MISO before and after a course of phenytoin. Others were assessed as controls without phenytoin administration. Plasma concentrations of MISO were determined in blood samples taken before and at various times after administration. A summary of the pharmacokinetic data obtained is given. (author)

  4. Postsystolic Shortening by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a novel marker of contractile dysfunction in the myocardium. Our objective was to assess the prognostic potential of PSS on cardiovascular events and death in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study design consisted...... of a prospective cohort study of 1296 low-risk participants from the general population, who were examined by speckle tracking echocardiography. The primary end point was the composite of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs...... as having MACEs and 236 participants (18%) died. Increasing number of walls with PSS predicted both end points, an association that persisted after adjustment for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, global longitudinal strain, hypertension, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, LV mass...

  5. Diagnostic Utility of the Shortened Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Patients With Sporadic Late Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Luis; Martín, Javier; López, Carolina

    2017-12-01

    The classic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) consists of correctly sorting 128 cards according to changing sorting criteria. Its application is costly in terms of the time employed, with all the negative consequences this entails (decrease in motivation, frustration, and fatigue). The main objective of this study was to test the usefulness of the shortened version of the WCST as compared to the full test by analyzing the equivalence between the two decks comprising the full 128-card version on a sample of patients diagnosed with sporadic late onset Alzheimer disease (SLOAD) and to check its clinical usefulness. The variables showed equivalence between the two decks and their ability to differentiate between the control group (CG) and the Alzheimer disease (AD) group. The scores obtained suggest equivalence between decks and that the application of only the first deck is sufficient.

  6. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Effectivity of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L. Gel Extract in Shortening Bleeding Time After Deciduous Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tedjasulaksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an Indonesian traditional medicine, betel leafis often used to stop nosebleed. Effective substances in betel leaves which serves to stop the bleeding is tannin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the betel leaf ethanol extract gel shortened bleeding time after the revocation of deciduous teeth. Method: This research was conducted at the Department of Dental Nursing Clinic, Health Polytechnic Denpasar.This study is pure experimental research design with Completely Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The total sample of 27 respondents were divided into a treatment group and two control groups. Anterior deciduous teeth on the physiological loose grade 3 or 4 is extracted, then the tooth socket is put pure gel for group 1 to group 2, epinephrine gel and gel ethanol extract of betel leaf for group 3. The bleeding time is calculated from the first moment the blood out until there is blood on filter paper that is placed on the tooth socket. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive test and comparability test with One Way Anova. Result: The results showed bleeding time pure gel groups differ significantly with epinephrine group and the group of ethanol extract of betel leaf gel (p< 0.05. Bleeding time of epinephrine group did not differ significantly with betel leaf ethanol extract group (p>0.05. Conclusion: This means ethanol gel betel leaf extract can shorten bleeding after deciduous tooth extraction and it is suggested that the use of gel ethanol extract of betel leaves to cope with bleeding after tooth extraction.

  8. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  9. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads® Using Vibration and a Sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Takefumi; Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads ® ) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  10. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads{sup ®} Using Vibration and a Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp; Nitta, Norihisa [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamamoto, Takefumi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Central Research Laboratory (Japan); Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads{sup ®}) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  11. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  12. Validating the shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) in a sample of children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou; Speechley, Kathy N; Ferro, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the newly developed shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) in a sample of children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Data came from 136 children enrolled in the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Study (PEPSQOL), a multicenter prospective cohort study. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the higher-order factor structure of the QOLCE-55. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlating subscales of the KIDSCREEN-27 with the QOLCE-55. Measurement equivalence of the QOLCE-55 was evaluated using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis of children with drug-resistant epilepsy from PEPSQOL versus children with new-onset epilepsy from HERQULES (Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study). The higher-order factor structure of the QOLCE-55 demonstrated adequate fit: Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.948; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.946; Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.060 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.054-0.065); Weighted Root Mean Square Residuals (WRMR) = 1.247. Higher-order factor loadings were strong, ranging from λ = 0.74 to 0.81. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (α = 0.97, subscales α > 0.82). QOLCE-55 subscales demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with similar subscales of the KIDSCREEN-27 (ρ = 0.43-0.75) and weak to moderate correlations with dissimilar subscales (ρ = 0.25-0.42). The QOLCE-55 demonstrated partial measurement equivalence at the level of strict invariance - χ 2 (2,823) = 3,727.9, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.049 (0.044, 0.053), WRMR = 1.834. The findings provide support for the factor structure of the QOLCE-55 and contribute to its robust psychometric profile as a reliable and valid measure. Researchers and health practitioners should consider the QOLCE-55 as a viable option for reducing respondent burden when assessing health-related quality of life

  13. Shortened strongyle-type egg reappearance periods in naturally infected horses treated with moxidectin and failure of a larvicidal dose of fenbendazole to reduce fecal egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Smith, A R; Lyons, E T

    2010-10-29

    Deworming horses with anthelmintics that have activity against encysted small strongyle larvae (L(3) and L(4)) is a common practice in parasite control programs. The two drugs currently available for this use are moxidectin (MOX) administered in a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg and fenbendazole (FBZ) given at the larvicidal dose (10mg/kg for 5 days). Here, we report the efficacy of MOX and the larvicidal dose of FBZ for reducing counts of strongyle-type eggs per gram of feces in naturally infected horses. Fecal egg counts (FECs) of 15 yearlings were observed following deworming. On day 0, 6 of the 15 yearlings were administered a larvicidal dose of FBZ; 14 days later, all 15 yearlings received MOX at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg. Feces were collected on day 0 for pre-treatment egg counts. Feces were collected at weekly intervals thereafter during FEC observation periods. FECs of FBZ-treated horses were compared at day 0 and 14 days post-treatment. The difference in means pre- and post-treatment with FBZ was not statistically significant (p=0.65). On days 0 and 42 of the MOX treatment observation period the mean FEC of the yearlings that had not received the FBZ treatment did not differ significantly from that of the FBZ-treated yearlings. MOX was effective in reducing fecal egg counts to 0 EPG for 21 days. At day 35 all but 2 of the yearlings had some eggs present (range=4-361 EPG) and at day 42 all but 1 yearling had eggs present (range=3-432 EPG). At day 42 the group mean FEC reduction had fallen from 100% to 67%. Results of this study do not support the use of the larvicidal dose of FBZ for small strongyle control. Larger field studies will be needed to investigate whether egg reappearance periods are shortening for MOX-treated horses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Traces of times past : Representations of temporal intervals in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2011-01-01

    Theories of time perception typically assume that some sort of memory represents time intervals. This memory component is typically underdeveloped in theories of time perception. Following earlier work that suggested that representations of different time intervals contaminate each other (Grondin,

  15. VT Mile Points - 1/10-Mile Intervals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The mile points data layer is comprised of discrete locations based on specific measured intervals along a route. These intervals are represented along a...

  16. Effect of interval training programme on pulse pressure in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... The exercise (work: rest ratio of 1:1) groups involved in an 8-weeks interval training programs of ... Conclusion: Moderate intensity interval training programs is effective in the non-pharmacological management of

  17. Short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition of TMS-evoked EEG potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premoli, Isabella; Király, Julia; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Zipser, Carl M; Rossini, Pierre; Zrenner, Christoph; Ziemann, Ulf; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2018-03-15

    Inhibition in the human motor cortex can be probed by means of paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) at interstimulus intervals of 2-3 ms (short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI) or ∼100 ms (long-interval intracortical inhibition, LICI). Conventionally, SICI and LICI are recorded as motor evoked potential (MEP) inhibition in the hand muscle. Pharmacological experiments indicate that they are mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors, respectively. SICI and LICI of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) and their pharmacological properties have not been systematically studied. Here, we sought to examine SICI by ppTMS-evoked compared to single-pulse TMS-evoked TEPs, to investigate its pharmacological manipulation and to compare SICI with our previous results on LICI. PpTMS-EEG was applied to the left motor cortex in 16 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, testing the effects of a single oral dose 20 mg of diazepam, a positive modulator at the GABAA receptor, vs. 50 mg of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on SICI of TEPs. We found significant SICI of the N100 and P180 TEPs prior to drug intake. Diazepam reduced SICI of the N100 TEP, while baclofen enhanced it. Compared to our previous ppTMS-EEG results on LICI, the SICI effects on TEPs, including their drug modulation, were largely analogous. Findings suggest a similar interaction of paired-pulse effects on TEPs irrespective of the interstimulus interval. Therefore, SICI and LICI as measured with TEPs cannot be directly derived from SICI and LICI measured with MEPs, but may offer novel insight into paired-pulse responses recorded directly from the brain rather than muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Interval Bound Algorithm of optimizing reactor core loading pattern by using reactivity interval schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhaohu; Wang Kan; Yao Dong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We present a new Loading Pattern Optimization method - Interval Bound Algorithm (IBA). → IBA directly uses the reactivity of fuel assemblies and burnable poison. → IBA can optimize fuel assembly orientation in a coupled way. → Numerical experiment shows that IBA outperforms genetic algorithm and engineers. → We devise DDWF technique to deal with multiple objectives and constraints. - Abstract: In order to optimize the core loading pattern in Nuclear Power Plants, the paper presents a new optimization method - Interval Bound Algorithm (IBA). Similar to the typical population based algorithms, e.g. genetic algorithm, IBA maintains a population of solutions and evolves them during the optimization process. IBA acquires the solution by statistical learning and sampling the control variable intervals of the population in each iteration. The control variables are the transforms of the reactivity of fuel assemblies or the worth of burnable poisons, which are the crucial heuristic information for loading pattern optimization problems. IBA can deal with the relationship between the dependent variables by defining the control variables. Based on the IBA algorithm, a parallel Loading Pattern Optimization code, named IBALPO, has been developed. To deal with multiple objectives and constraints, the Dynamic Discontinuous Weight Factors (DDWF) for the fitness function have been used in IBALPO. Finally, the code system has been used to solve a realistic reloading problem and a better pattern has been obtained compared with the ones searched by engineers and genetic algorithm, thus the performance of the code is proved.

  19. Application of the entropic coefficient for interval number optimization during interval assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynynyka A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In solving many statistical problems, the most precise choice of the distribution law of a random variable is required, the sample of which the authors observe. This choice requires the construction of an interval series. Therefore, the problem arises of assigning an optimal number of intervals, and this study proposes a number of formulas for solving it. Which of these formulas solves the problem more accurately? In [9], this question is investigated using the Pearson criterion. This article describes the procedure and on its basis gives formulas available in literature and proposed new formulas using the entropy coefficient. A comparison is made with the previously published results of applying Pearson's concord criterion for these purposes. Differences in the estimates of the accuracy of the formulas are found. The proposed new formulas for calculating the number of intervals showed the best results. Calculations have been made to compare the work of the same formulas for the distribution of sample data according to the normal law and the Rayleigh law.

  20. A method to elicit beliefs as most likely intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the

  1. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2011-01-01

    markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...

  2. 46 CFR 176.675 - Extension of examination intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extension of examination intervals. 176.675 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.675 Extension of examination intervals. The intervals between drydock examinations and internal structural examinations...

  3. 46 CFR 61.20-17 - Examination intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination intervals. 61.20-17 Section 61.20-17... INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-17 Examination intervals. (a) A lubricant that... examination interval. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section, each tailshaft on...

  4. Rigorous Verification for the Solution of Nonlinear Interval System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We survey a general method for solving nonlinear interval systems of equations. In particular, we paid special attention to the computational aspects of linear interval systems since the bulk of computations are done during the stage of computing outer estimation of the including linear interval systems. The height of our ...

  5. DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT TRANSFER PRICING BY APPLICATION OF THE INTERVAL ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Shuvalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of the method of interval estimation of conformity of the transaction price the market price. A comparative analysis of interval and point estimate. Identified the positive and negative effects of using interval estimation.

  6. Learning about confidence intervals with software R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariela Gonçalves

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 202 1111 USAL 9 2 1311 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This work was to study the feasibility of implementing a teaching method that employs software, in a Computational Mathematics course, involving students and teachers through the use of the statistical software R in carrying out practical work, such as strengthening the traditional teaching. The statistical inference, namely the determination of confidence intervals, was the content selected for this experience. It was intended show, first of all, that it is possible to promote, through the proposal methodology, the acquisition of basic skills in statistical inference and to promote the positive relationships between teachers and students. It presents also a comparative study between the methodologies used and their quantitative and qualitative results on two consecutive school years, in several indicators. The data used in the study were obtained from the students to the exam questions in the years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, from the achievement of a working group in 2011/2012 and via the responses to a questionnaire (optional and anonymous also applied in 2011 / 2012. In terms of results, we emphasize a better performance of students in the examination questions in 2011/2012, the year that students used the software R, and a very favorable student’s perspective about

  7. Improvement of visual debugging tool. Shortening the elapsed time for getting data and adding new functions to compare/combine a set of visualized data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    The visual debugging tool 'vdebug' has been improved, which was designed for the debugging of programs for scientific computing. Improved were the following two points; (1) shortening the elapsed time required for getting appropriate data to visualize; (2) adding new functions which enable to compare and/or combine a set of visualized data originated from two or more different programs. As for shortening elapsed time for getting data, with the improved version of 'vdebug', we could achieve the following results; over hundred times shortening the elapsed time with dbx, pdbx of SX-4 and over ten times with ndb of SR2201. As for the new functions to compare/combine visualized data, it was confirmed that we could easily checked the consistency between the computational results obtained in each calculational steps on two different computers: SP and ONYX. In this report, we illustrate how the tool 'vdebug' has been improved with an example. (author)

  8. A Characterization of 2-Tree Probe Interval Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A graph is a probe interval graph if its vertices correspond to some set of intervals of the real line and can be partitioned into sets P and N so that vertices are adjacent if and only if their corresponding intervals intersect and at least one belongs to P. We characterize the 2-trees which are probe interval graphs and extend a list of forbidden induced subgraphs for such graphs created by Pržulj and Corneil in [2-tree probe interval graphs have a large obstruction set, Discrete Appl. Math. 150 (2005 216-231

  9. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  10. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean . We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  11. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, Hanne M. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  12. Shortening the xerostomia inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, W.M.; Putten, G.J. van der; Baat, C. de; Ikebe, K.; Matsuda, K.; Enoki, K.; Hopcraft, M.S.; Ling, G.Y.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan, and New Zealand. STUDY DESIGN: Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (n = 50), Australia (n

  13. Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773

  14. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  15. Potential improvement of CANDU NPP safety margins by shortening the response time of shutdown systems using FPGA based implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingke She, E-mail: jshe2@uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Jin Jiang, E-mail: jjiang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of the safety margin improvement through thermalhydraulic simulation and analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of realizing the improvement by an FPGA-based SDS1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verification of potential operating power upgrade without endangering the plant safety. - Abstract: The relationship between the peak values of critical reactor variables, such as neutronic power, inside a CANDU reactor and the speed of the response of its shutdown system has been analyzed in the event of a large loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The advantage of shortening the response time of the shutdown action has been demonstrated in term of the improved safety margin. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform has been chosen to implement such a shutdown system. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. Furthermore, connections between the speed of response of the shutdown system and the nominal operating power level of the reactor have been drawn to support for potential power upgrade for existing power plants.

  16. Transitory endolymph leakage induced hearing loss and tinnitus: depolarization, biphasic shortening and loss of electromotility of outer hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, H. P.; Reuter, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Gitter, A. H.; Fermin, C.; LePage, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    There are types of deafness and tinnitus in which ruptures or massive changes in the ionic permeability of the membranes lining the endolymphatic space [e.g., of the reticular lamina (RL)] are believed to allow potassium-rich endolymph to deluge the low [K+] perilymphatic fluid (e.g., in the small spaces of Nuel). This would result in a K+ intoxication of sensory and neural structures. Acute attacks of Meniere's disease have been suggested to be an important example for this event. The present study investigated the effects of transiently elevated [K+] due to the addition of artificial endolymph to the basolateral cell surface of outer hair cells (OHC) in replicating endolymph-induced K+ intoxication of the perilymph in the small spaces of Nuel. The influence of K+ intoxication of the basolateral OHC cell surface on the transduction was then examined. Intoxication resulted in an inhibition of the physiological repolarizing K+ efflux from hair cells. This induced unwanted depolarizations of the hair cells, interfering with mechanoelectrical transduction. A pathological longitudinal OHC shortening was also found, with subsequent compression of the organ of Corti possibly influencing the micromechanics of the mechanically active OHC. Both micromechanical and electrophysiological alterations are proposed to contribute to endolymph leakage induced attacks of deafness and possibly also to tinnitus. Moreover, repeated or long-lasting K+ intoxications of OHC resulted in a chronic and complete loss of OHC motility. This is suggested to be a pathophysiological basis in some patients with chronic hearing loss resulting from Meniere's syndrome.

  17. Summary update of the Brookhaven tritium toxicity program with emphasis on recent cytogenetic and lifetime-shortening studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.; Benz, R.D.; Hughes, W.P.; Ichimasa, Yusuke; Ikushima, Takaji; Tezuka, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    A number of years ago a multiparameter program to evaluate the toxicity of tritiated water (HTO) was undertaken in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results of most of these studies have been published and will receive brief attention. Emphasis will be placed on the unpublished studies involving the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow of mice, new biochemical information, and preliminary results on lifetime-shortening and carcinogenesis. In brief, male Hale-Stoner Brookhaven (HSB) mice maintained on HTO concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 30.0 ..mu..Ci/ml exhibited essentially the same number of SCE's per cell throughout their lifetime. Control mice showed a decrease in number of SCE's with age. The lack of a dose-response effect and the constant level of SCE's in HTO mice as compared to controls will be discussed. In the carcinogenesis study C57BL/6J male mice received various x-ray or HTO regimens. Mortality data from these and other studies in which CBA/Ca/BNL mice received single x-ray exposures or equivalent integrated dose exposures by single HTO injections will be discussed. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  18. PEP3 overexpression shortens lag phase but does not alter growth rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to acetic acid stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Bradford, C. Samuel; Cooley, Ben; Yoshinaga, Allen S.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Abeliovich, Hagai; Penner, Michael H.; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2017-01-01

    In fungi, two recognized mechanisms contribute to pH homeostasis: the plasma membrane proton-pumping ATPase that exports excess protons and the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) that mediates vacuolar proton uptake. Here, we report that overexpression of PEP3 which encodes a component of the HOPS and CORVET complexes involved in vacuolar biogenesis, shortened lag phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to acetic acid stress. By confocal microscopy, PEP3-overexpressing cells stained with the vacuolar membrane-specific dye, FM4-64 had more fragmented vacuoles than the wild-type control. The stained overexpression mutant was also found to exhibit about 3.6-fold more FM4-64 fluorescence than the wild-type control as determined by flow cytometry. While the vacuolar pH of the wild-type strain grown in the presence of 80 mM acetic acid was significantly higher than in the absence of added acid, no significant difference was observed in vacuolar pH of the overexpression strain grown either in the presence or absence of 80 mM acetic acid. Based on an indirect growth assay, the PEP3-overexpression strain exhibited higher V-ATPase activity. We hypothesize that PEP3 overexpression provides protection from acid stress by increasing vacuolar surface area and V-ATPase activity and, hence, proton-sequestering capacity. PMID:26051671

  19. The effect of varying plyometric volume on stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Mark; De Ste Croix, Mark; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Jonathan

    2017-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. A between- group repeated measures design was used. Thirty six subjects (age 20.3 ±1.6 yrs, mass 91.63 ±10.36kg, stature 182.03 ±5.24cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG) or a high volume plyometric group (HPG). Data were collected from a force plate, and measures of reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness were calculated from jump height, contact time and flight time. A significant between group × time (F = 4.01, P plyometric program. The low volume program elicited the same performance improvement in RSI as a high volume program whilst undertaking a lower dose. This suggests that strength and conditioning coaches may be able to benefit from the ability to develop more time efficient and effective plyometric programs.

  20. Double Filtration Plasma Apheresis Shortens Hospital Admission Duration of Patients With Severe Hypertriglyceridemia-Associated Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Liao, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Chia-Ming; Jheng, Jyun-Shan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Chou, Che-Yi; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2016-04-01

    The treatment effectiveness of double filtration plasma apheresis (DFPP) on severe hypertriglyceridemia-associated acute pancreatitis (STAP) has been questioned because the currently defined serum triglyceride level--1000 mg/dL--is too low for STAP. Given this, we aimed to investigate DFPP effectiveness when we elevated STAP definition to 5000 mg/dL serum triglyceride. We performed nested case-control studies for STAP patients and divided them into groups "with" or "without" DFPP. We further recruited outpatient asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia patients with STAP history, then divided them into groups "with" or "without" prophylactic DFPP once every 3 to 6 months for 2 years. We observed hospitalization duration and STAP recurrence between patients with and patients without DFPP. Twelve STAP patients receiving DFPP had a median hospitalization of 5 days, whereas 24 patients without DFPP had 10 days (P = 0.009). Six outpatient referrals with STAP history receiving prophylactic DFPP showed no STAP recurrences whereas 6 without DFPP showed 3 recurrences (P = 0.046). For the 25 patients whose serum triglyceride exceeded 5000 mg/dL, 11 receiving DFPP had median hospitalization of 5 days while 14 without DFPP had 11 days (P = 0.012). When applied to serum triglyceride in excess of 5000 mg/dL, DFPP removes oxidized and inflammatory lipoproteins, shortens hospitalization duration, and minimizes STAP recurrence.

  1. A Shortened Version of the Reasons for Living-Older Adults Scale for Clinical and Research Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Edelstein, Barry; Katz, Emma; Gallegos, Jarred V

    2018-02-26

    Older adults have elevated suicide rates, and identification of protective factors, such as reasons for living, is important in preventing suicide. The Reasons for Living-Older Adults scale (RFL-OA) is a 69-item measure of these protective factors in late life, which yields good psychometric properties. However, its length limits its utility in some clinical and research contexts where a shorter measure is ideal. The objective of this study was to create a shortened version of the RFL-OA. First, data collected previously during validation of the original RFL-OA (n = 199, age 65 and older, 65% female) were used to select 30 items, spanning all content areas, that were highly endorsed. Second, new data were collected (n = 219, age 60 and older, 52% female) with the 30-item RFL-OA and measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, religiosity, health, and social desirability to examine the measure's internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Scores on the 30-item RFL-OA exhibited strong internal consistency. The short RFL-OA demonstrated good convergent validity via significant, moderate correlations with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, and religiosity. It demonstrated adequate discriminant validity via only small correlations with disability, subjective health, and social desirability. The shorter RFL-OA has good psychometric properties among community-dwelling older adults. It may have greater utility, compared to the original 69-item measure, for clinicians and researchers with limited time but who want to assess protective factors against suicidal behavior in late life.

  2. Improved ethanol electrooxidation performance by shortening Pd-Ni active site distance in Pd-Ni-P nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Lilin; Zhu, Hengli; Chen, Yueguang; Huang, Yu; Li, Yadong; Wang, Leyu

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating oxophilic metals into noble metal-based catalysts represents an emerging strategy to improve the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, effects of the distance between the noble metal and oxophilic metal active sites on the catalytic performance have rarely been investigated. Herein, we report on ultrasmall (~5 nm) Pd-Ni-P ternary nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation. The activity is improved up to 4.95 A per mgPd, which is 6.88 times higher than commercial Pd/C (0.72 A per mgPd), by shortening the distance between Pd and Ni active sites, achieved through shape transformation from Pd/Ni-P heterodimers into Pd-Ni-P nanoparticles and tuning the Ni/Pd atomic ratio to 1:1. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the improved activity and stability stems from the promoted production of free OH radicals (on Ni active sites) which facilitate the oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison and combination with CH3CO radicals on adjacent Pd active sites.

  3. Improved ethanol electrooxidation performance by shortening Pd–Ni active site distance in Pd–Ni–P nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Lilin; Zhu, Hengli; Chen, Yueguang; Huang, Yu; Li, Yadong; Wang, Leyu

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating oxophilic metals into noble metal-based catalysts represents an emerging strategy to improve the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, effects of the distance between the noble metal and oxophilic metal active sites on the catalytic performance have rarely been investigated. Herein, we report on ultrasmall (∼5 nm) Pd–Ni–P ternary nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation. The activity is improved up to 4.95 A per mgPd, which is 6.88 times higher than commercial Pd/C (0.72 A per mgPd), by shortening the distance between Pd and Ni active sites, achieved through shape transformation from Pd/Ni–P heterodimers into Pd–Ni–P nanoparticles and tuning the Ni/Pd atomic ratio to 1:1. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the improved activity and stability stems from the promoted production of free OH radicals (on Ni active sites) which facilitate the oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison and combination with CH3CO radicals on adjacent Pd active sites. PMID:28071650

  4. MET18 Deficiency Increases the Sensitivity of Yeast to Oxidative Stress and Shortens Replicative Lifespan by Inhibiting Catalase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Qin; Liu, Xin-Guang; Zhao, Wei; Cui, Hongjing; Ruan, Jie; Yuan, Yuan; Tu, Zhiguang

    2017-01-01

    Yeast MET18 , a subunit of the cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly (CIA) machinery which is responsible for the maturation of Fe/S proteins, has been reported to participate in the oxidative stress response. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we constructed a MET18/met18Δ heterozygous mutant yeast strain and found that MET18 deficiency in yeast cells impaired oxidative stress resistance as evidenced by increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). Mechanistically, the mRNA levels of catalase A (CTA1) and catalase T (CTT1) as well as the total catalase activity were significantly reduced in MET18 -deficient cells. In contrast, overexpression of CTT1 or CTA1 in MET18 -deficient cells significantly increased the intracellular catalase activity and enhanced the resistance ability against H 2 O 2 and CHP. In addition, MET18 deficiency diminished the replicative capacity of yeast cells as evidenced by the shortened replicative lifespan, which can be restored by CTT1 overexpression, but not by CTA1 , in the MET18 -deficient cells. These results suggest that MET18 , in a catalase-dependent manner, plays an essential role in enhancing the resistance of yeast cells to oxidative stress and increasing the replicative capacity of yeast cells.

  5. Summary update of the Brookhaven tritium toxicity program with emphasis on recent cytogenetic and lifetime-shortening studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Benz, R.D.; Hughes, W.P.; Ichimasa, Yusuke; Ikushima, Takaji; Tezuka, Hideo.

    1988-01-01

    A number of years ago a multiparameter program to evaluate the toxicity of tritiated water (HTO) was undertaken in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results of most of these studies have been published and will receive brief attention. Emphasis will be placed on the unpublished studies involving the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow of mice, new biochemical information, and preliminary results on lifetime-shortening and carcinogenesis. In brief, male Hale-Stoner Brookhaven (HSB) mice maintained on HTO concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 30.0 μCi/ml exhibited essentially the same number of SCE's per cell throughout their lifetime. Control mice showed a decrease in number of SCE's with age. The lack of a dose-response effect and the constant level of SCE's in HTO mice as compared to controls will be discussed. In the carcinogenesis study C57BL/6J male mice received various x-ray or HTO regimens. Mortality data from these and other studies in which CBA/Ca/BNL mice received single x-ray exposures or equivalent integrated dose exposures by single HTO injections will be discussed. 25 refs., 4 figs

  6. Effects of Minimum and Maximum Doses of Furosemide on Fractional Shortening Parameter in Echocardiography of the New Zealand White Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roham Vali, Mohammad Nasrollahzadeh Masouleh* and Siamak Mashhady Rafie1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no data on the effect of maximum and minimum doses of furosemide on heart's work performance and amount of fractional shortening (FS in echocardiography of rabbit. This study was designed to validate probability of the mentionable effect. Twenty-four healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four equal groups. Maximum and minimum doses of furosemide were used for the first and second groups and the injection solution for the third and fourth groups was sodium chloride 0.9% which had the same calculated volumes of furosemide for the first two groups, respectively. The left ventricle FS in statutory times (0, 2, 5, 15, 30 minutes was determined by echocardiography. Measurements of Mean±SD, maximum and minimum amounts for FS values in all groups before injection and in statutory times were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant correlation between the means of FS. The results of this study showed that furosemide can be used as a diuretic agent for preparing a window approach in abdominal ultrasonography examination with no harmful effect on cardiac function.

  7. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  8. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  9. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  10. Evaluation of the Trail Making Test and interval timing as measures of cognition in healthy adults: comparisons by age, education, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotek, Włodzimierz; Łyskawa, Wojciech; Kluzik, Anna; Grześkowiak, Małgorzata; Podlewski, Roland; Żaba, Zbigniew; Drobnik, Leon

    2014-02-03

    Human cognitive functioning can be assessed using different methods of testing. Age, level of education, and gender may influence the results of cognitive tests. The well-known Trail Making Test (TMT), which is often used to measure the frontal lobe function, and the experimental test of Interval Timing (IT) were compared. The methods used in IT included reproduction of auditory and visual stimuli, with the subsequent production of the time intervals of 1-, 2-, 5-, and 7-seconds durations with no pattern. Subjects included 64 healthy adult volunteers aged 18-63 (33 women, 31 men). Comparisons were made based on age, education, and gender. TMT was performed quickly and was influenced by age, education, and gender. All reproduced visual and produced intervals were shortened and the reproduction of auditory stimuli was more complex. Age, education, and gender have more pronounced impact on the cognitive test than on the interval timing test. The reproduction of the short auditory stimuli was more accurate in comparison to other modalities used in the IT test. The interval timing, when compared to the TMT, offers an interesting possibility of testing. Further studies are necessary to confirm the initial observation.

  11. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  12. Long-term follow-up indicates unimpaired oral health-related quality of life for people having shortened dental arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.E.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and analyse OHRQoL of people with shortened dental arches (SDA) in a long-term cohort study. METHODS: All participants of a long-term cohort study on SDA who were still attending the university dental clinic and still had an SDA (SDA group) with 3-5 posterior occluding pairs

  13. Dose-effect relationships for fife shortening, tumorigenesis, and systemic injuries in mice irradiated with fission neutron or 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.; Fry, R.J.M.; Williamson, F.S.; Brennan, P.C.; Stearner, S.P.; Yang, V.V.; Crouse, D.A.; Rust, J.H.; Borak, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this research is to provide additional data on life shortening, neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases, and other systematic injuries necessary for the determination of dose-response relationships. The data are used to test existing predictive models and formulate new models which may assist with radiation risk assessment. Late somatic effects of fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor or from cobalt-60 gamma radiation are evaluated in young adult B6CF 1 mice that receive either a range of single doses or protracted doses at low dose rates; the protracted irradiation is administered over a 6-month period. After single doses of gamma radiation the relationship between radiation dose and percent life shortening appears linear whereas after single doses of fission spectrum neutrons a non-linear dose response is observed. These results suggest that estimates of radiation risk for fission spectrum neutrons should take into account the following: the curvilinearity of the neutron dose-response curve for life shortening, and the increased life shortening produced by neutron dose fractionation

  14. Interval timing in genetically modified mice: a simple paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Balci, F.; Papachristos, E. B.; Gallistel, C. R.; Brunner, D.; Gibson, J.; Shumyatsky, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a behavioral screen for the quantitative study of interval timing and interval memory in mice. Mice learn to switch from a short-latency feeding station to a long-latency station when the short latency has passed without a feeding. The psychometric function is the cumulative distribution of switch latencies. Its median measures timing accuracy and its interquartile interval measures timing precision. Next, using this behavioral paradigm, we have examined mice with a gene knockout ...

  15. One-sided interval edge-colorings of bipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casselgren, Carl Johan; Toft, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a bipartite graph with parts X and Y . An X-interval coloring of G is a proper edge coloring of G by integers such that the colors on the edges incident to any vertex in X form an interval. Denote by χ′int(G,X) the minimum k such that G has an X-interval coloring with k colors. In this p...

  16. Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....

  17. Computed Tomography Based Three-dimensional Measurements of Spine Shortening Distance After Posterior Three-column Osteotomies for the Treatment of Severe and Stiff Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Shi; Huang, Zi-Fang; Deng, Yao-Long; Fan, Heng-Wei; Sui, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yang, Jun-Lin

    2017-07-15

    Retrospective study. This study is to measure and analyze the changes of three-dimensional (3D) distances of spinal column and spinal canal at the three-column osteotomy sites and address their clinical and neurologic significance. Three-column osteotomies were developed to treat severe and stiff spine deformities with insufficient understanding on the safe limit of spine shortening and the relationship between the shortening distance of the spinal column and that of the spinal canal. Records of 52 continuous patients with severe and stiff scoliosis treated with three-column spine osteotomies at our institution from July 2013 to June 2015 were reviewed. The preoperative spinal cord function classification were type A in 31 cases, type B in 10 cases, and type C in 11 cases. The types of osteotomies carried out were extended pedicle subtraction osteotomy in nine patients and posterior vertebral column resection in 43 patients. Multimodality neuromonitoring strategies were adopted intraoperatively. 3D pre- and postoperative spine models were reconstructed from the computed tomography (CT) scans. The distances of convex and concave spinal column and the spinal canal shortening were measured and analyzed. The spinal column shortening distance (SCSD) measured on the 3D models (27.8 mm) were statistically shorter than those measured intraoperatively (32.8 mm) (P column strut graft than in those with bone-on-bone fusion (P column cannot represent that of the central spinal canal in patients with severe scoliosis. The spinal column shortening procedure in appropriately selected patient groups with bone-on-bone fusion is a viable option with the CCSD being significantly shorter than the convex SCSD. 4.

  18. How to Avoid Errors in Error Propagation: Prediction Intervals and Confidence Intervals in Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, P.; Yanai, R. D.; Buckley, H. L.; Case, B. S.; Woollons, R. C.; Holdaway, R. J.; Johnson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Calculations of forest biomass and elemental content require many measurements and models, each contributing uncertainty to the final estimates. While sampling error is commonly reported, based on replicate plots, error due to uncertainty in the regression used to estimate biomass from tree diameter is usually not quantified. Some published estimates of uncertainty due to the regression models have used the uncertainty in the prediction of individuals, ignoring uncertainty in the mean, while others have propagated uncertainty in the mean while ignoring individual variation. Using the simple case of the calcium concentration of sugar maple leaves, we compare the variation among individuals (the standard deviation) to the uncertainty in the mean (the standard error) and illustrate the declining importance in the prediction of individual concentrations as the number of individuals increases. For allometric models, the analogous statistics are the prediction interval (or the residual variation in the model fit) and the confidence interval (describing the uncertainty in the best fit model). The effect of propagating these two sources of error is illustrated using the mass of sugar maple foliage. The uncertainty in individual tree predictions was large for plots with few trees; for plots with 30 trees or more, the uncertainty in individuals was less important than the uncertainty in the mean. Authors of previously published analyses have reanalyzed their data to show the magnitude of these two sources of uncertainty in scales ranging from experimental plots to entire countries. The most correct analysis will take both sources of uncertainty into account, but for practical purposes, country-level reports of uncertainty in carbon stocks, as required by the IPCC, can ignore the uncertainty in individuals. Ignoring the uncertainty in the mean will lead to exaggerated estimates of confidence in estimates of forest biomass and carbon and nutrient contents.

  19. Indirect methods for reference interval determination - review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Haeckel, Rainer; Loh, Tze Ping; Sikaris, Ken; Streichert, Thomas; Katayev, Alex; Barth, Julian H; Ozarda, Yesim

    2018-04-19

    Reference intervals are a vital part of the information supplied by clinical laboratories to support interpretation of numerical pathology results such as are produced in clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories. The traditional method for establishing reference intervals, known as the direct approach, is based on collecting samples from members of a preselected reference population, making the measurements and then determining the intervals. An alternative approach is to perform analysis of results generated as part of routine pathology testing and using appropriate statistical techniques to determine reference intervals. This is known as the indirect approach. This paper from a working group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) aims to summarize current thinking on indirect approaches to reference intervals. The indirect approach has some major potential advantages compared with direct methods. The processes are faster, cheaper and do not involve patient inconvenience, discomfort or the risks associated with generating new patient health information. Indirect methods also use the same preanalytical and analytical techniques used for patient management and can provide very large numbers for assessment. Limitations to the indirect methods include possible effects of diseased subpopulations on the derived interval. The IFCC C-RIDL aims to encourage the use of indirect methods to establish and verify reference intervals, to promote publication of such intervals with clear explanation of the process used and also to support the development of improved statistical techniques for these studies.

  20. The Interval Stability of an Electricity Market Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the electric power market dynamic model put forward by Alvarado, an interval model of electricity markets is established and investigated in this paper pertaining to the range of demand elasticity with suppliers and consumers. The stability of an electricity market framework with demand elasticity interval is analyzed. The conclusions characterizing the interval model provided are derived by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function and using the theory of interval dynamical system in differential equations and matrix inequality theory and so forth. Applying the corollary obtained can judge the system stability by available data about demand elasticity. The obtained results are validated and illustrated by a case example.

  1. INTRINSIC TOPOLOGY AND REFINEMENT OF HUTTON UNIT INTERVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国俊; 徐罗山

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of continuous lattices to the study of the Hutton unit interval I(L). some theorems related to I(L) are pithily proved. A kind of intrinsic topologies is applied to refining the topology of I(L),and a new fuzzy unit interval,called the H(λ) unit interval,is defined.Based on the H(λ) unit interval the H(λ)-complete regularity is introduced.Also,the theory of. H(λ)-stone-ech compactifications is established

  2. Estimation of individual reference intervals in small sample sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Eller, Nanna Hurwitz

    2007-01-01

    In occupational health studies, the study groups most often comprise healthy subjects performing their work. Sampling is often planned in the most practical way, e.g., sampling of blood in the morning at the work site just after the work starts. Optimal use of reference intervals requires...... from various variables such as gender, age, BMI, alcohol, smoking, and menopause. The reference intervals were compared to reference intervals calculated using IFCC recommendations. Where comparable, the IFCC calculated reference intervals had a wider range compared to the variance component models...

  3. Electrocardiographic PR-interval duration and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Skov, Morten Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Background Because of ambiguous reports in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between PR interval and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, heart failure, and pacemaker implantation, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. MethodsWe included 293,111 individuals...... into 7 groups based on the population PR interval distribution. Cox models were used, with reference to a PR interval between 152 and 161 ms (40th to heart failure...... adjustment. A long PR interval conferred an increased risk of heart failure ( > 200 ms; HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.22-1.42; P 200 ms (HR, 3...

  4. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the “mean sojourn time.” It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs. The clinical and biological features of I-CRC should be elucidated to prevent the development of interval colon cancer.

  5. Increasing accuracy in the interval analysis by the improved format of interval extension based on the first order Taylor series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yan Long

    2018-05-01

    When the dependence of the function on uncertain variables is non-monotonic in interval, the interval of function obtained by the classic interval extension based on the first order Taylor series will exhibit significant errors. In order to reduce theses errors, the improved format of the interval extension with the first order Taylor series is developed here considering the monotonicity of function. Two typical mathematic examples are given to illustrate this methodology. The vibration of a beam with lumped masses is studied to demonstrate the usefulness of this method in the practical application, and the necessary input data of which are only the function value at the central point of interval, sensitivity and deviation of function. The results of above examples show that the interval of function from the method developed by this paper is more accurate than the ones obtained by the classic method.

  6. Huang's three-step maneuver shortens the learning curve of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Ming; Huang, Ze-Ning; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Jun, Lu; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the difference between the learning curves of different maneuvers in laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy for advanced upper gastric cancer. From January 2010 to April 2014, 53 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy via the traditional-step maneuver (group A) and 53 consecutive patients via Huang's three-step maneuver (group B) were retrospectively analyzed. No significant difference in patient characteristics were found between the two groups. The learning curves of groups A and B were divided into phase 1 (1-43 cases and 1-30 cases, respectively) and phase 2 (44-53 cases and 31-53 cases, respectively). Compared with group A, the dissection time, bleeding loss and vascular injury were significantly decreased in group B. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were found between the two maneuvers. The multivariate analysis indicated that the body mass index, short gastric vessels, splenic artery type and maneuver were significantly associated with the dissection time in group B. No significant difference in the survival curve was found between the maneuvers. The learning curve of Huang's three-step maneuver was shorter than that of the traditional-step maneuver, and the former represents an ideal maneuver for laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy.To shorten the learning curve at the beginning of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy, beginners should beneficially use Huang's three-step maneuver and select patients with advanced upper gastric cancer with a body mass index of less than 25 kg/m 2 and the concentrated type of splenic artery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. eLearning course may shorten the duration of mechanical restraint among psychiatric inpatients: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Pitkänen, Anneli; Joffe, Grigori; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

    2014-10-01

    The management of psychiatric inpatients exhibiting severely disturbed and aggressive behaviour is an important educational topic. Well structured, IT-based educational programmes (eLearning) often ensure quality and may make training more affordable and accessible. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of an eLearning course for personnel on the rates and duration of seclusion and mechanical restraint among psychiatric inpatients. In a cluster-randomized intervention trial, the nursing personnel on 10 wards were randomly assigned to eLearning (intervention) or training-as-usual (control) groups. The eLearning course comprised six modules with specific topics (legal and ethical issues, behaviour-related factors, therapeutic relationship and self-awareness, teamwork and integrating knowledge with practice) and specific learning methods. The rates (incidents per 1000 occupied bed days) and durations of the coercion incidents were examined before and after the course. A total of 1283 coercion incidents (1143 seclusions [89%] and 140 incidents involving the use of mechanical restraints [11%]) were recorded on the study wards during the data collection period. On the intervention wards, there were no statistically significant changes in the rates of seclusion and mechanical restraint. However, the duration of incidents involving mechanical restraints shortened from 36.0 to 4.0 h (median) (P eLearning course, the duration of incidents involving the use of mechanical restraints decreased. However, more studies are needed to ensure that the content of the course focuses on the most important factors associated with the seclusion-related elements. The eLearning course deserves further development and further studies. The duration of coercion incidents merits attention in future research.

  8. Warming increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and shortens the duration of hot moments in the detritusphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaomin; Razavi, Bahar S.; Holz, Maire; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Temperature effects on enzyme kinetics and on the spatial distribution of microbial hotspots are important because of their potential feedback to climate change. We used direct zymography to study the spatial distributions of enzymes responsible for P (phosphatase), C (cellobiohydrolase) and N (leucine-aminopeptidase) cycles in the rhizosphere (living roots of maize) and detritusphere (7 and 14 days after cutting shoots). Soil zymography was coupled with enzyme kinetics to test temperature effects (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C) on the dynamics and localization of these three enzymes in the detritusphere. Total hotspot areas of enzyme activity were 1.9-7.9 times larger and their extension was broader in the detritusphere compared to rhizosphere. From 10 to 30 °C, the hotspot areas enlarged by a factor of 2-24 and Vmax increased by 1.5-6.6 times; both, however, decreased at 40 °C. For the first time, we found a close positive correlation between Vmax and the areas of enzyme activity hotspots, indicating that maximum reaction rate is coupled with hotspot formation. The substrate turnover time at 30 °C were 1.7-6.7-fold faster than at 10 °C. The Km of cellobiohydrolase and phosphatase significantly increased at 30 and 40 °C, indicating high enzyme conformational flexibility, or isoenzyme production at warm temperatures. We conclude that soil warming (at least up to 30°C) increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) in the detritusphere. This, in turn, leads to faster substrate exhaustion and shortens the duration of hot moments.

  9. Lower extremity joint loads in habitual rearfoot and mid/forefoot strike runners with normal and shortened stride lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2018-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare joint loads between habitual rearfoot (hRF) and habitual mid/forefoot strikers (hFF), rearfoot (RFS) and mid/forefoot strike (FFS) patterns, and shorter stride lengths (SLs). Thirty-eight hRF and hFF ran at their normal SL, 5% and 10% shorter, as well as with the opposite foot strike. Three-dimensional ankle, knee, patellofemoral (PF) and hip contact forces were calculated. Nearly all contact forces decreased with a shorter SL (1.2-14.9% relative to preferred SL). In general, hRF had higher PF (hRF-RFS: 10.8 ± 1.4, hFF-FFS: 9.9 ± 2.0 BWs) and hip loads (axial hRF-RFS: -9.9 ± 0.9, hFF-FFS: -9.6 ± 1.0 BWs) than hFF. Many loads were similar between foot strike styles for the two groups, including axial and lateral hip, PF, posterior knee and shear ankle contact forces. Lateral knee and posterior hip contact forces were greater for RFS, and axial ankle and knee contact forces were greater for FFS. The tibia may be under greater loading with a FFS because of these greater axial forces. Summarising, a particular foot strike style does not universally decrease joint contact forces. However, shortening one's SL 10% decreased nearly all lower extremity contact forces, so it may hold potential to decrease overuse injuries associated with excessive joint loads.

  10. Quantifying the role of mantle forcing, crustal shortening and exogenic forcing on exhumation of the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagke, C.; Luijendijk, E.; Hindle, D.

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to the internal zones of orogens, where the stacking of thrust sheets can overwhelm more subtle signals, foreland basins can record long-wavelength subsidence or uplift signals caused by mantle processes. We use a new and extensive compilation of geological and thermochronology data from the North Alpine Foreland Basin to understand the dynamics of foreland basins and their interaction with surface and geodynamic processes. We quantify cooling and exhumation rates in the basin by combining published and new vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track and U-Th/He data with a new inverse burial and thermal history model, pybasin. No correlation is obvious between inferred cooling and exhumation rates and elevation, relief or tectonics. Uncertainty analysis shows that thermochronometers can be explained by cooling starting as early as the Miocene or as late as the Pleistocene. We compare derived temperature histories to exhumation estimates based on the retro-deformation of Molasse basin and the Jura mountains, and to exhumation caused by drainage reorganization and incision. Drainage reorganization can explain at most 25% of the observed cooling rates in the basin. Tectonic transport of the basin's sediments over the inclined basement of the alpine foreland as the Jura mountains shortened can explain part of the cooling signal in the western part of the basin. However, overall a substantial amount of cooling and exhumation remains unexplained by known tectonic and surface processes. Our results document basin wide exhumation that may be related to slab roll-back or other lithospheric processes. We suggest that new (U-Th)/He data from key areas close to the Alpine front may provide better constraints on the timing of exhumation.

  11. Initial laparoscopic basic skills training shortens the learning curve of laparoscopic suturing and is cost-effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Hope, William W; Korndorffer, James R; Markley, Sarah; Scott, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Laparoscopic suturing is an advanced skill that is difficult to acquire. Simulator-based skills curricula have been developed that have been shown to transfer to the operating room. Currently available skills curricula need to be optimized. We hypothesized that mastering basic laparoscopic skills first would shorten the learning curve of a more complex laparoscopic task and reduce resource requirements for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing curriculum. Medical students (n = 20) with no previous simulator experience were enrolled in an IRB-approved protocol, pretested on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing model, and randomized into 2 groups. Group I (n = 10) trained (unsupervised) until proficiency levels were achieved on 5 basic tasks; Group II (n = 10) received no basic training. Both groups then trained (supervised) on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery suturing model until previously reported proficiency levels were achieved. Two weeks later, they were retested to evaluate their retention scores, training parameters, instruction requirements, and cost between groups using t-test. Baseline characteristics and performance were similar for both groups, and 9 of 10 subjects in each group achieved the proficiency levels. The initial performance on the simulator was better for Group I after basic skills training, and their suturing learning curve was shorter compared with Group II. In addition, Group I required less active instruction. Overall time required to finish the curriculum was similar for both groups; but the Group I training strategy cost less, with a savings of $148 per trainee. Teaching novices basic laparoscopic skills before a more complex laparoscopic task produces substantial cost savings. Additional studies are needed to assess the impact of such integrated curricula on ultimate educational benefit. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. From Extension to Shortening: Tectonic Inversion Distributed in Time and Space in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro; Comas, Menchu; Lonergan, Lidia; Watts, Anthony B.

    2017-12-01

    2D seismic reflection data tied to biostratigraphical and log information from wells in the central and southeastern Alboran Sea have allowed us to constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of rifting and inversion. Normal faults, tilted basement blocks, and growth wedges reveal a thinned continental crust that formed in response to NW-SE extension. To the east, a secondary SW-NE trend of extension affects the transitional crust adjacent to the oceanic Algerian Basin. The maximum thickness of syn-rift sediments is 3.5 km, and the oldest recorded deposits are Serravallian. The WNW-ESE Yusuf fault formed a buttress separating and accommodating variable extension between two different tectonic domains: the thinned continental crust of Alboran and the oceanic spreading of the Algerian Basin. Late Tortonian to present-day NW-SE Africa/Eurasia plate convergence drove shortening and reactivation of some of the earlier extensional structures as reverse and strike-slip faults, forming complex, compartmentalised subbasins. Tectonic inversion coexisted with the formation of new faults and folds. Inversion was partial along the Habibas Basin and Al-Idrisi fault, but complete along the Alboran Ridge, where some SW-NE trending faults were perpendicular to the recent NW-SE plate convergence and were reactivated as thrusts. The WNW-ESE Yusuf fault is oblique to the convergence vector, and therefore, reactivation is mainly expressed as transpressional deformation. Volcanic rocks intruded along the Alboran Ridge and Yusuf faults during the latest stages of extension formed rheological anisotropies that localised the later inversion.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF A STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE FATIGUE PROTOCOL ON KNEE KINEMATICS DURING RUNNING IN UNTRAINED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatalas T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of an intensive stretch shortening-cycle (SSC protocol (100 plyometric jumps on knee kinematics during running on a treadmill in healthy children using 3D kinematics. Twelve healthy and untrained children volunteered. Their mean + age, height and weight was 10,1±0,5 years, 142± 6,1 cm and 37 ±4,6kg, respectively. Muscle damage of lower extremities was caused by 100 maximal intensity plyometric jumps performed as 10 sets of 10 continuous jumps with a 30 second restperiod between sets. Muscle damage indicators [delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee-joint flexion/extension angles during running on a treadmill (speed at 2.8 m/s] were assessed pre-, 0h, 24h, 48h and 72h post exercise. Kinematic data were captured at 100 Hz using a six-camera 3D motion analysis system (VICON 612. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA with five levels were utilised for the parameters. Allmuscle damage indicators revealed significant changes post- compared to pre-exercise data (p<0.05. Kinematic analysis revealed that the 100 plyometric jumps decreased knee-joint angles at different phases of stance (impact, support, push-off phase. These changes were more evident just after (0h the protocol and 48h after this, and remained till 72h post at a great extent (p<0.05. Lastly, children suffered from delayed muscle soreness on their thigh muscles which remained only 24 hours after this (p<0.05. Muscle damage causesalterations in treadmill running in knee kinematics of untrained children probable due to differentiation of their central nervous system running strategy

  14. Elastic energy within the human plantar aponeurosis contributes to arch shortening during the push-off phase of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Justin C; Challis, John H

    2016-03-21

    During locomotion, the lower limb tendons undergo stretch and recoil, functioning like springs that recycle energy with each step. Cadaveric testing has demonstrated that the arch of the foot operates in this capacity during simple loading, yet it remains unclear whether this function exists during locomotion. In this study, one of the arch׳s passive elastic tissues (the plantar aponeurosis; PA) was investigated to glean insights about it and the entire arch of the foot during running. Subject specific computer models of the foot were driven using the kinematics of eight subjects running at 3.1m/s using two initial contact patterns (rearfoot and non-rearfoot). These models were used to estimate PA strain, force, and elastic energy storage during the stance phase. To examine the release of stored energy, the foot joint moments, powers, and work created by the PA were computed. Mean elastic energy stored in the PA was 3.1±1.6J, which was comparable to in situ testing values. Changes to the initial contact pattern did not change elastic energy storage or late stance PA function, but did alter PA pre-tensioning and function during early stance. In both initial contact patterns conditions, the PA power was positive during late stance, which reveals that the release of the stored elastic energy assists with shortening of the arch during push-off. As the PA is just one of the arch׳s passive elastic tissues, the entire arch may store additional energy and impact the metabolic cost of running. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Shortened hospital stay for elective cesarean section after initiation of a fast-track program and midwifery home-care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Bjornsdottir, Thorbjörg Edda; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas

    2011-07-01

    To audit whether hospital stay shortened without increasing readmissions after implementation of fast-track methodology for elective cesarean section and characterize what influences length of stay. A fast-track program was initiated in November 2008, with a one year clinical audit and satisfaction survey. Discharge criteria were predefined and midwife home visits included if discharge was within 48 hours. Hospital stay by parity for women with elective section for singleton pregnancy between 1.11. 2008 - 31.10. 2009 (n=213, fast-track 182) was compared to 2003 (n=199) and 2007 (n=183). Readmissions and outpatient visits 2007 and 2008-9 were counted. Reasons for longer stay were recorded in fast-track, and body mass index. Median hospital stay decreased significantly from 81 to 52 hours between 2007 and 2008-9. Readmissions were four in each period and outpatient visit rates similar. In 2008-9, 66% of all women were discharged within 48 hours. Women in the fast-track program were satisfied with early discharge. Hospital stay for parous women was shorter in 2007 compared to 2003, but unchanged for nulliparas. Parity had a minimal influence on length of stay in 2008-9, although nulliparous women ≤ 25 years were more likely to stay >48 hours. Body mass index did not correlate with length of stay. Pain was rarely the reason for a longer stay in the fast-track program and 90% were satisfied with pain-medication after discharge. Most healthy women can be discharged early after singleton birth by elective cesarean, without increasing readmissions.

  16. Tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado para tuberculosis pulmonar Shortened directly observed treatment applied to the tuberculosis control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe del Carmen Alvarez-Gordillo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la posibilidad de aplicar el tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado (TAES en el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis en Chiapas, México. Material y métodos. Se evaluó la eficacia y la eficiencia del tratamiento en una cohorte de pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar confirmada por baciloscopía, que ingresaron a tratamiento con esquemas de autoadministración semisupervisión y estricta supervisión, de enero a junio de 1996. Resultados. La eficacia fue de 90.9. 97.7 y 100% para los esquemas de tratamiento autoadministrado, semisupervisado y TAES, respectivamente, mientras que la eficiencia fue de 68.1. 77.6 y 88.5% en el mismo orden. Conclusiones. Para la salud pública el TAES demostró ser la actividad más importante en el control de la tuberculosis, al elevar las tasas de curación y disminuir, por lo tanto, las fuentes de transmisión de la enfermedad.Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of the Shortened Directly Observed Treatment (DOT, S applied to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Chiapas, Mexico. Material and methods. The efficacy and efficiency of treatment was evaluated in a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis patients confirmed by baciloscopy, who were subjected to treatment under one of three different regimes, self-administered. supervised and DOT,S from January to June 1996. Results. Efficacy was 90.9%, 97.7% and 100% for self-administered, supervised and DOT,S treatment, respectively. Efficiency was 68.1%, 77.6% and 88.5% in the same order Conclusions. For public health ends, the DOT,S proved to be the most efficient in the control of tuberculosis. since healing rates were increased and this reduces sources of disease transmission.

  17. Validation of shortened 2-day sterility testing of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutic preparation on an automated culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysák, Daniel; Holubová, Monika; Bergerová, Tamara; Vávrová, Monika; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Kruzliak, Peter; Jindra, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Cell therapy products represent a new trend of treatment in the field of immunotherapy and regenerative medicine. Their biological nature and multistep preparation procedure require the application of complex release criteria and quality control. Microbial contamination of cell therapy products is a potential source of morbidity in recipients. The automated blood culture systems are widely used for the detection of microorganisms in cell therapy products. However the standard 2-week cultivation period is too long for some cell-based treatments and alternative methods have to be devised. We tried to verify whether a shortened cultivation of the supernatant from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture obtained 2 days before the cell harvest could sufficiently detect microbial growth and allow the release of MSC for clinical application. We compared the standard Ph. Eur. cultivation method and the automated blood culture system BACTEC (Becton Dickinson). The time to detection (TTD) and the detection limit were analyzed for three bacterial and two fungal strains. The Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recognized within 24 h with both methods (detection limit ~10 CFU). The time required for the detection of Bacillus subtilis was shorter with the automated method (TTD 10.3 vs. 60 h for 10-100 CFU). The BACTEC system reached significantly shorter times to the detection of Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis growth compared to the classical method (15.5 vs. 48 and 31.5 vs. 48 h, respectively; 10-100 CFU). The positivity was demonstrated within 48 h in all bottles, regardless of the size of the inoculum. This study validated the automated cultivation system as a method able to detect all tested microorganisms within a 48-h period with a detection limit of ~10 CFU. Only in case of B. subtilis, the lowest inoculum (~10 CFU) was not recognized. The 2-day cultivation technique is then capable of confirming the microbiological safety of MSC and

  18. Shortening Anesthesia Duration does not Affect Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD is one of the new methods of detoxification. This method of detoxification involves putting patients under general anesthesia and actively giving them opioid antagonists. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of anesthesia duration in UROD on severity of withdrawal syndrome. Sixty addicted patients seeking UROD procedure assigned randomly to one of the 2hr, 4hr or 6hr anesthesia duration groups. Premedication and anesthesia procedure (induction and maintenance were the same for three groups. Detoxification was done for all patients with 50 mg oral naltroxane (prior to induction and 20 mg intravenous naloxane (8 mg/bolus and 12 mg/infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were automatically measured and recorded every 5 minutes. The severity of withdrawal syndrome was measured and recorded every one hour during anesthesia, 2hours post-anesthesia, and 12 and 24 hours following the induction of anesthesia according to the Wang Scale modified by Lomier (WSMBL. Patients aged 20-58 in three groups. Three cases experienced delirium after detoxification that lasted 24 hours in one. Severity of withdrawal syndrome in patients of groups 2, 4 and 6 hour were 8.7, 7.4 and 5.1 respectively during anesthesia and 12.3, 11.1 and 13.9 after 18 hours of anesthesia. Results of this study showed that, in standard settings, UROD is a safe method for detoxification and has low complications. The withdrawal symptoms during and after anesthesia are low. Shortening the duration of anesthesia has no affect on severity of withdrawal syndrome during and after anesthesia.

  19. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  20. A probabilistic approach for representation of interval uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Kais; Rangavajhala, Sirisha; McDonald, Mark P.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a probabilistic approach to represent interval data for input variables in reliability and uncertainty analysis problems, using flexible families of continuous Johnson distributions. Such a probabilistic representation of interval data facilitates a unified framework for handling aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. For fitting probability distributions, methods such as moment matching are commonly used in the literature. However, unlike point data where single estimates for the moments of data can be calculated, moments of interval data can only be computed in terms of upper and lower bounds. Finding bounds on the moments of interval data has been generally considered an NP-hard problem because it includes a search among the combinations of multiple values of the variables, including interval endpoints. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms based on continuous optimization to find the bounds on second and higher moments of interval data. With numerical examples, we show that the proposed bounding algorithms are scalable in polynomial time with respect to increasing number of intervals. Using the bounds on moments computed using the proposed approach, we fit a family of Johnson distributions to interval data. Furthermore, using an optimization approach based on percentiles, we find the bounding envelopes of the family of distributions, termed as a Johnson p-box. The idea of bounding envelopes for the family of Johnson distributions is analogous to the notion of empirical p-box in the literature. Several sets of interval data with different numbers of intervals and type of overlap are presented to demonstrate the proposed methods. As against the computationally expensive nested analysis that is typically required in the presence of interval variables, the proposed probabilistic representation enables inexpensive optimization-based strategies to estimate bounds on an output quantity of interest.

  1. An optimal dynamic interval preventive maintenance scheduling for series systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Zhang, Zixian; Tan, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies preventive maintenance (PM) with dynamic interval for a multi-component system. Instead of equal interval, the time of PM period in the proposed dynamic interval model is not a fixed constant, which varies from interval-down to interval-up. It is helpful to reduce the outage loss on frequent repair parts and avoid lack of maintenance of the equipment by controlling the equipment maintenance frequency, when compared to a periodic PM scheme. According to the definition of dynamic interval, the reliability of system is analyzed from the failure mechanisms of its components and the different effects of non-periodic PM actions on the reliability of the components. Following the proposed model of reliability, a novel framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule with dynamic interval based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed. The framework denotes the strategies include updating strategy, deleting strategy, inserting strategy and moving strategy, which is set to correct the invalid population individuals of the algorithm. The values of the dynamic interval and the selections of PM action for the components on every PM stage are determined by achieving a certain level of system availability with the minimum total PM-related cost. Finally, a typical rotary table system of NC machine tool is used as an example to describe the proposed method. - Highlights: • A non-periodic preventive maintenance scheduling model is proposed. • A framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule problem is developed. • The interval of non-periodic PM is flexible and schedule can be better adjusted. • Dynamic interval leads to more efficient solutions than fixed interval does

  2. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  3. Evaluation of Healing Intervals of Incisional Skin Wounds of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the healing intervals among simple interrupted (SI), ford interlocking (FI) and subcuticular (SC) suture patterns in goats. We hypothesized that these common suture patterns used for closure of incisional skin wounds may have effect on the healing interval. To test this hypothesis, two ...

  4. Robotic fish tracking method based on suboptimal interval Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohong; Tang, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) research focused on tracking and positioning, precise guidance and return to dock and other fields. The robotic fish of AUV has become a hot application in intelligent education, civil and military etc. In nonlinear tracking analysis of robotic fish, which was found that the interval Kalman filter algorithm contains all possible filter results, but the range is wide, relatively conservative, and the interval data vector is uncertain before implementation. This paper proposes a ptimization algorithm of suboptimal interval Kalman filter. Suboptimal interval Kalman filter scheme used the interval inverse matrix with its worst inverse instead, is more approximate nonlinear state equation and measurement equation than the standard interval Kalman filter, increases the accuracy of the nominal dynamic system model, improves the speed and precision of tracking system. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the optimal trajectory of sub optimal interval Kalman filter algorithm is better than that of the interval Kalman filter method and the standard method of the filter.

  5. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration

  6. Verified Interval Orbit Propagation in Satellite Collision Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römgens, B.A.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verified interval integration methods enclose a solution set corresponding to interval initial values and parameters, and bound integration and rounding errors. Verified methods suffer from overestimation of the solution, i.e., non-solutions are also included in the solution enclosure. Two verified

  7. Optimization of Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking using Interval Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, E.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies interval optimization to the fixed-time multiple impulse rendezvous and docking problem. Current methods for solving this type of optimization problem include for example genetic algorithms and gradient based optimization. Unlike these methods, interval methods can guarantee that

  8. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Abstract. Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the ... Calving Interval (CI), Days Open and Pregnancy Rate. The last group of ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA. VanRaden ...

  9. T(peak)T(end) interval in long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, Jørgen Kim; Haarmark, Christian; Vedel-Larsen, Esben

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The T(peak)T(end) (T(p)T(e)) interval is believed to reflect the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Accordingly, it should be a risk factor in long QT syndrome (LQTS). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype on T(p)T(e) interval and test whether it was relat...

  10. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Abstract Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short inter- pregnancy interval among HIV- positive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at.

  11. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  12. INTERVAL STATE ESTIMATION FOR SINGULAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SYSTEMS WITH DELAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linear differential equation systems with algebraic restrictions (singular systems and a method of interval observer design for this kind of systems. The systems contain constant time delay, measurement noise and disturbances. Interval observer synthesis is based on monotone and cooperative systems technique, linear matrix inequations, Lyapunov function theory and interval arithmetic. The set of conditions that gives the possibility for interval observer synthesis is proposed. Results of synthesized observer operation are shown on the example of dynamical interindustry balance model. The advantages of proposed method are that it is adapted to observer design for uncertain systems, if the intervals of admissible values for uncertain parameters are given. The designed observer is capable to provide asymptotically definite limits on the estimation accuracy, since the interval of admissible values for the object state is defined at every instant. The obtained result provides an opportunity to develop the interval estimation theory for complex systems that contain parametric uncertainty, varying delay and nonlinear elements. Interval observers increasingly find applications in economics, electrical engineering, mechanical systems with constraints and optimal flow control.

  13. Frequency Interval Cross Gramians for Linear and Bilinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jazlan, Ahmad; Sreeram, Victor; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    In many control engineering problems, it is desired to analyze the systems at particular frequency intervals of interest. This paper focuses on the development of frequency interval cross gramians for both linear and bilinear systems. New generalized Sylvester equations for calculating the freque...

  14. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk recording intervals was studied by analysing 1220 lactation records of Friesian x Arsi crossbred cows kept in south eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Milk Recording Intervals (MRI) comparison was made at 15, 30 and 45 day's length. Accuracy was measured in terms of percentage difference between actual and estimated ...

  15. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short interpregnancy interval among HIVpositive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at r i s k o f mo t h e r ...

  16. Birth interval and its predictors among married women in Dabat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-30

    Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to ...

  17. An Analysis Of QRS Interval Of The Electrocardiogram In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was undertaken to establish the normal QRS interval of the adult Nigerian from Jos; to find significant correlation coefficients for QRS interval and the various anthropometric measurements and also to establish prediction equations for the QRS ...

  18. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  19. Numerical calculation of economic uncertainty by intervals and fuzzy numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This paper emphasizes that numerically correct calculation of economic uncertainty with intervals and fuzzy numbers requires implementation of global optimization techniques in contrast to straightforward application of interval arithmetic. This is demonstrated by both a simple case from managerial...... World Academic Press, UK. All rights reserved....

  20. Interval and continuous exercise regimens suppress neutrophil-derived microparticle formation and neutrophil-promoted thrombin generation under hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Ho, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-04-01

    Acute hypoxic exposure increases vascular thrombotic risk. The release of procoagulant-rich microparticles from neutrophils accelerates the pathogenesis of inflammatory thrombosis. The present study explicates the manner in which interval and continuous exercise regimens affect neutrophil-derived microparticle (NDMP) formation and neutrophil/NDMP-mediated thrombin generation (TG) under hypoxic condition. A total of 60 sedentary males were randomized to perform either aerobic interval training [AIT; 3-min intervals at 40% and 80% V̇O2max (maximal O2 consumption)] or moderate continuous training (MCT; sustained 60% V̇O2max) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks, or to a control (CTL) group who did not receive any form of training. At rest and immediately after hypoxic exercise test (HE, 100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min), the NDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. Before the intervention, HE (i) elevated coagulant factor VIII/fibrinogen concentrations and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), (ii) increased total and tissue factor (TF)-rich/phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed NDMP counts and (iii) enhanced the peak height and rate of TG promoted by neutrophils/NDMPs. Following the 5-week intervention, AIT exhibited higher enhancement of V̇O2max than did MCT. Notably, both MCT and AIT attenuated the extents of HE-induced coagulant factor VIII/fibrinogen elevations and aPTT shortening. Furthermore, the two exercise regimens significantly decreased TF-rich/PS-exposed NDMP formation and depressed neutrophil/NDMP-mediated dynamic TG at rest and following HE. Hence, we conclude that AIT is superior to MCT for enhancing aerobic capacity. Moreover, either AIT or MCT effectively ameliorates neutrophil/NDMP-promoted TG by down-regulating expression of procoagulant factors during HE, which may reduce thrombotic risk evoked by hypoxia. Moreover, either AIT or MCT effectively ameliorates neutrophil

  1. Testosterone-mediated upregulation of delayed rectifier potassium channel in cardiomyocytes causes abbreviation of QT intervals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kimiko; Takanari, Hiroki; Morishima, Masaki; Ma, FangFang; Wang, Yan; Takahashi, Naohiko; Ono, Katsushige

    2018-01-13

    Men have shorter rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc) than women, especially at the period of adolescence or later. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term effects of testosterone on cardiac excitability parameters including electrocardiogram (ECG) and potassium channel current. Testosterone shortened QT intervals in ECG in castrated male rats, not immediately after, but on day 2 or later. Expression of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) mRNA was significantly upregulated by testosterone in cardiomyocytes of male and female rats. Short-term application of testosterone was without effect on delayed rectifier potassium channel current (I Ks ), whereas I Ks was significantly increased in cardiomyocytes treated with dihydrotestosterone for 24 h, which was mimicked by isoproterenol (24 h). Gene-selective inhibitors of a transcription factor SP1, mithramycin, abolished the effects of testosterone on Kv7.1. Testosterone increases Kv7.1-I Ks possibly through a pathway related to a transcription factor SP1, suggesting a genomic effect of testosterone as an active factor for cardiac excitability.

  2. Timing intervals using population synchrony and spike timing dependent plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a computational model by which ensembles of regularly spiking neurons can encode different time intervals through synchronous firing. We show that a neuron responding to a large population of convergent inputs has the potential to learn to produce an appropriately-timed output via spike-time dependent plasticity. We explain why temporal variability of this population synchrony increases with increasing time intervals. We also show that the scalar property of timing and its violation at short intervals can be explained by the spike-wise accumulation of jitter in the inter-spike intervals of timing neurons. We explore how the challenge of encoding longer time intervals can be overcome and conclude that this may involve a switch to a different population of neurons with lower firing rate, with the added effect of producing an earlier bias in response. Experimental data on human timing performance show features in agreement with the model’s output.

  3. Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Cueing listeners to attend to a target talker progressively improves word report as the duration of the cue-target interval lengthens to 2,000 ms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2018-04-25

    Endogenous attention is typically studied by presenting instructive cues in advance of a target stimulus array. For endogenous visual attention, task performance improves as the duration of the cue-target interval increases up to 800 ms. Less is known about how endogenous auditory attention unfolds over time or the mechanisms by which an instructive cue presented in advance of an auditory array improves performance. The current experiment used five cue-target intervals (0, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ms) to compare four hypotheses for how preparatory attention develops over time in a multi-talker listening task. Young adults were cued to attend to a target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Visual cues indicated the target talker's spatial location or their gender. Participants directed attention to location and gender simultaneously ("objects") at all cue-target intervals. Participants were consistently faster and more accurate at reporting words spoken by the target talker when the cue-target interval was 2,000 ms than 0 ms. In addition, the latency of correct responses progressively shortened as the duration of the cue-target interval increased from 0 to 2,000 ms. These findings suggest that the mechanisms involved in preparatory auditory attention develop gradually over time, taking at least 2,000 ms to reach optimal configuration, yet providing cumulative improvements in speech intelligibility as the duration of the cue-target interval increases from 0 to 2,000 ms. These results demonstrate an improvement in performance for cue-target intervals longer than those that have been reported previously in the visual or auditory modalities.

  5. The effect of changes in core body temperature on the QT interval in beagle dogs: a previously ignored phenomenon, with a method for correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, H J; Van Deuren, B; Teisman, A; Towart, R; Gallacher, D J

    2008-08-01

    Body core temperature (Tc) changes affect the QT interval, but correction for this has not been systematically investigated. It may be important to correct QT intervals for drug-induced changes in Tc. Anaesthetized beagle dogs were artificially cooled (34.2 degrees C) or warmed (42.1 degrees C). The relationship between corrected QT intervals (QTcV; QT interval corrected according to the Van de Water formula) and Tc was analysed. This relationship was also examined in conscious dogs where Tc was increased by exercise. When QTcV intervals were plotted against changes in Tc, linear correlations were observed in all individual dogs. The slopes did not significantly differ between cooling (-14.85+/-2.08) or heating (-13.12+/-3.46) protocols. We propose a correction formula to compensate for the influence of Tc changes and standardize the QTcV duration to 37.5 degrees C: QTcVcT (QTcV corrected for changes in core temperature)=QTcV-14 (37.5 - Tc). Furthermore, cooled dogs were re-warmed (from 34.2 to 40.0 degrees C) and marked QTcV shortening (-29%) was induced. After Tc correction, using the above formula, this decrease was abolished. In these re-warmed dogs, we observed significant increases in T-wave amplitude and in serum [K(+)] levels. No arrhythmias or increase in pro-arrhythmic biomarkers were observed. In exercising dogs, the above formula completely compensated QTcV for the temperature increase. This study shows the importance of correcting QTcV intervals for changes in Tc, to avoid misleading interpretations of apparent QTcV interval changes. We recommend that all ICH S7A, conscious animal safety studies should routinely measure core body temperature and correct QTcV appropriately, if body temperature and heart rate changes are observed.

  6. Interval timing under a behavioral microscope: Dissociating motivational and timing processes in fixed-interval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Carter W; Sanabria, Federico

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of latencies and interresponse times (IRTs) of rats was compared between two fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food reinforcement (FI 30 s and FI 90 s), and between two levels of food deprivation. Computational modeling revealed that latencies and IRTs were well described by mixture probability distributions embodying two-state Markov chains. Analysis of these models revealed that only a subset of latencies is sensitive to the periodicity of reinforcement, and prefeeding only reduces the size of this subset. The distribution of IRTs suggests that behavior in FI schedules is organized in bouts that lengthen and ramp up in frequency with proximity to reinforcement. Prefeeding slowed down the lengthening of bouts and increased the time between bouts. When concatenated, latency and IRT models adequately reproduced sigmoidal FI response functions. These findings suggest that behavior in FI schedules fluctuates in and out of schedule control; an account of such fluctuation suggests that timing and motivation are dissociable components of FI performance. These mixture-distribution models also provide novel insights on the motivational, associative, and timing processes expressed in FI performance. These processes may be obscured, however, when performance in timing tasks is analyzed in terms of mean response rates.

  7. Predicting fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach and SWAT in the Miyun watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu; Qiu, Jiali; Li, Yangyang

    2017-06-01

    Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site. An interval-to-interval approach was designed and incorporated into the processes of fecal coliform calibration and validation. The 95% confidence interval of the predicted values and the 95% confidence interval of measured values were considered during calibration and validation in the interval-to-interval approach. Compared with the traditional point-to-point comparison, this method can improve simulation accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation of fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach was reasonable for the watershed. This method could provide a new research direction for future model calibration and validation studies.

  8. The effect of hyoscine butylbromide in shortening the first stage of labor: A double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Qahtani NH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nourah H Al Qahtani1 Fatma Al Hajeri21MRCOG, College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in King Fahad University Hospital, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in King Fahad University Hospital, Saudi ArabiaBackground and objectives: Hyoscine butylbromide (HBB is widely used in labor rooms. There have been many studies on the use of HBB during labor with conflicting results, involving both primiparous and multiparous women. The aim of this trial was to study the efficacy of HBB for shortening the first stage of labor in primiparous women.Methods: The study was a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Ninety-seven primigravid term pregnant women in spontaneous labor received either hyoscine butylbromide or a placebo intramuscularly once the women entered the active phase of labor. The primary outcome measured was the duration of the first stage of labor. Secondary outcomes were the duration of the second and third stages of labor, blood loss at delivery, rate of cesarean section, and Apgar scores for the neonates.Results: A total of 97 women yielded data for analysis. Of these, 45 women received the placebo and 52 received HBB. The mean duration of the first stage in the control group was 215 minutes, compared with 165 minutes in the study group, representing a decrease of 23.3% (P = 0.001. There were no significant changes in the duration of the second (P = 0.063 or third (P = 0.0418 stages of labor, and no significant differences in blood loss or Apgar scores. There was a slightly higher (but statistically insignificant rate of instrumental delivery in the control group, but no difference in the Cesarean section rate. There was a 60% reduction in opioid analgesic use in the HBB group.Conclusion: HBB is effective in significantly reducing the duration of the first stage of labor, and is not associated with any apparent adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes.Keywords: hyoscine

  9. High-intensity stretch-shortening contraction training modifies responsivity of skeletal muscle in old male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of high-intensity resistance training to counter age-related sarcopenia is currently debated because of the potential for maladaptation when training design is inappropriate. Training design is problematic because the influence of various loading variables (e.g. contraction mode, repetition number, and training frequency) is still not well characterized at old age. To address this in a precisely controlled manner, we developed a rodent model of high-intensity training consisting of maximally-activated stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), contractions typical during resistance training. With this model, we determined that at old age, high-repetition SSC training (80 SSCs: 8 sets of 10 repetitions) performed frequently (i.e. 3 days per week) for 4.5 weeks induced strength deficits with no muscle mass gain while decreasing frequency to 2 days per week promoted increases in muscle mass and muscle quality (i.e. performance normalized to muscle mass). This finding confirmed the popular notion that decreasing training frequency has a robust effect with age. Meanwhile, the influence of other loading variables remains contentious. The aim of the present study was to assess muscle adaptation following modulation of contraction mode and repetition number during high-intensity SSC training. Muscles of young (3 month old) and old (30 month old) male rats were exposed to 4.5 weeks of low-repetition static training of 4 (i.e. 4 sets of one repetition) isometric (ISO) contractions 3 days per week or a more moderate-repetition dynamic training of 40 SSCs (i.e. 4 sets of 10 repetitions) 3 days per week. For young rats, performance and muscle mass increased regardless of training protocol. For old rats, no muscle mass adaptation was observed for 4 ISO training while 40 SSC training induced muscle mass gain without improvement in muscle quality, an outcome distinct from modulating training frequency. Muscle mass gain for old rats was accompanied by

  10. Considering Time in Orthophotography Production: from a General Workflow to a Shortened Workflow for a Faster Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.

    2015-08-01

    orthophoto production faster. The shortened workflow reduces the production time by more than three whereas the positional error increases from 1 GSD to 1.5 GSD. The examination of time allocation through the production process shows that it is worth sparing time in the post-processing phase.

  11. The psychometric properties of a shortened Dutch version of the consequences scale used in the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Bruyn

    which model best represents the data, it is crucial that not only the model fit is evaluated, but the importance of factor reliability and validity issues is also taken into account. The two-factor model, identifying personal consequences and social consequences, was concluded to be the best model. This shortened Dutch version of the CADS (CADS_D is a useful tool to screen alcohol-related consequences among college students.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    , the niche for taste progenitor cells. PCR array experiments showed that the expression of cyclin B2 and E2F1, two key cell cycle regulators, was markedly downregulated by LPS in the circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Conclusions Our results show that LPS-induced inflammation inhibits taste progenitor cell proliferation and interferes with taste cell renewal. LPS accelerates cell turnover and modestly shortens the average life span of taste cells. These effects of inflammation may contribute to the development of taste disorders associated with infections.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    cells. PCR array experiments showed that the expression of cyclin B2 and E2F1, two key cell cycle regulators, was markedly downregulated by LPS in the circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Our results show that LPS-induced inflammation inhibits taste progenitor cell proliferation and interferes with taste cell renewal. LPS accelerates cell turnover and modestly shortens the average life span of taste cells. These effects of inflammation may contribute to the development of taste disorders associated with infections.

  14. Study on risk insight for additional ILRT interval extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M. R.; Hong, S. Y.; Kim, M. K.; Chung, B. S.; Oh, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    In U.S., the containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test (ILRT) interval was extended from 3 times per 10 years to once per 10 years based on NUREG-1493 'Performance-Based Containment Leak-Test Program' in 1995. In September, 2001, ILRT interval was extended up to once per 15 years based on Nuclear Energy Industry (NEI) provisional guidance 'Interim Guidance for Performing Risk Impact Assessments In Support of One-Time Extensions for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test Surveillance Intervals'. In Korea, the containment ILRT was performed with 5 year interval. But, in MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology) Notice 2004-15 'Standard for the Leak- Rate Test of the Nuclear Reactor Containment', the extension of the ILRT interval to once per 10 year can be allowed if some conditions are met. So, the safety analysis for the extension of Yonggwang Nuclear (YGN) Unit 1 and 2 ILRT interval extension to once per 10 years was completed based on the methodology in NUREG-1493. But, during review process by regulatory body, KINS, it was required that some various risk insight or index for risk analysis should be developed. So, we began to study NEI interim report for 15 year ILRT interval extension. As previous analysis based on NUREG-1493, MACCS II (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) computer code was used for the risk analysis of the population, and the population dose was selected as a reference index for the risk evaluation

  15. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  16. Confidence intervals for correlations when data are not normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Anthony J; Hittner, James B

    2017-02-01

    With nonnormal data, the typical confidence interval of the correlation (Fisher z') may be inaccurate. The literature has been unclear as to which of several alternative methods should be used instead, and how extreme a violation of normality is needed to justify an alternative. Through Monte Carlo simulation, 11 confidence interval methods were compared, including Fisher z', two Spearman rank-order methods, the Box-Cox transformation, rank-based inverse normal (RIN) transformation, and various bootstrap methods. Nonnormality often distorted the Fisher z' confidence interval-for example, leading to a 95 % confidence interval that had actual coverage as low as 68 %. Increasing the sample size sometimes worsened this problem. Inaccurate Fisher z' intervals could be predicted by a sample kurtosis of at least 2, an absolute sample skewness of at least 1, or significant violations of normality hypothesis tests. Only the Spearman rank-order and RIN transformation methods were universally robust to nonnormality. Among the bootstrap methods, an observed imposed bootstrap came closest to accurate coverage, though it often resulted in an overly long interval. The results suggest that sample nonnormality can justify avoidance of the Fisher z' interval in favor of a more robust alternative. R code for the relevant methods is provided in supplementary materials.

  17. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.J.R.; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.C.; Lee, A.H.S.; Chakrabarti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups

  18. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: garethporter@doctors.org.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Burrell, H.C. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chakrabarti, J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups.

  19. Sonographic Characteristics and Interval Changes of Subacute Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the sonographic characteristics and interval changes of subacute thyroiditis using follow-up sonography. From January 2008 to December 2014, 85 patients with clinically suspected subacute thyroiditis underwent sonographic examinations by a single radiologist. Subacute thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the clinical, sonographic, and cytohistopathologic findings. On the initial and follow-up sonograms, the individual sonographic findings and interval changes were retrospectively investigated by the same radiologist. According to the sonographic configuration, subacute thyroiditis lesions were categorized as nodular or non-nodular. The interval changes in the lesions were classified as follows: "disappeared," "decreased," "increased," "eventually smaller," "eventually larger," or "no interval change." Subacute thyroiditis was confirmed in 64 of the 85 patients. In these 64 patients, nodular (n = 39) and non-nodular (n = 35) lesions were found; 10 patients had both nodular and non-nodular lesions. Of the 64 patients, 41 underwent sonographic follow-up. In both nodular and non-nodular lesions, the common interval changes included disappeared, decreased, and eventually smaller patterns. Although the increased pattern was found only in 4 nodular lesions, there was no significant difference in the interval changes between nodular and non-nodular lesions. On follow-up sonography, a new lesion was detected in 6 patients. The prevalence rate of nodular subacute thyroiditis lesions on sonography was high, and the interval changes in the lesions were variable.

  20. OC30 - Fracture reduction with nitrous oxide at the children's emergency department shortens the length of stay and reduces the use of full anaesthesia in the operating department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sigrid; Wentzel, Anna-Pia; Ekstrom, Malin

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Accreditation and quality improvement. Dislocated fractures are common in the children's emergency department (ER). All forms of fracture reduction are very painful requiring nitrous oxide. The purpose is to shorten the length of stay in the hospital as well as sustain a high quality of care. All nurses received theoretical and practical training in the use of nitrous oxide. Evaluations with the families were made by telephone. A total of 40 enclosed fracture reductions were made at the ER, leading to a reduction of 33 patients in the operating department and the length of stay was shortened - this compared to the same time in 2014. No adverse event was reported and no patient felt any increase in pain during the treatment. All patients would repeat the procedure if necessary. The treatment has reduced the length of stay in the hospital without affecting the other patients in the ER or the quality of care.

  1. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years...

  2. MRI of the rotator interval of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Guy, S.; Connell, D.; Saifuddin, A.; Lambert, S.

    2007-01-01

    The rotator interval of the shoulder joint is located between the distal edges of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons and contains the insertions of the coracohumeral and superior glenohumeral ligaments. These structures form a complex pulley system that stabilizes the long head of the biceps tendon as it enters the bicipital groove of the humeral head. The rotator interval is the site of a variety of pathological processes including biceps tendon lesions, adhesive capsulitis and anterosuperior internal impingement. This article describes the anatomy, function and pathology of the rotator interval using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  3. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  4. Unpacking a time interval lengthens its perceived temporal distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In quantity estimation, people often perceive that the whole is less than the sum of its parts. The current study investigated such an unpacking effect in temporal distance judgment. Our results showed that participants in the unpacked condition judged a given time interval longer than those in the packed condition, even the time interval was kept constant between the two conditions. Furthermore, this unpacking effect persists regardless of the unpacking ways we employed. Results suggest that unpacking a time interval may be a good strategy for lengthening its perceived temporal distance.

  5. The Role of Higher Harmonics In Musical Interval Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Using an alternative parameterization of the roughness curve we make direct use of critical band results to investigate the role of higher harmonics on the perception of tonal consonance. We scale the spectral amplitudes in the complex home tone and complex interval tone to simulate acoustic signals of constant energy. Our analysis reveals that even with a relatively small addition of higher harmonics the perfect fifth emerges as a consonant interval with more, musically important, just intervals emerging as consonant as more and more energy is shifted into higher frequencies.

  6. Risk prediction of cardiovascular death based on the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Graff, Claus; Rasmussen, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    electrocardiograms from 173 529 primary care patients aged 50-90 years were collected during 2001-11. The Framingham formula was used for heart rate-correction of the QT interval. Data on medication, comorbidity, and outcomes were retrieved from administrative registries. During a median follow-up period of 6......AIMS: Using a large, contemporary primary care population we aimed to provide absolute long-term risks of cardiovascular death (CVD) based on the QTc interval and to test whether the QTc interval is of value in risk prediction of CVD on an individual level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Digital...

  7. Time interval measurement between two emissions: Ar + Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Hamdani, T.; Horn, D.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Ar + Au system was studied at two bombarding energies, 30 and 60 A.MeV. The comparison of the distributions of fragment emission angles in central collisions was carried out by means of a simulation allowing the emission time interval variation. It was found that this interval depends on the bombarding energy (i.e. deposed excitation energy).For 30 A.MeV this interval is 500 fm/c (0.33 · 10 -23 s), while for 60 A.MeV it is so short that the multifragmentation concept can be used

  8. Time interval approach to the pulsed neutron logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Su Weining

    1994-01-01

    The time interval of neighbouring neutrons emitted from a steady state neutron source can be treated as that from a time-dependent neutron source. In the rock space, the neutron flux is given by the neutron diffusion equation and is composed of an infinite terms. Each term s composed of two die-away curves. The delay action is discussed and used to measure the time interval with only one detector in the experiment. Nuclear reactions with the time distribution due to different types of radiations observed in the neutron well-logging methods are presented with a view to getting the rock nuclear parameters from the time interval technique

  9. Thick-skinned tectonics in a Late Cretaceous-Neogene intracontinental belt (High Atlas Mountains, Morocco): The flat-ramp fault control on basement shortening and cover folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, A.; Ouanaimi, H.; Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Ettachfini, E. M.; Berrada, I.; El Arabi, H.; Lagnaoui, A.; Saddiqi, O.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the structural studies of the intracontinental High Atlas belt of Morocco have dealt with the central part of the belt, whose basement does not crop out. Here we study the Alpine deformation of the North Subatlas Zone, which is the part of the Western High Atlas (WHA) Paleozoic Massif that involves both Paleozoic basement units and remnants of their Mesozoic-Cenozoic cover formations. Our aim is to better constrain the geometry and kinematics of the basement faults during the Alpine shortening. Based on detail mapping, satellite imagery and field observations, we describe an array of sub-equatorial, transverse and oblique faults between the WHA Axial Zone and the Haouz Neogene basin. They define a mosaic of basement blocks pushed upon one another and upon the Haouz basement along the North Atlas Fault (NAF). The Axial Zone makes up the hanging-wall of the Adassil-Medinet Fault (AMF) south of this mosaic. The faults generally presents flat-ramp-flat geometry linked to the activation of multiple décollement levels, either within the basement where its foliation is subhorizontal or within favourable cover formations (Jurassic evaporites, Lower Cretaceous silty red beds, Upper Cretaceous evaporitic marls, Neogene basal argillites). The occurrence of the North Atlas detachment (NAD) allowed folded pop-up units to develop in front of the propagating NAF. Shortening began as early as the Campanian-Maastrichtian along the AMF. The direction of the maximum horizontal stress rotated from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE from the Maastrichtian-Paleocene to the Neogene. The amount of shortening reaches 20% in the Azegour transect. This compares with the shortening amount published for the central-eastern High Atlas, suggesting that similar structures characterize the Paleozoic basement all along the belt. The WHA thick-skinned tectonics evokes that of the frontal Sevier belt and of the external Western Alps, although with a much minor pre-inversion burial.

  10. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature dependent fluorescence......We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  11. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    2013-01-01

    steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence......We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of a New Shortened Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Procedure for Species Identification of Select Gram-Negative Bacilli from Blood Cultures▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Margie; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Salimnia, Hossein; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Wu, Fann; Crystal, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    A shortened protocol for two peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assays for the detection of Gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures was evaluated in a multicenter trial. There was 100% concordance between the two protocols for each assay (368 of 368 and 370 of 370 results) and 99.7% (367 of 368 and 369 of 370 results) agreement with routine laboratory techniques. PMID:20357212

  13. Evaluating the superiority of honey over silver sulphadiazine dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury: an evidence-based case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy S. Sopandi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Burn injury is a global health problem associated with major morbidity and mortality. Honey has long been used in wound management due to its ability to accelerate healing rates and prevent infection. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of honey dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury compared to silver sulphadiazine (SSD).Methods: A PubMed and Proquest database search was conducted to identify relevant studies. The studies were then appraised and ranke...

  14. Differences in the performance tests of the fast and slow stretch and shortening cycle among professional, amateur and elite youth soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Keiner, Michael; Sander, Andre; Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether physical attributes can differentiate between professional, amateur and elite youth soccer players; such a distinction could aid in the selection process for youth soccer. Therefore, this investigation evaluated a suspected difference in the performance tests of the slow and fast stretch and the shortening cycle (squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], and drop jump from varying heights [DJ]) among professional, amateur and elite youth s...

  15. Effect of kinesiotaping in shortening rehabilitation deadlines in sportsmen operated of anterior cruciate ligament : Randomized clinical trial, double blinded and multicentre

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Vargas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is not much scientific evidence available about this application of kinesiotaping (KNT) due to it being a new and recent technique of application in physiotherapy world. This study is pioneer in demonstrating the effectiveness of KNT in shortening deadlines of recuperation time after a cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Objectives: To demonstrate the capacity of KNT to recover the correct muscular tone in hamstrings and this make a reduction in recovery times after an ACL surg...

  16. Calcite Twinning in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, Delaware Water Gap, New Jersey, USA: Implications for Cleavage Formation and Tectonic Shortening in the Appalachian Piedmont Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Craddock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A traverse across the Stone Church syncline in the Ordovician Martinsburg turbidites reveals an axial planar cleavage (N40°E, SE dips in regional thrust-related folds (N40°E, shallow plunges and five phases of sparry calcite. Calcite fillings are bedding-parallel, cleavage-parallel, and one vein set cross-cuts both earlier phases; the youngest calcite filling is a bedding-parallel fault gouge that crosscuts the cleavage and preserves top-down-to-the-southeast normal fault kinematics. Calcite veins unique to disharmonically-folded calcareous siltstones (Maxwell, 1962 were also analyzed. Stable isotopic analysis (O, C of all of the calcite phases indicates a uniform fluid source (δ13C −2.0, δ18O −13.3 VPDB and, potentially, a similar precipitation and mechanical twinning age. The twinning strains (n = 1341; average Δσ = −32 MPa; average ε1 = −2.9% in the calcite suite are consistent with SE-NW thrust shortening, and sub-horizontal shortening perpendicular to evolving axial planar cleavage planes in the Stone Church syncline. Calcareous siltstone layers within the Martinsburg Fm. turbidites share concordant bedding planes and are unique, chemically (XRF, but folded and cleaved differently than the surrounding clay-rich Martinsburg turbidites. Neither sediment type yielded detrital zircons. Electron backscatter X-ray diffraction (EBSD and calcite twinning results in a folded calcareous siltstone layer preserving a layer-normal SE-NW shortening strain and Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO. Shortening axes for the five-phase calcite suite trends ~N40°W, consistent with tectonic transport associated with crystalline nappe emplacement of the Reading Prong within the Piedmont province.

  17. Evaluating the superiority of honey over silver sulphadiazine dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury: an evidence-based case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy S. Sopandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injury is a global health problem associated with major morbidity and mortality. Honey has long been used in wound management due to its ability to accelerate healing rates and prevent infection. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of honey dressing in shortening healing duration of burn injury compared to silver sulphadiazine (SSD.Methods: A PubMed and Proquest database search was conducted to identify relevant studies. The studies were then appraised and ranked based on their validity, importance, and level of evidence.Results: The two studies appraised in this paper supported the supremacy of honey against SSD in shortening healing duration. However, the individual quality of studies involved was low.Conclusion: Honey is an alternative treatment in shortening burn wound healing duration. Further studies are needed to support clinical application of this conclusion. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:243-7. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.608 Keywords: Burn injury, healing duration, honey, silver sulfadiazine

  18. MÉTODO SIMPLES PARA ESTIMAR ENCURTAMENTO PELO FRIO EM CARNE BOVINA A SIMPLE METHOD TO ESTIMATE COLD SHORTENING IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available É bem conhecido o fato de que o encurtamento pelo frio pode influenciar negativamente a textura da carne. Por isso, a determinação do grau de contração do tecido muscular é um recurso analítico de grande importância quando se estuda a otimização dos procedimentos industriais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas comparativamente duas metodologias de microscopia. Para isso, os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus obtidos de nove carcaças bovinas com três diferentes graus de acabamento foram analisados de forma pareada por ambos os métodos. O músculo Longissimus dorsi apresentou menor comprimento de sarcômero e o m. Semimembranosus o maior (p0,05, revelando a possibilidade de emprego do método mais simples.The negative influence of cold shortening on meat texture is well known. Because of that, the determination of the muscle contraction extent represents an important analytical tool for the optimization of the industrial procedures. In this work, two methodologies to evaluate cold shortening were compared. Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles from 9 cattle carcasses with three different fat thickness grades were paired analyzed by both methodologies. Longissimus dorsi muscle showed the shortest sarcomere length while Semimembranosus m. showed the longest one (p0.05, which suggests the possibility of using the simpler method for cold shortening evaluation.

  19. Eocene to Miocene Out-of-Sequence Deformation in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights From Shortening Structures in the Sichuan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuntao; Kohn, Barry P.; Qiu, Nansheng; Yuan, Yusong; Hu, Shengbiao; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Zhang, Peizhen

    2018-02-01

    A distinctive NNE trending belt of shortening structures dominates the topography and deformation of the eastern Sichuan Basin, 300 km east of the Tibetan Plateau. Debate continues as to whether the structures resulted from Cenozoic eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau. A low-temperature thermochronology (AFT and AHe) data set from four deep boreholes and adjacent outcrops intersecting a branch of the shortening structures indicates distinctive differential cooling at 35-28 Ma across the structure, where stratigraphy has been offset vertically by 0.8-1.3 km. This result forms the first quantitative evidence for the existence of a late Eocene-Oligocene phase of shortening in the eastern Sichuan Basin, synchronous with the early phase of eastward growth and extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau. Further, a compilation of regional Cenozoic structures reveals a Miocene retreat of deformation from the foreland basin to the hinterland areas. Such a tectonic reorganization indicates that Eocene to Miocene deformation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau is out-of-sequence and was probably triggered by enhanced erosion in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Ibrutinib does not prolong the corrected QT interval in healthy subjects: results from a thorough QT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jan; Hellemans, Peter; Jiao, James Juhui; Huang, Yuhan; Mesens, Sofie; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Ouellet, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    Ibrutinib is an orally administered, irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of B-cell malignancy. This study evaluated the effects of single-dose ibrutinib at therapeutic and supratherapeutic exposures on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects. Part 1 used an open-label, two-period sequential design to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of single doses of ibrutinib 840 and 1680 mg in eight subjects. Part 2 was a randomized, placebo- and positive (moxifloxacin)-controlled, double-blind, single dose, four-way cross-over study to assess the effect of ibrutinib (840 and 1680 mg) on QT/QTc interval. 64 healthy subjects were planned to be enrolled. Baseline-adjusted QT (QTc) intervals for ibrutinib and moxifloxacin (assay sensitivity) were compared to placebo using linear mixed-effect model. A concentration-QTc analysis was also conducted. No clinically relevant safety observations were noted in Part 1. During Part 2, one subject experienced Grade 4 ALT/AST elevations with ibrutinib 1680 mg, leading to study termination and limiting the enrollment to 20 subjects. Ibrutinib demonstrated dose-dependent increases in exposure. The upper bounds of the 90% CIs for the mean difference in change from baseline in QTc between ibrutinib and placebo were Ibrutinib caused a concentration-dependent mild shortening of QTc and mild PR prolongation, but these effects were not considered clinically meaningful. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic concentrations of ibrutinib do not prolong the QTc interval. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02271438.