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Sample records for shortage index gsi

  1. The evolution of gonad expenditure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male and female broadcast-spawning invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Geoff A; Ramm, Steven A; Lehtonen, Jussi; Henshaw, Jonathan M

    2018-05-01

    Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring. They are consequently subject mainly to selection on gamete production and gamete success, and so high gonad expenditure is expected in both sexes. We review literature on gonadosomatic index (GSI; the proportion of body tissue devoted to gamete production) of gonochoristic broadcast spawners, which we use as a proxy for gonad expenditure. We show that such taxa most often have a high GSI that is approximately equal in both sexes. When GSI is asymmetric, female GSI usually exceeds male GSI, at least in echinoderms (the majority of species recorded). Intriguingly, though, higher male GSI also occurs in some species and appears more common than female-biased GSI in certain orders of gastropod molluscs. Our limited data also suggest that higher male GSI may be the prevalent pattern in sperm casters (where only males release gametes). We explore how selection might have shaped these patterns using game theoretic models for gonad expenditure that consider possible trade-offs with (i) somatic maintenance or (ii) growth, while also considering sperm competition, sperm limitation, and polyspermy. Our models of the trade-off between somatic tissue (which increases survival) and gonad (which increases reproductive success) predict that GSI should be equal for the two sexes when sperm competition is intense, as is probably common in broadcast spawners due to synchronous spawning in aggregations. Higher female GSI occurs under low sperm competition. Sperm limitation appears

  2. A Green Soundscape Index (GSI): The potential of assessing the perceived balance between natural sound and traffic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Pablo; Arenas, Jorge P; Bermejo, Fernando; Hinalaf, María; Turra, Bruno

    2018-06-13

    Urban soundscapes are dynamic and complex multivariable environmental systems. Soundscapes can be organized into three main entities containing the multiple variables: Experienced Environment (EE), Acoustic Environment (AE), and Extra-Acoustic Environment (XE). This work applies a multidimensional and synchronic data-collecting methodology at eight urban environments in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. The EE was assessed by means of surveys, the AE by acoustic measurements and audio recordings, and the XE by photos, video, and complementary sources. In total, 39 measurement locations were considered, where data corresponding to 61 AE and 203 EE were collected. Multivariate analysis and GIS techniques were used for data processing. The types of sound sources perceived, and their extents make up part of the collected variables that belong to the EE, i.e. traffic, people, natural sounds, and others. Sources explaining most of the variance were traffic noise and natural sounds. Thus, a Green Soundscape Index (GSI) is defined here as the ratio of the perceived extents of natural sounds to traffic noise. Collected data were divided into three ranges according to GSI value: 1) perceptual predominance of traffic noise, 2) balanced perception, and 3) perceptual predominance of natural sounds. For each group, three additional variables from the EE and three from the AE were applied, which reported significant differences, especially between ranges 1 and 2 with 3. These results confirm the key role of perceiving natural sounds in a town environment and also support the proposal of a GSI as a valuable indicator to classify urban soundscapes. In addition, the collected GSI-related data significantly helps to assess the overall soundscape. It is noted that this proposed simple perceptual index not only allows one to assess and classify urban soundscapes but also contributes greatly toward a technique for separating environmental sound sources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  3. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  4. INDRA at GSI; INDRA au GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougault, R.; Bocage, F.; Durand, D.; Lopez, O.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); Collaboration INDRA: IPN-Orsay, DAPNIA-Saclay, SUBATECH-Nantes, IPN- Lyon, GANIL-Caen

    1997-12-31

    In connection to the decision of installing the INDRA detector by the SIS synchrocyclotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) the report presents the tasks taken into account by the LPC-Caen. These refer to the detector displacement and (mechanical) installation at GSI, the tests before beam (i.e. electronics acquisition software, detectors, etc.) as well as the data acquisition and processing. The physical pro-arguments mention the possibility of disposing of heavy ion beams in a range from 50 MeV to several GeV/nucleon so extending the study of multifragmentation done at GANIL between 30 and 90 MeV/nucleon. More specific, the scientific program of INDRA at GSI inserts studies between those done at around Fermi energy, were the reaction mechanisms are of type of deep inelastic scattering/incomplete fusion, and the studies in the relativistic energy domain where the individual properties of nucleons and transparency of nuclear matter implies mechanisms of the participant-spectator type (fire-ball creation). Also mentioned as fields of extensive studies are: the multifragmentation and its fundamental relation with the nuclear matter equation of state, the role of reaction dynamics in the appearance of collective effects of the radial flow type and its relations with the nuclear compressibility and phase transitions and the thermodynamics of nuclear matter. It appeared that the heavy systems Xe + Sn and Au + Au are the best compromise for the different topics to be approached. The bombarding energies extend from 50 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The report ends with the table giving for six heavy systems (Xe + Sn, Au + Au, C + Au, Ar + Au and P + Au) the required bombarding energies 15 refs.

  5. GSI DARMSTADT: 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: On May 12, Hans J. Specht, Scientific Director of the Geseilschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), welcomed an audience of more than 500 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Darmstadt heavy ion research Laboratory. Warm greetings and best wishes from Jürgen Ruttgers, Federal Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology were presented by Hartmut Grubei, Chairman of the GSI Board. The Hessian Minister for Science and Art, Christine Hohmann-Dennhardt, pointed out that the promotion of various fields of research cannot be judged only by the expected return for everyday life. Joachim Treusch, the Chairman of the Association of National Research Centres, went further by stating that basic research, driven by curiosity and not aiming at short term applications, is a necessity. Darmstadt Mayor Peter Benz expressed his pride in having such a prestigious Laboratory in the city and looked forward to a new element named after it. CERN Director General Chris Llewellyn Smith underlined the growing importance of international and inter-regional scientific collaboration and paid tribute to the role of German physicists in general and GSI in particular in CERN's work. GSI is a major partner in the international lead ion programme at CERN which came into operation last year, a scientific and technological success which provides a useful role model for future international partnerships. After pointing to interesting parallels between the two Laboratories - both basing new projects on existing facilities, and both serving large user communities - he thanked GSI for its valuable contributions to CERN. Highlights from the 25 years of GSI were summarized in a talk by Dirk Schwalm, Managing Director of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. Among other points he presented the unique accelerator facility and the discovery of the five heaviest elements. He stated that many dreams from the founding period of GSI had become a reality, and

  6. The GSI control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, U.; Schaa, V.; Steiner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The GSI accelerator facility consists of an old linac and two modern machines, a synchrotron and a storage ring. It is operated from one control room. Only three operators at a time have to keep it running with only little assistance from machine specialists in daytime. So the control tools must provide a high degree of abstraction and modeling to relieve the operators from details on the device level. The program structures to achieve this are described in this paper. A coarse overview of the control architecture is given. (author)

  7. Rock mass classification system : transition from RMR to GSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is expected to replace the rock mass rating : (RMR) system with the Geological Strength Index (GSI) system for classifying and estimating : engineering properties of rock masses. This transition is motivat...

  8. Therapy operation at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheeler, U.; Wilms, D.

    2004-01-01

    GSI is the heavy ion research center in Germany operating the three accelerators UNILAC (linac), SIS (synchrotron) and ESR (storage ring). Experiments are made on the fields of nuclear and atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear chemistry, material research and biophysics. The most important program of the biophysics group is the study of the advantage of Carbon ions for cancer irradiation. The developed raster-scanning technique allows the direct 3D irradiation of irregular shaped tumor and minimizes the dose in healthy tissue [1],[2]. This method requires the reliable request of a large variety of beam parameters (energy, intensity, beam-spot diameter) for sequential synchrotron cycles. Certain restrictions to the physics experimental program have to be considered during the treatment sessions. To deliver excellent conditions for the other experiments, these restrictions had to be kept a small as possible. (author)

  9. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angert, N.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  10. The HITRAP project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poth, H.; Hasse, R.W.

    1990-10-01

    We present a proposal for the development of a facility to capture highly-charged ions, produced in the GSI heavy ion complex, and to store them in electromagnetic traps at thermal or subthermal energy. Such a facility would allow to exploit the physics opened up by the heavy ion rings SIS and ESR and by the fragment separator FRS with unprecedented possibilities as will be shown in the outlined physics program. (orig.)

  11. GSI: Annual report 1979/80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The present 'annual report of the GSI' in German language contains together with general information about the GSI first some articles which yield an introduction into selected topics of research. Thereafter some summarizing report from all fields of research are presented. The presented scientific results originate for the most part in collaborations at researchers at universities and scientist of the GSI. This collaboration is especially documented in the last part of the appendix. (HSI)

  12. Future Facility: FAIR at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, Guenther

    2007-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR, is a new particle accelerator facility to be built at the GSI site in Germany. The research at FAIR will cover a wide range of topics in nuclear and hadron physics, high density plasma and atomic physics, and applications in condensed matter physics and biology. A 1.1 km circumference double ring of rapidly cycling 100 and 300 Tm synchrotrons, will be FAIR's central accelerator system. It will be used to produce, inter alia, high intensity secondary beams of antiprotons and short-lived radioactive nuclei. A subsequent suite of cooler and storage rings will deliver heavy ion and antiproton beams of unprecedented quality. Large experiments are presently being designed by the NUSTAR, PANDA, PAX, CBM, SPARC, FLAIR, HEDgeHOB and BIOMAT collaborations

  13. The FIRST experiment at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskac, R.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Böhlen, T. T.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Finck, C.; Golosio, B.; Gallardo, M. I.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Juliani, D.; Krimmer, J.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fevre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Piersanti, L.; Quesada, J. M.; Raciti, G.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Spiriti, E.; Stuttge, L.; Tropea, S.; Younis, H.; Patera, V.

    2012-06-01

    The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at the SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt has been designed for the measurement of ion fragmentation cross-sections at different angles and energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in several fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The start of the scientific program of the FIRST experiment was on summer 2011 and was focused on the measurement of 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8 mm) graphite target. The detector is partly based on an already existing setup made of a dipole magnet (ALADiN), a time projection chamber (TP-MUSIC IV), a neutron detector (LAND) and a time of flight scintillator system (TOFWALL). This pre-existing setup has been integrated with newly designed detectors in the Interaction Region, around the carbon target placed in a sample changer. The new detectors are a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger scintillator system optimized for the detection of light fragments emitted at large angles. In this paper we review the experimental setup, then we present the simulation software, the data acquisition system and finally the trigger strategy of the experiment.

  14. The FIRST experiment at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskac, R.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez, M.A.G.; Aumann, T.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Böhlen, T.T.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernández-García, J.P.; Finck, C.; Golosio, B.; Gallardo, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at the SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt has been designed for the measurement of ion fragmentation cross-sections at different angles and energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in several fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The start of the scientific program of the FIRST experiment was on summer 2011 and was focused on the measurement of 400 MeV/nucleon 12 C beam fragmentation on thin (8 mm) graphite target. The detector is partly based on an already existing setup made of a dipole magnet (ALADiN), a time projection chamber (TP-MUSIC IV), a neutron detector (LAND) and a time of flight scintillator system (TOFWALL). This pre-existing setup has been integrated with newly designed detectors in the Interaction Region, around the carbon target placed in a sample changer. The new detectors are a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger scintillator system optimized for the detection of light fragments emitted at large angles. In this paper we review the experimental setup, then we present the simulation software, the data acquisition system and finally the trigger strategy of the experiment.

  15. The FIRST experiment at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleskac, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Abou-Haidar, Z. [CNA, Sevilla (Spain); Agodi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Alvarez, M.A.G. [CNA, Sevilla (Spain); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Battistoni, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bocci, A. [CNA, Sevilla (Spain); Boehlen, T.T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Boudard, A. [CEA-Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Universita' di Sassari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Cortes-Giraldo, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, University of Sevilla, 41080-Sevilla (Spain); Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); De Napoli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Durante, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Fernandez-Garcia, J.P. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, University of Sevilla, 41080-Sevilla (Spain); Finck, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg (France); Golosio, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Universita' di Sassari (Italy); Gallardo, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, University of Sevilla, 41080-Sevilla (Spain); and others

    2012-06-21

    The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at the SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt has been designed for the measurement of ion fragmentation cross-sections at different angles and energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in several fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The start of the scientific program of the FIRST experiment was on summer 2011 and was focused on the measurement of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C beam fragmentation on thin (8 mm) graphite target. The detector is partly based on an already existing setup made of a dipole magnet (ALADiN), a time projection chamber (TP-MUSIC IV), a neutron detector (LAND) and a time of flight scintillator system (TOFWALL). This pre-existing setup has been integrated with newly designed detectors in the Interaction Region, around the carbon target placed in a sample changer. The new detectors are a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger scintillator system optimized for the detection of light fragments emitted at large angles. In this paper we review the experimental setup, then we present the simulation software, the data acquisition system and finally the trigger strategy of the experiment.

  16. GSI-contributions to HCI-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This preprint comprises all the papers presented at the VIth International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (Manhattan, Kansas, September 28 - October 2, 1992) reporting on results from experiments performed at the GSI heavy ion accelerator facilities. See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  17. QCD spectroscopy at GSI: exotica and charmonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    2001-01-01

    In this talk I give a short summary of the basics of conventional and exotic meson spectroscopy, and consider in particular those issues in the charmonium and charmonium hybrid sectors which can be addressed by a future antiproton facility at GSI. (orig.)

  18. Extended data acquisition support at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.C.; Busch, F.; Hultzsch, H.; Lowsky, J.; Richter, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Experiment Data Acquisition and Analysis System (EDAS) of GSI, designed to support the data processing associated with nuclear physics experiments, provides three modes of operation: real-time, interactive replay and batch replay. The real-time mode is used for data acquisition and data analysis during an experiment performed at the heavy ion accelerator at GSI. An experiment may be performed either in Stand Alone Mode, using only the Experiment Computers, or in Extended Mode using all computing resources available. The Extended Mode combines the advantages of the real-time response of a dedicated minicomputer with the availability of computing resources in a large computing environment. This paper first gives an overview of EDAS and presents the GSI High Speed Data Acquisition Network. Data Acquisition Modes and the Extended Mode are then introduced. The structure of the system components, their implementation and the functions pertinent to the Extended Mode are presented. The control functions of the Experiment Computer sub-system are discussed in detail. Two aspects of the design of the sub-system running on the mainframe are stressed, namely the use of a multi-user installation for real-time processing and the use of a high level programming language, PL/I, as an implementation language for a system which uses parallel processing. The experience accumulated is summarized in a number of conclusions

  19. Development and user guide for GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Jeong Taek; Hwang, In Ku; Ham, Chang Sik; Kwon, Ki Chun.

    1997-05-01

    ADIOS(Alarm Diagnosis and Integrated Operator Support) is designed to improve the operation performance of the man-machine interface system by giving dynamic alarm priority according to plant situation, and implemented with G2 real-time expert shell. It processes alarm priority in G2 using the plant data which is received from simulator, and sends the processed alarm signals to the alarm tile through TCP/IP communication link. This report includes some experiences about the GSI(G2 Standard Interface) configuration and user programming, and describes about how to build on-line ADIOS system. (author)

  20. Addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, J. [Alberta Economic Development, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Labour shortages are an increasing concern for companies in Alberta, where the economy is booming. This presentation provided statistics on labour shortages and Alberta's labour force. Between 1995 and 2004, employment in Alberta increased by more than 433,000 jobs, and is predicted to grow, but the natural population increase in the province is only 19,600 per year. It is expected that by 2010, immigrants will account for all growth in Canada's labour force. By 2020, an additional $100 billion of capital will be invested in Alberta, which is competing for labour with every other industrialized economy in the world. This presentation included a series of graphs and charts depicting Canada's national unemployment rate by province; Alberta's unemployment rate; oil sands capital expenditure; regional workforce requirements; and new jobs in the oil sands industry from 1998 to 2010. Employment requirements by trade were also highlighted along with projected labour shortages in 16 different trades. The author recommended that better long-term labour supply and demand models are needed along with rationalization and streamlining of credentials systems. Other solutions to labour shortages may include the removal of barriers to interprovincial and foreign workers; education and training; enhanced productivity; industry collaboration; and maximization of the labour pool to include women and Aboriginal workers. tabs., figs.

  1. Experience with carbon ion radiotherapy at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, O. [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy (E040), German Cancer Research Center, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: o.jaekel@dkfz.de; Schulz-Ertner, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, C.P. [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy (E040), German Cancer Research Center, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Heeg, P. [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy (E040), German Cancer Research Center, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    At GSI, a radiotherapy facility was established using beam scanning and active energy variation. Between December 1997 and April 2004, 220 patients have been treated at this facility with carbon ions. Most patients are treated for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull, using a dose of 60 Gye (Gray equivalent) in 20 fractions. Carbon ion therapy is also offered in a combination with conventional radiotherapy for a number of other tumors (adenoidcystic carcinoma, chordoma of the cervical spine and sacrum, atypical menningeoma). The patients treated for skull base tumors showed an overall local control rate after two years of 90%. The overall treatment toxicity was mild. This shows that carbon ion radiotherapy can safely be applied using a scanned beam and encouraged the Heidelberg university hospital to build a hospital based facility for ion therapy.

  2. ASY-EOS experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezzar K.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons in reactions of neutron rich Heavy-Ion at intermediate energies has been recently proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term in the nuclear equation of state (EOS at supra-saturation densities. The recent results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model allowed a first estimate of the symmetry term of the EOS but suffer from a considerable statistical uncertainty. In order to obtain an improved data set for Au+Au collisions and to extend the study to other systems, a new experiment was carried out at the GSI laboratory by the ASY-EOS collaboration in May 2011.

  3. The ASY-EOS Experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  4. The SIS-ESR project of GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, P.

    1985-05-01

    During the last years GSI developed plans for future accelerators and experimental facilities with the intention to extend heavy ion research in a wide scope to higher energies and into new fields of research using novel techniques for acceleration, accumulation, storage and phase space density increase of heavy ion beams up to 238 U. The prime goals of this development plan using as a first step a synchrotron acceleration ring connected with an accumulator-, storage-, cooling- and experimental ring are the following: 1. Provide completely stripped heavy ion beams up to U 92+ with the highest phase space densities using various cooling techniques in a storage ring. 2. Provide radioactive heavy ion beams by accumulation, storage and cooling of fragmentation or fission products from beams of the synchrotron. 3. Provide facilities for internal target experiments using simultaneously cooled circulating beams. 4. Provide two merging beams in the storage ring with well defineable collision energies up to the Coulomb barrier of the heaviest ions like U 92+ in order to study atomic collision processes in high Coulomb fields with both nuclei highly ionized. 5. Provide a beam of heavy ions up to U 92+ with best phase space density for further acceleration and collisions in superconducting collider rings at very high c.m. energies (>20 GeV/u) and as high as possible luminosities. (orig.)

  5. Conceptualizing a Genomics Software Institute (GSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Catlett, Charlie; Desai, Narayan; Knight, Rob; White, Owen; Robbins, Robert; Sankaran, Rajesh; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Field, Dawn; Meyer, Folker

    2012-03-19

    Microbial ecology has been enhanced greatly by the ongoing 'omics revolution, bringing half the world's biomass and most of its biodiversity into analytical view for the first time; indeed, it feels almost like the invention of the microscope and the discovery of the new world at the same time. With major microbial ecology research efforts accumulating prodigious quantities of sequence, protein, and metabolite data, we are now poised to address environmental microbial research at macro scales, and to begin to characterize and understand the dimensions of microbial biodiversity on the planet. What is currently impeding progress is the need for a framework within which the research community can develop, exchange and discuss predictive ecosystem models that describe the biodiversity and functional interactions. Such a framework must encompass data and metadata transparency and interoperation; data and results validation, curation, and search; application programming interfaces for modeling and analysis tools; and human and technical processes and services necessary to ensure broad adoption. Here we discuss the need for focused community interaction to augment and deepen established community efforts, beginning with the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), to create a science-driven strategic plan for a Genomic Software Institute (GSI).

  6. Determination of the mechanical parameters of rock mass based on a GSI system and displacement back analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwang-Song; Hu, Nai-Lian; Sin, Chung-Sik; Rim, Song-Ho; Han, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Chol-Nam

    2017-08-01

    It is very important to obtain the mechanical paramerters of rock mass for excavation design, support design, slope design and stability analysis of the underground structure. In order to estimate the mechanical parameters of rock mass exactly, a new method of combining a geological strength index (GSI) system with intelligent displacment back analysis is proposed in this paper. Firstly, average spacing of joints (d) and rock mass block rating (RBR, a new quantitative factor), surface condition rating (SCR) and joint condition factor (J c) are obtained on in situ rock masses using the scanline method, and the GSI values of rock masses are obtained from a new quantitative GSI chart. A correction method of GSI value is newly introduced by considering the influence of joint orientation and groundwater on rock mass mechanical properties, and then value ranges of rock mass mechanical parameters are chosen by the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Secondly, on the basis of the measurement result of vault settlements and horizontal convergence displacements of an in situ tunnel, optimal parameters are estimated by combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and numerical simulation analysis using FLAC3D. This method has been applied in a lead-zinc mine. By utilizing the improved GSI quantization, correction method and displacement back analysis, the mechanical parameters of the ore body, hanging wall and footwall rock mass were determined, so that reliable foundations were provided for mining design and stability analysis.

  7. Labour Shortages in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predictions in the media and from think tanks sound altogether alarming: Saskatchewan, with its booming economy, could be facing a worker shortage so severe that it could drastically hobble the province’s ultimate economic potential. While the world craves only more of Saskatchewan’s abundant natural resources, the province won’t possibly be able to keep up, due to a scarcity of workers that could be as significant as one-fifth of the labour supply by 2020. The Saskatchewan government has rushed to analyze the predicament, issuing reports that urgently seek solutions. But it hasn’t really developed any solutions. In fact, it hasn’t done much about the supposedly looming crisis at all. And that, actually, might just be all it can — and should — do. In truth, Saskatchewan can’t be sure it will be facing a serious shortage, or any shortage, at all. And any attempt by the provincial government to substantially intervene in the labour market could cause more problems for employers and the economy, than it addresses. Saskatchewan’s labour market has already shown a remarkable ability to adjust, on its own, to the commodities boom, and what employers today call a shortage, could well just be everyone getting used to a much tighter, but still very functional, labour market. The province’s lack of action did mean it missed a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to redirect a huge cohort of Gen-Y students into training for trades that are in high demand (that cohort is already in its mid-20s and finished, or finishing, its career training. That was a mistake. But one big thing the Saskatchewan government can still do to help employers — and workers — is to stop making the strains on labour worse by launching imminent public infrastructure projects that compete with the private sector for labour. Instead, the province should plan those for when the boom slows down and workers need the jobs. It should also abandon any ideas of ramping

  8. Evaluating Variability and Uncertainty of Geological Strength Index at a Specific Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Aladejare, Adeyemi Emman

    2016-09-01

    Geological Strength Index (GSI) is an important parameter for estimating rock mass properties. GSI can be estimated from quantitative GSI chart, as an alternative to the direct observational method which requires vast geological experience of rock. GSI chart was developed from past observations and engineering experience, with either empiricism or some theoretical simplifications. The GSI chart thereby contains model uncertainty which arises from its development. The presence of such model uncertainty affects the GSI estimated from GSI chart at a specific site; it is, therefore, imperative to quantify and incorporate the model uncertainty during GSI estimation from the GSI chart. A major challenge for quantifying the GSI chart model uncertainty is a lack of the original datasets that have been used to develop the GSI chart, since the GSI chart was developed from past experience without referring to specific datasets. This paper intends to tackle this problem by developing a Bayesian approach for quantifying the model uncertainty in GSI chart when using it to estimate GSI at a specific site. The model uncertainty in the GSI chart and the inherent spatial variability in GSI are modeled explicitly in the Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach generates equivalent samples of GSI from the integrated knowledge of GSI chart, prior knowledge and observation data available from site investigation. Equations are derived for the Bayesian approach, and the proposed approach is illustrated using data from a drill and blast tunnel project. The proposed approach effectively tackles the problem of how to quantify the model uncertainty that arises from using GSI chart for characterization of site-specific GSI in a transparent manner.

  9. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  10. Advances in beam position monitoring methods at GSI synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul; Reiter, Andreas; Forck, Peter; Kowina, Piotr; Lang, Kevin; Miedzik, Piotr [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    At the GSI synchrotron facilities, capacitive beam pick-up signals for position evaluation are immediately digitized within the acquisition electronics due to availability of reliable, fast and high resolution ADCs. The signal processing aspects are therefore fully dealt with in the digital domain. Novel digital techniques for asynchronous and synchronous (bunch-by-bunch) beam position estimation have been developed at GSI SIS-18 and CRYRING as part of FAIR development program. This contribution will highlight the advancements and its impact on the operational ease and high availability of the BPM systems.

  11. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  12. Impact of hybrid GSI analysis using ETR ensembles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impact of hybrid GSI analysis using ETR ensembles. V S Prasad∗ and C J .... In this study, impact of hybrid ..... of water between vapour, clouds and ice (Damrath et al. 2000). ... flooding – June 2013; Weather and Climate Extremes 4. 22–34.

  13. GSI research and development programme 1983-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this report the research program of the GSI Darmstadt is described. This program concerns heavy ion reactions, atomic collisions with heavy ions, and applications of heavy ion beams in other fields of science. Furthermore the future development of accelerators and detection methods is described. (HSI) [de

  14. Nuclear Structure Physics at GSI - Challenges and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenzenberg, G.

    1999-12-31

    The perspectives at GSI for the exploration of exotic regions with new high-current accelerators and recent technical developments including single-atom decay studies, ultra sensitive {gamma}-spectroscopy, new set-ups for reaction studies at relativistic energies in complete kinematics, heavy ion storage rings, and low-energy heavy-ion-electron colliders will be discussed.

  15. The cost system of GSI - heavy ion facility in Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The paper gives an overview about the organization and the research program of the GSI (Heavy Ion Facility in Darmstadt). The cost accounting system is discussed in detail, financing, cost center accounting and cost unit accounting are described. (A.N.)

  16. Girls' Science Investigations (GSI) New Haven: Evaluating the Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodell, Claire; Fleming, Bonnie

    2009-05-01

    Girls' Science Investigations (GSI) New Haven seeks to empower the girls of today to shape the science of tomorrow. Funded by the NSF and Yale University and held at Yale, this program was designed to motivate, empower, and interest middle school girls in developing the skills required to pursue a career in science during a day-long investigation of the session's featured topic in science. Yale students and female professors act as mentors and guide younger girls through an environment for understanding and exploring various disciplines of science through hands-on activities in a laboratory setting. GSI strives to close the gap between males and females one action-packed Saturday at a time. This paper evaluates the success of the program. Student participant evaluations over the past 2 years coupled with student testimony and GSI coordinator, instructors', and volunteers' interviews allowed for an analysis of GSI's ability to inspire girls to pursue careers in science. The data indicates that a majority of girls who attended the program were more inclined to continue their study of science. The positive results are detailed in the following paper which points to the hands-on activities and enthusiasm of instructors as integral to the program's success.

  17. Review of current literature related to GSI-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    EG and G Idaho is evaluating the structural integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessel Supports as part of its resolution of NRC Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 15, 'Radiation effects on Reactor Vessel Supports'. Structural analyses have been performed by the NRC, ORNL, LLNL, Portland General Electric Co., and several consultants. Two methods of analyses were used. This paper contains a short discussion of the analyses and the merits of the two analysis methods. (author)

  18. Recent developments at the ISOL facility of GSI Darmstadt

    CERN Document Server

    Roeckl, E; Burkard, K; Döring, J; Grawe, H; Hüller, W; Kirchner, R; Mazzocchi, C; Mukha, I; Plettner, C

    2003-01-01

    The research programme pursued at the ISOL facility of GSI Darmstadt focuses on the study of decay properties of nuclei along the N congruent with Z line between the double shell closures at sup 5 sup 6 Ni and sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn. In this report, the major scientific achievements obtained in the past two years are reviewed, with particular emphasis being put on the detection techniques.

  19. GSI operation software: migration from OpenVMS TO Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhmann, R.; Froehlich, G.; Juelicher, S.; Schaa, V.R.W.

    2012-01-01

    The current operation software at GSI, controlling the linac, beam transfer lines, synchrotron and storage ring, has been developed over a period of more than two decades using OpenVMS on Alpha-Workstations. The GSI accelerator facilities will serve as an injector chain for the new FAIR accelerator complex for which a control system is currently developed. To enable reuse and integration of parts of the distributed GSI software system, in particular the linac operation software, within the FAIR control system, the corresponding software components must be migrated to Linux. Inter-operability with FAIR controls applications is achieved by adding a generic middle-ware interface accessible from Java applications. For porting applications to Linux a set of libraries and tools has been developed covering the necessary OpenVMS system functionality. Currently, core applications and services are already ported or rewritten and functionally tested but not in operational usage. This paper presents the current status of the project and concepts for putting the migrated software into operation. (authors)

  20. Collimation and material science studies (ColMat) at GSI.

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Krause, M; Mustafin, E; Petzenhauser, I; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of the EuCARD program, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is performing accelerator R&D in workpackage 8: ColMat. The coordinated effort is focussed on materials aspects important for building the FAIR accelerator facility at GSI and the LHC upgrade at CERN. Accelerator components and especially protection devices have to be operated in high dose environments. The radiation hazard occurs either by the primary proton and ion beams or the secondary radiation after initial beam loss. Detailed numerical simulations have been carried out to study the damage caused to solid targets by the full impact of the LHC beam as well as the SPS beam. Tungsten, copper and graphite as possible collimator materials have been studied. Experimental an theoretical studies on radiation damage on materials used for the LHC upgrade and the FAIR accelerators are performed at the present GSI experimental facilities. Technical decisions based on these results will have an impact on the F...

  1. Drug shortages: Implications for medical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Hawley, Kristy L; Zocchi, Mark; Fox, Erin; Pines, Jesse M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2015-07-01

    Drug shortages have significantly increased over the past decade. There are limited data describing how shortages impact medical toxicology of drugs. To characterize drug shortages affecting the management of poisoned patients. Drug shortage data from January 2001 to December 2013 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for agents used to treat poisonings were analyzed. Information on drug type, formulation, reason for shortage, shortage duration, marketing, and whether the drug was available from a single source was collected. The availability of a substitute therapy and whether substitutes were in shortage during the study period were also investigated. Of 1,751 shortages, 141 (8.1%) impacted drugs used to treat poisoned patients, and as of December 2013, 21 (14.9%) remained unresolved. New toxicology shortages increased steadily from the mid-2000s, reaching a high of 26 in 2011. Median shortage duration was 164 days (interquartile range: 76-434). Generic drugs were involved in 85.1% of shortages and 41.1% were single-source products. Parenteral formulations were often involved in shortages (89.4%). The most common medications in shortage were sedative/hypnotics (15.6%). An alternative agent was available for 121 (85.8%) drugs; however, 88 (72.7%) alternatives were also affected by shortages at some point during the study period. When present, the most common reasons reported were manufacturing delays (22.0%) and supply/demand issues (17.0%). Shortage reason was not reported for 48.2% of drugs. Toxicology drug shortages are becoming increasingly prevalent, which can result in both suboptimal treatment and medication errors from using less familiar alternatives. Drug shortages affected a substantial number of critical agents used in the management of poisoned patients. Shortages were often of long duration and for drugs without alternatives. Providers caring for poisoned patients should be aware of current shortages and

  2. INDRA-GSI: Collective flow from Fermi to relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bittiger, R.; Gourio, D.; Le Fevre, A.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Orth, H.; Sfienti, C.; Schwarz, C.; Turzo, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Hudan, S.; Lopez, O. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; Lavaud, F.; Plagnol, E. [Paris-11 Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Hurst, B.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC (IN2P3-CNRS/ENSI), 14 - Caen (France); Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M. [INFN, Univ. Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione, Napoli (Italy); Saija, A. [Universita and INFN I, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' , Catania (Italy); Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [A. Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lukasik, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Directed flow for the {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A*MeV has been measured using the 4{pi} multi-detector INDRA at the GSI facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be around 100 A*MeV in good agreement with the result obtained by the FOPI Collaboration. The new data allows also to extend the experimental excitation function of v{sub 2} to lower energies. (authors)

  3. INDRA-GSI: Collective flow from Fermi to relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bittiger, R.; Gourio, D.; Le Fevre, A.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Orth, H.; Sfienti, C.; Schwarz, C.; Turzo, K.; Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Hudan, S.; Lopez, O.; Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; Lavaud, F.; Plagnol, E.; Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Hurst, B.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M.; Saija, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B.; Lukasik, J.; Galichet, E.

    2003-01-01

    Directed flow for the 197 Au + 197 Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A*MeV has been measured using the 4π multi-detector INDRA at the GSI facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be around 100 A*MeV in good agreement with the result obtained by the FOPI Collaboration. The new data allows also to extend the experimental excitation function of v 2 to lower energies. (authors)

  4. Experiments with beams of exotic nuclei at GSI and FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emling, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The facility for antiproton and ion research FAIR will provide the international science community with a technically novel and in many respects unique accelerator system for a multi-faceted physics program. Rare-isotope beams of much improved quality together with advanced experimental concepts promise detailed experimental investigations of nuclei far away from stability. A brief description of the rare-isotope beam facility at FAIR is presented, which allows to extend substantially the current successful experimental program with exotic nuclei at GSI. (author)

  5. ROMANIAN TOURISM FACING LABOUR SHORTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main trends în the Romanian tourism sector andtheir impact on the labour market. The first part of the paper presents the main trends în the travel and tourismsector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market în the hotel sector,highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration,financial compensations. The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into thetravel and tourism sector în order to better manage the multiple dimensions of growth.

  6. Highly charged ions at rest: The HITRAP project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Beier, T.; Dahl, L.; Eliseev, S.; Heinz, S.; Kester, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maero, G.; Quint, W.

    2005-01-01

    A decelerator will be installed at GSI in order to provide and study bare heavy nuclei or heavy nuclei with only few electrons at very low energies or even at rest. Highly-charged ions will be produced by stripping at relativistic energies. After electron cooling and deceleration in the Experimental Storage Ring the ions are ejected out of the storage ring at 4 MeV/u and further decelerated in a combination of an IH and RFQ structure. Finally, they are injected into a Penning trap where the ions are cooled to 4 K. From here, the ions can be transferred in a quasi dc or in a pulsed mode to different experimental setups. This article describes the technical concepts of this project as well as planned key experiments

  7. GSI papers presented at the 3. European particle accelerator conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report contains the articles presented by the GSI at the named conference. These concern an ion source for heavy ion synchrotron injection, a power amplifier, the new heavy ion injector of the UNILAC, the heavy ion synchrotron SIS, beam intensity measurements at the SIS, heavy ion storage rings, the performance and impedances and instability studies at the ESR, longitudinal space-charge effects in cooled bunched beams, the ERS electron cooling device, experiments with synthetic colored noise at the ESR, ion beams for heavy ion fusion research, a reactor driver concept for indirect drive, plasma lenses for heavy-ion beam focusing, synchrotrons for cancer therapy, and future accelerator projects in collaboration with industry. (orig.)

  8. An alternative window upon the GSI sharp lepton problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    Two major heavy ion studies of the GSI ''(e + e - )-Puzzle'' have ended in stalemate: APEX reports no evidence, but its data show a peak near 800 keV. EPOS/II cannot reproduce its own results,and leans towards random fluctuations as the explanation of sharp pair lines. (But one EPOS/II report shows evidence for a peak at an EPOS/I line energy, 610 keV, and under selection conditions the same as EPOSII's.) It is clear that these latest heavy ion studies, designed to settle once and for all the question of sharp pairs, have failed to fulfill that goal. Attention must now turn towards the sharp electron lines reported by Sakai et al. and others in collisions of few MeV beta decay positrons on U and Th atoms. In the Q 0 Scenario of the Sharp Lepton Problem these arise from the same source as the GSI pairs. Verification of Sakai's 100 mb cross section for such sharp electrons in collisions of few MeV electrons (or positrons) upon U or Th atoms would confirm this new experimental window upon the Sharp Lepton Problem. These relatively simple experiments, which are both inexpensive and reproducible (as their heavy ion counterparts are not), promise a less ponderous pace for the study of these questions. On the other hand, they require a challenging combination of proficiencies to measure a nuclear sized cross section in an atomic physics environment. The authors review briefly the diverse history (and especially the most recent developments) of the Sharp Lepton Problem, and outline how the Quadronium Scenario provides it with a unifying conceptual framework. That discussion points clearly towards the experimental study of sharp leptons and sharp pairs from few MeV (lepton+ATOM) and (photon+ATOM) processes as the appropriate next step towards either verifying the earlier results or precluding them

  9. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  10. Tune measurement at GSI SIS-18. Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul

    2014-05-15

    Two parallel tune measurement systems are installed at GSI SIS-18 based on different principles. The first is called the Tune, Orbit and POSition measurement system TOPOS. Its working principle involves direct digitization of BPM signals at 125 MSa/s, which is used for online bunch-by-bunch position calculation in FPGAs. In the course of this work, position calculation algorithms were developed and studied for real time implementation in the TOPOS FPGAs. The regression fit algorithm is found to be more efficient and robust in comparison to previously used weighted mean algorithm with the baseline restoration procedure. The second system is the Baseband Tune measurement system referred to as BBQ system. The operational principle of this system was conceived at the CERN Beam Instrumentation group and is based on direct diode detection. In the framework of this work, this system was optimized and brought into operation at GSI SIS-18. Front-end data from both systems are used to calculate the tune spectrum every 250-5000 beam revolutions or turns within SIS-18 based on the resolution requirement and the mode of operation. Advanced non-parametric spectrum estimation method like amplitude Capon estimator is compared to the conventional DFT based methods in terms of resolving power and computational requirements for the calculated spectrum. Further the TOPOS and BBQ systems are compared and characterized in terms of sensitivity, reliability and operational usage. The results from both systems are found to be consistent with each other and have their favoured regimes of operation. The effects on tune spectra obtained from both systems were studied with different types of excitations with excitation power levels up to 6 mW/Hz. These systems in association with other beam diagnostic devices at SIS-18 were used to conduct extensive experiments to understand the effect of high intensity beams on the tune spectrum. These careful measurements recorded all the relevant beam

  11. Measurement and interpretation of laser accelerated protons at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, Husam

    2014-01-01

    generated by the Matlab program, while the TraceWin code is employed to study the tracking through magnetic elements. - Chapter 6 describes the PHELIX laser parameters at GSI with chirp pulse amplification technique (CPA), and Gafchromic Radiochromic film (RCF) as a spatial energy resolver film detector. The results of experiments with laser proton acceleration, which were performed in two experimental areas at GSI (Z6 area and PHELIX Laser Hall (PLH)), are presented in section 6.3. - Chapter 7 includes the main results of this work, conclusions and gives a perspective for future experimental activities.

  12. Measurement and interpretation of laser accelerated protons at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, Husam

    2014-04-28

    generated by the Matlab program, while the TraceWin code is employed to study the tracking through magnetic elements. - Chapter 6 describes the PHELIX laser parameters at GSI with chirp pulse amplification technique (CPA), and Gafchromic Radiochromic film (RCF) as a spatial energy resolver film detector. The results of experiments with laser proton acceleration, which were performed in two experimental areas at GSI (Z6 area and PHELIX Laser Hall (PLH)), are presented in section 6.3. - Chapter 7 includes the main results of this work, conclusions and gives a perspective for future experimental activities.

  13. Present and Future Experiments with Stored Exotic Nuclei at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissel, H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent results and perspectives of experiments with stored exotic nuclei at GSI-FAIR will presented. An overview on the planned NUSTAR experiments will also presented. Relativistic exotic nuclei produced via projectile fragmentation and fission were separated in flight by the fragment separator FRS and injected into the storage-cooler ring ESR for accurate mass- and lifetime measurements. Direct mass measurements of electron-cooled exotic nuclei were performed using time-resolved Schottky spectrometry. Fragments with half-lives shorter than the time required for electron cooling have been investigated by time-of-flight measurements with the ESR being operated in the isochronous mode. This novel experimental technique gives access to all nuclei with half-lives down to the microsecond range and has been successfully applied. Lifetimes of stored bare and few-electron ions have been measured with the goal to study the beta-decay under ionization conditions prevailing in stellar plasma. For the first time the direct observation of bound-state beta decay has been achieved with 2 07T l fragments. The future project FAIR includes a new large-acceptance in-flight separator (Super-FRS) in combination with a new storage ring system (CR, NESR) which will be ideal tools to study exotic nuclei far from stability.(author)

  14. Beam Diagnostics Challenges in the FAIR Project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Andreas; Forck, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The planned FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) project consists of two heavy ion synchrotrons and four large storage rings, the existing GSI facility together with a new high-current proton linac will be used as the injector chain. The fast cycling, superconducting synchrotrons are build for high current operation with the aim of secondary ion and antiproton production. A large variety of low current secondary beams as well as the antiprotons are stored and cooled in the four storage rings. A complex operation scheme with multiple use of transport lines is foreseen. This demands an exceptional high dynamic range for the beam instrumentation. Due to the enormous beam power, non-destructive methods are mandatory for high currents as well as for the low current secondary beams due to the low repetition rate. Precise measurements of all beam parameters and automatic steering or feedback capabilities are required due to the necessary exploitation of the full ring acceptances. Moreover, online beam-corrections with short response times are mandatory for the fast ramping super-conducting magnets. An overview of the challenges and projected innovative solutions for various diagnostic installations will be given

  15. Resolution of GSI B-56 - Emergency diesel generator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that licensees assess their station blackout coping and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for avoiding a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) a nuclear unit EDG reliability level of at least 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required EDG reliability levels. NUMARC-8700, Guidelines and Technical Bases for NUMARC Initiatives Addressing Station Blackout at Light Water Reactors, also provides guidance on such needs. The resolution of GSI B-56, Diesel Reliability will be accomplished by issuing Regulatory Guide 1.9, Rev. 3, Selection, Design, Qualification, Testing, and Reliability of Diesel Generator Units Used as Onsite Electric Power Systems at Nuclear Plants. This revision will integrate into a single regulatory guide pertinent guidance previously addressed in R.G. 1.9, Rev. 2, R.G. 1.108, and Generic Letter 84-15. R.G. 1.9 has been expanded to define the principal elements of an EDG reliability program for monitoring and maintaining EDG reliability levels selected for SBO. In addition, alert levels and corrective actions have been defined to detect a deteriorating situation for all EDGs assigned to a particular nuclear unit, as well as an individual problem EDG

  16. Nursing and Allied Health Shortages: TBR Responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Treva

    Staff members of the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission worked jointly to establish a task force to investigate and develop recommendations for addressing the workforce shortages in nursing and allied health in Tennessee. The investigation established that Tennessee already has a workforce shortage of…

  17. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes, III

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages. Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used. Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals. Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.   Type: Original Research

  18. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  19. Construction and characterization of a laser-driven proton beamline at GSI

    OpenAIRE

    Busold, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thesis includes the first experiments with the new 100 TW laser beamline of the PHELIX laser facility at GSI Darmstadt to drive a TNSA (Target Normal Sheath Acceleration) proton source at GSI's Z6 experimental area. At consecutive stages a pulsed solenoid has been applied for beam transport and energy selection via chromatic focusing, as well as a radiofrequency cavity for energy compression of the bunch. This novel laser-driven proton beamline, representing a central experiment of the...

  20. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.

  1. A Modular VME Data Acquisition System for Counter Applications at the GSI Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A

    2003-01-01

    Particle counters perform the control of beam loss and slowly extracted currents at the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI. A new VME/Lynx - PC/Linux based data acquisition system has been developed to combine the operating purposes beam loss measurement, spill analysis, spill structure measurement and matrix switching functionality in one single assembly. In this paper a detailed PC-side software description is presented. To achieve best system stability, the software has been divided into time critical networking and data deploying threads and low or normal priority interface tasks. Some new abilities in the fields of data computation and presentation are reported. A hardware description is presented, in detail a programmable GSI-EVENT controller, which is based on an ordinary 8 bit RISC microprocessor and which has been integrated into the system, to synchronize the data acquisition with the sophisticated “virtual accelerator” timing at GSI. First experiences gained while the commission...

  2. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-02-21

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

  3. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described

  4. "Dynamic Labor Shortage" In the Offing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    The United States is on the verge of a labor shortage that is partly the result of declining birth rates. An increase in work force participation by older adults, encouraged by reversals of early retirement and other policy changes, would be advantageous to employers, workers, and the economy. (Author/SK)

  5. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  6. Nursing shortages and international nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S J; Polsky, D; Sochalski, J

    2005-12-01

    The United Kingdom and the United States are among several developed countries currently experiencing nursing shortages. While the USA has not yet implemented policies to encourage nurse immigration, nursing shortages will likely result in the growth of foreign nurse immigration to the USA. Understanding the factors that drive the migration of nurses is critical as the USA exerts more pull on the foreign nurse workforce. To predict the international migration of nurses to the UK using widely available data on country characteristics. The Nursing and Midwifery Council serves as the source of data on foreign nurse registrations in the UK between 1998 and 2002. We develop and test a regression model that predicts the number of foreign nurse registrants in the UK based on source country characteristics. We collect country-level data from sources such as the World Bank and the World Health Organization. The shortage of nurses in the UK has been accompanied by massive and disproportionate growth in the number of foreign nurses from poor countries. Low-income, English-speaking countries that engage in high levels of bilateral trade experience greater losses of nurses to the UK. Poor countries seeking economic growth through international trade expose themselves to the emigration of skilled labour. This tendency is currently exacerbated by nursing shortages in developed countries. Countries at risk for nurse emigration should adjust health sector planning to account for expected losses in personnel. Moreover, policy makers in host countries should address the impact of recruitment on source country health service delivery.

  7. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, A-50, Sector-62, Noida, ... with a two-way coupling with an 80 member Ensemble Kalman Filter of .... algorithm in the GSI system using single observa- .... casts of hybrid schemes at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure ... NCRWF merged rainfall data using rain gauge.

  8. Development and application of an initial quality assurance program for dosimetry at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeg, P; Hartmann, G; Jaekel, O; Karger, C; Kriessbach, A [DKFZ Heidelberg (Germany); Schardt, D [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    c set of test procedures has been developed for dosimetric quality inspections at the heavy ion therapy facility at GSI. In some cases new test principles had to be established to meet the requirements at the heavy ion beam. As a first application the acceptance test has been carried out during the technical commissioning of the facility. (orig.)

  9. A new standard method for the surveying and alignment of beamline facilities at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, H. [Metronom, Gesellschaft fuer Industrievermessung mbH, Mainz (Germany); Moritz, G.

    1996-01-01

    The GSI institute of heavy ion research is financed by the country of Germany. Founded in 1969, the main emphasis of the institute`s work is the research of the characteristics of atomic nuclei. The Universal Linear Accelerator UNILAC was built first and in 1987 new facilities were added to the setup. The GSI accelarators allow acceleration of all atomic nuclei up to Uranium to an energy of 20 MeV/u. In 1993 Metronome started working on a new alignment concept for the GSI`s accelerators. Metronome has developed the TASA concept. TSAS stands for Techeometric Accelerator Surveying and Alignment and is based on the new generation of high-precision total stations. One feature included in the TASA Concept, has been the replacement of all mobile plates by fixed consoles. An immense advantage of new fixed consoles, welded onto every component, is that they can be positioned to locations where they can be easily measured, simply by taking measuring conditions (lines of sight, heights of stands, error-figures, configuration, etc.) into consideration. The TASA Concept can be used for all alignments of the different GSI accelerators. For all accelerators a special investigation was carried out to check if it is possible to position a new pillar system and to install new consoles on the components. The free positioning of fiducial points makes it possible to use polar measurements for all components. This is an enormous advantage and a step forward for alignment procedures at GSI. Furthermore, use of a total station as opposed to the ECDS System means that one operator less is needed. (S.Y.)

  10. Nuclear industry prepares fore shortage of engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauker, Lynn.

    1991-01-01

    It is predicted that the Canadian nuclear industry will experience a shortage of qualified personnel within the next five to ten years. The reasons for this prediction are as follows: enrollment in engineering courses, particularly five courses in nuclear engineering has been declining; immigration can no longer be expected to fill the gap; the workforce is aging. Solutions may include promotional campaigns, student employment programs, and educating workers to a professional level

  11. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    units). Pilot positions can be divided into two categories: absorbing and nonabsorbing. Absorbing positions are in operational units to which...Continued Attention to Aircrew Management Dynamics The primary source of stress in fighter- pilot management has been reductions in aircraft inventories...Fighter Pilot Shortages C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s) contained herein are

  12. Looming labour shortages challenge Alberta resource industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2005-07-01

    The shortage of skilled manpower that is threatening the viability of Alberta's resource industry is discussed. According to statistics compiled by the Canadian Resource Development the Canadian labour force grew by about 226,000 per year during the last quarter century; this will be reduced by about 125,000 per year during the current decade. It is forecast that by 2016, the annul growth will be near zero. To make up for this unprecedented shortfall, the annual rate of immigration required would have to be as high as 650,000 per year. The Alberta Chamber's Workforce Development Committee is aware of the urgency of the situation and is attempting to aggressively investigate the causes of the shortage of skilled labour and finding ways to deal with the problem. Current investigation appears to point the finger at the state of post-secondary education, most particularly the significantly higher underemployment among aboriginal youth and the likelihood that skills programs training developed to encourage First Nation's people would be the most effective way to help easing the growing labour shortage. Too few educational placement for students, a lack of adequate training equipment and financial resources in post-secondary institutions, and the variations in the quality of provincial educational standards receive the most blame, combined with a lack of awareness of employment opportunities or training programs, and the inability to migrate to high opportunity employment areas. A notable program addressing this issue is the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training System which helps young people to start their apprenticeship training while still in high school, and encourage them to continue their training after graduation from high school. The federal government and other groups also encourage participation among Ab originals and work towards eliminating some of the underlying factors of labour shortages, including cultural biases, barriers to inter

  13. Find Shortage Areas: HPSA & MUA/P by Address

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool helps you determine if a specific...

  14. Assimilation of NUCAPS Retrieved Profiles in GSI for Unique Forecasting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily Beth; Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Blankenship, Clay

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral IR profiles can be assimilated in GSI as a separate observation other than radiosondes with only changes to tables in the fix directory. Assimilation of profiles does produce changes to analysis fields and evidenced by: Innovations larger than +/-2.0 K are present and represent where individual profiles impact the final temperature analysis.The updated temperature analysis is colder behind the cold front and warmer in the warm sector. The updated moisture analysis is modified more in the low levels and tends to be drier than the original model background Analysis of model output shows: Differences relative to 13-km RAP analyses are smaller when profiles are assimilated with NUCAPS errors. CAPE is under-forecasted when assimilating NUCAPS profiles, which could be problematic for severe weather forecasting Refining the assimilation technique to incorporate an error covariance matrix and creating a separate GSI module to assimilate satellite profiles may improve results.

  15. Constraining astrophysical reaction rates: using the storage rings at FAIR/GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Christoph; Glorius, Jan; Slavkovská, Zuzana; Litvinov, Sergey; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Reifarth, René

    2018-01-01

    Ion optical calculations for a storage ring at the present GSI facility for direct proton-induced reactions relevant for different astrophysical processes are presented. As an example case, the 59Cu(p,γ) and 59Cu(p,α) reactions are shown. The branching of these two reactions is important in X-ray burst scenarios, since it determines the breakout out of the major 56Ni waiting point.

  16. The GSI plans for an international accelerator facility for beams of ions and antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suemmerer, K.

    2003-01-01

    GSI proposes to build a next-generation facility for research with relativistic beams of ions and antiprotons. This facility allows a broad range of topics in nuclear and astrophysics, plasma and atomic physics to be addressed. The topic most interesting in the context of this conference is physics with high-intensity beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a short overview of the opportunities in the other fields of nuclear physics is given

  17. Prospects of open charm production at GSI-FAIR and J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, J.; Schaefer, A.; Stratmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed phenomenological study of the prospects of open charm physics at the future pp and pp facilities GSI-FAIR and J-PARC, respectively. In particular, we concentrate on the differential cross sections and the charge and longitudinal double-spin asymmetries at next-to-leading order accuracy. Theoretical uncertainties for the proposed observables are estimated by varying the charm quark mass and the renormalization and factorization scales. (orig.)

  18. Grid Computing at GSI for ALICE and FAIR - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Kilian; Uhlig, Florian; Karabowicz, Radoslaw; Montiel-Gonzalez, Almudena; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Preuss, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The future FAIR experiments CBM and PANDA have computing requirements that fall in a category that could currently not be satisfied by one single computing centre. One needs a larger, distributed computing infrastructure to cope with the amount of data to be simulated and analysed. Since 2002, GSI operates a tier2 center for ALICE-CERN. The central component of the GSI computing facility and hence the core of the ALICE tier2 centre is a LSF/SGE batch farm, currently split into three subclusters with a total of 15000 CPU cores shared by the participating experiments, and accessible both locally and soon also completely via Grid. In terms of data storage, a 5.5 PB Lustre file system, directly accessible from all worker nodes is maintained, as well as a 300 TB xrootd-based Grid storage element. Based on this existing expertise, and utilising ALICE's middleware ‘AliEn’, the Grid infrastructure for PANDA and CBM is being built. Besides a tier0 centre at GSI, the computing Grids of the two FAIR collaborations encompass now more than 17 sites in 11 countries and are constantly expanding. The operation of the distributed FAIR computing infrastructure benefits significantly from the experience gained with the ALICE tier2 centre. A close collaboration between ALICE Offline and FAIR provides mutual advantages. The employment of a common Grid middleware as well as compatible simulation and analysis software frameworks ensure significant synergy effects.

  19. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Zhao, Xin-ming; Zhao, Yan-feng; Wang, Xiao-yi; Zhou, Chun-wu

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values. 26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A). Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI) of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B). GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis. As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684). CT dose index (CTDI) values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000), respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B. The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  20. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    Full Text Available To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values.26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A. Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B. GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD, signal-noise-ratio (SNR, contrast-noise-ratio (CNR of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis.As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684. CT dose index (CTDI values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000, respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B.The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  1. Upgrade of the GSI-Unilac as a FAIR high current injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Hendrik [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The existing UNIversal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI will serve as ion and dedicated uranium ion injector for the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). For nominal FAIR operation, 15 emA of Uranium 28+ at low emittances have to be injected by multiturn-injection into FAIR. To meet these requirements and to ensure reliable operation, the UNILAC will undergo a significant upgrade process. Upgrade measures concerning key accelerator components are described and a main focus is put on a replacement of the 54m Alvarez-section by a compact IH-DTL. This will open new options for future injection schemes into SIS100.

  2. Rate-dependent performance of ion chambers for particle-ID at the GSI fragment separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, Jan-Paul; Allred, Timothy; Enders, Joachim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Gernhaeuser, Roman; Maurus, Steffen [Physik Department, TU Muenchen (Germany); Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Prochazka, Andrej [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    At the GSI Fragment Separator (FRS), multi-sampling ion chambers (MUSIC) employing a Frisch grid are used for charge identification of secondary ion beams. At the FAIR Super-FRS, higher rates are expected, and an event-by-event determination of the charge of secondary ions will be needed at rates of several 100000 events per second. The comparison of results from test measurements for the MUSIC performance with that of a recently constructed tilted-electrode gas ion chamber (TEGIC), which was designed similar to the one discussed, is presented.

  3. Development of RF-linac and storage ring system for high-current experiments at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.

    1986-08-01

    The heavy ion facility under construction at GSI is suitable for the generation of high-current beams. It consists of a new high-current injector into the Unilac and a synchrotron and storage ring. We discuss the capability of this system to produce short pulses of heavy ions with a specific energy of the order of 0.1 MJ/g. Under these conditions the system allows to perform a first generation of heavy ion driven target experiments and to test most of the critical issues of a large scale heavy ion fusion driver facility. (orig.)

  4. The EXL experiment at FAIR and plans with the ESR at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, the physics program of the EXL experiment at FAIR-NuSTAR along with its experimental setup will be briefly outlined. This experiment aims to study the structure and the dynamics of radioactive nuclei which collide with light ions in inverse kinematics. On the way to the final measurements, several measurements have been proposed at the existing ESR at GSI with the purpose of understanding the detection systems for EXL and obtaining the first physics results in this type of experiments in a storage ring.

  5. {sup 96}Ru(p,{gamma}){sup 97}Rh measurement at the GSI storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Q; Aumann, T; Boretzky, K; Bosch, F; Braeuning, H; Brandau, C; Ershova, O; Geissel, H; Heil, M; Kelic, A; Kozhuharov, C; Langer, C; Bleis, T Le; Litvinov, Y A [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt, 64291 (Germany); Bishop, S; Dillmann, I [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blaum, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Davinson, T [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Gyuerky, G [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Kaeppeler, F, E-mail: r.reifarth@gsi.d [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-01-01

    A pioneering experiment was recently performed at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. Fully stripped ions of {sup 96}Ru were injected into the storage ring and slowed down to a few MeV per nucleon. The {sup 97}Rh ions from the {sup 96}Ru(p,{gamma}) reaction at a newly developed hydrogen jet target were detected with Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) mounted inside a pocket. The experiment and the status of the analysis at a beam energy of 11 MeV per nucleon will be presented.

  6. The symmetry energy at suprasaturation density and the ASY-EOS experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI laboratory measured the direct and elliptic flow of neutrons and light charged particles in the reaction 197Au+197 Au at 400 A MeV incident energy. The ratio of elliptic flow of neutrons with respect to that of the light charged particles was used as main experimental observable to probe the density dependence of the symmetry energy term of the nuclear equation of state. Results, obtained by comparison of the experimental data with the UrQMD model predictions, strongly support a moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy at suprasaturation densities below 2ρ0.

  7. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummu, Matti; Varis, Olli; Ward, Philip J; De Moel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period 1961-90. Changes in historical water resources availability were simulated with the STREAM model, forced by climate output data of the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model. The water crowding index, i.e. Falkenmark water stress indicator, was used to identify water shortage in 284 sub-basins. Although our results show a few areas with moderate water shortage (1000-1700 m 3 /capita/yr) around the year 1800, water shortage began in earnest at around 1900, when 2% of the world population was under chronic water shortage ( 3 /capita/yr). By 1960, this percentage had risen to 9%. From then on, the number of people under water shortage increased rapidly to the year 2005, by which time 35% of the world population lived in areas with chronic water shortage. In this study, the effects of changes in population on water shortage are roughly four times more important than changes in water availability as a result of long-term climatic change. Global trends in adaptation measures to cope with reduced water resources per capita, such as irrigated area, reservoir storage, groundwater abstraction, and global trade of agricultural products, closely follow the recent increase in global water shortage.

  8. Overview of allied health personnel shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, T W

    1991-01-01

    Upon learning that 95% of all fatal traffic accidents occur within three miles of one's home, an acquaintance moved to another residence four miles away and is still alive today. The world might be a much better place if most obstacles could be overcome this handily. Unfortunately, the problem of allied health personnel shortages appears to be more intractable. Because the situation is complicated in nature, it is most unlikely that any single remedy will suffice. Public and private interests have joined forces in many states, but it is abundantly clear that conventional market forces are unlikely to prevail. These forces usually focus on supply and demand. While shortages may cause entry-level salaries to rise, they do not stimulate academic institutions to increase their output nor will they affect the availability of research funding and/or doctoral training programs. Current market forces compel health facilities to engage in bidding wars for scarce manpower. Although individual job seekers may benefit, this practice does not increase the number of training program graduates. The federal government has a decisive role to play in assuring an adequate number of personnel to meet this nation's health care needs. Assistance is necessary in the form of providing entry- and advanced-level traineeships to accelerate the flow of part-time students pursuing doctorates, and to fund model student recruitment/retention projects. This role should encompass attracting students (particularly from minority and underserved portions of the population) to academic programs. The Disadvantaged Minority Health Improvement Act, PL 101-527 that was enacted in November 1990, contains only minimal provisions for allied health. Eligibility for student scholarship assistance is restricted to a small handful of allied health professions. Moreover, allied health is not eligible for the loan repayment program aimed at individuals who agree to serve on the faculty of health professions

  9. Drugs, money, and power: the Canadian drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the shortage of generic injectable medications in Canada that affected hospitals in 2012. It traces the events leading up to the drug shortage, the causes of the shortage, and the responses by health administrators, pharmacists, and ethicists. The article argues that generic drug shortages are an ethical problem because health care organizations and governments have an obligation to avoid exposing patients to resource scarcity. The article also discusses some options governments could pursue in order to secure the drug supply and thereby fulfill their ethical obligations.

  10. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  11. Desalination - A solution to water shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries are faced with critical water shortage for the last few decades. The demand for water has outstripped its supply making the availability of safe water sources an issue Also conflicts over water sharing are expected in many regions of the world. Thus, because of this looming crisis water problems are getting increasing attention all over the world. With the advancement of desalination technology many countries had resorted removal of salts from brackish and sea water as an alternative water supply and they are now viewing desalination as a future solution to problems of lack of water. Today, over 100 countries use desalting requirement. A total of 12,451 desalting units (of a unit size of 100 m/sup 3//d or more) with a total capacity of 22,735,000 m /d had been installed or contracted worldwide. Brackish water desalination plants contribute with 9,400,000 m3/d, whereas the capacity of the sea water plants had reached up to 13,300,000 m3/d. This paper will discuss the use of desalination to produce potable water from saline water for domestic or municipal purposes and also the available desalination techniques that have been developed over the years and have achieved commercial success. (author)

  12. Performance of upstream interaction region detectors for the FIRST experiment at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Haidar, Z; Alvarez, M A G; Anelli, M; Aumann, T; Battistoni, G; Bocci, A; Bohlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cirrone, G A P; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Durante, M; Fernandez-Garcia, J P; Finck, C; Gallardo, M I; Golosio, B; Iarocci, E; Iazzi, F; Ickert, G; Introzzi, R; Juliani, D; Krimmer, J; Kurz, N; Labalme, M; Leifels, Y; Le Fevre, A; Leray, S; Marchetto, F; Monaco, V; Morone, M C; Oliva, P; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pleskac, R; Quesada, J M; Randazzo, N; Romano, F; Rossi, D; Rosso, V; Rousseau, M; Sacchi, R; Sala, P; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Sfienti, C; Simon, H; Sipala, V; Spiriti, E; Stuttge, L; Tropea, S; Younis, H

    2012-01-01

    The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at GSI has been designed to study carbon fragmentation, measuring (12)C double differential cross sections (- (2)I /- - E) for different beam energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/u. The experimental setup integrates newly designed detectors in the, so called, Interaction Region around the graphite target. The Interaction Region upstream detectors are a 250 mum thick scintillator and a drift chamber optimized for a precise measurement of the ions interaction time and position on the target. In this article we review the design of the upstream detectors along with the preliminary results of the data taking performed on August 2011 with 400 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at GSI. Detectors performances will be reviewed and compared to those obtained during preliminary tests, performed with 500 MeV electrons (at the BTF facility in the INFN Frascati Laboratories) and 80 MeV/u protons and carbon ions (at the INFN LNS Laboratories in Cata...

  13. Test of a non-invasive bunch shape monitor at the GSI high current LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Benjamin; Forck, Peter; Kester, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Dorn, Christoph; Kowina, Piotr [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    At the heavy ion LINAC at GSI, a novel scheme of non-invasive Bunch Shape Monitor has been tested with several ion beams at 11.4 MeV/u. Caused by the beam impact on the residual gas, secondary electrons are liberated. These electrons are accelerated by an electrostatic field, transported through a sophisticated electrostatic energy analyzer and an rf-deflector, acting as a time-to-space converter. Finally a MCP detects the electron distribution. For the applied beam settings this Bunch Shape Monitor is able to obtain longitudinal profiles down to 400 ps with a resolution of 50 ps, corresponding to 2 degree of the 36 MHz acceleration frequency. During a long shutdown period for the GSI accelerators in 2013, the monitor underwent a general technical retrofit: Influence of the beam has been significantly reduced, due enhanced electrodes, new apertures have been installed to decrease electron scattering, sophisticated stepping motors will allow better image properties, a MCP shielding plate will prevent high background. Together with these improvements the achievements of the monitor are discussed.

  14. Construction and characterization of a laser-driven proton beamline at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busold, Simon

    2014-05-15

    The thesis includes the first experiments with the new 100 TW laser beamline of the PHELIX laser facility at GSI Darmstadt to drive a TNSA (Target Normal Sheath Acceleration) proton source at GSI's Z6 experimental area. At consecutive stages a pulsed solenoid has been applied for beam transport and energy selection via chromatic focusing, as well as a radiofrequency cavity for energy compression of the bunch. This novel laser-driven proton beamline, representing a central experiment of the German national LIGHT collaboration (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport), has been used to create collimated, intense proton bunches at 10 MeV with 2.7% energy spread from the laser-driven source. Also, the feasibility of phase focusing experiments with this setup has been shown and simulations predict peak currents of 10{sup 10} protons/ns at this energy level. Furthermore, first quantitative measurements on the spectral properties of the also present co-moving electrons from such a proton source could be performed and their influence on the protons within the solenoid observed. Finally, permanent magnetic quadrupoles as an alternative first ion collimation system have been investigated experimentally.

  15. Skill Shortages in the Trades during Economic Downturns. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Damian

    2011-01-01

    During the recent economic downturn, media and industry reports of skill shortages in the trades continued to appear. The intent of this paper is to examine the evidence for skill shortages in the trades persisting during the economic downturns over the last 20 years, using various indicators. These include employment growth, vacancy rates,…

  16. The World Language Teacher Shortage: Taking a New Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Pete; Mason, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, international leaders have made calls addressing the world language teacher shortage. For almost 70 years, such rhetoric has been advanced, yet world language teacher shortages remain in many countries such as Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In this article, the…

  17. Comparison of Dextran Perfusion and GSI-B4 Isolectin Staining in a Mouse Model of Oxygen-induced Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaofen; Liang, Jiajian; Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Lu, Zhihao; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Haoyu

    2015-06-01

    Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is a robust and widely used animal model for the study of retinal neovascularization (NV). Dextran perfusion and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GSI-B4) staining are two common methods for examining the occurrence and extent of OIR. This study provides a quantitative comparison of the two for OIR detection. At postnatal day 7 (PN7), fifteen C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a 75% hyperoxic condition for 5 days and then returned to room air conditions. At PN17, the mice received intravitreal injection of GSI-B4 Alexa Fluor 568 conjugate. After 10 hours, they were infused with FITC-dextran conjugate via the left ventricle. Retinal flat mounts were photographed by confocal microscopy. Areas with fluorescent signals and the total retinal areas were quantified by Image J software. Both GSI-B4 and dextran detected the peripheral neovascular area. The mean hyper fluorescence area was 0.33 ± 0.14% of whole retinal area determined by GSI-B4 staining and 0.25 ± 0.28% determined by dextran perfusion. The difference between the two measures was 0.08% (95% CI:-0.59%, 0.43%). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.386,P =0.035. The mean coincidence rates were 14.3 ± 13.4% and 24.9 ± 18.5% for GSI-B4 and dextran staining, respectively. Both methods can complement each other in demonstrating and quantitatively evaluating retinal NV. A poor agreement was found between the two methods; GSI-B4 isolectin was more effective than FITC-dextran perfusion in evaluating the extent of retinal NV in a mouse model of OIR.

  18. Biology experiments at UNILAC. Reports from the biology user meeting, GSI, 3 October 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    On 3 Oct 1985, an internal Biology User Meeting of the groups working at GSI was arranged for the purpose of exchanging information and having discussions. It was found that the experimental data obtained so far are quite complex, and that the attempts at a theoretical treatment are still in a very early stage. To keep the discussion going, this report therefore presents the contributions of the various groups as far as these have been available. Most of the information was not in finished reports but in the form of diagrams and tables with explanations, sometimes even in the form of handwritten notes or sketches. Separate records are available for 13 contributions. (orig./MG) [de

  19. The optimized advanced demonstrator for the SC CW heavy ion linac at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Malte; Basten, Markus; Busch, Marco; Dziuba, Florian; Podlech, Holger; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Tiede, Rudolf [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gettmann, Viktor; Heilmann, Manuel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Barth, Winfried; Mickat, Sascha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); HIM, Helmholtzinstitut, Mainz (Germany); Miski-Oglu, Maksym [HIM, Helmholtzinstitut, Mainz (Germany); Aulenbacher, Kurt [KPH, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For future experiments with heavy ions at the coulomb barrier within the SHE research project a multi-stage R and D program of GSI, HIM and IAP is currently under progress. It aims at developing a superconducting (sc) continuous wave (cw) LINAC with multiple CH-cavities as key components. As intermediate step towards the whole LINAC, the Optimized Advanced Demonstrator is proposed. Consisting of short CH-cavities and cryostats, it could provide several advantages regarding velocity acceptance, higher tolerance with respect to frequency and field deviation, easier mounting, handling and maintenance as well as a more robust longitudinal beam dynamic. The beam dynamics concept is based on EQUUS (Equidistant Multigap Structure) constant-beta cavities. The corresponding simulations for the proposed next extension stage - the Optimized Advanced Demonstrator - will be presented.

  20. Recent Test Results of the Fast-Pulsed 4 T COS$\\Theta$ Dipole GSI 001

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, G; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Jain, Animesh K; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Thomas, Richard A; Wanderer, Peter; Auchmann, Bernard; de Maria, Riccardo; Wilson, Martin N; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    For the FAIR-project at GSI a model dipole was built at BNL with the nominal field of 4 T and a nominal ramp rate of 1 T/s. The magnet design was similar to the RHIC dipole with some changes for loss reduction and better cooling. The magnet was already successfully tested in a vertical cryostat with good training behaviour. Cryogenic losses were measured and first results of field harmonics were published. However, for a better understanding of the cooling process quench currents at several ramp rates were investigated. Detailed measurements of the field harmonics at different ramp rates and at several cycles were performed. To separate the effects of the coil and the iron yoke the magnet was disassembled and tested as collared coil only. Recent test results will be presented.

  1. Investigations on KONUS beam dynamics using the pre-stripper drift tube linac at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Du, X. N.; Groening, L.

    2018-04-01

    Interdigital H-mode (IH) drift tube linacs (DTLs) based on KONUS beam dynamics are very sensitive to the rf-phases and voltages at the gaps between tubes. In order to design these DTLs, a deep understanding of the underlying longitudinal beam dynamics is mandatory. The report presents tracking simulations along an IH-DTL using the PARTRAN and BEAMPATH codes together with MATHCAD and CST. Simulation results illustrate that the beam dynamics design of the pre-stripper IH-DTL at GSI is sensitive to slight deviations of rf-phase and gap voltages with impact to the mean beam energy at the DTL exit. Applying the existing geometrical design, rf-voltages, and rf-phases of the DTL were re-adjusted. In simulations this re-optimized design can provide for more than 90% of transmission of an intense 15 emA beam keeping the reduction of beam brilliance below 25%.

  2. Challenges and opportunities for atomic physics at FAIR: The new GSI accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmann, S. [Institut f. Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany) and GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: s.hagmann@gsi.de; Beyer, H.F. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Bosch, F. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Kozhuharov, Ch. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Th. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Ullrich, J. [Max Planck Inst. f. Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Moshammer, R. [Max Planck Inst. f. Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Mann, R. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Mokler, P. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Department of Physics, University of Stockholm (Sweden); Warczak, A. [Department of Physics, University of Cracow (Poland)

    2005-12-15

    We present a short overview of the current status of the new accelerator project FAIR at GSI with the new double synchrotron rings and the multi-storage rings. The key features of the new facility, which provides intense relativistic beams of stable and unstable nuclei, are introduced and their relation to the anticipated experimental programs in nuclear structure physics and antiproton physics is shown. The main emphasis in this overview is given to the atomic physics program with unique opportunities which will be provided e.g. by bare U{sup 92+} ions with kinetic energies continuously variable between relativistic energies corresponding to {gamma} up to {approx_equal}35 down to kinetic energies of such ions in traps corresponding to fractions of a Kelvin.

  3. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: Constraining the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au, 96Zr+96Zr and 96Ru+96Ru collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon with the Large Area Neutron Detector LAND as part of a setup with several additional detection systems used for the event characterization. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  4. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: investigating symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy-ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. The results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model simulations favoured a moderately soft symmetry term, but suffer from a considerable statistical uncertainty. These results have been confirmed by an independent analysis based on the Tübingen QMD simulations. In order to obtain an improved data set for Au+Au collisions and to extend the study to other systems, a new experiment was carried out at the GSI laboratory by the ASY-EOS collaboration. The present status of the data analysis is reported

  5. A beamline for x-ray laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, D F A; Bagnoud, V; Ecker, B; Eisenbarth, U; Götte, S; Kuehl, Th; Stöhlker, Th; Zielbauer, B; Neumayer, P; Spielmann, C

    2013-01-01

    By combining an x-ray laser (XRL) with a heavy-ion storage ring, precision laser spectroscopy of the fine-structure splitting in heavy Li-like ions will be possible. An initial study has been performed to determine the feasibility of a first experiment at the experimental storage ring at GSI in Darmstadt, which also has great potential for the experiments planned for FAIR. We plan to perform a unique, direct and precise measurement of a fine-structure transition in a heavy Li-like ion. Such a measurement will test state-of-the-art atomic structure calculations in strong fields. This endeavour will require that the existing infrastructure is complemented by a dedicated beamline for the XRL. In this paper, we will discuss the details of this project and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. (paper)

  6. A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for precision spectroscopy at the HITRAP facility at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, D.; Stiebing, K. E.; Winters, D. F. A.; Quint, W.; Varentsov, V.; Warczak, A.; Malarz, A.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2014-11-01

    A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for experiments at the HITRAP facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt has been designed and built as a multi-purpose installation for key experiments on fundamental atomic physics in strong fields. This setup is currently installed at the Institut für Kernphysik of Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (IKF), in order to explore its operation prior to its installation at the HITRAP facility. Design and performance of the target are described. The measured target densities of 5.9×1012 atoms/cm3 for helium and 8.1×1012 atoms/cm³ for argon at the stagnation pressure of 30 bar match the required values. The target-beam diameter of 0.9 mm and the pulsed operation mode (jet built-up-time ≤15 ms) are well suited for the use at HITRAP.

  7. GSI Quantitative Parameters: Preoperative Diagnosis of Metastasis Lymph Nodes in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengfeng YANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Mediastinal involvement in lung cancer is an important prognostic factor affecting survival, and accurate staging of the mediastinum lymph node correctly identifies patients who can benefit the most from surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DEsCT imaging in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in lung cancer. Methods Forty-eight patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC underwent arterial (AP and portal venous (PP phase contrast-enhanced DEsCT imaging followed by surgical treatment. gemstone spectral imaging (GSI data images were reconstructed and transmitted to an offline workstation. GSI quantitative parameters, including lymph-node size, CT value, IC, water concentration, and spectral curve. Differences were tested for statistical significance using the two-sample t test. ROC analysis was performed to assess diagnostic performance. Results The mean short-axis diameter of metastatic LNs, slope of the spectral Hounsfield unit curve (λHU, normalized iodine concentration measured during, and both AP and PP were significantly higher in metastatic lymph node than that in benign lymph nodes. The best parameter for detecting metastatic lymph nodes was AP λHU when a threshold λHU of 2.75 was used; sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 88.2%, 88.4%, and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion Quantitative assessment with gemstone spectral imaging quantitative parameters showed higher accuracy than the qualitative assessment of conventional CT imaging features for the preoperative diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer.

  8. Experiments on the interaction of heavy ions with dense plasma at GSI-Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckl, C.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Geissel, M.; Roth, M.; Wetzler, H.; Seelig, W.; Iwase, O.; Spiller, P.; Bock, R.; Suess, W.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the experimental plasma physics activities at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) are the interaction processes of heavy ions with dense ionized matter. Gas-discharge plasma targets were used for energy loss and charge state measurements in a regime of electron density and temperature up to 10 19 cm -3 and 20 eV, respectively. An improved model of the charge exchange processes in fully ionized hydrogen plasma, taking into account multiple excited electronic configurations which subsequently ionize, has removed the discrepancies of previous theoretical descriptions. The energy loss of the ion beam in partially ionized plasmas such as argon was found to agree very well with our simple theoretical model based on the modified Bethe-Bloch theory. A new setup with a 100 J/5 GW Nd-glass laser now provides access to density ranges up to 10 21 cm -3 and temperatures of up to 100 eV. First results of interaction experiments with laser-produced plasma are presented. To fully exploit the experimental possibilities of the new laser-plasma setup both improved charge state detection systems and better plasma diagnostics are indispensable. Present developments and future possibilities in these fields are presented. This paper summarizes the following contributions: Interaction of heavy-ion beams with laser plasma by C. Stoeckl et al. Energy loss of heavy ions in a laser-produced plasma by M. Roth et al. Charge state measurements of heavy ions passing a laser produced plasma with high time resolution by W. Suess et al. Plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasma by O. Iwase et al. Future possibilities of plasma diagnostics at GSI by M. Geissel et al. (orig.)

  9. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  10. The PRESPEC liquid-hydrogen target for in-beam gamma spectroscopy of exotic nuclei at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louchart, C.; Gheller, J.M.; Chesny, Ph.; Authelet, G.; Rousse, J.Y.; Obertelli, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Pietri, S.; Ameil, F.; Audirac, L.; Corsi, A.; Dombradi, Z.; Gerl, J.; Gillibert, A.; Korten, W.; Mailleret, C.; Merchan, E.; Nociforo, C.; Pietralla, N.; Ralet, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new liquid hydrogen and deuterium target dedicated to in-beam γ spectroscopy experiments in inverse kinematics at relativistic incident energies at GSI/FAIR. Target thicknesses from 10 to 80 mm can be achieved for an effective diameter of 60 mm. The target-cell and entrance window are maded of 200μm thick Mylar. The design has the advantage of being free of absorbing material at forward angles and 90°, allowing the detection of photons in a wide angular range. A commissioning experiment with a 54 Cr beam at 130 MeV/nucleon has been performed at GSI, using the Rare Isotopes INvestigation at GSI (RISING) detectors. The target has been shown to behave as expected and is ready for experiments at fragmentation Radioactive-Ion Beam Facilities. -- Highlights: • We report on a new liquid hydrogen target for gamma spectroscopy experiments at FAIR. • A commissioning experiment has been performed at GSI, using the RISING detectors. • The target behaves as expected and is ready for experiments

  11. Atomic physics with highly-charged heavy ions at the GSI future facility: The scientific program of the SPARC collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, Th.; Beier, T.; Beyer, H.F.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kuehl, Th.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.; Quint, W.; Schuch, R.; Warczak, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the current report a short overview about the envisioned program of the atomic physics research collaboration SPARC (Stored Particle Atomic Research Collaboration, at the new international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI is given. In addition, a condensed description of the planned experimental areas devoted to atomic physics research at the new facility is presented

  12. Outline of experimental schemes for measurements of thermophysical and transport properties in warm dense matter at GSI and FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschwitz, Anna; Jacoby, Joachim; Maruhn, Joachim; Basko, Mikhail; Efremov, Vladimir; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Neumayer, Paul; Novikov, Vladimir; Tauschwitz, Andreas; Rosmej, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Different experimental schemes for investigation of warm dense matter produced with intense energetic ion beams are presented. The described target configurations allow direct measurements of thermophysical and transport properties of warm dense matter without hydrodynamic recalculations. The presented experiments will be realized at the current GSI synchrotron SIS-18 and the future FAIR facility in the framework of the WDM-collaboration.

  13. What's the ROI for resolving the nursing faculty shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karren; Kelley, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    The nursing faculty shortage will have a fundamental impact on the ability to produce nurses. For most nursing schools and states, however, concerns about the relative merits of different solutions to the nursing faculty shortage are misplaced. Without significantly increased visibility and definition, accompanied by a clear public, private, and health care organization return on investment (ROI), proposing solutions to the nursing faculty shortage is at best premature and at worst irrelevant. There is simply too much competition for resources to expect that a vaguely defined and invisible problem with no rationale for increased investment will receive sufficient support from critical decision makers and constituencies. First must come problem definition, visibility, and ROI. Only then can the case be made for implementing solutions to the nursing faculty shortage.

  14. Ethical framework for resource allocation during a drug supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Bean, Sally; Chidwick, Paula; Godkin, Dianne; Sibbald, Robert W; Wagner, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Drug supply shortages are common in health systems due to manufacturing and other delays. Frequently, shortages are successfully addressed through conservation and redistribution efforts, with limited impact on patient care. However, when Sandoz Canada Inc. announced in February 2012 that it was reducing production of a number of generic injectable drugs at its Quebec facility, the scope and magnitude of the drug supply shortage were unprecedented in Canada. The potential for an extreme scarcity of some drugs raised ethical concerns about patient care, including the need to limit access to some health services. In this article, the authors describe the development and implementation of an ethical framework to promote equitable access to drugs and healthcare services in the context of a drug supply shortage within and across health systems.

  15. Toward a Comprehensive Strategy for Addressing the Teacher Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1986-01-01

    The likely consequences of different educational policies affecting teacher supply and demand are examined in relation to the predicted teacher shortage. Includes a table describing 23 policies and practices of schools that attract qualified teachers. (MD)

  16. Can state-supported interprofessional coalitions cure preceptor shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Lesli; Smith, Gigi; Garr, David; Hopla, Deborah; Kern, Donna

    2018-06-01

    The shortage of clinical preceptors compromises the current and future supply of healthcare providers and patient access to primary care. This article describes how an interprofessional coalition in South Carolina formed and sought government support to address the preceptor shortage. Some states have legislated preceptor tax credits and/or deductions to support the clinical education of future primary care healthcare providers. As a result of the coalition's work, a bill to establish similar incentives is pending in the South Carolina legislature.

  17. Strategies to address the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia and specifically the shortage of Saudi nurses in the healthcare workforce and to propose solutions. Literature published from 1993 to 2013 providing relevant information on the nursing shortage, cultural traditions and beliefs, and nursing education and policies in Saudi was accessed from multiple sources including Medline, CINAHL Plus and Google Scholar and from official Saudi government document and was reviewed. Saudi Arabia depends largely on an expatriate workforce, and this applies to nursing. Saudi Arabia is experiencing a nursing shortage in common with most countries in the world and a shortage of Saudi nationals, especially women, in the healthcare workforce. The world shortage of nursing is extrinsic to Saudi, but intrinsic factors include a poor image of the nursing profession in the country that is exacerbated by cultural factors. With the call for the Saudization of the workforce to replace the imported workforce by Saudi nationals, including nurses, through the 1992 Royal Decree, Saudi Arabia faces a problem in attracting and retaining Saudi nationals in the nursing workforce. Solutions are suggested that are aimed at improving the public image of nursing through education and the use of the media and improvements in the workplace by addressing working processes such as teamwork, ensuring adequate staffing levels and addressing some aspects of culture which may make working in nursing more compatible with being a Saudi national. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  18. The E052 - GSI Experiment, Deceleration of highly charged ions by crystal channeling. (Technical notes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.

    2003-01-01

    The report on the E052 - GSI Experiment, devoted to 'Deceleration of highly charged ions by crystal channeling' present the technical notes and the status of this experiment in 2003. The report contains 13 sections and two annexes. The sections deal with the following issues: 1. File system of the 'PC monitor' for E052 - GSI Experiment in 2003; 2. Parameters of the 'PC monitor' file system; 3. Operation of the two PCs; 3.1. Layout of goniometer remote control; 3.2. 'PC motors' side by the beam hall; 3.3. RS232 connection cabling; 3.4. RS232 configuration on the COM1 ports of the two PCs; 4. Motor connection; 4.1. SubD-25 acquisition PC monitor arm on 'COM1'; 4.2. Motors step by step feeding side SubD-25 on 'COM1'; 4.3. Distribution of digital step by step control signals; 4.5. Upper an lower goniometer connection; 4.6. Rotation and inclination outer goniometer connection; 4.7. Ultra vacuum inner rotation and inclination connection; 5. Motor characteristics; 5.1. Upstream and downstream; 5.2. Rotation; 5.3 Inclination; 5.4. Feedings; 6. Goniometer in-beam positioning; 6.1. Height fine motor positioning; 6.2. Side manual positioning; 7. Goniometer movements; 8. Crystals and electron detection; 8.1. General layout; 8.2. 1 μm Si(100) crystal; 8.3. 33 μm Si(100) crystal; 8.4. Crystal mounting; 8.5. Electron detection; 9. Reference laser positioning of angular movements; 10. Beam track and collimators upstream the target; 11. User manual - Monitoring programme; 11.Start scanning program (GSIscan.exe); 11.2. SCANNING the crystal (Scan Control window); 11.3. MOVING THE GONIOMETER MANUALY (goniometer control window); 11.4. USING THE COUNTERS (counter display window); 11.5. MULTISCALER PLOT DISPLAY; 11.6. SELECT ACTIVE PLOT; 11.7. CURSORS; 11.8. STATISTICS; 11.9. Y SCALE change; 11.10. PLOT view and hide counter; 11.11. SAVE multiscaler spectra; 11.12. PRINT plot; 12. Simplified acquisition electronic setup; 13. The 'PC motors' software; 13.1. The code structure; 13

  19. Application of Beam Diagnostics for Intense Heavy Ion Beams at the GSI UNILAC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W; Glatz, J; Groening, L; Richter, S; Yaramishev, S

    2003-01-01

    With the new High Current Injector (HSI) of the GSI UNILAC the beam pulse intensity had been increased by approximately two orders of magnitudes. The HSI was mounted and commissioned in 1999; since this time the UNILAC serves as an injector for the synchrotron SIS, especially for high uranium intensities. Considering the high beam power of up to 1250 kW and the short stopping range for the UNILAC beam energies (≤12 MeV/u), accelerator components could be destroyed, even during a single beam pulse. All diagnostic elements had to be replaced preferably by non-destructive devices. The beam current is mainly measured by beam transformers instead of Faraday cups, beam positions are measured with segmented capacitive pick-ups and secondary beam monitors instead of profile harps. The 24 installed pick-ups are also used to measure intensities, widths and phase of the bunches, as well beam energies by evaluating pick-ups at different positions. The residual gas ionization monitors allow on-line measurements ...

  20. Tune measurements with high intensity ion beams at GSI SIS-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); TEMF, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Forck, Peter; Kowina, Piotr; Kaufmann, Wolfgang [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TEMF, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A precise tune measurement during a full accelerating cycle is required to achieve stable high current operation. A new system has been commissioned at GSI for position, orbit and tune measurements. It consists of three distinct parts; an exciter which provides power to excite coherent betatron oscillations in the bunched beam; Fast ADCs to digitize the BPM signals at 125 MSa/s; the post processing electronics uses digitized BPM signals to acquire one position value per bunch. Subsequently the baseband tune is determined by Fourier transformation of the position data. Experiments were conducted to understand the effects of high beam intensity on tune at injection plateau (11.4 MeV/u) and during acceleration ramp (11.4-600 MeV/u). These experiments were performed with U{sup 73+} and Ar{sup 18+} ion beam at highest achievable intensities of 2.10{sup 9} and 2.5.10{sup 10} respectively. Tune shift with increased intensity was observed. The working principle of the tune measurement system and observed high intensity effects on tune will be reported in this contribution.

  1. Nuclear Structure of the Heaviest Elements – Investigated at SHIP-GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heßberger Fritz Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for the heaviest nuclei that can exist is a basic topic in natural science as their stability is characterized by a delicate interplay of short range nuclear forces acting between the nucleons (protons and neutrons and long-range Coulomb forces acting solely between charged particles, i.e. the protons. As the stability of a nucleus is strongly correlated to its structure, understanding the nuclear structure of heaviest nuclei is presently a main challenge of experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the field of Superheavy Elements. At the velocity filter SHIP at GSI Darmstadt an extensive program on nuclear structure investigations has been started about a decade ago. The project covered both as well systematic investigations of single particle levels in odd-mass isotopes populated by α-decay as investigation of two- or fourquasi-particle states forming K isomers and was supplemented by direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and investigation of spontaneous fission properties. Recent experimental studies allowed to extend the systematics of low lying levels in N = 151 and N = 153 up to 255Rf and 259Sg, investigation of possible relations between nuclear structure and fission properties of odd-mass nuclei and investigation of shell strengths at N = 152 and towards N = 162.

  2. PENGARUH KOMPENSASI DAN LINGKUNGAN KERJA TERHADAP KINERJA KARYAWAN DIVISI QIP PT. GSI CIANJUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyanto Suharyanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of human resource management is continously improved to enhance the performance of employees. PT GSI, as one of Indonesian company producing shoe products to meet demand from all around the world, needs employees with high performance. On the other side, the employees need reasonable compensation and safe work environments. This research is conducted to investigate the relationships and the effects of the compensation and work environment variables on the job performance. Using causal descriptive research method, samples of 77 units are randomly taken from 328 labors at the Quality Inspection Production Divison. The questionaire comprising eighteen questions is applied to explore the employee minds and perceptions on the relationships and effects of the compensation and work environment variables toward the job performance variable. The result of this research shows that compensation (X1 and work environment (X2 variables simultanously effect to the job performance variable (Y. The linier regression equation constructed is represented by Y = 4,375 - 0,181X1 + 0,382X2.

  3. A critical review of the nursing shortage in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T; Namasivayam, P; Narudin, D A A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes and critically reviews steps taken to address the nursing workforce shortage in Malaysia. To address the shortage and to build health care capacity, Malaysia has more than doubled its nursing workforce over the past decade, primarily through an increase in the domestic supply of new graduates. Government reports, policy documents and ministerial statements were sourced from the Ministry of Health Malaysia website and reviewed and analysed in the context of the scholarly literature published about the health care workforce in Malaysia and more generally about the global nursing shortage. An escalation in student numbers and the unprecedented number of new graduates entering the workforce has been associated with other impacts that have been responded to symptomatically rather than through workplace reform. Whilst growing the domestic supply of nurses is a critical key strategy to address workforce shortages, steps should also be taken to address structural and other problems of the workplace to support both new graduates and the retention of more experienced staff. Nursing shortages should not be tackled by increasing the supply of new graduates alone. The creation of a safe and supportive work environment is important to the long-term success of current measures taken to grow the workforce and retain nurses within the Malaysian health care system.

  4. An analysis of news flow on the nation's nurse shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, B J; Kalisch, P A; Clinton, J

    1981-09-01

    Using data from national newspaper clipping services, this article analyzes characteristics of 1978 news coverage of the nation's nurse shortage. Based on a content analysis of nearly 3,000 newspaper articles, findings revealed that 14 per cent of the articles mentioned problems of nurse supply. Articles on nurse shortage were most frequent in the Pacific, Mid-Atlantic and South-Atlantic states and occurred least in the West-North Central and East-South Central states. Articles mentioning nurse shortage were more frequently placed on page 1, associated with clinical nursing in hospital settings and explained as the result of maldistribution of nurses, poor salaries, deficient working conditions and lack of job satisfaction. The reading public was confronted with three major consequences of current and continued shortages in nursing: 1) decline in the availability and diversity of health services; 2) erosion in the quality of care offered the public and jeopardized patient welfare; and 3) escalating health care costs. Solutions to the nurse shortage appear to be closely tied to further expansion of the issue among the public, the initiation of remedial governmental action and timely relocation of scarce resources within the health care industry.

  5. Insights into location dependent loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment for GSI-191 risk-informed applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, K.N., E-mail: KarlFleming@comcast.net [KNF Consulting LLC, Spokane, WA (United States); Lydell, B.O.Y. [SIGMA-PHASE INC., Vail, AZ (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Role of operating experience in loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment. • Plant-to-plant variability in calculated LOCA frequency. • Frequency of double-ended-guillotine-break (DEGB). • Uncertainties in LOCA frequencies. • Risk management insights. - Abstract: As a tribute to the published work by S.H. Bush, S. Beliczey and H. Schulz, this paper assesses the progress with methods and techniques for quantifying the reliability of piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants on the basis of failure rate estimates derived from field experience data in combination with insights and results from probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses and expert elicitation exercises. This status assessment is made from a technical perspective obtained through development of location-specific loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequencies for input to risk-informed resolution of the generic safety issue (GSI) 191. The methods and techniques on which these GSI-191 applications are based build on a body of work developed by the authors during a period spanning more than two decades. The insights that are presented and discussed in this paper cover today’s knowledge base concerning how to utilize a risk-informed approach to the assessment of piping reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in general and the resolution of GSI-191 in particular. Specifically the paper addresses the extent to which LOCA frequencies vary from location to location within a reactor coolant system pressure boundary (RCPB) for a given plant as well as vary from plant to plant, and the reasons for these variabilities. Furthermore, the paper provides the authors’ perspectives on interpretations and applications of information extracted from an expert elicitation process to obtain LOCA frequencies as documented in NUREG-1829 and how to apply this information to GSI-191. Finally, this paper documents technical insights relative to mitigation of

  6. Insights into location dependent loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment for GSI-191 risk-informed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Lydell, B.O.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of operating experience in loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment. • Plant-to-plant variability in calculated LOCA frequency. • Frequency of double-ended-guillotine-break (DEGB). • Uncertainties in LOCA frequencies. • Risk management insights. - Abstract: As a tribute to the published work by S.H. Bush, S. Beliczey and H. Schulz, this paper assesses the progress with methods and techniques for quantifying the reliability of piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants on the basis of failure rate estimates derived from field experience data in combination with insights and results from probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses and expert elicitation exercises. This status assessment is made from a technical perspective obtained through development of location-specific loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequencies for input to risk-informed resolution of the generic safety issue (GSI) 191. The methods and techniques on which these GSI-191 applications are based build on a body of work developed by the authors during a period spanning more than two decades. The insights that are presented and discussed in this paper cover today’s knowledge base concerning how to utilize a risk-informed approach to the assessment of piping reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in general and the resolution of GSI-191 in particular. Specifically the paper addresses the extent to which LOCA frequencies vary from location to location within a reactor coolant system pressure boundary (RCPB) for a given plant as well as vary from plant to plant, and the reasons for these variabilities. Furthermore, the paper provides the authors’ perspectives on interpretations and applications of information extracted from an expert elicitation process to obtain LOCA frequencies as documented in NUREG-1829 and how to apply this information to GSI-191. Finally, this paper documents technical insights relative to mitigation of

  7. The nurse manager: job satisfaction, the nursing shortage and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Diane Randall; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2005-07-01

    A critical shortage of registered nurses exists in the United States and this shortage is expected to worsen. It is predicted that unless this issue is resolved, the demand for nursing services will exceed the supply by nearly 30% in 2020. Extensive analysis of this pending crisis has resulted in numerous recommendations to improve both recruitment and retention. The purpose of this article is to clearly outline the issues contributing to this problem, and to provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on job satisfaction as it relates to job turnover and employee retention. To accomplish this, an analysis of the literature using both national and international sources is used to formulate the lessons learned as well as strategies and future courses of action designed to address this shortage.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations for the shielding of the future high-intensity accelerator facility fair at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, T.; Gutermuth, F.; Fehrenbacher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) is planning a significant expansion of its accelerator facilities. Compared to the present GSI facility, a factor of 100 in primary beam intensities and up to a factor of 10,000 in secondary radioactive beam intensities are key technical goals of the proposal. The second branch of the so-called Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is the production of antiprotons and their storage in rings and traps. The facility will provide beam energies a factor of ∼15 higher than presently available at the GSI for all ions, from protons to uranium. The shielding design of the synchrotron SIS 100/300 is shown exemplarily by using Monte Carlo calculations with the FLUKA code. The experimental area serving the investigation of compressed baryonic matter is analysed in the same way. In addition, a dose comparison is made for an experimental area operated with medium energy heavy-ion beams. Here, Monte Carlo calculations are performed by using either heavy-ion primary particles or proton beams with intensities scaled by the mass number of the corresponding heavy-ion beam. (authors)

  9. Monte Carlo simulations for the shielding of the future high-intensity accelerator facility FAIR at GSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, T; Gutermuth, F; Fehrenbacher, G

    2005-01-01

    The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) is planning a significant expansion of its accelerator facilities. Compared to the present GSI facility, a factor of 100 in primary beam intensities and up to a factor of 10,000 in secondary radioactive beam intensities are key technical goals of the proposal. The second branch of the so-called Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is the production of antiprotons and their storage in rings and traps. The facility will provide beam energies a factor of approximately 15 higher than presently available at the GSI for all ions, from protons to uranium. The shielding design of the synchrotron SIS 100/300 is shown exemplarily by using Monte Carlo calculations with the FLUKA code. The experimental area serving the investigation of compressed baryonic matter is analysed in the same way. In addition, a dose comparison is made for an experimental area operated with medium energy heavy-ion beams. Here, Monte Carlo calculations are performed by using either heavy-ion primary particles or proton beams with intensities scaled by the mass number of the corresponding heavy-ion beam.

  10. CARE-HHH-APD Workshop on Finalizing the Roadmap for the Upgrade of the CERN and GSI Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; BEAM'07; BEAM 2007; Finalizing the Roadmap for the Upgrade of the LHC and GSI Accelerator Complex

    2008-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the CARE-HHH-APD Event BEAM’07, “Finalizing the Roadmap for the Upgrade of the CERN & GSI Accelerator Complex,” which was held at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, from 1 to 5 October 2007. BEAM’07 was primarily devoted to beam dynamics limitations for the two, or three, alternative baseline scenarios of the LHC luminosity upgrade and to critical design choices for the upgrade of the LHC injector complex at CERN and for the FAIR complex at GSI. It comprised five parts: (1) a Mini-Workshop on LHC+ Beam Performance, (2) a CERN-GSI Meeting on Collective Effects, (3) the Francesco Ruggiero Memorial Symposium, (4) a Mini-Workshop on the LHC Injectors Upgrade, and (5) the BEAM’07 Summaries. Topics addressed in the first mini-workshop of BEAM’07 ranged from the luminosity performance reach of the upgraded LHC in different scenarios, over the generation and stability of the future LHC beams, the turnaround time, beam–beam effects, luminosity levelling methods, and ...

  11. Drug shortages in Israel: regulatory perspectives, challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Eyal; Ainbinder, Denize; Vishkauzan, Alla; Gamzu, Ronni

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drug shortages (DSs) are a global problem which presents challenges to countries around the world. Shortages of pharmaceutical products may have a direct detrimental impact on public health and patients' wellbeing by causing delayed, or even lack of, treatment. Moreover, DSs may force both patients and caregivers to use unfamiliar drugs, which could lead to medication errors. The objective of our study was to analyze DSs in Israel during the years 2013-2015, assessing their etiology and exploring the steps taken for their mitigation and prevention. The database of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) on drug shortages contains all the DSs recorded in Israel since 2013, detailing the cause of the DS, its duration, steps taken in its' management and the availability of generic or therapeutic alternatives. Selected examples of DSs from the database are described in this paper in order to identify the causes of DSs, the scope of the problem and possible solutions. Additionally, we have reviewed the recent activities performed by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in their efforts to minimize this problem. Several factors contributing towards DSs in Israel were identified, including quality problems in both the final drug product and in the raw materials, upgrades and improvements of the manufacturing process required by the MoH, manufacturing by a sole supplier, dramatic price decrease in off-patent medications causing the manufacturer to discontinue the distribution of the product in Israel, just-in-time inventory control, and others. One of the most important steps in managing drug shortages was identified to be early notification of the shortage by the Marketing Authorization Holder (MAH) to the MoH. In 2013, the Israeli MoH updated the regulation on drug shortages instructing MAHs on their obligation of early notification to the MoH. Furthermore, various steps dealing with marketing withdrawal of drugs

  12. Recent food shortage is associated with leprosy disease in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiena G Feenstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is remaining prevalent in the poorest areas of the world. Intensive control programmes with multidrug therapy (MDT reduced the number of registered cases in these areas, but transmission of Mycobacterium leprae continues in most endemic countries. Socio-economic circumstances are considered to be a major determinant, but uncertainty exists regarding the association between leprosy and poverty. We assessed the association between different socio-economic factors and the risk of acquiring clinical signs of leprosy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a case-control study in two leprosy endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh. Using interviews with structured questionnaires we compared the socio-economic circumstances of recently diagnosed leprosy patients with a control population from a random cluster sample in the same area. Logistic regression was used to compare cases and controls for their wealth score as calculated with an asset index and other socio-economic factors. The study included 90 patients and 199 controls. A recent period of food shortage and not poverty per se was identified as the only socio-economic factor significantly associated with clinical manifestation of leprosy disease (OR 1.79 (1.06-3.02; p = 0.030. A decreasing trend in leprosy prevalence with an increasing socio-economic status as measured with an asset index is apparent, but not statistically significant (test for a trend: OR 0.85 (0.71-1.02; p = 0.083. CONCLUSIONS: Recent food shortage is an important poverty related predictor for the clinical manifestation of leprosy disease. Food shortage is seasonal and poverty related in northwest Bangladesh. Targeted nutritional support for high risk groups should be included in leprosy control programmes in endemic areas to reduce risk of disease.

  13. Neutron dose measurements with the GSI ball at high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Gutermuth, F.; Radon, T.; Kozlova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: At high energy particle accelerators the production of neutron radiation dominates radiation protection. For the radiation survey at accelerators there is a need for reliable detection systems (passive radiation monitors), which can measure the dose for a wide range of neutron energies independently on the beam pulse structure of the produced radiation. In this work a passive neutron dosemeter for the measurement of the ambient dose equivalent is presented. The dosemeter is suitable for measurements of the emerging neutron radiation at accelerators for the whole energy range up to about 10 GeV. The dosemeter consists of a polyethylene sphere, TL elements (pairs of TLD600/700) and an additional lead layer (PE/Pb) in neutron fields at high energy accelerators is investigated in this work. Results of dose measurements which were performed in realistic neutron fields at the high energy accelerator SPS at CERN (CERF facility) and in Cave A at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS at GSI are presented. The results of these measurements are compared with the expected dose values from the neutron spectra determined for the measurement positions at CERF and in Cave A (FLUKA) and with the dosemeter response derived by the calculated response functions (FLUKA) folded with the neutron spectra. The comparisons show that the additional lead layer in the PE/Pb-sphere improves significantly the response of the dosemeter. The response of the PE/Pb-sphere is 40 to 50 % higher at CERF and Cave A in comparison to the bare PE-sphere. At CERF the dose values of the PE/Pb-sphere is about 25 % lower than the expected dose value, whilst for Cave A, a rather good agreement was found (2 % deviation). (author)

  14. Feasibility study on longitudinal phase-space measurements at GSI UNILAC using charged-particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosic, Timo

    2014-04-14

    Accelerator facilities require access to many beam parameters during operation. The field of beam instrumentation serves this crucial role in commissioning, setup and optimisation of the facility. An important information is contained in the phase-space distribution of the accelerated particles. In case of GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) those are ions from protons to uranium. If established methods to access certain beam parameters do not exist, new approaches have to emerge. This is the case for the presented measurement setup which has been designed and realised by Forck et al. to support commissioning of the GSI high-current injector. It is aiming at an experimental method to access the longitudinal phase-space distribution at low energies of 1.4 AMeV. Established methods for higher energies and based on the measurement of the electric field distribution are not feasible at non-relativistic velocities. The presented method is based on a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement between two particle detectors. A modification allows, alternatively, the direct measurement of the kinetic energy using a mono-crystalline (MC) diamond detector. Currently, besides others, the focus of the optimisation of the injector is put on the longitudinal phase-space distribution. It allows for a systematic optimisation of the matching into the accelerator cavities and, thus, an improved transmission as well as lower emittance values. The new accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), a large-scale upgrade at GSI, requires an improved beam quality at the existing injector. In this work the experimental setup is investigated for its feasibility to measure the longitudinal phase-space distribution. To this end, the phase and momentum of the single ions along the beam axis have to be determined with high precision. Finally, the longitudinal phase-space distribution is identified with the measured ensemble. The setup is presented in detail

  15. Administration of the natural gas shortage in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluge, W [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1978-05-01

    The natural gas deficit is basically a consequence of the price policy of the U.S. government which keeps the prices of natural gas transported from one state to another subject to a maximum-price regulation. In the course of this development, the U.S. natural gas market has been characterized by three different types of shortage since the early seventies. There are regional differences in the administration of the shortage. Compared to the alternatives the rationing plan of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the best solution from on overall economic point of view, but it is rather impracticable and hard to put through completely. Natural gas rationing in the USA did not prevent temporary production losses and unemployment due to shortage. If the maximum-price regulation policy for natural gas is continued, the supply deficit for this energy carrier will become even greater. If, as the National Energy Plan proposes, the maximum-price regulation for natural gas would also pertain to the intrastate market in the future, natural gas shortages would occur there, too.

  16. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  17. SREB Study Indicates Serious Shortage of Nursing Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing appointed an ad hoc committee to study the implications of nursing shortages for nursing education programs in the 16 SREB states and the District of Columbia. In May 2001, surveys were sent to 491 colleges and universities that prepare students for licensure…

  18. 7 CFR 3431.5 - Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Secretary reserves the right to solicit veterinarian shortage situations every year or every three years, as... of nominations that may be submitted by each State animal health official. (e) Nominations... the position is not secured. (f) Nominating Official. The State animal health official in each state...

  19. Energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Tianxing; Zhao, Chuanyu; Xu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The consequence of short-time energy shortage under extreme conditions, such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. In this paper, a novel methodology is developed for energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage, which includes four stages of work. First, emergency-area-centered energy network needs to be characterized, where the capacity, quantity, and availability of various energy sources are determined. Second, the energy initial situation under emergency conditions needs to be identified. Then, the energy dispatch optimization is conducted based on a developed MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) model in the third stage. Finally, the sensitivity of the minimum dispatch time with respect to uncertainty parameters is characterized by partitioning the entire space of uncertainty parameters into multiple subspaces. The efficacy of the developed methodology is demonstrated via a case study with in-depth discussions. -- Highlights: ► Address the energy network dispatch problem under emergency of local energy shortage. ► Minimize the energy restoration time for the entire energy network under emergency events. ► Develop a new MILP model and a sensitivity analysis method with respect to uncertainties.

  20. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply......, such as prior period slack creation or pessimistic managerial expectations with respect to future demand....

  1. Intergration in community relations: water shortage and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topography of the environment; few boreholes/wells; lack of pipe-borne water; lack of maintenance of boreholes; increase in population; and lack of projection for the future constitute reasons responsible for water shortage. On the other hand, disrupting queue; giving preference to friends to fetch water at the expense of ...

  2. The Impact of Water Shortages on Educational Delivery in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the study was to investigate the impact of water shortages on educational delivery in selected schools in Harare East District. The population included school heads, teachers and pupils all drawn from selected schools of Harare East District. The sample consisted of five school heads, fifty teachers and one ...

  3. NASA SPoRT Modeling and Data Assimilation Research and Transition Activities Using WRF, LIS and GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blankenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Berndt, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    weather research and forecasting ===== The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has numerous modeling and data assimilation (DA) activities in which the WRF model is a key component. SPoRT generates realtime, research satellite products from the MODIS and VIIRS instruments, making the data available to NOAA/NWS partners running the WRF/EMS, including: (1) 2-km northwestern-hemispheric SST composite, (2) daily, MODIS green vegetation fraction (GVF) over CONUS, and (3) NASA Land Information System (LIS) runs of the Noah LSM over the southeastern CONUS. Each of these datasets have been utilized by specific SPoRT partners in local EMS model runs, with select offices evaluating the impacts using a set of automated scripts developed by SPoRT that manage data acquisition and run the NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package. SPoRT is engaged in DA research with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) and Ensemble Kalman Filter in LIS for soil moisture DA. Ongoing DA projects using GSI include comparing the impacts of assimilating Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances versus retrieved profiles, and an analysis of extra-tropical cyclones with intense non-convective winds. As part of its Early Adopter activities for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, SPoRT is conducting bias correction and soil moisture DA within LIS to improve simulations using the NASA Unified-WRF (NU-WRF) for both the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity and upcoming SMAP mission data. SPoRT has also incorporated real-time global GVF data into LIS and WRF from the VIIRS product being developed by NOAA/NESDIS. This poster will highlight the research and transition activities SPoRT conducts using WRF, NU-WRF, EMS, LIS, and GSI.

  4. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  5. Atomic collision studies at moderate projectile velocities using highly charged, decelerated heavy ions from the GSI-UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Schoenfeldt, W.A.; Maor, D.

    1984-01-01

    Beams of highly ionized, very heavy atoms at moderate velocities have been produced at the UNILAC using the acceleration-stripping-deceleration method. The available ion species range from Kr 33+ to U 66+ in the energy region between 2 and 5 MeV/u. A survey on first experiments at GSI using these moderate velocity, few electron, heavy ion beams is given. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for Xesup(q+)-Xe collision experiments with 41 <= q <= 45. Results on vacancy transfer between inner quasimolecular levels for close collisions, and on distant collision electron capture are reported. (orig.)

  6. U.S. vaccine and immune globulin product shortages, 2001-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesenitz, Victoria C; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Zocchi, Mark S; Fox, Erin R; May, Larissa S

    2017-11-15

    Trends in shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products from 2001 through 2015 in the United States are described. Drug shortage data from January 2001 through December 2015 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for vaccines and immune globulins were analyzed, focusing on the type of product, reason for shortage, shortage duration, shortages requiring vaccine deferral, and whether the drug was a single-source product. Inclusion of the product into the pediatric vaccination schedule was also noted. Of the 2,080 reported drug shortages, 59 (2.8%) were for vaccines and immune globulin products. Of those, 2 shortages (3%) remained active at the end of the study period. The median shortage duration was 16.8 months. The most common products on shortage were viral vaccines (58%), especially hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, and varicella vaccines (4 shortages each). A vaccine deferral was required for 21 shortages (36%), and single-source products were on shortage 30 times (51%). The most common reason for shortage was manufacturing problems (51%), followed by supply-and-demand issues (7%). Thirty shortages (51%) were for products on the pediatric schedule, with a median duration of 21.7 months. Drug shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products accounted for only 2.8% of reported drug shortages within a 15-year period, but about half of these shortages involved products on the pediatric vaccination schedule, which may have significant public health implications. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Water shortages and extreme events: a call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Catriona; Odams, Sue; Murray, Virginia; Sellick, Matthew; Colbourne, Jeni

    2013-09-01

    Water shortages as a result of extreme weather events, such as flooding and severe cold, have the potential to affect significant numbers of people. Therefore, the need to build robust, coordinated plans based on scientific evidence is crucial. The literature review outlined in this short communication was conducted as part of a joint Drinking Water Inspectorate and Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England) report which aimed to review the scientific evidence base on extreme events, water shortages and the resulting health impacts. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify published literature from both peer-reviewed and grey literature sources. The retrieved literature was then assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network quality assessment. The authors found very few scientific studies. However, a great deal of valuable grey literature was retrieved and used by the research team. In total, six main themes of importance that were identified by the review and discussed included health impacts, water quantity and quality, alternative supplies, vulnerable groups, communication with those affected and the emergency response. The authors conclude that more research needs to be conducted on health impacts and extreme events water shortages in order to build the future knowledge base and development of resilience.

  8. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  9. Research on water shortage risks and countermeasures in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenxuan; Wu, Ziqin

    2017-05-01

    In the paper, a grey forecasting model and a population growth model are established for forecasting water resources supply and demand situation in the region, and evaluating the scarcity of water resources thereof in order to solve the problem of water shortage in North China. A concrete plan for alleviating water resources pressure is proposed with AHP as basis, thereby discussing the feasibility of the plan. Firstly, water resources supply and demand in the future 15 years are predicted. There are four sources for the demand of water resources mainly: industry, agriculture, ecology and resident living. Main supply sources include surface water and underground water resources. A grey forecasting method is adopted for predicting in the paper aiming at water resources demands since industrial, agricultural and ecological water consumption data have excessive decision factors and the correlation is relatively fuzzy. Since residents' water consumption is determined by per capita water consumption and local population, a logistic growth model is adopted to forecast the population. The grey forecasting method is used for predicting per capita water consumption, and total water demand can be obtained finally. International calculation standards are adopted as reference aiming at water supply. The grey forecasting method is adopted for forecasting surface water quantity and underground water quantity, and water resources supply is obtained finally. Per capita water availability in the region is calculated by comparing the water resources supply and demand. Results show that per capita water availability in the region is only 283 cubic meters this year, people live in serious water shortage region, who will suffer from water shortage state for long time. Then, sensitivity analysis is applied for model test. The test result is excellent, and the prediction results are more accurate. In the paper, the following measures are proposed for improving water resources condition

  10. What's Wrong with the Global Slavery Index?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Gallagher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Slavery Index (GSI, which has been produced by the Walk Free Foundation in 2013, 2014 and 2016, seeks to calculate the number of victims of human trafficking (or ‘modern slavery’ in each country and to assess and rank government responses. Using the latest iteration of the Index, this article examines each of the three elements (vulnerability measurement; prevalence measurement and response measurement, making some preliminary findings about the quality of the methodology and its application under each heading. It concludes with a consideration of two broader issues: (i the conspicuous lack of critical engagement with the Index; and (ii what the Index reveals about the changing face of anti-trafficking/anti-slavery work—most particularly, the growing involvement of metrics-focused strategic philanthropy in defining the ‘problem’ and directing responses.

  11. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  12. The social impacts of the energy shortage, behavioral and attitude shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An analysis of the social impacts of the energy shortage; specifically, an : analysis of shifts in social behavior, or trip-making characteristics, and : shifts in social attitudes towards the energy shortage and conservation policies, : Data were ob...

  13. Satisfaction in nursing in the context of shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Lynn, Mary R

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the central themes nurses identify as important to their overall evaluation of their work. In particular, this paper highlights how the context of the nursing shortage interacts with what nurses understand to be satisfying about their work. On the brink of a current and enduring nursing shortage in the US, this study provides Nurse Managers with an understanding of the dimensions of work satisfaction which they can then utilize to improve retention of incumbent nurses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 currently employed nurses to explore the concepts that shape their work satisfaction. The nurses, 25 to 55 years old, were predominantly female and Associate Degree or Baccalaureate prepared. Nurses have both intrinsic and extrinsic satisfiers in their work. The traditional satisfiers (pay and benefits) are not the principle satisfiers of today's nurses. In the context of shortage, the aspects of nursing that are the most rewarding are the aspects that are most often sacrificed in the interest of 'getting the job done'. Nurses are finding it difficult to continue to do 'more with less' and are frustrated they are not able to provide the care they were educated to be able to deliver. The description of the dimensions of work satisfaction can provide insight for Nurse Managers and administrators who are interested in improving both recruitment and retention of nurses. Areas identified worthy of focus in retention efforts include: increasing autonomy; reallocating work in a more patient-centred way; creating systems to recognize achievement in the areas of mentoring nurses, educating patients and personal growth in practice; creating meaningful internal labour markets; and enhancing supervisor and administrative support. Managers and administrators should focus on the satisfiers nurses identify if they wish to retain nurses. The traditional focus on extrinsic rewards will not likely be sufficient to retain today's nurses. Retention

  14. 18 CFR 294.101 - Shortages of electric energy and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customers; and (ii) It will report any modifications to its contingency plans for accommodating shortages... REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 § 294.101 Shortages of electric energy and capacity. (a) Definition of... customers. (4) If a plan for accommodating any shortages of electric energy or capacity affecting its firm...

  15. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  16. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar [Research Department, Statistics Norway, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-15

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply. (author)

  17. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar

    2008-01-01

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply

  18. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  19. Optimal Intermittent Operation of Water Distribution Networks under Water Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Solgi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under water shortage conditions, it is necessary to exercise water consumption management practices in water distribution networks (WDN. Intermittent supply of water is one such practice that makes it possible to supply consumption nodal demands with the required pressure via water cutoff to some consumers during certain hours of the day. One of the most important issues that must be observed in this management practice is the equitable and uniform water distribution among the consumers. In the present study, uniformity in water distribution and minimum supply of water to all consumers are defined as justice and equity, respectively. Also, an optimization model has been developed to find an optimal intermittent supply schedule that ensures maximum number of demand nodes are supplied with water while the constraints on the operation of water distribution networks are also observed. To show the efficiency of the proposed model, it has been used in the Two-Loop distribution network under several different scenarios of water shortage. The optimization model has been solved using the honey bee mating optimization algorithm (HBMO linked to the hydraulic simulator EPANET. The results obtained confirm the efficiency of the proposed model in achieving an optimal intermittent supply schedule. Moreover, the model is found capable of distributing the available water in an equitable and just manner among all the consumers even under severe water shoratges.

  20. Fragmentation of a 500 MeV/nucleon 86Kr beam, investigated at the GSI projectile fragment separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Donzaud, C.; Geissel, H.; Grewe, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Magel, A.; Mueller, A.C.; Nickel, F.; Pfuetzner, M.; Piechaczek, A.; Pravikoff, M.; Roeckl, E.; Rykaczewski, K.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Schall, I.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Voss, B.

    1993-10-01

    Production cross-sections and longitudinal momentum distributions have been investigated for reactions between a 500 MeV/nucleon 86 Kr beam and beryllium, copper and tantalum targets. Fragments in a wide A/Z range were studied at the projectile-fragment separator FRS at GSI. The experimental production cross-sections have been used for testing the predictions obtained from a semi-empirical parameterization, a statistical abrasion model and an intranuclear-cascade model. The present study allows to extrapolate the production cross-sections towards very neutron-rich isotopes such as the doubly magic nucleus 78 Ni. For fragments close to the projectile the measured longitudinal momentum distributions agrees qualitatively with a semi-empirical parameterization, which is based on the two-step picture of the fragmentation process. The momentum widths of lighter fragments, however, show deviations from this simple picture. (orig.)

  1. Design and study of new cables for superconducting accelerator magnets: Synchrotron SIS 100 at GSI and NICA collider at JINR*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhibagiyan, H G; Drobin, V M; Kovalenko, A D; Vladimirova, N M; Fischer, E; Pantsyrny, V I; Potanina, L V; Shikov, A K

    2010-01-01

    Recent data from the design of new optimized options of NbTi composite wires and hollow cables for fast cycling synchrotron SIS100 at GSI and NICA collider at JINR are presented. The SIS100 new cable is proposed to be used for manufacturing of single-layer coil for dipole magnet with maximal amplitude of pulsed magnetic field up to 2 T. The cable should provide continues pulsed operation at the current amplitude of I = 13 kA and magnetic field ramp rate of dB/dt = 4 T/s. The results of experimental study of energy losses in the new wire and cable samples for SIS100 magnets are presented. The design cable parameters for the NICA 4 T dipole magnet are fixed at the level of I = 17 kA and dB/dt = 1 T/s. The status of the work is presented and discussed.

  2. GSI Helmholz Centre for Heavy Ion Research - ALFA: Next generation concurrent framework for ALICE and FAIR experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    FAIR is a new, unique international accelerator facility for the research with antiprotons and ions. It is being built at the GSI Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. The commonalities between the ALICE and FAIR experiments and their computing requirements led to the development of a common software framework in an experiment independent way; ALFA (ALICE-FAIR framework). ALFA is designed for high quality parallel data processing and reconstruction on heterogeneous computing systems. It provides a data transport layer and the capability to coordinate multiple data processing components. ALFA is a flexible, elastic system which balances reliability and ease of development with performance by using a message based multi-processing in addition to multi-threading. The framework allows for usage of heterogeneous computing architectures by offloading (portions of code are accelerated on the device) or natively (where the full program is executed on the device ).

  3. Data-flow coupling and data-acquisition triggers for the PreSPEC-AGATA campaign at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralet, D., E-mail: D.Ralet@gsi.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Pietri, S. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Aubert, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay (France); Bellato, M.; Bortolato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Brambilla, S.; Camera, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Dosme, N. [CSNSM, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Gadea, A. [Instituto di Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Gerl, J. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Golubev, P. [Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Grave, X. [CSNSM, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Johansson, H.T. [Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Karkour, N.; Korichi, A. [CSNSM, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Kurz, N. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lafay, X.; Legay, E.; Linget, D. [CSNSM, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Pietralla, N. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-06-21

    The PreSPEC setup for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy using radioactive ion beams was employed for experimental campaigns in 2012 and 2014. The setup consisted of the state of the art Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) and the High Energy γ deteCTOR (HECTOR+) positioned around a secondary target at the final focal plane of the GSI FRagment Separator (FRS) to perform in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of exotic nuclei. The Lund York Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) was used to identify the reaction products. In this paper we report on the trigger scheme used during the campaigns. The data-flow coupling between the Multi-Branch System (MBS) based Data AcQuisition (DAQ) used for FRS-LYCCA and the “Nouvelle Acquisition temps Réel Version 1.2 Avec Linux” (NARVAL) based acquisition system used for AGATA are also described.

  4. Conceptual design and performance study for the first implementation of AGATA at the in-flight RIB facility of GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Pardo, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Doornenbal, P.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Gerl, J.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Agata Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is the investigation of the structure of exotic nuclei at the new generation of RIB facilities. As part of the preparatory phase for FAIR-NUSTAR, AGATA is going to be installed at the FRS fragmentation facility of the GSI centre for an experimental campaign to be performed in 2012 and 2013. Owing to its γ-ray tracking capabilities and the envisaged enhancement in resolving power, a series of in-flight γ-ray spectroscopy experiments are being planned. The present work describes the conceptual design of this first implementation of AGATA at GSI-FRS, and provides information about the expected performance figures. According to the characteristics of each particular experiment, it is foreseen that the target-array distance is adjusted in order to achieve the optimum compromise between detection efficiency and energy resolution, or to cover an specific angular range of the emitted electromagnetic radiation. Thus, a comprehensive Monte Carlo study of the detection sensitivity in terms of photopeak efficiency, resolution and peak-to-total ratio, as a function of the target-array distance is presented. Several configurations have been investigated, and MC-calculations indicate that a remarkable enhancement in resolving power can be achieved when double-cluster AGATA detectors are developed and implemented. Several experimental effects are also investigated. This concerns the impact of passive materials between the target and the array, the angular distribution of the detection efficiency and the influence of target thickness effects and transition lifetimes in the attainable detection sensitivity. A short overview on half-life measurements via lineshape effects utilizing AGATA is also presented.

  5. Is There a Shortage of Obstetrician-Gynecologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehocker, Jody; Muruthi, Joyce; Rayburn, William F

    2017-03-01

    Projections of supply and demand for obstetricians-gynecologists suggest a current minimal or modest shortage that will worsen in the future. The US adult female population is expected to increase by more than 20% by 2045 and represents a key driver for increased demand for health care services. The annual number of obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyn) residency graduates has increased negligibly, whereas the proportion accepted into fellowships increased steadily, reducing those in general practice. The gradual increase in proportion of ob-gyns who are women coincides with desires for more work-life balance and earlier retirement from clinical practice. As the supply of advanced practice providers of women's health services grows, the need for more ob-gyns could be less to meet the projected demand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A strategy to address the nursing faculty shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Barbara J; Sheets, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This article describes one university's experience in creating a master's geriatric clinical nurse specialist-nurse educator program to address the nursing faculty shortage and the need for geriatric clinical nurse specialists. The successes and challenges are outlined, and curricular ideas that may be beneficial to other nursing programs also are presented. This program has enhanced the university's pool of clinical instructors, increased its ability to provide services to older adults, and allowed faculty to instruct and focus undergraduates in the distinctions of geriatric nursing care. The biggest challenges faced were marketing and recruitment of nurses; these challenges were addressed, and possible solutions are offered. The most immediate benefit of this program was the generation of geriatric clinical nurse specialists.

  7. Is there a shortage of neurosurgeons in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Judy; Slane, Steve; Dery, Beth; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Couldwell, William T

    2013-08-01

    Neurosurgical workforce decision-making is typically driven by the 1 neurosurgeon per 100,000 population ratio proposed in 1977 in the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report. The actual ratio has always been higher than suggested. We evaluated whether the 1:100,000 ratio from the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report is still valid, whether there are enough neurosurgeons in the United States to meet patient needs, and whether demand is driven by patient need. For our analysis, the distribution of practicing US neurosurgeons was merged with census data to yield density indices of neurosurgeons by state; a survey assessing practice characteristics was e-mailed to practicing neurosurgeons; and a compilation of job advertisements for US neurosurgeons was evaluated. Multivariant statistical analyses yielded inconclusive results regarding patient demand because existing data sets are not designed to establish patient demand and many neurosurgeons are subspecialized. The data indicated that the ratio of neurosurgeons to total US population is 1:65,580. In the survey responses, neurosurgeon-to-patient ratios varied dramatically by state and were inconsistently correlated with whether neurosurgeons indicated they were overworked or underworked. The 305 job advertisements may indicate a shortage. Twenty-four percent of advertising practices indicated that they are recruiting only for emergency department coverage, and an additional 26% indicated that they might not be recruiting if not for the need for emergency coverage. Demand ratios should be reevaluated by region and subspecialty to consider changes in neurosurgery practice. A "shortage" in the employment market may reflect factors other than patient need.

  8. The knowledge status EFFEKT: Efficiency shortage. Basis for further research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grande, Ove S.

    2002-02-01

    This report gives a survey of results from the ''Norges forskningsraad'' ( The Norwegian Research Council) program EFFEKT (1996-2000) and some other relevant projects. The report focuses on areas relevant to the efficiency shortage problems and is made as a part of the foundation for the start of the competence project ''Competence Building - Capacity Shortage''. The challenge is to find adequate solutions that satisfies the demands from market participants, systems operators and market actors. This mainly contains problems of both operational and long term strategic character which primarily touches the following main areas: Peak load coverage, operating security and reserves, network capacity and environmental aspects. The results are reported under these headings from several relevant projects. The major challenges in the future will be: 1) Development of mechanisms that bring the right incentives for improved use of the flexibility in the end consumption. 2) Adaptation of the market and organisational conditions in order to improve the consumer flexibility. 3) Further development of the incentive structures for the network owners and systems operators so that the existing transferring capacity is used as well as possible and the macro economic development of the network is encouraged. 4) Profit estimations and financing of larger co-originated connections particularly across the country borders, in deregulated power markets. Particularly the first two challenges are probably a condition for the deregulated power markets as the Nordic one, shall be able to survive in the long run. In an appendix main data studied in the projects as a basis for this report, are referred

  9. The nursing shortage: part way down the slippery slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne; Jacobsson, Denise

    2003-07-01

    The shortage of nurses has reached a crisis point for health care services. A number of issues including the effects of economic rationalism, generational differences, working conditions and nurse education are revisited in a discussion that aims to refuel the debate on workplace reform for nurses. Economic rationalism has altered the healthcare service landscape. Attempts to balance service delivery with workforce resources have led to possibly unforeseen changes. Highly skilled nurses are required in acute services, however resource allocation may prevent this. The nursing workforce is aging although the current nursing workforce consists of three generations: baby boomers, generation X and generation Y. There are significant ideological and work organisational differences between these generations leading to possible conflict between nurses. The pool of available nurses to fill employment vacancies is finite. Attracting overseas nurses to fill nurse vacancies will leave vacancies elsewhere and is not a long-term solution to the nursing shortage. Moreover, if the workplace has not addressed the reasons why nurses have left the health care workplace then there is a real danger of losing those recently attracted back into the workplace. Working conditions are a critical element within the retention puzzle. Job satisfaction dimensions such as autonomy and professional relationships are key components for improving working conditions. The final issue explored is the question of whether the tertiary education system is the most appropriate place in which to develop and educate nurses. It is suggested that workplace reforms should be the target of retention strategies rather than changes in the educational process of nursing.

  10. China's water shortage could shake world food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1998-01-01

    This report indicates the global concern about China's water shortages and describes basin supplies, global availability of grain, and reasons for water losses. There is little precise data on how land productivity will be affected by declines in irrigation. Reports from the "China Daily" indicate that the 1995 grain harvest in Shandong province declined by 2.7 million tons (food for 9 million people) due to water failures of the Yellow River. A delegate at the 1998 National People's Congress pointed out that rural villages nationwide had shortages of 30 billion cu. m and losses of 20 million tons of grain production. About 70% of grain harvests rely on irrigation. Water demand for residential use and industrial use is likely to increase and compete with farm use. One unlikely option is to divert irrigation water to cities as needed and import grain. The entire agricultural, energy, and industrial economies need to be made more water efficient. Agriculture will need to produce more water efficient crops and livestock products and less water intensive energy supplies. Another alternative is to divert water from one location to another. Water pricing could reinforce efficiency of use. Use of composting toilets could reduce human residential water demand. Urban capacity building should rely on separate industrial and residential wastewater systems. Investing in technologies for industry can reduce water demand among paper and steel producers. The fastest growing grain market is in North Africa and the Middle East. Trends in principal grain exporting countries with 85% of global exports indicate no growth in grain production for export since 1980.

  11. Fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items, with time depended demand, shortages, and fully backlogging

    OpenAIRE

    Wasim Akram Mandal; Sahidul Islam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper analyzes fuzzy inventory system for deterioration item with time depended demand. Shortages are allowed under fully backlogged. Fixed cost, deterioration cost, shortages cost, holding cost are the cost considered in this model. Fuzziness is applying by allowing the cost components (holding cost, deterioration, shortage cost, holding cost, etc). In fuzzy environment it considered all required parameter to be triangular fuzzy numbers. One numerical solution of the model is obtaine...

  12. Price signals and end consumer flexibility in shortage situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunnes, Arngrim; Grande, Ove S.

    2002-08-01

    following alternatives: 1) Fixed part + loss part + energy part which is only active in shortage periods. 2) Fixed part + loss part + effect part which is only active in shortage periods. 3) Discontinued tariff with 15 minutes warning period

  13. The future of the nurse shortage: will wage increases close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Given, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the U.S. media have been reporting a shortage of registered nurses (RNs). In theory, labor-market shortages are self-correcting; wage increases will bring labor markets into equilibrium, and policy intervention is not necessary. In this paper we develop a simple forecasting model and ask the question: How high must RN wages rise in the future to end the RN shortage? We find that inflation-adjusted wages must increase 3.2-3.8 percent per year between 2002 and 2016, with wages cumulatively rising up to 69 percent, to end the shortage. Total RN expenditures would more than double by 2016.

  14. Concerns for Skills Shortages in the 21st Century: A Review into the Construction Industry, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Watson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Construction Industry is now facing skills shortages in all trades. As an industry focused on the skill of its workforce, there is now concern the Australian standard in quality, workmanship, and productivity will inhibit both at national and international level.This research paper addresses the underlying, influential factors concerning skills shortages in the Australian construction industry. The influential factors addressed include funding, training statistics, employer expectations, financial limitations, Industrial Relations and immigration. Given the reference to skills shortages within the industry, and documented in related literature, if skills shortages are to continue to exist, their effect will impact upon the overall performance of construction companies throughout Australia.

  15. Understanding the pediatric dermatology workforce shortage: mentoring matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Caufield, Maura; Kim, Silvia S; Siegfried, Elaine C; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2014-02-01

    To target pediatric dermatologists directly in order to evaluate their current demographics and the most important motivating factors that influenced their career choice. Pediatric dermatology is one of the pediatric subspecialties with an inadequate supply to meet current patient needs. A survey was designed to evaluate the training pathway, employment status, participation in teaching, and clinical practice characteristics of pediatric dermatologists. The survey was administered to attendants of the 2010 Society for Pediatric Dermatology annual meeting. Any remaining board certified pediatric dermatologists who had not previously responded were queried via Survey Monkey. There was a 71% response rate. The majority chose a career in pediatric dermatology early, often prior to starting a dermatology residency. The vast majority of respondents noted mentorship as the most important influence on their decision to pursue a career in pediatric dermatology. The most common obstacles cited by respondents were financial hardship and resistance of some dermatology programs to accept applicants previously trained in pediatrics. Our survey provides evidence to support the importance of early exposure to the field and, most importantly, to committed pediatric dermatologists who can serve as mentors. This information may be helpful in approaching solutions to the workforce shortage in the field of pediatric dermatology. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy shortages in Europe? strategic meetings on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, M.

    2005-01-01

    On the RTE's initiative, the Economic and Social Council welcome the first 'Strategic Meetings on Energy Security' event on July 11, 2005. With its 'Energy Shortages in Europe?' subtitle, the convention was in line with the topical issue of oil price increases. Opening the convention, Hubert Bouchet, the vice-president of the Research and Technology Productive Activities section of the Economic and Social Council (CES) stated that with its 400 million citizens, Europe uses over 2 500 tWh of electricity a year, and that its demand for primary energy is growing, making it the largest importer of energy in the world and the top second user after the United States. The trend should continue at least until 2030. H Bouchet also stress that though the worlds is using increasing amounts of energy, over 1.5 billion people do not have access to modern energy sources. Therefore, there are huge needs. There were four round-tables introducing rich debates with the room. The first one was about the issue of the 'energy market: the end of overcapacity', and the second one, dedicated so secure supplies, was titled: 'An ill adapted regulatory framework and European context'. In the afternoon, exchanges covered 'Strategies to prepare the energy offer for new stakes' and 'Major strategies for France and Europe'. (author)

  17. Solve the organ shortage: let the bidding begin!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, J

    2001-01-01

    Commercialization of transplantable human organs is the only sure way to end the crisis of their supply. This is best accomplished by implementing a free, non-profit, nationwide, ultimately global online auction market. It should be independent of the current United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) system dealing solely with altruistic donation, and of governmental, sectarian, academic, and other bureaucratic control. The operation of such an auction is described with a hypothetical example. An included provision guarantees equity for poor, uninsured, and indigent recipients. Money accrued can be substantial, and would be disbursed by established formula, with major portions going to donors' families and to special funds to be used to bid for the poor and to defray costs incurred by them. As the organ shortage eases, bid prices should drop, resulting perhaps in eventual altruistic donation. Objections to commericalization based on ethics, bodily sanctity, inequity, pecuniary greed, and the slippery slope tocsin are nullified by cogent arguments and examples. The current situation has worsened despite so-called required request laws, proposed token payments to cover funeral expenses for donor families, and extensive media advertising to spur altruistic donation. Prohibitive national and state laws must be rescinded for the sake of more than 60,000 patients now on lengthening waiting lists. A profession committed to saving lives is duty-bound to endorse, help implement, and participate in an auction system dedicated to that end.

  18. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays as results of the turbulent crisis, economies are confronted with the effects of the financial crisis, consequently many European states members are faced with strategic challenges in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market. These problems are encountered in several traditional industries affected too rapidly by the technological advance. Along to these aspects, there are other difficulties for employers and employees as well, such as structural changes in job offering in various sectors or disparity in the employees; age categories – because of high unemployment rates in youth for instance. These are complemented by fewer job opportunities for young individuals (eventually, graduates for the tertiary sector of formal education that fit according to their specializations or even new type of skills’ demand – much oriented on the digitalization. The paper intends to presents some empirical aspects raised from the statistical evidence useful to point out critical aspects in the domestic and eventually, European approach to entreprice policy, in developing proper curricula to empower the academic institutions to provide knowledge, to foster skills for current enrolled students. On short term already, the future workforce needs to be prepared for the digitalization of the professional activity, regardless the specific domain of work and, in this view; companies should be in the position to manage this potential crisis of the labour market.

  19. Identifying Areas of Primary Care Shortage in Urban Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Liao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study considers both spatial and a-spatial variables in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in the three largest urban areas of Ohio (Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barriers between individuals and primary care physicians, while a-spatial variables include non-geographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, race, income, social class, education, living conditions and language skills. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census, and primary care physician data for 2008 was provided by the Ohio Medical Board. We first implemented a two-step method based on a floating catchment area using Geographic Information Systems to measure spatial accessibility in terms of 30-minute travel times. We then used principal component analysis to group various socio-demographic variables into three groups: (1 socioeconomic disadvantages, (2 living conditions, and (3 healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and a-spatial variables were integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary care in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. KEYWORDS: Geographic information systems, healthcare access, spatial accessibility, primary care shortage areas

  20. On the electricity shortage, price and electricity theft nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing severe electricity shortfall of its history since 2006. Several measures have been implemented in order to mitigate electricity shortage. The focus has been on raising the installed capacity of electricity generation and transmission. The present policy results in expensive thermal electricity generation mostly using expensive and environmentally hazardous furnace oil and inability of utilities to recover their cost of supply although there is unprecedented rise in electricity tariffs. This study concentrates on the electricity demand and traces the relationship between electricity shortfalls, tariff rate and electricity theft in the background of recent electricity crisis using the data for the period 1985–2010. We employed the Granger causality test through error correction model and out-of-sample causality through variance decomposition method. Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft greatly influences electricity shortfalls through lowering investment and inefficient use of electricity. The study concludes that electricity crisis cannot be handled without combating rampant electricity theft in the country. - Highlights: ► The study investigates relationship among electricity outages, price and electricity theft. ► It employed Johansen approach, ECM and variance decomposition analysis. ► Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft causes outages and rising tariff rates. ► Variance decomposition analysis results are slightly different from ECM

  1. Study on the evaluation index of active power reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaorui; Liu, Jiantao; Wang, Ke; Min, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Based on the role of active reserve at different time scales, divides the evaluation dimension of active reserve. Analysis the calculation principle of traditional reliability index such as probability of system safety, lack of power shortage and electricity shortage expectancy, and studies the applicability of these indicators to evaluate the reserve capacity on different dimensions. Resolves the evaluation index of active reserve capacity from the dimensions of time dimension, spatial dimension, system state, risk degree and economy, then construct evaluation index of active reserve capacity.

  2. A study for the domestic application plan of the Generic Safety Issue(GSI) for the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Doo Yong; Park, Chang Hwan

    2002-03-01

    In this study, a base work to construct the database of the domestic and foreign GSls were done through performing the deviation of GSls for the PHWR by investigating the development trend of international joint studies and the GSls of 4 countries as the PHWR state and examined the IAEA acceptance of GSls classification for the GSls of Canada, Korea Republic of, Argentina and India. We evaluated the possibility of application of the safety Issue for PHWR by investigating causes, contents and follow-up measures of each items. To evaluate the domestic application validity of the safety issue, We made the investigation matrix for the safety issue of each countries and also are reflecting new results in investigation matrix by examining IAEA PHWR GSI development trend. We intended to derive the GSls which are most appropriate in our PHWR by examining every issues. the derived GSls are divided into the design parts and the operation parts. And they have to be solved as soon as possible

  3. A new matcher type between RFQ and IH-DTL for the GSI high current heavy ion prestripper linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzinger, U.; Tiede, R.

    1996-01-01

    The adaptation of a RFQ beam to the typical requirements at the entrance of a drift tube linac is rather difficult at high intensities and high A/q values. The high focusing power needed for such a matcher can be provided by a conventional array with rather large quadrupoles and rebuncher cavities only. Many problems arising from such a design can be avoided by using an element which is focusing in transverse and longitudinal direction at the same time, that is a short RFQ ('Super Lens') with 10 cells typically and a larger aperture as compared to the main RFQ. A xy-steerer and a short quadrupole doublet with small aperture were added to gain flexibility with regard to beam mismatch and misalignment corrections. This new concept is realised for the GSI 15 mA U 4+ injector, which is under construction. Beam dynamics calculations are presented and compared with results for a conventional solution consisting of a rebuncher and a quadrupole triplet. (author)

  4. X-ray spectroscopy of warm and hot electron components in the CAPRICE source plasma at EIS testbench at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Neri, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Maimone, F.; Maeder, J.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, K. P.; Rossbach, J.; Lang, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Romano, F. P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to detect X radiation emitted by the plasma of the CAPRICE source – operating at GSI, Darmstadt – has been carried out. Two different detectors (a SDD – Silicon Drift Detector and a HpGe – hyper-pure Germanium detector) have been used to characterize the warm (2–30 keV) and hot (30–500 keV) electrons in the plasma, collecting the emission intensity and the energy spectra for different pumping wave frequencies and then correlating them with the CSD of the extracted beam measured by means of a bending magnet. A plasma emissivity model has been used to extract the plasma density along the cone of sight of the SDD and HpGe detectors, which have been placed beyond specific collimators developed on purpose. Results show that the tuning of the pumping frequency considerably modifies the plasma density especially in the warm electron population domain, which is the component responsible for ionization processes: a strong variation of the plasma density near axis region has been detected. Potential correlations with the charge state distribution in the plasma are explored.

  5. Secondary ion emission from cleaned surfaces bombarded by 100 MeV accelerator beams at the GSI Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wien, K.; Becker, O.; Guthier, W.; Knippelberg, W.; Koczon, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1.4 MeV/n beam facility for the UNILAC/GSI has been used to study secondary ion emission from surfaces cleaned under UHV conditions by ion etching or cleaving of crystals. The desorption phenomena observed by means of TOF mass spectrometry can be classified as follows: (1) Clean metal surfaces emit metal ions being ejected by atomic collisions cascades. Electronic excitation of surface states seems to support ionization. (2) The desorption of contaminants adsorbed at the metal surface is strongly correlated with the electronic energy loss of the projectiles - even, if the content of impurities is very low. (3) Ion formation at the epitaxial surface of fluoride crystals as CaF 2 , MgF 2 and NaF is initiated by the electronic excitation of the crystal. At high beam energies the mass spectrum is dominated by a series of cluster ions. These cluster ions disappear below a certain energy deposit threshold, whereas small atomic ions are observed over the whole energy range

  6. Contribution to the design, fulfillment, and data analysis of fission fragment yields of the SOFIA experiment at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellereau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic fission yields of U 238 following the SOFIA experiment, conducted at the GSI facility (Darmstadt), are presented here. This experiment takes advantage of the inverse kinematics technique at relativistic energies. Benefits are several: fission fragments are highly focused (high geometrical efficiency) and are also completely stripped, which greatly simplifies their nuclear charge measurement. The first detector of the SOFIA setup is an active target in which fission occurs via electromagnetic excitation, followed by an ionization chamber to measure the nuclear charge and the horizontal angle of both fission fragments. The masses are deduced by the bending radius measurement of the fragments, deflected by a strong magnet (ALADIN), thanks to two position detectors (MWPC), and also by a highly resolved time-of-flight measurement (40 ps FWHM) so that heavy neighboring isotopes can be separated. The data analysis shows that the main goals are achieved since the isotopic separation is reached over the whole range of the fission fragments. A strong even-odd effect is seen in the charge spectrum, which also exhibits a mean heavy charge close to Z = 54. Surprisingly, the neutron even-odd effect of the light region is seen to be very close to the one in thermal neutron induced fission. The peak-to-valley ratio of the mass spectrum confirms that the mean excitation energy at fission is close to the expected one (14 MeV). The GEF code is used for comparison and always gives results very close to ours. (author) [fr

  7. X-ray spectroscopy of warm and hot electron components in the CAPRICE source plasma at EIS testbench at GSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D; Celona, L; Maimone, F; Maeder, J; Castro, G; Romano, F P; Musumarra, A; Altana, C; Caliri, C; Torrisi, G; Neri, L; Gammino, S; Tinschert, K; Spaedtke, K P; Rossbach, J; Lang, R; Ciavola, G

    2014-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to detect X radiation emitted by the plasma of the CAPRICE source - operating at GSI, Darmstadt - has been carried out. Two different detectors (a SDD - Silicon Drift Detector and a HpGe - hyper-pure Germanium detector) have been used to characterize the warm (2-30 keV) and hot (30-500 keV) electrons in the plasma, collecting the emission intensity and the energy spectra for different pumping wave frequencies and then correlating them with the CSD of the extracted beam measured by means of a bending magnet. A plasma emissivity model has been used to extract the plasma density along the cone of sight of the SDD and HpGe detectors, which have been placed beyond specific collimators developed on purpose. Results show that the tuning of the pumping frequency considerably modifies the plasma density especially in the warm electron population domain, which is the component responsible for ionization processes: a strong variation of the plasma density near axis region has been detected. Potential correlations with the charge state distribution in the plasma are explored.

  8. Evaluation of precipitation forecasts from 3D-Var and hybrid GSI-based system during Indian summer monsoon 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Prasad, V. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of medium-range rainfall forecasts from two versions of the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)-Global Forecast System based on three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) and hybrid analysis system namely, NGFS and HNGFS, respectively, during Indian summer monsoon (June-September) 2015. The NGFS uses gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) 3D-Var data assimilation system, whereas HNGFS uses hybrid 3D ensemble-variational scheme. The analysis includes the evaluation of rainfall fields and comparisons of rainfall using statistical score such as mean precipitation, bias, correlation coefficient, root mean square error and forecast improvement factor. In addition to these, categorical scores like Peirce skill score and bias score are also computed to describe particular aspects of forecasts performance. The comparison results of mean precipitation reveal that both the versions of model produced similar large-scale feature of Indian summer monsoon rainfall for day-1 through day-5 forecasts. The inclusion of fully flow-dependent background error covariance significantly improved the wet biases in HNGFS over the Indian Ocean. The forecast improvement factor and Peirce skill score in the HNGFS have also found better than NGFS for day-1 through day-5 forecasts.

  9. A study for the domestic application plan of the Generic Safety Issue(GSI) for the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Doo Yong; Park, Chang Hwan [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, a base work to construct the database of the domestic and foreign GSls were done through performing the deviation of GSls for the PHWR by investigating the development trend of international joint studies and the GSls of 4 countries as the PHWR state and examined the IAEA acceptance of GSls classification for the GSls of Canada, Korea Republic of, Argentina and India. We evaluated the possibility of application of the safety Issue for PHWR by investigating causes, contents and follow-up measures of each items. To evaluate the domestic application validity of the safety issue, We made the investigation matrix for the safety issue of each countries and also are reflecting new results in investigation matrix by examining IAEA PHWR GSI development trend. We intended to derive the GSls which are most appropriate in our PHWR by examining every issues. the derived GSls are divided into the design parts and the operation parts. And they have to be solved as soon as possible.

  10. Medicine shortages in Australia: causes, impact and management strategies in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee Xi; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-10-01

    Background Medicine shortages are an ongoing global problem. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) dedicated a website for monitoring of medicine shortages in Australia in May 2014, as part of the Medicine Shortage Information Initiative. This study aimed to explore the views of pharmacists regarding medicine shortages in the community setting and the impact of the TGA website in Australia. Setting Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. Method Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists. Data collected were analysed thematically utilising the framework analysis method. Main outcome measure Qualitative analysis conducted using the framework approach. Results Findings clearly indicated that medicine shortages were experienced on a regular basis, but most participants were unaware of the TGA website. Medicine shortages reportedly impacted both pharmacists and consumers; and various workarounds were undertaken to manage the issue. The "price disclosure policy" was found to be a prominent contributing factor in emerging shortages. Suggestions were made for ways to improve the growing occurrence of shortages. Conclusion Overall, the study found that there was a lack of familiarity with the TGA website, despite experiencing regular shortages of medicines in practice. Also highlighted, was the importance of pharmacists prioritising patient care over business decisions. To reduce prescribing of out-of-stock medicines notifying doctors about shortages was also considered important, to allow for early action to be taken at higher levels of the supply chain. Findings of this study may help direct future policy-making around the world, as medicine shortages is a problem shared by healthcare providers in most countries around the world.

  11. Holistic Indexing in Main-memory Column-stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Petraki (Eleni); S. Idreos (Stratos); S. Manegold (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGreat database systems performance relies heavily on index tuning, i.e., creating and utilizing the best indices depending on the workload. However, the complexity of the index tuning process has dramatically increased in recent years due to ad-hoc workloads and shortage of time and

  12. Recent progress in multichamber deposition of high-quality amorphous silicon solar cells on planar and compound curved substrates at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schropp, R.E.I.; Roedern, B. von; Klose, P.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Xi, J.; Cueto, J. del; Chatham, H.; Bhat, P.K. (Glasstech Solar, Inc. (GSI), Wheat Ridge, CO (USA))

    1989-10-15

    We present recent advances obtained at GSI in scaling-up multichamber fabrication of solar cells. We have successfully adopted the multichamber approach in the development of large-area compound curved semitransparent modules. For this application, a new semitransparent electrode was developed, together with an innovative three-dimensional laser patterning technique. A fully automated 1.5 MW annual production line with a ''glass-in-panel-out'' approach has been completed for the Government of India, and another 3 MW plant is presently under construction. GSI's research effort using its multichamber R and D system has achieved single-junction conversion efficiencies of 11.3% at low intrinsic layer deposition rates and of 9.7% at a rate of 18 A s{sup -1}. (orig.).

  13. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    and anthropogenic scenarios. Innovative measures of mitigation and adaptation should predict and prevent future water shortages.

  14. Can alternative sugar sources buffer pollinators from nectar shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Gee, Robin; Dhami, Manpreet K; Paulin, Katherine J; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2014-12-01

    Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often heavily infested by the endemic honeydew-producing scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coelostomidiidae) and the period of high honeydew production can overlap with kānuka flowering. In this study, we quantified the sugar resources (honeydew and nectar) available on kānuka and recorded nocturnal insect activity on infested and uninfested kānuka during the flowering period. Insects were abundant on infested trees, but flowers on infested trees received fewer insect visitors than flowers on uninfested trees. There was little evidence that insects had switched directly from nectar-feeding to honeydew-feeding, but it is possible that some omnivores (e.g., cockroaches) were distracted by the other honeydew-associated resources on infested branches (e.g., sooty molds, prey). Additional sampling was carried out after kānuka flowering had finished to determine honeydew usage in the absence of adjacent nectar resources. Moths, which had fed almost exclusively on nectar earlier, were recorded feeding extensively on honeydew after flowering had ceased; hence, honeydew may provide an additional food source for potential pollinators. Our results show that honeydew resources can impact floral visitation patterns and suggest that future pollinator studies should consider the full range of sugar resources present in the study environment.

  15. A Microeconomic Model of the Personnel Shortage in Public Rehabilitation Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jared C.; Millington, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a well-documented, growing shortage of rehabilitation counseling professionals in the public sector. Using microeconomics principles, a theoretical model is offered to account for the personnel shortage and propose potential solutions to recruit and retain rehabilitation counselors in the public sector. Suggestions for rehabilitation…

  16. AACJC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Registered Nurse Shortage Project: Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, James F.

    The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges's Nurse Shortage Project was designed to alleviate the nurse shortage by helping community colleges improve recruitment, retention, and graduation in nursing programs through direct mini-grants, with a special emphasis on Tech Prep/Associate Degree initiatives between secondary schools and…

  17. 19 CFR 18.6 - Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.6 Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance. (a) When there has been a short shipment and the short-shipped...

  18. Assessment of serious water shortage in the Icelandic water resource system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    there will be a shortage of electrical power. This is politically acceptable as long as it only touches heavy industries but not power deliveries to the common market. Empty or near empty reservoirs cause power shortage that will be felt by homeowners and businesses, until spring thaw sets in and inflow to the reservoirs...

  19. A Prototype Regional GSI-based EnKF-Variational Hybrid Data Assimilation System for the Rapid Refresh Forecasting System: Dual-Resolution Implementation and Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yujie; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Kefeng; Wang, Mingjun

    2018-05-01

    A dual-resolution (DR) version of a regional ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-3D ensemble variational (3DEnVar) coupled hybrid data assimilation system is implemented as a prototype for the operational Rapid Refresh forecasting system. The DR 3DEnVar system combines a high-resolution (HR) deterministic background forecast with lower-resolution (LR) EnKF ensemble perturbations used for flow-dependent background error covariance to produce a HR analysis. The computational cost is substantially reduced by running the ensemble forecasts and EnKF analyses at LR. The DR 3DEnVar system is tested with 3-h cycles over a 9-day period using a 40/˜13-km grid spacing combination. The HR forecasts from the DR hybrid analyses are compared with forecasts launched from HR Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3D variational (3DVar) analyses, and single LR hybrid analyses interpolated to the HR grid. With the DR 3DEnVar system, a 90% weight for the ensemble covariance yields the lowest forecast errors and the DR hybrid system clearly outperforms the HR GSI 3DVar. Humidity and wind forecasts are also better than those launched from interpolated LR hybrid analyses, but the temperature forecasts are slightly worse. The humidity forecasts are improved most. For precipitation forecasts, the DR 3DEnVar always outperforms HR GSI 3DVar. It also outperforms the LR 3DEnVar, except for the initial forecast period and lower thresholds.

  20. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2014-10-15

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a {sup 99}Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated {sup 99}Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major {sup 99}Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease {sup 99}Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity

  2. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated 99 Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major 99 Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease 99 Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new 99 Mo/ 99m Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on 99 Mo/ 99m Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity - the planned shutdowns in Canada and France, and the expected

  3. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  4. How does a shortage of physicians impact on the job satisfaction of health centre staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxén, Ulla; Jaatinen, Pekka T; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine how a shortage of physicians at Finnish health centres has affected the job satisfaction of the entire staff. A questionnaire was posted to 2848 employees working with patients at health centres in the Finnish provinces of Satakunta and Varsinais-Suomi. The information concerning the shortage of physicians at health centres was taken from research undertaken by the Finnish Medical Association in October 2003. The health centres were divided into four groups according to the severity of the shortage. The questionnaire was returned by 1447 employees. The staff at health centres with the most severe shortage of physicians were less satisfied with the management of the organization. Employees at health centres with a minor shortage of physicians were more satisfied with the quality of services in their operational unit. The shortage of physicians had no impact on staff satisfaction regarding the operation of their work unit, the strain of dealing with issues within their work environment, feelings of stress, the strain of working under pressure that they experienced, or interest in finding a new job. The majority of healthcare employees are satisfied and motivated in their work. The shortage of physicians has only a slightly negative impact on their satisfaction.

  5. The nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on skills migration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills. Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used. Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy. Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.

  6. Online Availability and Safety of Drugs in Shortage: A Descriptive Study of Internet Vendor Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K

    2012-01-01

    Background Unprecedented drug shortages announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have severely affected therapeutic access, patient safety, and public health. With continued shortages, patients may seek drugs online. Objective To assess the prevalence of online marketing for current FDA shortage drugs and potential patient safety risks. Methods We performed a descriptive study of the prevalence of online marketing for shortage drugs—that is, offers for sale of each drug, including characteristics of online drug sellers and intermediary sites marketing these drugs. Results Of the 72 FDA shortage-listed drugs, 68 (94%) were offered for sale online. We found 291 offers for these drugs, the vast majority (n = 207, 71.1%) by online drug sellers selling direct to consumers. Intermediary sites included data aggregators (n = 22, 8%), forum links (n = 23, 8%), and personal page data links (n = 34, 12%), as well as Flickr social media links (n = 5, 2%), all advertising drugs without a prescription. Of the 91 online drug sellers identified, 31 (34%) had more than 1 shortage drug offered for sale, representing most (n = 148, 71%) of all online drug seller sales offers. The majority of these online drug sellers (n = 21, 68%) were on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended Sites list. Finally, for shortage drugs with an online drug seller (n = 58, 85%), 53 (91%) had at least one site on the Not Recommended list and 21 (36%) had only sites on the Not Recommended list. Conclusions FDA shortage drugs are widely marketed over the Internet. Suspect online drug sellers and intermediaries dominate these sales offers. As a critical risk management issue, patients, providers, and policymakers should be extremely cautious in procuring shortage drugs through Internet sourcing. PMID:22321731

  7. Online availability and safety of drugs in shortage: a descriptive study of internet vendor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K

    2012-02-09

    Unprecedented drug shortages announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have severely affected therapeutic access, patient safety, and public health. With continued shortages, patients may seek drugs online. To assess the prevalence of online marketing for current FDA shortage drugs and potential patient safety risks. We performed a descriptive study of the prevalence of online marketing for shortage drugs-that is, offers for sale of each drug, including characteristics of online drug sellers and intermediary sites marketing these drugs. Of the 72 FDA shortage-listed drugs, 68 (94%) were offered for sale online. We found 291 offers for these drugs, the vast majority (n = 207, 71.1%) by online drug sellers selling direct to consumers. Intermediary sites included data aggregators (n = 22, 8%), forum links (n = 23, 8%), and personal page data links (n = 34, 12%), as well as Flickr social media links (n = 5, 2%), all advertising drugs without a prescription. Of the 91 online drug sellers identified, 31 (34%) had more than 1 shortage drug offered for sale, representing most (n = 148, 71%) of all online drug seller sales offers. The majority of these online drug sellers (n = 21, 68%) were on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended Sites list. Finally, for shortage drugs with an online drug seller (n = 58, 85%), 53 (91%) had at least one site on the Not Recommended list and 21 (36%) had only sites on the Not Recommended list. FDA shortage drugs are widely marketed over the Internet. Suspect online drug sellers and intermediaries dominate these sales offers. As a critical risk management issue, patients, providers, and policymakers should be extremely cautious in procuring shortage drugs through Internet sourcing.

  8. Delaware Technical & Community College's response to the critical shortage of Delaware secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy S.

    This executive position paper examines the critical shortage of Delaware high school science teachers and Delaware Technical & Community College's possible role in addressing this shortage. A concise analysis of economic and political implications of the science teacher shortage is presented. The following topics were researched and evaluated: the specific science teacher needs for Delaware school districts; the science teacher education program offerings at Delaware universities and colleges; the Alternative Route to Teacher Certification (ARTC); and the state of Delaware's scholarship response to the need. Recommendations for Delaware Tech's role include the development and implementation of two new Associate of Arts of Teaching programs in physics secondary science education and chemistry secondary science education.

  9. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  10. GSI scientific report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundinger, U.

    1990-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute. It concerns nuclear structure studies, heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, atomic collisions, radiation effects in biological systems and solids, nuclear chemistry, as well as developments in counting techniques and accelerators. (orig.)

  11. GSI Scientific Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundinger, U [ed.

    2004-05-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Nuclear heavy ion physics, atomic physics with heavy ions, heavy ion research in other fields, accelerator experiments and developments, instruments and methods, the international FAIR project. (HSI)

  12. GSI scientific report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, K [ed.

    2005-07-01

    the following topics are dealt with: The FAIR project, nuclear structure studies, nuclear and quark matter experiments, search for superheavy elements, atomic, plasma, and solid-state physics with heavy ions, radiation research and biophysics with heavy ions, accelerator operations and developments, radiation detection, cancer therapy with ion beams. (HSI)

  13. GSI scientific report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundinger, U.

    1986-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute concerning nuclear physics, atomic physics, radiation effects, and developments in counting techniques and accelerator technology, as well as a list of publications, conference contributions, seminars, and lectures. (HSI) [de

  14. GSI scientific report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundinger, U.

    1988-03-01

    In this annual report extended abstracts are presented of the work performed at the named institute. They are concerned with nuclear structure studies of exotic nuclei and high spin states, heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, positron production in heavy ion collisions, radiation effects in biological systems and solids, nuclear chemistry, experimental techniques, and accelerator developments. (HSI)

  15. GSI scientific report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundinger, U.

    1987-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute concerning nuclear physics, atomic physics, radiation effects, and developments in counting techniques, and accelerator technology, as well as a list of publications, conference contributions, seminars, and lectures. (GG)

  16. GSI scientific report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed by the named society. These concern nuclear reactions, nuclear structure, exotic nuclides, nuclear theory, superheavy quasi-atoms, interactions of heavy ions with matter, biological and physical radiation effects, the development of targets, experimental set-ups, radiation detectors, and counting electronics, the UNILAC accelerator, as well inertial confinement fusion. Furthermore a list of publications is added. (HSI) [de

  17. GSI scientific report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundinger, U.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute. It concerns nuclear structure studies, heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, atomic collisions, radiation effects in biological systems and solids, nuclear chemistry, as well as developments in counting techniques and accelerators. (HSI)

  18. GSI scientific report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundinger, U.

    1991-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute. These concern experimental studies on the structure of exotic nuclei and high-spin states, heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, positron production in atomic systems, few-electron systems, biological and physical radiation effects, radiochemical separation processes and chemical properties, developments of detectors, data acquisition, and computing, as well as development and operation of UNILAC, SIS, and ESR. (HSI)

  19. GSI scientific report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications. The abstracts deal with nuclear reactions, nuclear structure, exotic nuclides, nuclear theory, superheavy quasi-atoms, few electron systems, atomic theory, radiation effects in biological systems and solids, developments of targets, radiation detectors, counting electronics, and computer techniques, the UNILAC and new accelerator projects, as well as heavy ion beams for the generation of high density in matter. (HSI)

  20. GSI scientific report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts of the work performed in the named institute. These are concerned heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure studies, the discovery of new nuclides, the study of positron emission in atomic collisions, biological and physical radiation effects, developments in targets, radiation detectors, and counting electronics, performance of the UNILAC and future accelerator projects, as well as inertial confinement fusion. (HSI) [de

  1. First results at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.

    1977-01-01

    UNILAC, and accelerator for heavy ions up to uranium with energies up to 10 MeV/nucleon became operational January 1976. A report is given on results so far in various fields of heavy ion physics, in particular on search for new nuclides, deep-inelastic collisions, spectroscopy of high-spin states and some selected topics of atomic physics. (orig.) [de

  2. Factors Other Than Climate Change, Main Drivers of 2014/15 Water Shortage in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; King, Andrew; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Wada, Yoshihide; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Haarsma, Rein; Haustein, Karsten; Uhe, Peter; van Aalst, Maarten; hide

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Brazil experienced profound water shortages in 2014/15. Anthropogenic climate change is not found to be a major influence on the hazard, whereas increasing population and water consumption increased vulnerability.

  3. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation.

  4. Marketing nursing as a profession: integrated marketing strategies to address the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Mark John; Finch, Linda; Birnbaum, Dee

    2010-07-01

    The nursing shortage in the United States is at a crisis level characterized by critical shortages of highly trained nurses and of nursing faculty. Key issues in addressing these shortages include awareness and image-building, along with enhanced outreach programs. Although these issues are related to marketing theory, most studies in this area are based on a vocational choice model. This study was grounded in marketing theory and the results offer a new perspective for addressing the nursing shortage. In-depth interviews conducted with 31 first-year nursing students indicated that there were two distinct segments among nursing students: traditionals and instrumentals. Traditionals were attracted to nursing as a helping profession while instrumentals were interested in career-related rewards such as variety, mobility, and compensation. These findings were discussed in terms of building awareness and marketing programs for nursing students that are integrated across schools of nursing, private foundations and public agencies.

  5. [Reasons for General Practitioner Shortage – a Comparison Between France and Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Thomas; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan; Chmiel, Corinne

    2016-05-25

    Both France and Switzerland face a general practitioner (GP) shortage. What differences or parallels exist between the two countries with regard to the causes for this shortage? What conclusions might be drawn from a systematic comparison? Literature review with qualitative and semi-quantitative content analysis. Parallels exist in the comparing categories work contents, working structure, income and social status, medical school formation, private life, psychological motives. Differences are found in the categories biography and social selection, medical socialisation, residency. In Switzerland, residency is not uniformly structured, rarely institutionally organised and contains only few elements specific to general medicine. In France, medical socialisation not only exalts the specialists, but also strongly devaluates the GPs. By systematic analysis and comparison of both countries' pertinent literature, France and Switzerland can deepen their understanding of GP shortage. This paper identifies possible fields of action from medical school through residency up to workplace conditions that are pivotal in addressing the shortage of GPs.

  6. Comparative decision models for anticipating shortage of food grain production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Manojit; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This paper attempts to predict food shortages in advance from the analysis of rainfall during the monsoon months along with other inputs used for crop production, such as land used for cereal production, percentage of area covered under irrigation and fertiliser use. We used six binary classification data mining models viz., logistic regression, Multilayer Perceptron, kernel lab-Support Vector Machines, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis and k-Nearest Neighbors Network, and found that linear discriminant analysis and kernel lab-Support Vector Machines are equally suitable for predicting per capita food shortage with 89.69 % accuracy in overall prediction and 92.06 % accuracy in predicting food shortage ( true negative rate). Advance information of food shortage can help policy makers to take remedial measures in order to prevent devastating consequences arising out of food non-availability.

  7. Addressing the Importance and Scale of the U.S. Teacher Shortage. UCEA Policy Brief 2018-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andrene; Quinn, Daniel J.; Fuller, Edward; Barnes, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Teacher shortages pose a major challenge for state policy makers, district leaders, and school leaders. Importantly, however, the severity of the shortage differs by the particular dynamics of state- and local- teacher labor markets with some regions and states experiencing more severe shortages than others. This brief examines the elements of the…

  8. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Lamb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.   Type: Original Research

  9. Labor Health Shortage and Future Prospects for the Medical Workforce in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Zouag, Nada; Driouchi, Ahmed; Achehboune, Amale

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper looks at the current situation of health deficits and shortages in Morocco with a focus on the roles of medical education and prospects for the health workforce for the period 2010-2030. The attained results from both trend description and simulations of patterns show major shortages relative to the needs. The existence of these trends appeals for further cooperation in the areas of health care through emphasis on medical education and research. These outcomes appear to be...

  10. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lloyd, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.

  11. Policy Measures to Alleviate Foreign Currency Liquidity Shortages under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Fujiki

    2010-01-01

    During the recent global financial crisis, some central banks introduced two innovative cross-border operations to deal with the problems of foreign currency liquidity shortages: domestic liquidity operations using cross-border collaterals and operations for supplying foreign currency based on standing swap lines among central banks. We show theoretically that central banks improve the efficiency of equilibrium under foreign currency liquidity shortages by those two innovative temporary polic...

  12. [The evolution of nursing shortage and strategies to face it: a longitudinal study in 11 hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhetta, Francesca; Dal Ponte, Adriana; Palese, Alvisa

    2012-01-01

    To describe the perception of the evolution of nursing shortage from 2000 to 2009 according to Nursing Coordinators and the strategies to face it. Nursing coordinators of 11 hospitals or districts of Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige and Veneto regions were interviewed in 2000, 2004 and 2009 to collect data and assess their perception on nurses' shortage. In the first interview the medium gap between staff planned and in service was -5.4%; in 2004 -9.4% and in 2009 -3.3%. The shortage, once with a seasonal trend is now constant and appreciated in all the wards. In years 2000 and 2004 on average 5 strategies to face the shortage were implemented, in 2009 7. No systematic strategies have been used with the exception of the unification of wards, mainly during summer for letting people go on holydays. According to Nursing Coordinators the effects of the shortage are already observable (although not quantified) on patients and nurses. The nurses' shortage has been one of the challenges of the last 10 years. Its causes have changed but not the strategies implemented.

  13. Development of a GSI-Based, 2D-VAR Data Assimilation System for Operational Wave Guidance at the National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flampouris, S.; Alves, H.; Pondeca, M.

    2016-02-01

    The US National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provides wave guidance to the National Weather Service (NWS) via a suite of operational wave models, which include three global-scale systems. An approach is being developed to include data assimilation into the global wave models using a 2D version of NCEP's grid-point statistical interpolation (2D-GSI), as described in Derber & Rosatti (1989), and Pondeca et al (2011). As a first step to the global implementation of a wave DA system, a prototype is being developed that will consist of adding wave heights as an analysis variable to the operational Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA), which provides hourly analyses of several near sea-surface meteorological parameters, and supports a variety of applications within the NWS. The core of the RTMA is a 2D version of the GSI, which is a variational data assimilation system, and the first guess for the wave-height analysis is provided by NCEP's global wave models. For the new application, the RTMA will be modified to reflect background error covariances consistent with wave-height fields for regional and nearshore applications. In addition, quality control modules for in situ and altimeter significant wave height have been developed and integrated into the system. The strengths and the performance of the 2D-GSI are illustrated with both in situ and satellite measurements of significant wave height in the NW Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. The validation of follows the typical cross-validation procedure of RTMA products, based on 10% of the observations, for a period of 15 days. The error statistics (mean, root-mean-square) of the wave-height analysis shows significant improvement, relative to the first guess.

  14. Production of a pion in association with a high-Q2 dilepton pair in antiproton-proton annihilation at GSI-FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansberg, J. P.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the cross section for pp→l + l - π 0 in the forward direction and for a large lepton pair invariant mass. In this kinematical region, the leading-twist amplitude factorizes into a short-distance matrix element, long-distance antiproton-distribution amplitudes, and proton to pion transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs). Using a modeling inspired from the chiral limit for these TDAs, we obtain a first estimate of this cross section, which demonstrates that this process can be measured at GSI-FAIR

  15. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K, and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were classified as adults and 80 as juveniles, while there were 249 adults and 89 juvenile females. Using a sinusoidal equation, analysis of the GSI revealed a reproductive asynchrony between the genders, with males attaining their highest GSI values in January, while females peaked in March. For males, the sinusoidal regression for GSI values was significant only when used the complete data set (P=0.001, wears no trend was identified for bimonthly means (P=0.136. For females, by contrast, significant values were obtained for both the complete data set (P=0.012 and bimonthly GSI means (P=0.026. For the condition factor, the sinusoidal equation returned significant seasonal variation in both raw data (P=0.02 and with mean values (P=0.00 for males, but only with raw data for females (P=0.04, which appears to reflect variation in the energy budget between genders. With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. These parameters are fundamental to the assessment, protection, and management of natural fish stocks, as well as providing guidelines for the development of conservation strategies.

  16. Forecasting the global shortage of physicians: an economic- and needs-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Kinfu, Yohannes; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Global achievements in health may be limited by critical shortages of health-care workers. To help guide workforce policy, we estimate the future demand for, need for and supply of physicians, by WHO region, to determine where likely shortages will occur by 2015, the target date of the Millennium Development Goals. Methods Using World Bank and WHO data on physicians per capita from 1980 to 2001 for 158 countries, we employ two modelling approaches for estimating the future global requirement for physicians. A needs-based model determines the number of physicians per capita required to achieve 80% coverage of live births by a skilled health-care attendant. In contrast, our economic model identifies the number of physicians per capita that are likely to be demanded, given each country’s economic growth. These estimates are compared to the future supply of physicians projected by extrapolating the historical rate of increase in physicians per capita for each country. Findings By 2015, the global supply of physicians appears to be in balance with projected economic demand. Because our measure of need reflects the minimum level of workforce density required to provide a basic health service that is met in all but the least developed countries, the needs-based estimates predict a global surplus of physicians. However, on a regional basis, both models predict shortages for many countries in the WHO African Region in 2015, with some countries experiencing a needs-based shortage, a demand-based shortage, or both. Conclusion The type of policy intervention needed to alleviate projected shortages, such as increasing health-care training or adopting measures to discourage migration, depends on the type of shortage projected. PMID:18670663

  17. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt; Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Aumann, Thomas; Casarejos, Enrique; Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme; Heinz, Andreas; Jurado, Beatriz; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  18. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric [CEA DAM Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Arpajon (France); Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent [CNRS/IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay (France); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, Enrique [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Heinz, Andreas [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jurado, Beatriz [CNRS/IN2P3, CENBG, Gradignan (France); Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  20. Medical Supplies Shortages and Burnout among Greek Health Care Workers during Economic Crisis: a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

  1. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  2. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  3. Fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton, 1822 from the Payra River, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Roy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glossogobius giuris were collected during March to September 2013 from the Payra river to estimate the length-weight relationship with relative condition factor (Kn, fecundity, gonadosomatic index (GSI and relation between fecundity and other parameters. The length-weight relationship was found to be Log W= 2.667 Log TL – 1.805 in male and Log W = 2.931 Log TL – 2.040 in female. The mean Kn were found to be 1.02±0.155 for male and 0.97±0.276 for female which indicates satisfactory condition of the fish population. The mean relative fecundity was ranged from 88495 to 264104 with a mean value of 171581±17855, having a average total length of 21.21±0.44 cm, body weight 70.22±4.62 g and gonad weight 2.74±0.31 g. The relationships among the fecundity, the total length, body weight, gonad weight were found to be linear and positively correlated. The mean GSI value was 3.42±0.33 and the highest GSI value was recorded 9.34±0.71 in the month of September. This study will help to introduce this species in sustainable aquaculture through proper management and for the development of induced breeding technique.

  4. Unpredictable drug shortages: an ethical framework for short-term rationing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Periodic and unexpected shortages of drugs, biologics, and even medical devices have become commonplace in the United States. When shortages occur, hospitals and clinics need to decide how to ration their available stock. When such situations arise, institutions can choose from several different allocation schemes, such as first-come, first-served, a lottery, or a more rational and calculated approach. While the first two approaches sound reasonable at first glance, there are a number of problems associated with them, including the inability to make fine, individual patient-centered decisions. They also do not discriminate between what kinds of patients and what types of uses may be more deserving or reasonable than others. In this article I outline an ethically acceptable procedure for rationing drugs during a shortage in which demand outstrips supply.

  5. Skill shortages in health: innovative solutions using vocational education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, S I; Johns, S S; Millar, P; Le, Q; Routley, G

    2007-01-01

    This article reports findings of a project funded by the Australian National Council for Vocational Education Research. The project explores solutions to current and projected skills shortages within the health and community services sector, from a vocational education and training perspective. Its purpose is to locate, analyse and disseminate information about innovative models of health training and service delivery that have been developed in response to skill shortages. The article begins with a brief overview of Australian statistics and literature on the structure of the national health workforce and perceived skill shortages. The impact of location (state and rurality), demographics of the workforce, and other relevant factors, on health skill shortages is examined. Drawing on a synthesis of the Australian and international literature on innovative and effective models for addressing health skill shortages and nominations by key stakeholders within the health sector, over 70 models were identified. The models represent a mixture of innovative service delivery models and training solutions from Australia, as well as international examples that could be transposed to the Australian context. They include the skill ecosystem approach facilitated by the Australian National Training Authority Skill Ecosystem Project. Models were selected to represent diversity in terms of the nature of skill shortage addressed, barriers overcome in development of the model, healthcare specialisations, and different customer groups. Key barriers to the development of innovative solutions to skills shortages identified were: policy that is not sufficiently flexible to accommodate changing workplace needs; unwillingness to risk take in order to develop new models; delays in gaining endorsement/accreditation; current vocational education and training (VET) monitoring and reporting systems; issues related to working in partnership, including different cultures, ways of operating

  6. Are word-of-mouth communications contributing to a shortage of nephrology nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, William A

    2014-01-01

    Nephrology nurse shortages have historically been viewed as a subset of the overall nursing supply in the United States. Not-here-to-fore considered as a contributing factor are the effects of word-of-mouth and Internet-based word-of-mouth communications from nurses who have had disappointing work experiences in hemodialysis clinics. This article discusses the potential effects of word-of-mouse communications and posits that negative word-of-mouse communications may discourage new and experienced nurses from considering the specialty of nephrology nursing, thus contributing to a nephrology nursing shortage.

  7. [Shortage of physicians in anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine - Causes, consequences and solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuß, Tim; Roch, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    74% of all hospitals had vacant positions in 2011, also departments of anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine. More than 50% of these departments work with locums. There are couple of reasons for the shortage of physicians. The consequences in anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine can result in qualitative and financial loss. To solve the shortage of physicians one has to solve the reasons. Main reasons are increasing feminization of medical profession and part-time-work, work-life-balance and a poor specialised education. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Approaches to tenofovir and abacavir drug shortages in South Africa: A guide for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Schowalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortages of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI abacavir and tenofovir have been reported recently at health facilities across South Africa. The Society issued the following clinical advice to healthcare providers experiencing shortages on 29 March 2012. These recommendations are intended only as a guide to clinical therapy, based on expert consensus and best available evidence. Treatment decisions for patients should be made by their responsible clinicians, with due consideration for individual circumstances. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:56-57.

  9. Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Din Salar Salah Muhy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of applying renewable energy strategies in Kurdistan Region of Iraq to overcome the shortage of electricity supply. Finding alternative renewable sources could overcome the problem. The renewable energy will reduce CO2 emission in the cities which considers the main source of pollution. That will participate in reducing the effect of global warming. The study tries to investigate the direct solar renewable energy through two of the main renewable energy categories to produce electricity based on a survey of literature review. Photovoltaic and wind power technologies are possible to be conducted in the region to overcome power shortage.

  10. Utah’s oldest show the most concern for future water shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Baji, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Utah is set to double in population by 2050. It is unclear whether current water supplies will be able to accommodate the needs of the future growth. Young people will be in their prime when water shortage predictions come to fruition, so it is important to know how concerned they are about the water issues that will affect them. An understanding of the relationship between age and water shortage concern may also contribute to the development of social science theories relating age and enviro...

  11. Order Level Inventory Models for Deteriorating Seasonable/Fashionable Products with Time Dependent Demand and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Skouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An order level inventory model for seasonable/fashionable products subject to a period of increasing demand followed by a period of level demand and then by a period of decreasing demand rate (three branches ramp type demand rate is considered. The unsatisfied demand is partially backlogged with a time dependent backlogging rate. In addition, the product deteriorates with a time dependent, namely, Weibull, deterioration rate. The model is studied under the following different replenishment policies: (a starting with no shortages and (b starting with shortages. The optimal replenishment policy for the model is derived for both the above mentioned policies.

  12. Construction and building of a compact RFQ spiral structure for the stopping of highly charged heavy ion beams for the HITRAP project of the GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, B.

    2007-01-01

    For experiments of the atomic-physics group of the GSI in Darmstadt an ion stopper is built, which will make low-energetic, extremely highly charged ions available. The plannings for the so-called HITRAP (highly charged ion's trap) began at the beginning of the ninetieth. With this facility highly-charged heavy ions shall be stopped in two stages to very low, thermal velocities, and be available for highly precise mass spectroscopy, measurements of the g factor of the bound electron of hydrogen-like ions, and other atomic-physics experiments. This decelerator facility shall first be built in the reinjection channel behind the ESR with the possibility, to apply all components later in teh extension of the GSI in the framework of the FAIR project in the facility for low-energetic antiprotons and ions to be newly built. the present thesis treats the development and the building of an integrated RFQ debuncher stopping accelerator, which represents a part of the HITRAP stopping structures. By this the ion beam is stopped from the IH stopping accelerator with an energy of 500 keV/u to 5 keV/u. By the integrated spiral buncher the beam can be fitted in energy and energy deviation to the subsequent cooler trap. In this thesis the foundations of the particle dynamics in a RFQ accelerator for the stopping of particle beams were worked out and realized, the particle-dynamics calculations necessary for the lay-out of such a structure performed with RFQSim, suitable RF structures with the simulation program Microwave Studio developed and studied, as well as the thermal load of the structures studied with the finite-element code ALGOR. A further, central topic of this thesis is the building and the tuning of the RFQ structure in order to reach a homogeneous as possible field distribution along the electrodes. Measurements of the fields in the RFQ were performed with a disturbing condenser, at the debuncher with a disturbing body. After successfully performed vacuum tests at the

  13. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  14. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  15. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  16. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  17. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  18. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  19. China's large-scale power shortages of 2004 and 2011 after the electricity market reforms of 2002: Explanations and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zeng; Song, Xue; Lingyun, Li; Yuejin, Wang; Yang, Wei; Ying, Li

    2013-01-01

    Since the electricity market reforms of 2002, two large-scale power shortages, one occurring in 2004 and one in 2011, exerted a tremendous impact on the economic development of China and also gave rise to a fierce discussion regarding electricity system reforms. In this paper, the background and the influence scale of the two power shortages are described. Second, reasons for these two large-scale power shortages are analyzed from the perspectives of power generation, power consumption and coordination of power sources and grid network construction investments. Characteristics of these two large-scale power shortages are then summarized by comparatively analyzing the performance and the formation of the reasons behind these two large-scale power shortages. Finally, some effective measures that take into account the current status of electricity market reforms in China are suggested. This paper concludes that to eliminate power shortages in China, both the supply and the demand should be considered, and these considerations should be accompanied by supervisory policies and incentive mechanisms. - Highlights: • Reasons of these two large-scale power shortages are analyzed. • Characteristics of these two large-scale power shortages are summarized. • Some effective measures to eliminate power shortage are suggested

  20. $\\beta$-decay and $\\beta$-delayed Neutron Emission Measurements at GSI-FRS Beyond N=126, for r-process Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Folch, R; Cortès, G; Taín, J L; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Ameil, F; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Bowry, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Davinson, T; Dillmann, I; Estrade, A; Evdokimov, A; Faestermann, T; Farinon, F; Galaviz, D; García-Ríos, A; Geissel, H; Gelletly, W; Gernhäuser, R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Guerrero, C; Heil, M; Hinke, C; Knöbel, R; Kojouharov, I; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, N; Litvinov, Y; Maier, L; Marganiec, J; Marta, M; Martínez, T; Montes, F; Mukha, I; Napoli, D R; Nociforo, C; Paradela, C; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Prochazka, A; Rice, S; Riego, A; Rubio, B; Schaffner, H; Scheidenberger, C; Smith, K; Sokol, E; Steiger, K; Sun, B; Takechi, M; Testov, D; Weick, H; Wilson, E; Winfield, J S; Wood, R; Woods, P J; Yeremin, A

    2014-01-01

    New measurements of very exotic nuclei in the neutron-rich region beyond N=126 have been performed at the GSI facility with the fragment separator (FRS). The aim of the experiment is to determine half-lives and beta-delayed neutron emission branching ratios of isotopes of Hg, Tl and Pb in this region. This contribution summarizes final counting statistics for identification and for implantation, as well as the present status of the data analysis of the half-lives. In summary, isotopes of Pt, Au, Hg, Ti, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn and Fr were clearly identified and several of them (Hg208-211, Tl211-215, Pb214-218) were implanted with enough statistics to determine their half-lives. About half of them are expected to be neutron emitters, in such cases it will become possible to obtain the neutron emission probabilities, P-n.

  1. First superheavy element experiments at the GSI recoil separator TASCA: The production and decay of element 114 in the 244Pu(48Ca,3-4n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, J. M.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Schaedel, M.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Bruechle, W.; Essel, H. G.; Hartmann, W.; Hessberger, F. P.; Huebner, A.; Jaeger, E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Steiner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with the new recoil separator, Transactinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA), at the GSI were performed by using beams of 48 Ca to irradiate targets of 206-208 Pb, which led to the production of 252-254 No isotopes. These studies allowed for evaluation of the performance of TASCA when coupled to a new detector and electronics system. By following these studies, the isotopes of element 114 ( 288-291 114) were produced in irradiations of 244 Pu targets with 48 Ca beams at compound nucleus excitation energies around 41.7 and 37.5 MeV, demonstrating TASCA's ability to perform experiments with picobarn-level cross sections. A total of 15 decay chains were observed and were assigned to the decay of 288-291 114. A new α-decay branch in 281 Ds was observed, leading to the new nucleus 277 Hs.

  2. Upgrading the GSI beamline microscope with a confocal fluorescence lifetime scanner to monitor charged particle induced chromatin decondensation in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, Elham; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Jakob, Burkhard, E-mail: B.Jakob@gsi.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We report the upgrade of the GSI beamline microscope coupled to the linear accelerator UNILAC by a confocal FLIM scanner utilizing time correlated single photon counting technique (TCSPC). The system can now be used to address the radiation induced chromatin decondensation in more detail and with higher sensitivity compared to intensity based methods. This decondensation of heterochromatic areas is one of the early DNA damage responses observed after charged particle irradiation and might facilitate the further processing of the induced lesions. We describe here the establishment of different DNA dyes as chromatin compaction probes usable for quantification of the DNA condensation status in living cells utilizing lifetime imaging. In addition, we find an evidence of heterochromatic chromatin decondensation in ion irradiated murine chromocenters detected after subsequent fixation using FLIM measurements.

  3. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; STOP 2220; 1400... and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation of Nominations 5. FY 2011 Shortage Situation..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...

  4. Exploring Future Water Shortage for Large River Basins under Different Water Allocation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Yao, Mingtian; Ludwig, Fulco; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, He Qing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and socio-economic development increase variations in water availability and water use in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China. This can potentially result in conflicts over water resources between water users, and cause water shortage in the dry season. To assess and manage water

  5. The Congruence of Vocational Interests and the Workplace Environment: Reducing the Language Teacher Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    There is a shortage of second/foreign language (S/FL) teachers in many parts of the world, and the rates of attrition are cause for alarm in North America. Canadian and US teachers' (N = 323) were administered the Self-Directed Search vocational interest inventory and the Coping in Stressful Situations scale. Results from this quantitative study…

  6. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop AGENCY... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop regarding the approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and..., and to gain additional insight from, professional societies, patient advocates, industry, consumer...

  7. The strategic relevance of manufacturing technology: An overall quality concept to promote innovation preventing drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Ponti, Mauro; Bruno, Giorgio; Cois, Giancarlo; D'Arpino, Alessandro; Minghetti, Paola; Mendicino, Francesca Romana; Perioli, Luana; Ricci, Maurizio

    2017-01-10

    Manufacturing is the bridge between research and patient: without product, there is no clinical outcome. Shortage has a variety of causes, in this paper we analyse only causes related to manufacturing technology and we use shortage as a paradigm highliting the relevance of Pharmaceutical Technology. Product and process complexity and capacity issues are the main challenge for the Pharmaceutical Industry Supply chain. Manufacturing Technology should be acknowledged as a R&D step and as a very important matter during University degree in Pharmacy and related disciplines, promoting collaboration between Academia and Industry, measured during HTA step and rewarded in terms of price and reimbursement. The above elements are not yet properly recognised, and manufacturing technology is taken in to consideration only when a shortage is in place. In a previous work, Panzitta et al. proposed to perform a full technology assessment at the Health Technological Assessment stage, evaluating three main technical aspects of a medicine: manufacturing process, physicochemical properties, and formulation characteristics. In this paper, we develop the concept of manufacturing appraisal, providing a technical overview of upcoming challenges, a risk based approach and an economic picture of shortage costs. We develop also an overall quality concept, not limited to GMP factors but broaden to all elements leading to a robust supply and promoting technical innovation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Morale, Participation and Shortage in White-Majority and White-Minority Schools: Principals' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Fuller Hamilton, Asia N.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has shown that teacher-centred factors such as teacher participation in decision making, teacher morale, and shortage of teaching staff, can affect school performance. In this study we examined how these factors differ between White-majority and White-minority schools both before and after controlling for school characteristics such…

  9. Effects of Staff Participation, Morale, and Shortage on Organisational Performance: An International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Asrar-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that staff-centred organisational factors such as participation, morale and shortage can have a significant effect on organisational outcomes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to cross-country examination of these relationships specifically for educational organisations such as schools, colleges, and…

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.307 - Processing overages, shortages, and damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States, when other than GSA or DOD pays the transportation charges. (b) Reporting discrepancies or..., shortages, and damages. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed in accordance with the instructions in subpart 101-40.7 when the discrepancies are the fault of the carrier and occur while the...

  11. Shortage of uranium already in the 1980's: expand Ranstad at once

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, G

    1975-11-14

    The extraction of uranium at Ranstad must be increased and the construction of thermal nuclear power stations limited until enough breeder reactors are available. A shortage of uranium is expected for the 1980's. Deposits of uranium ore in various countries are tabulated and their yields and cost of extraction stated.

  12. Two Birds with One Social Policy Stone: Youth Employment and Regional Skills Shortages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Joanne; Bertone, Santina; Grace, Marty; Broadbent, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, the Victorian State Government introduced the Regional Jobs Package (RJP)--a twelve-month pilot program that attempted to kill two social policy problems with one stone. The problems were youth unemployment and skills shortages in regional areas of Victoria, Australia. The intention of the RJP was to create a "win-win"…

  13. Applying the International Medical Graduate Program Model to Alleviate the Supply Shortage of Accounting Doctoral Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie

    2012-01-01

    Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…

  14. Forecasting the shortage of neurosurgeons in Iran using a system dynamics model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rafiei

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Shortage of neurosurgeons in some areas of the country relates to maldistribution of the specialists. Accordingly, there is a need to reconsider the allocation system for health professionals within the country instead of increasing the overall number of acceptance quota in training positions.

  15. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...

  16. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  17. The Nursing Shortage Impact on Job Outcome (The Case in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Shammika Senani Mudihanselage Hellerawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The nursing shortage is a common problem throughout the world. Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nursing shortage effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction and their work stress. A study was conducted to investigate the correlation between these at the Polonnaruwa District General Hospital in Sri Lanka with a random sample of nurses working in the hospital and using a self-administered questionnaire. This study uses an explanatory research design. The statistical analysis confirmed a positive relationship between nurse shortage and workload. It also shows a significant positive relationship between workload and the quality of patient care. Furthermore, a negative relationship was observed between workload and the quality of patient care. In addition, this study calculates the mean effect of emotional intelligence of these factors, and a significant correlation is found between emotional intelligence and workload as well as work stress. There is a firm evidence that in Sri Lanka, nursing shortage influences the workload of the employee, finally affecting the quality of patient care. In addition, the study recognized the capability of nurses to manage their emotions as well as emotions of others, which has increased their tolerance to control psychological stress in performing their duty. This study confirms that nurse’s emotional intelligence act as a partial oderating variable for job outcomes of nurses.

  18. Shortage of donation despite an adequate number of donors : A professional attitude?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, RJ; Niesing, J; Sieber-Rasch, MH; Willems, L; Kranenburg, K

    2003-01-01

    Background A major problem in the field of transplantation is the persistent shortage of donor organs and tissues for transplantation. This study was initiated to (1) chart the donor potential for organs and tissue in The Netherlands and (2) to identify factors influencing whether donation is

  19. Responding to teacher shortages : Relationships among mobility experiences, attitudes, and intentions of Dutch teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, R.E.; Poell, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    From all over the world there have been calls from governmental institutions to address a shortage of high quality teachers. As changing jobs generates new experiences, job mobility could be a way for teachers to adhere to the government’s call to develop themselves into the teaching force needed.

  20. Responding to teacher shortages: relationships among mobility experiences, attitudes, and intentions of Dutch teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, R.E.; Poell, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    From all over the world there have been calls from governmental institutions to address a shortage of high quality teachers. As changing jobs generates new experiences, job mobility could be a way for teachers to adhere to the government’s call to develop themselves into the teaching force needed.

  1. [Application of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane application used in the postoperative tissue shortage repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanxia; Yan, Liying; Zhang, Shaoqiang; Shao, Yuan; Yao, Xiaobao; Li, Honghui; Zhao, Ruimin; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To observe the short-term and long-term curative effect of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer) application used in the 82 cases postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection. To held the 82 cases head neck carcinoma postoperative mucosa shortage repaired after resection by the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer), 65 cases mucosa shortage wound be directly covered by the repair membrane and the other 17 cases mucosa shortage wound be repaired by the tranfered muscle tissue flap with the repair membrane covered; 53 cases underwent additional postoperative radiotherapy between 2-4 weeks and follow-up in 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 months and observed the operation site repair process through the electronic laryngoscope, observed the patients respiration, swallow, phonation function. Seventy-seven cases patients operation incision reached I phase healing standard, another 5 cases patients operation incision reached II phase healing standard because of the wound infection and fully-recovered through the local wound drainage,dressing process. All the patients tracheal cannula,the stomach tube be extubated successfully and without the local cicatricial constriction occurred. Seventy-eight cases follow up period reached 1 year including 53 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 49 cases follow up period reached 3 years including 32 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 14 cases follow up period reached 5 years including 12 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy. The patients with static local lesions discovered no reaction such as exclusion, allergy. The application of xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer used in in the postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection have several advantage such as comparatively easily implementation, operation safety

  2. New Jersey's natural gas shortage: a policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, J.L.; Morell, D.

    1976-12-01

    The public policy problems associated with New Jersey's natural gas shortage are extremely complex and rather difficult to examine. They involve a blend of technology, politics and economics; of regulatory mandates and profit-motivated initiatives; of Federal and state interaction and conflict. To understand the state's gas shortage and to lay the basis for recommending measures to deal with it, information about the basic technology, the organization of the gas industry, the national regulatory posture, and the possible causes of the gas shortage encompasses Part I of the overall study. In Part II, the analysis turns from the national level to a direct examination of New Jersey's gas situation. In Part III, Chapter VIII, the following are considered: the state's supply of natural gas, distribution of these supply volumes within New Jersey by the four major gas utilities, and gas consumption patterns within the state as a whole and then for each major consuming sector (electric utility, industrial, commercial, and residential). This chapter concludes with an analysis of the impacts of the gas shortage to date in New Jersey, and of its probable effects in the near-term. In the final chapter, some tentative conclusions and broad suggestions are advanced for public policies to mitigate the gravity of the state's position with respect to natural gas. Analysis proceeds, in turn, through consideration of possible state actions in several areas: increasing total interstate gas supplies; increasing New Jersey's share of whatever national total exists; making greater (or more effective) use of alternate fuels; and moderating demand for gas through aggressive conservation policies. Some short-term measures to cope better with whatever level of gas shortage exists in the state at any particular time are suggested. 151 references. (MCW)

  3. Civil Society and Residents’ Coping Strategies with Water Shortages and Household Food Insecurity in Gweru, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winmore Kusena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water shortages are distressing many urban areas in developing countries and require well planned and sustainable coping strategies in order to bequeath citizens decent lives. The objectives of this paper were to identify water related civil society groups present in Gweru; reveal devised coping strategies to combat water shortages and household food insecurity; and challenges faced by civil society and residents in obtaining sustainable coping strategies. A survey was conducted through interviews, questionnaires and observations as data collection instruments. The findings show that residents relied on borehole drilled in their respective areas by the municipality, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and through individual initiatives. Although public boreholes were available, they were found at an average of only two in a given residential area, regardless of its population. Residents also collected water in containers during late hours of the night or early hours of the day. Gweru residents in addition devised strategies to cope with household food insecurity caused by water shortages and high monthly water bills. Combined with the aforementioned water shortage coping strategies, the stratagem by residents included coming up with payment plans, denying city personnel access into their premises for water disconnection; and self-reconnection in the event of disconnection. Community gardens initiated by Non-Governmental Organisations and food imports from neighbouring countries were some of the adaptive mechanisms dealing with household food insecurity. However, despite resolute efforts by civil society and residents to muddle through water supply and food security challenges, the city needs financial aid to enhance service provision that does not solely relying on residents. Financial injection and investment in sustainable alternative water sources for the city’s multiple uses will go a long way in solving the water shortages and

  4. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  5. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  6. Organ donor shortage in the Netherlands; Definition of the potential donor pool and the role of family refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer-Jansen, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of post-mortem organ donors in the Netherlands is a prominent problem for patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. As long as there is a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation, the need to identify bottlenecks in the organ donation process is crucial to further

  7. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...

  8. Analysing monthly sectorial water use and its influence on salt intrusion induced water shortage in urbanized deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Mingtian; Yan, Dan; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, Heqing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanizing delta regions face seasonal water shortages induced by rising salt intrusion. Decreasing river discharge is readily listed as the major cause of water shortage events. Yet, observations of river discharge often fail to support this attribution. Evidence of the association between

  9. Water shortage risk assessment considering large-scale regional transfers: a copula-based uncertainty case study in Lunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Liu, Yinzhu; Sun, Bowen

    2018-06-05

    The risk of water shortage caused by uncertainties, such as frequent drought, varied precipitation, multiple water resources, and different water demands, brings new challenges to the water transfer projects. Uncertainties exist for transferring water and local surface water; therefore, the relationship between them should be thoroughly studied to prevent water shortage. For more effective water management, an uncertainty-based water shortage risk assessment model (UWSRAM) is developed to study the combined effect of multiple water resources and analyze the shortage degree under uncertainty. The UWSRAM combines copula-based Monte Carlo stochastic simulation and the chance-constrained programming-stochastic multiobjective optimization model, using the Lunan water-receiving area in China as an example. Statistical copula functions are employed to estimate the joint probability of available transferring water and local surface water and sampling from the multivariate probability distribution, which are used as inputs for the optimization model. The approach reveals the distribution of water shortage and is able to emphasize the importance of improving and updating transferring water and local surface water management, and examine their combined influence on water shortage risk assessment. The possible available water and shortages can be calculated applying the UWSRAM, also with the corresponding allocation measures under different water availability levels and violating probabilities. The UWSRAM is valuable for mastering the overall multi-water resource and water shortage degree, adapting to the uncertainty surrounding water resources, establishing effective water resource planning policies for managers and achieving sustainable development.

  10. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  11. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  12. Who will educate our nurses? A strategy to address the nurse faculty shortage in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolamo, Angela M; Overcash, Amy; McGovern, Jennifer; Roemer, Grace; Bakewell-Sachs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The nurse faculty shortage hampers the capacity of the nursing workforce to respond to the demands of the evolving health care system. As a strategy to address the shortage in New Jersey, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation implemented the New Jersey Nursing Initiative Faculty Preparation Program to prepare nurses for the faculty role. This article highlights program implementation successes and challenges, scholar and faculty perceptions of the program, and provides recommendations for others interested in preparing nurse faculty. This evaluation uses data from scholar surveys and focus groups, interviews with grantees, and grantee reports. Findings suggest that a program that includes generous monetary support, socialization to the nurse faculty role, and formal education courses produces graduates who readily assume a faculty position and are committed to at least a part-time career in nursing education. This evaluation emphasizes the need to carefully design programs that integrate faculty preparation and advanced clinical training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exacerbating Staff Shortages and Student Dissatisfaction? The Impact of AACSB Accreditation on Faculty Recruitment in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lightbody

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian accounting schools are widely perceived to be experiencing a staffing shortage. Many accountingschools are now seeking AACSB accreditation. There has been no consideration in the accounting literatureof how such accreditation might impact on the future ability of accounting schools to attract the ex-practiceaccountants that have traditionally comprised the majority of their faculty recruits. To examine suchimplications, this paper presents an interpretive case study of an Australian business school which is in theprocess of applying for AACSB accreditation. The paper argues that an implication of the increasinglyinflexible work environment driven by AACSB accreditation may be that academia becomes a less attractiveworkplace for ex-practitioner faculty. This may further exacerbate existing academic staff shortages andreduce diversity and professional knowledge within accounting schools, with consequent implications forteaching, student engagement, and industry engagement. This in turn may have long term ramifications forthe ability of the universities to attract students and thus earn the tuition fees on which they currently rely.

  14. Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items Involving Fuzzy with Shortages and Exponential Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vijai Stanly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items for power demand under fully backlogged conditions. We define various factors which are affecting the inventory cost by using the shortage costs. An intention of this paper is to study the inventory modelling through fuzzy environment. Inventory parameters, such as holding cost, shortage cost, purchasing cost and deterioration cost are assumed to be the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. In addition, an efficient algorithm is developed to determine the optimal policy, and the computational effort and time are small for the proposed algorithm. It is simple to implement, and our approach is illustrated through some numerical examples to demonstrate the application and the performance of the proposed methodology.

  15. Dealing with labor shortages in long-term care: a marketing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S T

    1990-01-01

    A recent analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor statistics raise serious implications for the long-term care industry. The human resource problems faced by managers in long-term care will escalate into a fullblown crisis by the end of this century. This will result from a decrease in the number of young workers available to work in unskilled and semiskilled occupations. The effect of this shortage will be exaggerated by an expansion of other sectors of the service industry. Long-term care facilities will be forced to compete with the fast food and retail industry as well as other sectors of the health industry for scarce workers. This article briefly examines the causes, consequences of this problem and suggests several strategies to mitigate the effect of the coming labor shortage.

  16. International cooperation and shortage of doctors: an analysis of the interaction between Brazil, Angola and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sandra Mara Campos; Oliveira, Felipe Proenço de; Matos, Mateus Falcão Martins; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Delduque, Maria Celia

    2017-07-01

    The shortage of doctors, especially in remote areas, is a critical issue for the development of national health systems and has thus been the focus of a number of international cooperation projects. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted to examine cooperation between Brazil, Angola and Cuba. A nonsystematic literature review was conducted of selected open access articles and official documents addressing relevant health cooperation initiatives. Previously selected characteristics of actions designed to redress the shortage of doctors were compared. It was concluded that the interactions between the three countries were fruitful and potentially beneficial for the health of the population of these countries. South-South cooperation between these countries showed positive results in the educational and regulatory dimensions and adopted a non-dependence perspective that seeks to strengthen endogenous capacity, which are important factors for evaluating the structural components of health systems.

  17. United States Registered Nurse Workforce Report Card and Shortage Forecast: A Revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Tai, Daniel; Pforsich, Hugh; Lin, Vernon W

    This is a reevaluation of registered nurse (RN) supply and demand from 2016 to 2030 using a previously published work forecast model and grading methodology with more recent workforce data. There will be a shortage of 154 018 RNs by 2020 and 510 394 RNs by 2030; the South and West regions will have higher shortage ratios than Northeast and Midwest regions. This reflects a nearly 50% overall improvement when compared with the authors' prior study, and the low-performing states have improved from 18 "D" and 12 "F" grades as published earlier to 13 "D" and 1 "F" in this study. Although progress has been made, efforts to foster the pipelines for improving the nursing workforce need to be continued.

  18. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Preat, Thomas

    2013-01-25

    The brain regulates energy homeostasis in the organism. Under resource shortage, the brain takes priority over peripheral organs for energy supply. But can the brain also down-regulate its own consumption to favor survival? We show that the brain of Drosophila specifically disables the costly formation of aversive long-term memory (LTM) upon starvation, a physiological state required for appetitive LTM formation. At the neural circuit level, the slow oscillations normally triggered in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons to enable aversive LTM formation were abolished in starved flies. Transient artificial activation of these neurons during training restored LTM formation in starved flies but at the price of a reduced survival. LTM formation is thus subject to adaptive plasticity that helps survival under food shortage.

  19. Geometric representation of the mean-variance-skewness portfolio frontier based upon the shortage function

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, Kristiaan; Mounier, Amine; Van de Woestyne, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    The literature suggests that investors prefer portfolios based on mean, variance and skewness rather than portfolios based on mean-variance (MV) criteria solely. Furthermore, a small variety of methods have been proposed to determine mean-variance-skewness (MVS) optimal portfolios. Recently, the shortage function has been introduced as a measure of efficiency, allowing to characterize MVS optimalportfolios using non-parametric mathematical programming tools. While tracing the MV portfolio fro...

  20. The insurance of bulk oil cargoes and adjustment of shortage claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavendale, R.

    1993-01-01

    Shortage claims discussed in this article include those due to a definite disaster such as a fire, those due to cargo contamination and storage, and those identified in documentation as occurring between loading and unloading. The principal types of cover are examined, and the distinction between gross and net quantities, claim documentation, the petroleum measurement tables, and guaranteed out turn cover are described in detail. (UK)

  1. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and met...

  2. Potential Ways to Address Shortage Situations of 99Mo/99mTc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filzen, Leah M; Ellingson, Lacey R; Paulsen, Andrew M; Hung, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    99m Tc, the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine, is produced in a nuclear reactor from the decay of 99 Mo. There are only a few aging nuclear reactors around the world that produce 99 Mo, and one of the major contributors, the National Research Universal (Canada), ceased production on October 31, 2016. The National Research Universal produced approximately 40% of the world's 99 Mo supply, so with its shut down, shortages of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc are expected. Methods: Nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine departments throughout the United States were contacted and asked to provide their strategies for coping with a shortage of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Each of these strategies was evaluated on the basis of its effectiveness for conserving 99m Tc while still meeting the needs of the patients. Results: From the responses, the following 6 categories of strategies, in order of importance, were compiled: contractual agreements with commercial nuclear pharmacies, alternative imaging protocols, changes in imaging schedules, software use, generator management, and reduction of ordered doses or elimination of backup doses. Conclusion: The supply chain of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc is quite fragile; therefore, being aware of the most appropriate coping strategies is crucial. It is essential to build a strong collaboration between the nuclear pharmacy and nuclear medicine department during a shortage situation. With both nuclear medicine departments and nuclear pharmacies implementing viable strategies, such as the ones proposed, the amount of 99m Tc available during a shortage situation can be maximized. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  3. The shortage of medical workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and substitution policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zou, Benteng

    2011-01-01

    Substitution policies are strategies sometimes chosen in Sub-Saharan Africa for curtailing the shortage of health professionals especially caused by the outflow of medical personnel. The aim of our contribution is to propose a way to assess the merits and drawbacks of substitution policies by developing a simple growth model of healthcare productivity with medical brain drain. Within this framework, we use a medical care production function of the CES type which aggregates low and high specia...

  4. The NNP/DNP shortage: transforming neonatal nurse practitioners into DNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Jana L; Kenner, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) represent a high-demand specialty practice that is especially targeted for US secondary and tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). NNPs make primary decisions about the caregiving of high-risk newborns at the time of admission, throughout hospitalization, at transfer, and at discharge that require an advanced knowledge base in neonatology as well as NICU clinical experience. NNPs prepared at the master's level are currently in very short supply, with some estimates suggesting that for each NNP who graduates, there are 80 positions open across the country. Even with the present shortage, due to the high cost of NNP education, NNP programs are diminishing and those that are remaining are not graduating a sufficient number of new NNPs each year to keep up with the demand. To add to the basic shortage problem, in 2004 the American Association of Colleges of Nursing decided that by 2015, the terminal degree for all nurse practitioners should move from the master's degree to the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree. That decision added a minimum of 12 months of full-time education to the advanced education requirements for nurse practitioners. What impact will the decision to require a DNP degree have on NNP specialty practice? Will even more NNP programs close because of faculty shortages of NNPs prepared at the DNP level? If a worse shortage occurs in the number of NNPs prepared to practice in NICUs, will physician assistants or other nonphysician clinicians who meet the need for advanced neonatal care providers replace NNPs? What steps, if any, can nursing take to ensure that NNP specialty practice is still needed and survives after supplementing the DNP requirement to NNP education?

  5. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  6. Forecasting the shortage of neurosurgeons in Iran using a system dynamics model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Sima; Daneshvaran, Arman; Abdollahzade, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Shortage of physicians particularly in specialty levels is considered as an important issue in Iran health system. Thus, in an uncertain environment, long-term planning is required for health professionals as a basic priority on a national scale. This study aimed to estimate the number of required neurosurgeons using system dynamic modeling. System dynamic modeling was applied to predict the gap between stock and number of required neurosurgeons in Iran up to 2020. A supply and demand simulation model was constructed for neurosurgeons using system dynamic approach. The demand model included epidemiological, demographic, and utilization variables along with supply model-incorporated current stock of neurosurgeons and flow variables such as attrition, migration, and retirement rate. Data were obtained from various governmental databases and were analyzed by Vensim PLE Version 3.0 to address the flow of health professionals, clinical infrastructure, population demographics, and disease prevalence during the time. It was forecasted that shortage in number of neurosurgeons would disappear at 2020. The most dominant determinants on predicted number of neurosurgeons were the prevalence of neurosurgical diseases, the rate for service utilization, and medical capacity of the region. Shortage of neurosurgeons in some areas of the country relates to maldistribution of the specialists. Accordingly, there is a need to reconsider the allocation system for health professionals within the country instead of increasing the overall number of acceptance quota in training positions.

  7. Causes of shortage and delay in material supply: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Yap, Y. H.; Ramli, N. R.; Dullah, M. A.; Shamsuddin, M. S. W.

    2017-11-01

    Shortage and delay in materials supply is argued to be one of the most important factors that lead to delay in construction project delivery globally. However, the relevant underlying reasons vary from country to country. As such, this paper summarises the outcomes of a study that targeted identifying causes of shortage and delay in materials supply in Brunei Darussalam. The study was conducted through fifteen semi-structured interviews of contractors and materials suppliers in Brunei. The study identified six causes of shortageof materials and nine causes of delay in materials supply in Brunei. The most importantcausefor shortage of materials relates to the origin or availability of construction materials. On the other hand, the most influential cause of delay in material supply was found to be poor materials procurement and inventory management system, which has other underlying reasons such as late identification of the type of materials needed. The observations are expected to help in formulating or reviewing relevant policies, in order to ensure on-time project delivery.

  8. A New Way for Incorporating GCM Information into Water Shortage Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Beom Seo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change information is essential for water resources management planning, and the majority of research available uses the global circulation model (GCM data to project future water balance. Despite the fact that the results of various GCMs are still heterogeneous, it is common to utilize GCM values directly in climate change impact assessment models. To mitigate these limitations, this study provides an alternative methodology, which uses GCM-based data to assign weights on historical scenarios rather than to directly input their values into the assessment models, thereby reducing the uncertainty involved in the direct use of GCMs. Therefore, the real innovation of this study is placed on the use of a new probability weighting scheme with multiple GCMs rather than on the direct input of GCM-driven data. Applied to make future projections of the water shortage in the Han River basin of Korea, the proposed methodology produced conservative but realistic projection results (15% increase compared to the existing methodologies, which projected a dramatic increase (144% in water shortage over 10 years. As a result, it was anticipated that the amount of water shortages in the Han River basin would gradually increase in the next 90 years, including a 57% increase in the 2080s.

  9. Is The Water Shortage Crisis Really One of the Most Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The author has reported on this in his previous AGU presentations. In the next four decades, more than half of the world’s population will have to deal with sever water shortages. The United States has been blessed with several large fresh water lakes. In spite of having this fresh water supply, some states like Arizona could be facing sever fresh water shortages in the next couple of decades. Sid Wilson, general manager of the Central Arizona Project has indicated "It's not a question of if there is a water shortage anymore. It is in reality, when there will be a water shortage. " Several states share water from the Colorado river. The river has limited water supply to cater to the needs of Arizona, Nevada, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. World Health Organization, NASA, Department of the Interior, NOAA and several organizations have observed that there is a real water shortage crisis. This is because the world’s population has tripled in the twentieth century. This has resulted in a six-fold increase of water usage. Fresh water supply is limited. This is because water cannot be replaced with an alternative. It is important to observe that petroleum can be replaced with alternative fuel resources. It is necessary to recognize that fact that irrigation necessitates almost 65% to 70% of water withdrawal. Industry may utilize about 20% and domestic consumption is about 10% Evaporation from reservoirs is also a major factor, depending upon the climate and environment. Therefore there is an urgent need for all the countries to establish a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water

  10. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: quantifying the welfare effects of water shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vat, Marnix; Femke, Schasfoort; Rhee Gigi, Van; Manfred, Wienhoven; Nico, Polman; Joost, Delsman; den Hoek Paul, Van; Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens

    2016-04-01

    It is widely acknowledged that drought management should move from a crisis to a risk-based approach. A risk-based approach to managing water resources requires a sound drought risk analysis, quantifying the probability and impacts of water shortage due to droughts. Impacts of droughts are for example crop yield losses, hydropower production losses, and water shortage for municipal and industrial use. Many studies analyse the balance between supply and demand, but there is little experience in translating this into economic metrics that can be used in a decision-making process on investments to reduce drought risk. We will present a drought risk analysis method for the Netherlands, with a focus on the underlying economic method to quantify the welfare effects of water shortage for different water users. Both the risk-based approach as well as the economic valuation of water shortage for various water users was explored in a study for the Dutch Government. First, an historic analysis of the effects of droughts on revenues and prices in agriculture as well as on shipping and nature was carried out. Second, a drought risk analysis method was developed that combines drought hazard and drought impact analysis in a probabilistic way for various sectors. This consists of a stepwise approach, from water availability through water shortage to economic impact, for a range of drought events with a certain return period. Finally, a local case study was conducted to test the applicability of the drought risk analysis method. Through the study, experience was gained into integrating hydrological and economic analyses, which is a prerequisite for drought risk analysis. Results indicate that the risk analysis method is promising and applicable for various sectors. However, it was also found that quantification of economic impacts from droughts is time-consuming, because location- and sector-specific data is needed, which is not always readily available. Furthermore, for some

  11. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  12. Construction and building of a compact RFQ spiral structure for the stopping of highly charged heavy ion beams for the HITRAP project of the GSI; Konstruktion und Aufbau einer kompakten RFQ-Spiral-Struktur zum Abbremsen hochgeladener Schwerionenstrahlen fuer das HITRAP-Projekt der GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, B.

    2007-07-01

    For experiments of the atomic-physics group of the GSI in Darmstadt an ion stopper is built, which will make low-energetic, extremely highly charged ions available. The plannings for the so-called HITRAP (highly charged ion's trap) began at the beginning of the ninetieth. With this facility highly-charged heavy ions shall be stopped in two stages to very low, thermal velocities, and be available for highly precise mass spectroscopy, measurements of the g factor of the bound electron of hydrogen-like ions, and other atomic-physics experiments. This decelerator facility shall first be built in the reinjection channel behind the ESR with the possibility, to apply all components later in teh extension of the GSI in the framework of the FAIR project in the facility for low-energetic antiprotons and ions to be newly built. the present thesis treats the development and the building of an integrated RFQ debuncher stopping accelerator, which represents a part of the HITRAP stopping structures. By this the ion beam is stopped from the IH stopping accelerator with an energy of 500 keV/u to 5 keV/u. By the integrated spiral buncher the beam can be fitted in energy and energy deviation to the subsequent cooler trap. In this thesis the foundations of the particle dynamics in a RFQ accelerator for the stopping of particle beams were worked out and realized, the particle-dynamics calculations necessary for the lay-out of such a structure performed with RFQSim, suitable RF structures with the simulation program Microwave Studio developed and studied, as well as the thermal load of the structures studied with the finite-element code ALGOR. A further, central topic of this thesis is the building and the tuning of the RFQ structure in order to reach a homogeneous as possible field distribution along the electrodes. Measurements of the fields in the RFQ were performed with a disturbing condenser, at the debuncher with a disturbing body. After successfully performed vacuum tests at

  13. New results from isochronous mass measurements of neutron-rich uranium fission fragments with the FRS-ESR-facility at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebel, R.; Litvinov, Yu.A.; Weick, H.; Bosch, F.; Boutin, D.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, S.A.; Matos, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Stadlmann, J.; Steck, M.; Winkler, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Diwisch, M. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Geissel, H.; Plass, W.R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Chen, L. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Patyk, Z. [National Centre for Nuclear Research - NCBJ Swierk, Warszawa (Poland); Sun, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); Hausmann, M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Nakajima, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T. [Saitama University, Department of Physics, Saitama (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics, Niigata (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Ibaraki (Japan); Walker, P.M. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Masses of uranium fission fragments have been measured with the FRagment Separator (FRS) combined with the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. A 410-415 MeV/u {sup 238}U projectile beam was fast extracted from the synchrotron SIS-18 with an average intensity of 10{sup 9}/spill. The projectiles were focused on a 1g/cm{sup 2} beryllium target at the entrance of the FRS to create neutron-rich isotopes via abrasion-fission. The fission fragments were spatially separated with the FRS and injected into the isochronous storage ring ESR for fast mass measurements without applying cooling. The Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) was performed under two different experimental conditions, with and without B ρ-tagging at the high-resolution dispersive central focal plane of the FRS. The evaluation has been done for the combined data sets from both experiments with a new method of data analysis. The use of a correlation matrix has provided experimental mass values for 23 different neutron-rich isotopes for the first time and 6 masses with improved values. The new masses were obtained for nuclides in the element range from Se to Ce. The applied analysis has given access even to rare isotopes detected with an intensity of a few atoms per week. The novel data analysis and systematic error determination are described and the results are compared with extrapolations of experimental values and theoretical models. (orig.)

  14. Modeling event building architecture for the triggerless data acquisition system for PANDA experiment at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A novel architecture is being proposed for the data acquisition and trigger system for PANDA experiment at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The experiment will run without the hardware trigger signal and use timestamps to correlate detector data from a given time window. The broad physics program in combination with high rate of 2 10^7 interactions require very selective filtering algorithms which access information from almost all detectors. Therefore the effective filtering will happen later than it used to in today's systems ie after the event building. To assess that, the complete architecture will be built of two stages: the data concentrator stage providing event building and the rate reduction stage. For the former stage, which allows to switch 100 GB/s of event fragments to perform event building, we propose two layers of ATCA crates filled with compute nodes - modules designed at University of Giessen for trigger and data acquisition systems. Each board is equipped with 5 Virtex4 FX60 FPG...

  15. The reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U {yields}{sup 286}112{sup *} studied at the GSI-SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Ackermann, D.; Burkhard, H.G.; Heinz, S.; Hessberger, F.P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schoett, H.J.; Sulignano, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Antalic, S.; Saro, S.; Streicher, B.; Venhart, M. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Comas, V.F.; Heredia, J.A. [InSTEC, Habana (Cuba); Dressler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Gan, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Kuusiniemi, P. [University of Oulu, CUPP (Finland); Leino, M.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    The fusion reaction of {sup 48}Ca projectiles with {sup 238}U target nuclei was studied at the velocity filter SHIP of GSI in Darmstadt. Two decay chains were measured, which fully confirm data that were previously assigned to the isotope {sup 283}112 in experiments at the Flerov Laboratory in Dubna. Two other events are consistent with a 50% spontaneous-fission (SF) branch of this isotope. The mean value obtained for the half-life of {sup 283}112 is (6.9{sup +6.9}{sub -2.3}) s, the {alpha} energy is (9.520{+-}0.015) MeV, and the total kinetic energy (TKE) of SF is (238{+-}14) MeV. The half-life of the {alpha} decay daughter nucleus {sup 279}Ds is (0.18{sup +0.32}{sub -0.07}) s, and the TKE of SF is (210 {sup +32}{sub -11}) MeV. The cross-section deduced from all four events is (0.72{sup +0.58}{sub -0.35}) pb, measured at an excitation energy of 34.6MeV of the compound nucleus {sup 286}112. (orig.)

  16. Modeling event building architecture for the triggerless data acquisition system for PANDA experiment at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korcyl, K; Konorov, I; Kühn, W; Schmitt, L

    2012-01-01

    A novel architecture is being proposed for the data acquisition and trigger system of the PANDA experiment at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The experiment will run without hardware trigger signal using timestamps to correlate detector data from a given time window. The broad physics program in combination with the high rate of 2 * 10 7 interactions per second requires very selective filtering algorithms accessing information from many detectors. Therefore the effective filtering will happen later than in today's systems ie. after the event building. To assess that, the complete architecture will be built of two stages: the data concentrator stage providing event building and the rate reduction stage. For the former stage, which requires a throughput of 100 GB/s to perform event building, we propose two layers of ATCA crates filled with Compute Nodes - modules designed at IHEP and University of Giessen for trigger and data acquisition systems. Currently each board is equipped with 5 Virtex4 FX60 FPGAs and high bandwidth connectivity is provided by 8 front panel RocketIO ports and 12 backplane ports for the inter-module communication. We designed simplified models of the components of the architecture and using the SystemC library as support for the discrete event simulations, demonstrate the expected throughput of the full-size system. We also show impact of some architectural choices and key parameters on the architecture's performance.

  17. Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 171 -- Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) failure from a loop subsequent to LOCA: Assessment of plant vulnerability and CDF contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Samanta, P.; Chu, L.; Yang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Generic Safety Issue 171 (GSI-171), Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) from a Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) subsequent to a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), deals with an accident sequence in which a LOCA is followed by a LOOP. This issue was later broadened to include a LOOP followed by a LOCA. Plants are designed to handle a simultaneous LOCA and LOOP. In this paper, the authors address the unique issues that are involved i LOCA with delayed LOOP (LOCA/LOOP) and LOOP with delayed LOCA (LOOP/LOCA) accident sequences. LOCA/LOOP accidents are analyzed further by developing event-tree/fault-tree models to quantify their contributions to core-damage frequency (CDF) in a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor (PWR and a BWR). Engineering evaluation and judgments are used during quantification to estimate the unique conditions that arise in a LOCA/LOOP accident. The results show that the CDF contribution of such an accident can be a dominant contributor to plant risk, although BWRs are less vulnerable than PWRs

  18. Aspects of the historical development of targetry for heavy ions of 0.05-2000 A centre dot MeV at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Folger, H

    1999-01-01

    The progressively improved GSI accelerators provide beams of heavy ions from energies of 0.05-2000 A centre dot MeV at high particle intensities now. Therefore, a wide variety of common and new heavy-ion target techniques had to be installed and developed during the past 25 years to prepare and characterize self-supported or backed heavy-ion-targets of chemical elements and compounds from hydrogen (as polyethylene) to uranium. The thickness ranged from 2x10 sup - sup 6 to 20 g/cm sup 2 for beam spots of about 5 mm in diameter. Homogeneity, surface structure or individual shape had to be adapted to the needs of each experiment. Special setups were required for targets of poisonous materials, of highly enriched stable isotopes or those of radioactive species in minute amounts. The capability of thin-layer technologies was as well applied to prepare and measure stripper foils or various high-vacuum deposits for experimental or accelerator purposes. The development of different rotating target wheels and control ...

  19. Methodological Adjust the Water Scarcity Index, Proposed by the IDEAM in the Plan of Arrangement and Management of the Basin of Pamplonita River - Norte de Santander, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infante Romero, Hebert Augusto; Ortiz, Luis Fernando

    2008-01-01

    A methodological adjustment was made to shortage index calculation taking the Pamplonita river case, which is incorporated as a management tool in watershed management plans using the guide published by the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies -IDEAM. The objective was to improve the standard resolution of the information to make it more reliable in water supply and water demand for various uses, which in combination related to shortage index will become a technical-scientific decision-making element on water management within the framework of watershed management. The result gave the highest reliability on estimated municipal shortage index and demonstrated the urgent need to plan the supply of various demands, because more than 80% of the population of the basin is in a shortage of high rank in a typical year.

  20. Land-Water-Food Nexus and Indications of Crop Adjustment for Water Shortage Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Ren, D.; Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, and increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example), by (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain are produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions. (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and nearly 2 million ha of cropland using 8.77 bn m3 of virtual water overproduced 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing and Tianjin (BT) imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong (SD). Whereas, Hebei (HB), as an exporting-based sub-region with sever water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions (like Central area), which aggravated water crisis. To achieve Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei's integrated and sustainable development, HB should not undertake the breadbasket role for BT but pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in the cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effect on food supply, and provides meaningful information to support policy

  1. A fuzzy inventory model with acceptable shortage using graded mean integration value method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, R.; Varadarajan, R.

    2018-04-01

    In many inventory models uncertainty is due to fuzziness and fuzziness is the closed possible approach to reality. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy inventory model with acceptable shortage which is completely backlogged. We fuzzily the carrying cost, backorder cost and ordering cost using Triangular and Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to obtain the fuzzy total cost. The purpose of our study is to defuzzify the total profit function by Graded Mean Integration Value Method. Further a numerical example is also given to demonstrate the developed crisp and fuzzy models.

  2. Notes from the field: national shortage of isoniazid 300 mg tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    On November 16, 2012, the Illinois State tuberculosis (TB) program notified CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Elimination of a national shortage of 300 mg tablets of the antituberculosis medication isoniazid (INH). Subsequently, other state TB programs (e.g., California, Indiana, Maryland, New York, Virginia, and Wisconsin) reported difficulty obtaining INH 300 mg tablets. Other programs (e.g., San Diego) have experienced difficulties obtaining at least one of the commercially available anti-TB preparations containing the combination of rifampin and INH (IsonaRif [VersaPharm]).

  3. Investing in human capital: an academic-service partnership to address the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rebecca Culver; Allison-Jones, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The well-documented shortage of nurses and the impact of educational preparation of nurses on patient care outcomes provide a compelling argument for the need to increase the number of registered nurses and to advance their educational preparation. This article describes the application of human capital theory in a creative venture between a health system and a school of nursing that has demonstrated success in addressing these issues. A tuition advancement program was developed to support interested personnel in attaining the associate degree in nursing and to support current RNs in attaining the baccalaureate degree. The venture included support for graduate preparation of nurses interested in becoming faculty.

  4. Alarm bells [Power supply shortage in the Northeast in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses the differing opinions of the Department of Energy(US DOE) and the leaders of the Senate Energy Committee versus utilities and state regulators on whether there will be a power-supply shortage in the Northeast in the 1990's and what should be done to avoid it. Also addressed is where the whole utility industry stands regarding decisions by regulators and governing bodies on competition, independent power plants, transmission and wholesale sales of power and building new nuclear plants

  5. Energy markets: a glut or shortage?; Les marches de l'energie: abondance ou penurie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Agence International de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-08-01

    Although fossil fuels do not risk being exhausted soon, the specter of scarcity is haunting the oil market. This market has fallen victim to a historical shortage of investments and a rising demand that is less elastic than expected. Moreover, higher oil prices seem to have no effect on investment decisions, nor on consumer behavior. Should we resignedly accept prices rising up to one or even two hundred dollars a barrel? And should we passively accept having poor countries pay for the thoughtlessness of wealthy lands? (author)

  6. Evaluation of PMSG (Oodev® application on hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic index of snakehead fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Akbar Hutagalung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Snakehead fish (Channa striata is a freshwater fish commodities that have high economic value, while their needs depend on natural catching. In general, hormonal induction commonly used for the efficiency of female parent utilization and enhancement quality and quantity of fish fry. One of the hormones that can be used is pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG and antidopamine with trademark Oodev®. These hormones contain many elements follicle stimulating hormone (FSH which can trigger the early stages of gonad maturity. The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of hormone PMSG on gonadosomatic index (GSI and hepatosomatic index (HSI. The size of female fish was 30−40 cm, weighing of 500−700 g, adapted in the aquarium and then induced with different doses of PMSG, namely: treatment A dose: 0.75 mL/kg; B: 1.0 mL/kg; C: 1.25 mL/kg; D: 1.5 mL/kg and be repeated three times. Fishes were then reared up to 72 hours to determine the development of GSI and HSI. The results showed that the best treatment was at dose of 1.25 mL/kg with GSI and HSI values of 1.37% and 3.35%, respectively. Keywords: PMSG, GSI, HSI, snakehead fish  ABSTRAK Ikan gabus (Channa striata merupakan salah satu komoditas air tawar yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Saat ini pemenuhan kebutuhan hanya bergantung pada hasil penangkapan dari alam. Pada umumnya cara pemijahan buatan dengan induksi hormon dilakukan untuk efisiensi penggunaan induk serta peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas benih ikan. Salah satu hormon yang dapat digunakan adalah pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG dan antidopamin dengan merk dagang Oodev®. Hormon-hormon tersebut banyak mengandung unsur follicle stimulating hormon (FSH yang dapat memicu kematangan gonad tahap awal. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji efektivitas hormon PMSG terhadap nilai indeks gonadosomatik (IGS dan indeks hepatosomatik (IHS. Induk ikan gabus yang digunakan berukuran 30−40 cm

  7. Significance of single lung transplantation in the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Ryo; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Hijiya, Kyoko; Motoyama, Hideki; Aoyama, Akihiro; Menju, Toshi; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Although bilateral lung transplantation is the procedure of choice internationally, single lung transplantation is preferred in Japan because of the severe donor shortage except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of single lung transplant recipients and outcomes of this procedure at one of the largest lung transplant centers in Japan. Between April 2002 and May 2015, 57 cadaveric lung transplantations (33 single and 24 bilateral) were performed in Kyoto University Hospital. The clinical characteristics of the lung transplant recipients and outcomes of these procedures, including overall survival and postoperative complications, were investigated. Overall, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 86, 77, and 72 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 1.9 years. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who underwent single lung transplantations and those who underwent bilateral lung transplantations (p = 0.92). The median waiting time was significantly shorter for single lung transplant patients than for bilateral lung transplant patients (p = 0.02). Native lung complications were seen in 14 out of 33 patients (42 %) who underwent single lung transplantation. There was no significant difference in survival between patients with and without postoperative native lung complications. Single lung transplantation has been performed with acceptable outcomes in our institution. In the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan, single lung transplantation can remain the first choice of treatment except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation.

  8. To have and to hold: personnel shortage in a Finnish healthcare organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Pia

    2010-07-01

    Retirements of baby boomers will create a talent shortage in Finnish health care. Concurrently, difficulties exist in recruiting new personnel. This paper provides an overview concerning the bottlenecks in talent management in a Finnish hospital, and finds solutions for recruitment and retention problems of healthcare professionals (nurses and physicians). Because the healthcare staffing shortage is worldwide, the results of this paper are also useful internationally. The research was a qualitative case study and the research method used was group interview. Background data was gathered from the public media and healthcare trade organisations. The bottlenecks of talent management in hospital organisation seem to relate to retaining actions of senior personnel. Concurrently, the organisation should develop new practices for attracting new personnel. Very few efforts on image marketing and recruitment have been done. The Internet has not been fully exploited and recruitment information has not been sent even to the neighbouring nursing college. Job rotation has not been used as a help in recruitment and competence development. Difficulties exist in transmitting tacit knowledge from a retiring nurse to a junior nurse. Leadership skills of the superior seem to be important when retaining and committing senior personnel. Recruitment and retention problems encourage organisations to develop new recruitment and commitment practices as well as management and leadership skills.

  9. Addressing a Yellow Fever Vaccine Shortage - United States, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Mark D; Angelo, Kristina M; Ritchey, Julian; Greenberg, David P; Muhammad, Riyadh D; Brunette, Gary; Cetron, Martin S; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-05-05

    Recent manufacturing problems resulted in a shortage of the only U.S.-licensed yellow fever vaccine. This shortage is expected to lead to a complete depletion of yellow fever vaccine available for the immunization of U.S. travelers by mid-2017. CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Sanofi Pasteur are collaborating to ensure a continuous yellow fever vaccine supply in the United States. As part of this collaboration, Sanofi Pasteur submitted an expanded access investigational new drug (eIND) application to FDA in September 2016 to allow for the importation and use of an alternative yellow fever vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur France, with safety and efficacy comparable to the U.S.-licensed vaccine; the eIND was accepted by FDA in October 2016. The implementation of this eIND protocol included developing a systematic process for selecting a limited number of clinic sites to provide the vaccine. CDC and Sanofi Pasteur will continue to communicate with the public and other stakeholders, and CDC will provide a list of locations that will be administering the replacement vaccine at a later date.

  10. The shortages of nurses in NSW: a motivation hygiene approach to identifying problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, E; Dwyer, L

    1988-01-01

    For a number of years public hospitals in NSW have experienced high turnover figures for nursing staff and have been unable to recruit sufficient numbers of registered nurses back into hospital employment. This paper outlines factors on both the demand and the supply side which contribute to the present shortage. It then goes on to argue that a greater appreciation of the causes of the shortage, and strategies for its resolution, can be gained by presenting the issues from the perspective of Herzberg's Motivation--Hygiene Theory. 'Motivation' factors, providing satisfaction to nurses, include achievement and recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement and potential for personal growth. 'Hygiene' factors, producing dissatisfaction, include physical working conditions, employer policies and administrative practices, interpersonal relations, salary. Discussion of the issues from this perspective indicates that strategies to resolve the crisis must proceed on two fronts. Continuing efforts must be made to promote job satisfaction among nurses while at the same time reducing the incidence of factors promoting job dissatisfaction.

  11. Reduce, reuse and recycle: a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, R; Ross, C; Wells, R G

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC's involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Successful importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnisett-Dritz, Dee

    2012-08-15

    The importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage is described. In March 2011, the hospital pharmacy team at an acute care hospital was struggling to supply cytarabine for four specific patients, all of whom needed critical maintenance therapy after induction. Cytarabine was not available from any source in the United States, and the team had no realistic projected release dates for back orders. Idis UK, a pharmaceutical distributor, was asked to identify available drug and eventually found an unrestricted source of cytarabine in Switzerland. Once available drug was identified, a price quote for the supply amount was written for our consideration. This was inspected carefully to ensure that the drug, strength, dosage form, and any other ingredients listed were indeed what were expected. The pharmacy department worked with the hospital's department of finance and accounting to submit the necessary financial paperwork. Payment was electronically sent to the distributor before the drug was shipped. Before the order for cytarabine was placed, the associated risks and benefits were assessed. The patients provided consent to treatment with the unapproved product. Acceptance of the price quote and instructions to order the drug were e-mailed to the distributor. The necessary documentation was completed and included with the shipment. The importation process, from initial inquiries to delivery, took 21 days. The importation of cytarabine amid a drug shortage required a complex process that involved the efforts of an overseas distributor, the cooperation of multiple health professionals, and meticulous attention to detail.

  13. Impact of canal water shortages on groundwater in the Lower Bari Doab Canal system in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Rehman, H.U.; Khan, N.M.; Qazi, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents rigorous analysis of shortage of canal water supplies, crop water requirements, and groundwater use and its quality in the command of Lower Bari Doab Canal, Pakistan. The annual canal water supplies are 36% less than the crop water requirements. This shortage further increases to 56% if actual canal supplies (averaged over last ten years) are compared with the crop water requirement. The groundwater levels are depleting at the rate of 30 to 40 cm per year in most parts of the LBDC command and this tendency of lowering may increase in future due to further increase in crop water requirements. The analysis of data for the last seven years indicate that quality of groundwater in most parts of LBDC command is generally good (64% of the area) or marginally acceptable (28%) for irrigation use. However, declining trends in groundwater quality are visible and can create long term sustain ability problems if proper remedial actions are not taken well in time. (author)

  14. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  15. Motivational indicators of protective behaviour in response to urban water shortage threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni; Tucker, David; Tapsuwan, Sorada

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined the role of protection motivation variables in predicting rainwater tank adoption among urban householders. A regression analysis found that subjective knowledge, threat appraisal, response efficacy, response costs, subjective norms and social norms significantly predicted adaptive behavioural intentions (F(6, 399) = 50.769, p accounted for 43% of the variance in intentions to install a rainwater tank as a protective measure against future water shortages. Results further indicated that several variables uniquely contributed to the prediction of rainwater tank adoption (listed in order of relative contribution: response efficacy, threat appraisal, response costs, subjective knowledge and subjective norms). This suggests that people who perceive there is a real water shortage threat, and believe that rainwater tanks are effective in relieving the threat and require minimal or manageable effort to obtain, are more likely to install a tank on their property as a protective measure. Implications of these results are discussed from a research and policy perspective. Recommendations for future motivational research in the area of urban decentralised system acceptance and adoption are presented.

  16. Predicted shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom: A matter for debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, D W; Beard, J D; Shearman, C P; Wyatt, M G

    2016-10-01

    Vascular surgery became a new independent surgical specialty in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2013. In this matter for debate we discuss the question, is there a "shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom?" We used data derived from the "Vascular Surgery United Kingdom Workforce Survey 2014", NHS Employers Electronic Staff Records (ESR), and the National Vascular Registry (NVR) surgeon-level public report to estimate current and predict future workforce requirements. We estimate there are approximately 458 Consultant Vascular Surgeons for the current UK population of 63 million, or 1 per 137,000 population. In several UK Regions there are a large number of relatively small teams (3 or less) of vascular surgeons working in separate NHS Trusts in close geographical proximity. In developed countries, both the number and complexity of vascular surgery procedures (open and endovascular) per capita population is increasing, and concerns have been raised that demand cannot be met without a significant expansion in numbers of vascular surgeons. Additional workforce demand arises from the impact of population growth and changes in surgical work-patterns with respect to gender, working-life-balance and 7-day services. We predict a future shortage of Consultant Vascular Surgeons in the UK and recommend an increase in training numbers and an expansion in the UK Consultant Vascular Surgeon workforce to accommodate population growth, facilitate changes in work-patterns and to create safe sustainable services. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 248}Cm{yields}{sup 296}116{sup *} studied at the GSI-SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Ackermann, D.; Barth, W.; Block, M.; Burkhard, H.G.; Comas, V.F.; Dahl, L.; Heredia, J.A.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Muenzenberg, G.; Tinschert, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Maurer, J.; Hessberger, F.P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Antalic, S.; Saro, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Eberhardt, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Runke, J.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Gostic, J.; Henderson, R.A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Nelson, S.L.; Shaughnessy, D.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Wilk, P.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Leino, M.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    The synthesis of element 116 in fusion-evaporation reactions of a {sup 48}Ca beam with radioactive {sup 248}Cm targets was studied at the velocity filter SHIP of GSI in Darmstadt. At excitation energies of the compound nuclei of 40.9MeV, four decay chains were measured, which were assigned to the isotope {sup 292}116, and one chain, which was assigned to {sup 293}116. Measured cross-sections of (3.4{sub -1.6}{sup +2.7})pb and (0.9{sub -0.7}{sup +2.1}), respectively, and decay data of the chains agree with data measured previously at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna. As a new result, one {alpha}-decay chain was measured, which terminates after four {alpha} decays by spontaneous fission. The {alpha} energies of the second-to-fourth decay are considerably higher than those measured for the {alpha} decays of {sup 289}114, {sup 285}Cn, and {sup 281}Ds and the spontaneous fission half-life is significantly longer than that of {sup 277}Hs measured in previous experiments. A possible assignment is discussed in the frame of excited quasiparticle states of nuclei populated in the decay chain from {sup 293}116. Also other possible assignments were considered and are discussed. At an excitation energy of 45.0MeV no events were observed resulting in a one-event cross-section limit of 1.6 pb. The technical aspects related with the use of radioactive target material at SHIP are described in detail. The experience gained in this experiment will serve as a basis for future experiments aiming to study still heavier elements at the velocity filter SHIP. (orig.)

  18. Study of the spallation reactions 136Xe + p and 136Xe + 12C at 1 GeV per nucleon at the GSI facility (Darmstadt, Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbinet, T.

    2011-11-01

    The collision of 136 Xe with a proton and with 12 C at 1 GeV per nucleon of projectile kinetic energy in the center of mass has been studied in inverse kinematics using the SPALADIN experimental setup at the GSI facility. This manuscript describes the analysis of these collisions realized in spring 2009. The detection in coincidence of the final state fragments (projectile residues, neutrons and light charged fragments) with a large geometrical efficiency is provided by the inverse kinematics combined with a large aperture dipole magnet and large detectors. Such a coincidence, measured on an event basis, allows selecting, in a model independent way, the pre-fragment, the excited nuclear system formed after the intranuclear cascade as a function of its excitation energy. Hence, we were able to study the evolution of the pre-fragment deexcitation mechanism (evaporation of light particles, asymmetric binary decay, multiple fragmentation..) as a function of its excitation energy. The data of the 136 Xe + p reaction have been compared mainly to three deexcitation models (SMM, GEMINI++ and ABLA07) coupled to the intranuclear cascade code INCL4. Despite the relatively good and global agreement between these models and our data, significant discrepancies appeared concerning in particular the production of intermediate mass fragments (IMF). Comparison between the 136 Xe + 12 C and the 136 Xe + p data exhibits an important similarity in the deexcitation of the pre-fragments. This suggests that the nuclear cascade leads, for both targets, to similar pre-fragment types in the range of excitation energy (0 to 4 MeV per nucleon) common to both reactions. Higher excitation energies, reached only in the 136 Xe + 12 C reaction, show a qualitative difference in the deexcitation of the pre-fragment, with much higher multiplicities of IMF per event, increasing with the excitation energy. (author)

  19. Land-Water-Food Nexus and indications of crop adjustment for water shortage solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dandan; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Richards, Keith; Zhou, Xinyao

    2018-06-01

    While agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example) by: (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain is produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions; and (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m 3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m 3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and 8.77 bn m 3 of virtual water used in nearly 2 million ha of cropland to overproduce 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing & Tianjin imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong Province. Then, Hebei Province, as an exporting-based sub-region with severe water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions, which aggravated the water crisis. To achieve an integrated and sustainable development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, Hebei Province should stop undertaking the breadbasket role for Beijing & Tianjin and pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effects on food supply

  20. Addressing the primary care physician shortage in an evolving medical workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care physicians have been shown to play an important role in the general health of the communities in which they serve. In spite of their importance, however, there has been a decrease in the number of physicians interested in pursuing primary care fields, while the proportion of specialists continues to increase. The prediction of an overall physician shortage only augments this issue in the US, where this uneven distribution is particularly evident. As such, serious effort to increase the number of practicing primary care physicians is both necessary and beneficial for meeting this country's health care needs. Discussion There are several factors at play which contribute to the decrease in the number of practicing physicians in primary specialties. Lifestyle concerns, such as schedule and income, as well as the lack of prestige associated with this field seem to be among the most prevalent reasons cited for the diminishing interest. Multifaceted concerns such as these, however, are difficult to adequately invalidate; doing so would not only require a great deal research, but also a good deal of time – a resource which is in short supply given the current physician shortage being faced. Thus, a more immediate solution may lie in the increased recruitment and continued support of those individuals who are already associated with primary care service. This is particularly relevant given the Association of American Medical College's goal of increasing medical school enrollment by 15% over the next 10 years. Several groups have been shown to be large contributors to primary care in the US. Here, we focus on three such groups: minority students, International Medical Graduates (IMGs and Osteopathic Physicians (DOs. Although these groups are highly diverse individually, they all share the distinction of being underutilized in regard to the current primary care shortages faced. Thus, through more fully accentuating these

  1. Drug tendering: drug supply and shortage implications for the uptake of biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Ira Jacobs,2 Carol Kirchhoff,3 Robert Popovian,4 Lesley G Shane5 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Global Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 3Global Technology Services, Biotechnology and Aseptic Sciences Group, Pfizer Inc, Chesterfield, MO, 4US Government Relations, Pfizer Inc, Washington, DC, 5Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Due to the continued increase in global spending on health care, payers have introduced a number of programs, policies, and agreements on pharmaceutical pricing in order to control costs. While incentives to increase generic drug use have achieved significant savings, other cost-containment measures are required. Tendering is a formal procedure to purchase medications using competitive bidding for a particular contract. Although useful for cost containment, tendering can lead to decreased competition in a given market. Consequently, drug shortages can occur, resulting in changes to treatment plans to products that may have lower efficacy and/or an increased risk of adverse effects. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that tendering does not negatively impact patient care or the health care system. A large and expanding portion of total pharmaceutical expenditure is for biologic therapies. These agents have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions; however, patient access to biologic drugs can be limited due to availability, insurance coverage, and cost. As branded biologic therapies reach the end of patent- and data-protection periods, biosimilars are being approved as lower-cost alternatives. Biosimilars are products that are highly similar to the originator product with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity, or potency. As more biosimilars receive regulatory approval and adoption increases, these therapies are expected to have an

  2. Estimating Demand for and Supply of Pediatric Preventive Dental Care for Children and Identifying Dental Care Shortage Areas, Georgia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shanshan; Gentili, Monica; Griffin, Paul M; Griffin, Susan O; Harati, Pravara; Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Tomar, Scott

    Demand for dental care is expected to outpace supply through 2025. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of pediatric dental care shortages in Georgia and to develop a general method for estimation that can be applied to other states. We estimated supply and demand for pediatric preventive dental care for the 159 counties in Georgia in 2015. We compared pediatric preventive dental care shortage areas (where demand exceeded twice the supply) designated by our methods with dental health professional shortage areas designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. We estimated caries risk from a multivariate analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and national census data. We estimated county-level demand based on the time needed to perform preventive dental care services and the proportion of time that dentists spend on pediatric preventive dental care services from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pediatric preventive dental care supply exceeded demand in Georgia in 75 counties: the average annual county-level pediatric preventive dental care demand was 16 866 hours, and the supply was 32 969 hours. We identified 41 counties as pediatric dental care shortage areas, 14 of which had not been designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. Age- and service-specific information on dental care shortage areas could result in more efficient provider staffing and geographic targeting.

  3. Minding the gap: World Bank's assistance to power shortage mitigation in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, G.; Maurer, L.; Sarkar, A.; Wang, X. [The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the World Bank's technical assistance and lending efforts in support of developing countries facing power shortages. The paper reviews the World Bank's experience in helping governments to mitigate power shortages in Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Latin America regions. The paper stresses the need to consider each power ''crunch'' on an individual basis, and describes the process used in diagnosing a shortage situation and prescribing mitigation strategies. Several brief case studies are presented, including Botswana, Brazil, Uganda, and South Africa. The political and customer-centric dimensions of power shortage mitigation are briefly described, with suggestions for minimizing the socio-economic impacts of power shortages on the urban and rural poors. The paper concludes that an integrated supply-demand portfolio approach works best, and within the portfolio a mix of market-based rationing, emergency mobilization of customer-owned generation, interruptible rates, load control, and energy efficient lighting should be sought. Although the best formulation will vary according to market structure, demand composition, and nature of the crisis, World Bank practitioners have found one program that works almost everywhere to produce fast and effective results - mass market Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) replacement programs. (author)

  4. Is there a 'pig cycle' in the labour supply of doctors? How training and immigration policies respond to physician shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnicki, Xavier; Moullan, Yasser

    2018-03-01

    Many OECD countries are faced with the considerable challenge of a physician shortage. This paper investigates the strategies that OECD governments adopt and determines whether these policies effectively address these medical shortages. Due to the amount of time medical training requires, it takes longer for an expansion in medical school capacity to have an effect than the recruitment of foreign-trained physicians. Using data obtained from the OECD (2014) and Bhargava et al. (2011), we constructed a unique country-level panel dataset that includes annual data for 17 OECD countries on physician shortages, the number of medical school graduates and immigration and emigration rates from 1991 to 2004. By calculating panel fixed-effect estimates, we find that after a period of medical shortages, OECD governments produce more medical graduates in the long run but in the short term, they primarily recruit from abroad; however, at the same time, certain practising physicians choose to emigrate. Simulation results show the limits of recruiting only abroad in the long term but also highlight its appropriateness for the short term when there is a recurrent cycle of shortages/surpluses in the labour supply of physicians (pig cycle theory). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Demonstration project: Load management on the user side at power shortages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    2005-10-01

    The risk for power shortages during extreme cold weather has increased in Sweden. Comments are made that high electricity spot prices are important for holding down the demand. Through the consumers' higher price sensitivity, the electricity system can be operated with lower reserve capacity. The objective of the demonstration project is to show methods for reducing the electricity demand at the national level at high spot prices. An important prerequisite is that the measures must be profitable for all parties involved. Four separate studies were made, two concerning households, one industry and one for the district heating sector. The conclusion from the studies is that load management on the customer's side is an economic alternative to investment in new production capacity

  6. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    . Purpose To identify barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes due to drug tenders and shortages in Danish public hospitals. Material and methods Six focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals in different regions of the country. At each hospital two focus group interviews were...... thematically through content analysis. Results Barriers Identified included: frequent changes of labelling, packages and drug names. Furthermore, implementing drug changes requires extra resources and finance. Technologies such as computerised physician order entry and barcode scanning systems were perceived...... as potential facilitators, but also as barriers in cases where the quality and implementation of the systems were not adequate. Facilitators included: hospital pharmacy services and lower drug prices. Furthermore recommendations on generic prescription, optimisation of the tendering process and support...

  7. Physical therapy workforce shortage for aging and aged societies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiwong, Ratchanok; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana; Soonthorndhada, Kusol

    2014-07-01

    According to demographic changes, the size of the aging population has rapidly increased. Thailand has been facing the "aging society" since 2005 and the "aged society" has been projected to appear by the year 2025. Increased life expectancy is associated with health problems and risks, specifically chronic diseases and disability. Aging and aged societies and related specific conditions as stroke require the provision of services from health professionals. The shortage of the physical therapy workforce in Thailand has been reported. This study investigated the size of physical therapy workforce required for the approaching aging society of Thailand and estimated the number of needed physical therapists, specifically regarding stroke condition. Evidently, the issue of the physical therapy workforce to serve aging and aged societies in Thailand requires advocating and careful arranging.

  8. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J. [Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  9. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.

    2013-01-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  10. [Remedy for shortage or risk for national security? The search for oil in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Lea; Gisler, Monika

    2014-03-01

    Over several decades, geologists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and public authorities dealt with a potential petroleum occurrence in Switzerland. They provided scientific expertise, granted concessions, invested capital and sank bore holes. Although the endeavour was never successful economically, it reveals how closely related geopolitical situations and the exploitation of natural resources were. This article investigates the search for crude oil in Switzerland from the 1930s until the 1960s, combining a history of science and technology perspective with a history of the political regulations and economic considerations concerning the extractive industry. It traces the changing fears and hopes about potential oil occurrences in Switzerland: From an investment to overcome future shortages, to the risk of imperial desires if oil would be found in abundance.

  11. EOQ Model for Delayed Deteriorating Items with Shortages and Trade Credit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sundararajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items under the condition of permissible delay in payments with constant demand rate is a function of time which differs from before and after deterioration for a single item. Shortages are allowed and completely backlogged which is a function of time. Under these assumptions, this paper develops a retailer's model for obtaining an optimal cycle length and ordering quantity in deteriorating items of an inventory model. Thus, our objective is retailer's cost minimization problem to nd an optimal replenishment policy under various parameters. The convexity of the objective function is derived and the numerical examples are provided to support the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters of the model is included and the implications are discussed.

  12. The global health workforce shortage: role of surgeons and other providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, George F; Ricketts, Thomas C; Charles, Anthony; King, Jennifer; Fraher, Erin P; Meyer, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the status of the physician workforce seems to be concluded. It now is clear that a shortage of physicians exists and is likely to worsen. In retrospect it seems obvious that a static annual production of physicians, coupled with a population growth of 25 million persons each decade, would result in a progressively lower physician to population ratio. Moreover, Cooper has demonstrated convincingly that the robust economy of the past 50 years correlates with demand for physician services. The aging physician workforce is an additional problem: one third of physicians are over 55 years of age, and the population over the age of 65 years is expected to double by 2030. Signs of a physician and surgeon shortage are becoming apparent. The largest organization of physicians in the world (119,000 members), the American College of Physicians, published a white paper in 2006 titled, "The Impending Collapse of Primary Care Medicine and Its Implications for the State of the Nation's Health Care" [37]. The American College of Surgeons, the largest organization of surgeons, has published an article on access to emergency surgery [38], and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science has published a book on the future of emergency care (Fig. 10). The reports document diminished involvement and availability of emergency care by general surgeons, neurologic surgeons, orthopedists, hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and others. The emergency room has become the primary care physician after 5 PM for much of the population. A survey done by the Commonwealth Fund revealed that less than half of primary care practices have an on-call arrangement for after-hours care. Other evidence of evolving shortage are reports of long wait times for appointments, the hospitalist movement, and others. The policies for the future should move beyond dispute over whether or not a shortage exists. The immediate need is for the United States, as a society, to commit to

  13. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Protection Program of the Environmental Protection Agencies of countries employ scientists, engineers, statisticians, economists, lawyers, policy analysts, and public affairs professionals amongst others. These professionals aim to protect workers, the general public, and the environment from harmful radiation exposures and to provide the technical basis for radiation protection policies and regulations. Professionals include Health physicists, Bio statistician, Radio chemist, Radio ecologist, Radio biologist etc. With a large proportion of the population of the nuclear workforce of many countries now approaching retirement age, existing power plants of these countries will be hard pressed to find enough qualified professionals to support their operations. The potential shortage of skilled manpower not only affects utilities, but also impacts the entire nuclear infrastructure, including national laboratories, federal and state agencies, nuclear technology vendors and manufacturing companies, nuclear construction companies, and university nuclear engineering departments. Manpower requirements exist in the nuclear power industry, universities and research establishments, hospitals, government departments, general industry e.g. radiography, transport, instrumentation etc., specialist contractors, agencies and consultancies serving radiation protection. India is no exception. India has the world's 12 th largest economy. Assuming India's average growth rate p.a. of more than 5%, total GDP by 2050 will increase substantially which will require proportionate increase of manpower for all industries. Also chance of brain drain is very high from developing countries e.g. from India to developed countries because of much higher pay and better lifestyle as there will be shortage of manpower in developed countries as explained above. With population growth to be stabilized in future in India, the working age population may not increase in the year 2030

  14. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver is associated with alcohol habits and/or overweight/obesity. We challenged several lifestyle features associated with fatty liver and, particularly, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among them, sleep shortage as a result of nightlife habits and a preference for plus-size fashion were assessed. The latter consists of fashionable plus-sized clothing for actual individuals' size and reflects a frequent attitude of some social or age groups, conceivably indicating more global and widespread trend and behaviour. We studied a group of 708 non-diabetic youngsters, 458 women and 250 men, 21.72 ± 3.71 years old (range 15-35 years), referred for minor digestive ailments for clinical assessment, ultrasound detection of fatty liver and nutritional counselling. Details of personal history regarding lifestyle, food intake frequency and alcohol intake, dietary and physical exercise profile, sleep duration and clothing preferences were recorded. The prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort of youngsters is 67/708 (9.4%). Even if it is quantitatively very low in both groups, the average alcohol intake, always below 20 g/day, is greater in NAFLD subjects (5.83 ± 4.32 g) vs. subjects with normal liver (2.02 ± 3.20 g). The number of meals/day and adherence to a Mediterranean diet profile are smaller in NAFLD subjects. By multiple regression, BMI, sedentary life, plus-sized clothing for their actual size, sleep shortage and lower frequency of daily food intake are associated with the presence of NAFLD. Onset and continuation of fatty liver disease, beyond food and exercise quantity and quality, with their effects on obesity, may also be associated with other aspects of lifestyle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  16. Reduce, reuse and recycle: A green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, R.; Ross, C.; Wells, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC’s involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. - Highlights: • Commercial power electron accelerators are realistic option to produce 99 Mo. • Could cover national demand of Canada. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99 Mo as environmental and economical solution to isotope crisis. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99m Tc to be clinically equivalent to current fission- 99m Tc supply

  17. Effective Factors on Shortage of Breastfeeding According to Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Mohammad; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-05-01

    Support for breastfeeding is a public health priority. One of the major factors that can negatively affect breastfeeding is the lack of breast milk. There are many instructions on the subject of breast milk in Iranian traditional medicine resources. This article attempts to investigate causes and reasons for the lack of breast milk from the perspective of the great scholars in this field. This study reviews the literature based on the Iranian traditional medicine. The literature review included traditional medicine resources and a survey of reputable databases using keywords such as "morzae", "sady", "pestan", "sheer", "sheerkhar", and "hifzossehhe". The content analysis was used after collecting data. According to the viewpoint stated in traditional medicine literature, the primary substance for milk production is blood that transforms to milk after crossing the breast glandular tissue. The main causes of milk shortage can be classified into four categories, namely food-related factors, factors related to blood impaired, factors related to breast tissue and psychological and physical factors. One of the main reasons for milk shortage is the impaired quality and quantity of food. Appropriate mizaj of breast tissue is required for adequate milk production as it develops sufficient ability to absorb and transform the substance into milk. On the other hand, the ability of breast tissue is greatly influenced by the main organs of the body, particularly the heart; being the core of understanding psychological factors. Thus, psychological factors can have a significant effect on the process of milk production. Due to the importance of breastfeeding, reflection on other viewpoints, such as those mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine, could pave the way towards new research areas. It could also steer policies towards an extra focus on breastfeeding by mothers.

  18. Engaging rural preceptors in new longitudinal community clerkships during workforce shortage: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Kathryn M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with its mission to produce doctors for rural and regional Australia, the University of Wollongong, Graduate School of Medicine has established an innovative model of clinical education. This includes a 12-month integrated community-based clerkship in a regional or rural setting, offering senior students longitudinal participation in a 'community of practice' with access to continuity of patient care experiences, continuity of supervision and curriculum, and individualised personal and professional development. This required developing new teaching sites, based on attracting preceptors and providing them with educational and physical infrastructure. A major challenge was severe health workforce shortages. Methods Before the new clerkship started, we interviewed 28 general practitioners to determine why they engaged as clerkship preceptors. Independent researchers conducted semi-structured interviews. Responses were transcribed for inductive qualitative content analysis. Results The new model motivated preceptors to engage because it enhanced their opportunities to contribute to authentic learning when compared with the perceived limitations of short-term attachments. Preceptors appreciated the significant recognition of the value of general practice teaching and the honour of major involvement in the university. They predicted that the initiative would have positive effects on general practitioner morale and improve the quality of their practice. Other themes included the doctors' commitment to their profession, 'handing on' to the next generation and helping their community to attract doctors in the future. Conclusions Supervisors perceive that new models of clinical education offer alternative solutions to health care education, delivery and workforce. The longitudinal relationship between preceptor, student and community was seen as offering reciprocal benefits. General practitioners are committed to refining

  19. Addressing Canada's Commercialization Crisis and Shortage of Venture Capital: Will the Federal Government’s Solution Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Hurwitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of funding is a major challenge to innovation in Canada’s emerging technology industry. This article will focus on this supply-side challenge within the complex venture capital ecosystem and discuss: i the current shortage of venture capital available to commercialize Canada’s R&D; ii the causes and consequences of that venture capital shortage; iii how the federal government will address this shortage through its innovative 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan, which commits $400 million and seeks to raise at least another $800 million from outside investors; and iv how a separate decision in the federal 2013 budget to phase out federal tax credits for labour-sponsored venture capital funds could imperil the 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan.

  20. Effects of a power shortage in the Tokyo metropolitan area on awareness of nuclear power generation and power savings behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2004-01-01

    The shutdown of a number of nuclear power stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company in the summer of 2003 caused a power shortage problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. To examine the effects of the power shortage, in September 2003 a survey was conducted in the service areas of the Kansai Electric Power Company (Kansai region) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Kanto region). This survey was part of a wider opinion survey begun in 1993 concerning nuclear power generation. The results of the September 2003 survey are as follows: The degree of recognition of the power shortage problem in the Metropolitan area was high, with 40% of respondents in the Kansai region and nearly 70% in the Kanto region understanding that the shortage was caused by the shutdown of several nuclear power station. The overall awareness of nuclear power generation was little affected in both the Kansai and Kanto regions, though the sense of a shortage of the generating capacity had been raised slightly. Once respondents knew about the power shortage problem, they estimated the likelihood of an occurrence of large-scale service interruption to be low, nearly at an even chance, and they had been only slightly worried about it, essentially viewing the problem optimistically. In the Kanto region, where public relations activities for power savings had been actively pursued, the frequency of experiencing exposure to such public relations activities was remarkably higher than in the Kansai region. The relation between exposure to public relations activities for power savings and power savings behavior was analyzed using quantification method II. Analysis results suggest that public relations activities for power savings in the Kanto region had the effect of urging power savings behavior. However, the difference in the rate of putting power savings behavior into practice was small between the Kanto and Kansai regions, indicating that public relation activities for power savings in the Kanto

  1. The implication of the shortage of health workforce specialist on universal health coverage in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miseda, Mumbo Hazel; Were, Samuel Odhiambo; Murianki, Cirindi Anne; Mutuku, Milo Peter; Mutwiwa, Stephen N

    2017-12-01

    Globally, there is an acute shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and the greatest burden is borne by low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. This shortage has not only considerably constrained the achievement of health-related development goals but also impeded accelerated progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Like any other low-income country, Kenya is experiencing health workforce shortage particularly in specialized healthcare workers to cater for the rapidly growing need for specialized health care (MOH Training Needs Assessment report (2015)). Efficient use of the existing health workforce including task shifting is under consideration as a short-term stop gap measure while deliberate efforts are being put on retention policies and increased production of HRH. The Ministry of Health (MOH) with support from the United States Agency for International Development-funded FUNZOKenya project and MOH/Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project conducted a country-wide training needs assessment (TNA) to identify skill gaps in the provision of specialized health care in private and public hospitals in 46 out of Kenya's 47 counties between April and June 2015. A total of 99 respondents participated in the TNA. Structured questionnaires were used to undertake this assessment. The assessment sought to determine the extent of skill gaps on the basis of the national guidelines and as perceived by the County Directors of Health (CDH). The questionnaires were posted to and received by all the respondents a week prior to a face-to-face interview with the respondents for familiarization. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Overall, the findings revealed average skill gaps on selected specialists (healthcare professional whose practice is limited to a particular area, such as a branch of medicine, surgery, or nursing, especially, one who by virtue of advanced training is certified by a

  2. The role of the uncertainty in assessing future scenarios of water shortage in alluvial aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Guyennon, Nicolas; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    There are many evidences that the combined effects of variations in precipitation and temperature due to climate change can result in a significant change of the recharge to groundwater at different time scales. A possible reduction of effective infiltration can result in a significant decrease, temporary or permanent, of the availability of the resource and, consequently, the sustainable pumping rate should be reassessed. In addition to this, one should also consider the so called indirect impacts of climate change, resulting from human intervention (e.g. augmentation of abstractions) which are feared to be even more important than the direct ones in the medium term: thus, a possible increase of episodes of shortage (i.e. the inability of the groundwater system to completely supply the water demand) can result both from change in the climate forcing and change in the demand. In order to assess future scenarios of water shortage a modelling chain is often used. It includes: 1) the use of General Circulation Models to estimate changes in temperature and precipitation; 2) downscaling procedures to match modeling scenarios to the observed meteorological time series; 3) soil-atmosphere modelling to estimate the time variation of the recharge to the aquifer; 4) groundwater flow models to simulate the water budget and piezometric head evolution; 5) future scenarios of groundwater quantitative status that include scenarios of demand variation. It is well known that each of these processing steps is affected by an intrinsic uncertainty that propagates through the whole chain leading to a final uncertainty on the piezometric head scenarios. The estimate of such an uncertainty is a key point for a correct management of groundwater resources, in case of water shortage due to prolonged droughts as well as for planning purposes. This study analyzes the uncertainty of the processing chain from GCM scenarios to its impact on an alluvial aquifer in terms of exploitation

  3. The nursing shortage ... will we become an endangered species or near extinction in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, A; Hardesty, P

    1998-12-01

    In conclusion, it is obvious to each of us that the nursing shortage issue is complex. There are no simple solutions. In the acute care arena we can expect to see the usual recruitment wars using sign-on bonuses, increased salaries for per diem staff, internship programs and all sorts of methods used in the past to recruit needed staff. It is that sort of crisis management and short term thinking that has plagued the profession in the past. These are bandaid efforts especially in light of the factors of supply vs demand with short-term quick fixes. There must be, however, more efforts towards addressing the long-term issues such as wage compression, differentiated practice and pay, effective models of care delivery, educating the public about nursing, and public/government funding more nursing education and research at all levels. There may need to be a federal subsidy for nursing education and recruitment included to affect the magnitude of this potential societal problem. The profession is at a crossroads. One thing is certain however, this nursing shortage is different and will get worse before it gets better. Let's not let the demand for nurses become so large and supply become so small that we are an endangered species or near extinction in the new millennium. What will be the scenario for nurses in 2050? Are we, as the largest healthcare profession, so complacent about our continued existence that we are at a point of paralysis? Are we in such a state of deep depression in response to current changing environment that we will allow ourselves to be devoured by our predators. Are we cannibalistic as we eat our young and chew on our own unresolved internal issues with a lack of action? Are we septic as a result of our own self-inflicted professional wounds? Our profession must become immediately aware of our possibly tenuous future. We must work together as a community of nurses to strategically address the areas of recruitment, education, retention and

  4. A global coupling index of multivariate neural series with application to the evaluation of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Xue, Qing; Lu, Chengbiao; Guan, Xinyong; Wang, Yuping; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-08-01

    Recently, the synchronization between neural signals has been widely used as a key indicator of brain function. To understand comprehensively the effect of synchronization on the brain function, accurate computation of the synchronization strength among multivariate neural series from the whole brain is necessary. In this study, we proposed a method named global coupling index (GCI) to estimate the synchronization strength of multiple neural signals. First of all, performance of the GCI method was evaluated by analyzing simulated EEG signals from a multi-channel neural mass model, including the effects of the frequency band, the coupling coefficient, and the signal noise ratio. Then, the GCI method was applied to analyze the EEG signals from 12 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and 12 normal controls (NC). The results showed that GCI method had two major advantages over the global synchronization index (GSI) or S-estimator. Firstly, simulation data showed that the GCI method provided both a more robust result on the frequency band and a better performance on the coupling coefficients. Secondly, the actual EEG data demonstrated that GCI method was more sensitive in differentiating the MCI from control subjects, in terms of the global synchronization strength of neural series of specific alpha, beta1 and beta2 frequency bands. Hence, it is suggested that GCI is a better method over GSI and S-estimator to estimate the synchronization strength of multivariate neural series for predicting the MCI from the whole brain EEG recordings. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Interim Canadian recommendations for the use of a fractional dose of yellow fever vaccine during a vaccine shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary This statement outlines interim recommendations intended for use during yellow fever vaccine shortages only. The recommendations differ from the standard recommendations for yellow fever vaccination in the Canadian Immunization Guide and in the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) Statement for Travellers and Yellow Fever. PMID:29770023

  6. Teacher Shortages in Urban Schools: The Role of Traditional and Alternative Certification Routes in Filling the Voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jennifer C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of teacher recruitment approaches via university-based and alternative certification programs. Asserts that traditional and alternative certification efforts are by themselves limited in their potential to address the problem of teacher shortages in urban schools. Suggests that an organizational view of schools, which looks…

  7. Assessing the Special Education Faculty Shortage: The Crisis in California--A Statewide Study of the Professoriate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Susan; Eliot, Michael; Hood, Jolene; Driggs, Max; Mori, Ayako; Johnson, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    This article examines several questions related to the faculty shortage in special education. Using California as a case, the authors address these questions: (1) What were the personal and professional characteristics of current special education faculty preparing special education credential and doctoral candidates?; (2) What were the…

  8. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area...

  9. Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent...

  10. Trafficking in human beings as an enterprise: : Highlighting key questions about data shortage on the business side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraszkiewicz, J.; Watson, H; Wadwa, K.; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers face a shortage of data on the business side of human trafficking. This inevitably leads to problems when trying to combat this crime. Questions such as: who is involved in trafficking, how do they operate, what is their relationship with organised crime groups (or other

  11. Reduce shortage with self-reservation policy for a manufacturer paying both fixed and variable stockout expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, B.; Wu, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study considers a single item make-to-stock system with continuous-time production and inventory controls to meet bulk demand with an exponential inter-arrival time. A key issue in this system is the non-convex shortage cost consisting of fixed and variable expenditures when the demand is not

  12. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.S.; Ward, P.J.; de Moel, H.; Varis, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period

  13. Metaphorical expressions used in Swedish news media narratives to portray the shortage of nurses and their working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Helena; Stier, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to uncover and reveal how nurses as a profession and their working conditions are dramatized and portrayed in Swedish media narratives about the shortage of nurses. The media is an arena where stakeholders can air their views of the healthcare sector in general and the situation for nurses in particular. The focus in this study is the debate in Sweden on the shortage of nurses. Qualitative discursive study. A discourse analysis of media narratives about nurses and their working conditions published in several Swedish newspapers from 2009-2014. 1779 articles were included in the study. A selection (113 articles) of these articles was further analysed using a qualitative discursive psychological approach. Nurses are portrayed as being good, concerned about and critical of healthcare managers and politicians for not taking action. The accused actors justify their actions by partially accepting or displacing responsibility. The shortage of nurses is framed as a social problem - a threat to patients' safety. Seven different types of metaphorical expression frame the problem as inevitable, beyond control, abstract, an individual and collegial problem and nurses as replaceable. In addition, nurses and patients are dehumanized and no-one is held responsible. This study analyses the role of the media in emphasizing the seriousness or obscurity of the problem and possible solutions to it. Alternative narratives are needed to re-frame the nursing shortage and to find sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Nature of the Current and Anticipated Shortage of Professional Skills and Qualities of Workers in the Russian Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Natal'ia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the characteristics of the existing and expected deficit of professional skills and qualities of workers employed by Russian companies. Analyzed factors include generic skills, soft or behavioral skills, the influence of the qualification, and shortage on the effectiveness of the companies as a whole. The data is based on a…

  15. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  16. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  17. Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Exploring incentives for RNs to return to practice: a partial solution to the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Joanne C; Tadych, Rita A; Kao, Chia-Chan

    2007-01-01

    Although many have suggested strategies to resolve the nursing shortage, few have considered inactive RNs. This pilot study investigated reasons why nurses leave the practice, the type of work environment and resources necessary to entice RNs to return to practice, and the specific skills required to assist RNs in feeling confident and competent to return to practice. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory was used to study motivation and hygiene factors enticing RNs to practice. A screening questionnaire was sent to 1,004 randomly selected RNs in Missouri to determine who were licensed but not practicing. Fifty-two full questionnaires were mailed and 33 (63%) were returned. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS, whereas qualitative data were coded and analyzed using manifest content analysis. The lack of motivators such as recognition of one's work and achievements was one reason why RNs left the practice. The hygiene factors of money, improved working conditions, refresher courses, and health insurance would motivate RNs to return to practice. Those wishing to entice inactive nurses to practice will need to offer sign-on bonuses or make the hourly wages and benefits package very competitive. This study indicates that nurses value flexible working hours, part-time opportunities, consideration of family lives, and positive relationships with administrators.

  19. Enhancing nurse satisfaction: an exploration of specialty nurse shortage in a region of NHS England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Keith; Wilde, Rebecca; Shutes, Karl

    2018-03-22

    This article offers nurse managers guidance on analysing, managing and addressing a potentially dissatisfied nursing workforce, focusing on three priority shortage specialties: emergency care, paediatrics and cardiology. The aim of the study was to explore to what extent registered nurses and healthcare assistants, referred to collectively here as 'nursing staff', are satisfied with teamworking opportunities, continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and workplace autonomy. A survey questionnaire was developed to evaluate three derived determinants of nurse satisfaction: team working, CPD and autonomy. The NHS West Midlands region was the focus given that it is among the poorest performing regions outside London in filling nursing posts. Overall, nursing staff respondents were satisfied with teamworking, CPD and autonomy, which challenges the perception that nurses in NHS England are dissatisfied with these satisfaction determinants. The findings give a complex picture of nurse satisfaction; for example a large minority of respondents were dissatisfied with their ability to carry out duties as they see fit. When developing management systems to investigate, manage and enhance nurse satisfaction, nurse managers must recognise the complexity and subtleties of determining factors. This will increase as nursing becomes more specialised. Subsequently, nurse managers need to work closely with staff at higher education institutions and other professional agencies to commission appropriate professional development. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  20. [Physician Shortage: How to Prevent Generation Y From Staying Away - Results of a Nationwide Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, R; Engelhardt, M; Förch, M; Merk, H; Walcher, F; Fröhlich, S

    2016-04-01

    Medical students' attitudes and expectations about their future working life are changing. To hire the best talents from Generation Y, hospitals must pay attention to these factors to make working in patient care more attractive. However, little detailed knowledge about the professional and career expectations of today's medical students is available to date. In a nationwide online survey, a total of 9079 medical students from all German medical faculties returned the questionnaire. Twenty-one questions related to future career choices and work satisfaction, followed by 21 questions dealing with reasons for not working in patient care. Factor analysis yielded five factors: work-life balance, career, professional needs, working atmosphere, and prestige. A correlation analysis between these factors and respondents' socio-demographic data revealed significant correlations with sex, specialty choice, and marital/parental status. A correlation analysis with "reasons for not working in patient care" revealed that work-life balance, career, professional needs, and working atmosphere had high priority for both sexes. It is crucial to collect data on the work satisfaction of Generation Y, whose members are motivated and willing to perform in today's highly demanding work environment. However, sex-dependent/independent expectations must be met to make the medical profession more attractive, to overcome the Germany-wide shortage of physicians, and to attract young doctors to the hospitals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Optimal replenishment policy for fuzzy inventory model with deteriorating items and allowable shortages under inflationary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggi Chandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model to determine ordering policy for deteriorating items with constant demand rate under inflationary condition over a fixed planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and are partially backlogged. In today’s wobbling economy, especially for long term investment, the effects of inflation cannot be disregarded as uncertainty about future inflation may influence the ordering policy. Therefore, in this paper a fuzzy model is developed that fuzzify the inflation rate, discount rate, deterioration rate, and backlogging parameter by using triangular fuzzy numbers to represent the uncertainty. For Defuzzification, the well known signed distance method is employed to find the total profit over the planning horizon. The objective of the study is to derive the optimal number of cycles and their optimal length so to maximize the net present value of the total profit over a fixed planning horizon. The necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal solution are characterized. An algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the proposed model has been validated with numerical example. Sensitivity analysis has been performed to study the impact of various parameters on the optimal solution, and some important managerial implications are presented.

  2. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  3. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-I

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported. This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan. When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%). When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances. When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  4. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  5. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-I Chen

    Full Text Available Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported.This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan.When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%. When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances.When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  6. Forecasting Japan's Physician Shortage in 2035 as the First Full-Fledged Aged Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Matsumura, Tomoko; Murashige, Naoko; Kodama, Yuko; Minayo, Satoru; Imai, Kohzoh; Kami, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Japan is rapidly becoming a full-fledged aged society, and physician shortage is a significant concern. The Japanese government has increased the number of medical school enrollments since 2008, but some researchers warn that this increase could lead to physician surplus in the future. It is unknown how many physicians will be required to accommodate future healthcare needs. Materials and Methods We simulated changes in age/sex composition of the population, fatalities (the number of fatalities for the consecutive five years), and number of physicians from 2010 to 2035. Two indicators were defined: fatalities per physician and fatalities by physician working hour, based on the data of the working hours of physicians for each tuple of sex and age groups. We estimated the necessary number of physicians in 2035 and the number of new physicians to maintain the indicator levels in 2010. Results The number of physicians per 1,000 population is predicted to rise from 2·00 in 2010 to 3·14 in 2035. The number of physicians aged 60 years or older is expected to increase from 55,375 (20% of physicians) to 141,711 (36%). In 2010 and 2035, fatalities per physician were 23·1 and 24·0 for the total population, and 13·9 and 19·2 for 75 years or older, respectively. Fatalities per physician working hour are predicted to rise from 0·128 to 0·138. If working hours are limited to 48 hours per week in 2035, the number of fatalities per physician working hour is expected to be 0·196, and the number of new physicians must be increased by 53% over the current pace. Discussion The number of physicians per population continues to rise, but the estimated supply will not fulfill the demand for healthcare in the aging society. Strategies to increase the number of physicians and improve working conditions are urgently needed. PMID:23233868

  7. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  8. University versus Practice: A Pilot Study to Identify Skills Shortages That Exist in First-Year Trainee Accountants in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Romburgh, Henriëtte; van der Merwe, Nico

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the skills shortages in first-year trainee accountants entering practice in South Africa and to recommend ways to address and overcome those shortages. Questionnaires were administered to registered audit firms in Gauteng Province to gather the perceptions of senior trainees, managers and partners on the skills…

  9. The FDA Unapproved Drugs Initiative: An Observational Study of the Consequences for Drug Prices and Shortages in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Dhruva, Sanket S; Fox, Erin R; Ross, Joseph S

    2017-10-01

    Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs. To examine the clinical evidence for approval and association with prices and shortages of previously unapproved prescription drugs after being addressed by the UDI. Previously unapproved prescription drugs that faced UDI regulatory action or with at least 1 product that received FDA approval through manufacturers' voluntary compliance with the UDI between 2006 and 2015 were identified. The clinical evidence was categorized as either newly conducted clinical trials or use of previously published literature and/or bioequivalence studies to demonstrate safety and efficacy. We determined the change in average wholesale price, presence of shortage, and duration of shortage for each drug during the 2 years before and after UDI regulatory action or approval through voluntary compliance. Between 2006 and 2015, 34 previously unapproved prescription drugs were addressed by the UDI. Nearly 90% of those with a drug product that received FDA approval were supported by literature reviews or bioequivalence studies, not new clinical trial evidence. Among the 26 drugs with available pricing data, average wholesale price during the 2 years before and after voluntary approval or UDI action increased by a median of 37% (interquartile range [IQR] = 23%-204%; P Innovation; from the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association to better understand medical technology evidence generation; from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to

  10. Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola O. Windapo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Construction human resource management. Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills. Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality. Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register. Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement. Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on

  11. Fighting against a shortage of truck drivers in logistics: Measures that employers can take to promote drivers' work ability and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Ulrike; Lohaus, Daniela; Christmann, Alina; Woitschek, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    For several years, the transportation industry has been concerned about a severe shortage of professional truck drivers. Studies investigating the reasons found that poor working conditions and stresses and strains resulting from physiological and psychological job demands have had a negative impact on drivers' health and ability to work. Nevertheless, until now, most employers have refrained from offering measures to support the work ability and well-being of drivers, mainly due to financial pressures in the industry. The present study was aimed at designing adequate and affordable measures to support drivers' health. With reference to the Work Ability Index and the house of work ability (Ilmarinen & Tuomi, 2004), 56 truck drivers participated in guided interviews about their working conditions and health-related problems as well as their attitudes, experiences, and desires with respect to being offered supportive measures by their employers. The measures derived are specific and realizable and expected to be widely accepted by professional drivers. They are designed to elicit a positive attitude in the drivers toward exercising and to help them overcome related psychological barriers. The implementation of the recommended measures can be expected to support drivers' work ability and help reduce the frictional costs of their employers.

  12. Sustaining supply of senior academic leadership skills in a shortage environment: a short review of a decade of dental experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa; Tennant, Marc

    2014-06-01

    For the past decade, and expected for the next decade, Australia faces a significant health workforce shortage and an acute maldistribution of health workforce. Against this background the governments at both national and state level have been increasing the training places for all health practitioners and trying to redress the imbalance through a strong regional focus on these developments. Dentistry has been an active participant in these workforce initiatives. This study examines the increasing demand for academics and discusses the existing pathways for increase, and also examines in detail the advantages of a sustainable, shared-model approach, using dentistry as a model for other disciplines. Three non-exclusive pathways for reform are considered: importation of academics, delayed retirement and the shared resource approach. Of the various solutions outlined in this review a detailed explanation of a cost-effective shared model of senior academic leadership is highlighted as a viable, sustainable model for ameliorating the shortage.

  13. The crisis in leadership in the context of the nursing shortage and the increasing prevalence of nursing unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh-Robinson LL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Latisha L Balogh-RobinsonMarist College, School of Global and Professional Programs, Poughkeepsie, NY, USAAbstract: Developing nurse leaders in a unionized environment presents unique challenges that are beyond those traditionally experienced in nonunion settings. This literature review examines multiple factors contributing to increasing nursing union membership, including population aging, the nursing shortage, and the relationship between leadership and staff engagement. Current trends in succession planning and leadership development are also highlighted. Job dissatisfaction related to the inability to provide quality care in the context of a protracted nursing shortage and current health care trends is identified as the driver in nursing union growth. The discussion that follows assumes current trends in nursing unionization will continue and proposes that adversarial relationships between management and union nurses will further amplify the dearth in leadership by reducing the pool of nurses willing to leave the union for nonunion leadership roles.Keywords: succession planning, baby boomer, staff engagement, population aging

  14. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  15. Extent and effects of recurrent shortages of purified-protein derivative tuberculin skin test antigen solutions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test (TST) antigen solutions are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Tubersol (Sanofi Pasteur Limited) and Aplisol (JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC). Tubersol was out of production in late 2012 through April 2013. Shortages of Aplisol have resulted from increased demand as practitioners have sought a substitute for Tubersol. Tubersol production resumed in May 2013, and supplies had been nearly restored by early June. However, in mid-July, state tuberculosis (TB) control officials notified CDC of difficulty obtaining Tubersol and Aplisol. Sanofi Pasteur notified FDA of a temporary delay in the availability of tuberculin in the 10-dose and 50-dose presentations. In mid-October, the 10-dose presentation was being returned to market, on allocation, which means that historical purchasing practices determine the amount that customers are allotted. In late October, the 50-dose presentation was being returned to market, also on allocation, one vial per historical customer per month. Supplies are forecast to approach normal during January 2014, after distributors have restored their supply chains. A compensatory surge in testing after deferment of testing during the periods of shortage might cause further temporary instability of supplies. In mid-August 2013, officials in 29 of 52 U.S. jurisdictions noted a shortage of at least one PPD TST antigen solution in health departments to the extent that it interrupted activities. This report includes a summary of the extent and effects of the shortages and a reiteration of advice on how to adapt to them.

  16. UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE MILITARY TRAUMA SYSTEM: WORKING TOWARDS IMPROVED OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    repeatedly deployed, potentially leading to burnout or difficulties with post-traumatic stress .36 Some of this burden could be relieved with the use of an...1 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UTILIZATION OF ACUTE CARE NURSE PRACTITIONERS TO COMBAT PHYSICIAN SHORTAGES IN THE...providers such as nurse practitioners to aid in achieving patient care goals, there is little published to support their use in the military

  17. The analysis on the extreme water shortage event in Hangzhou in 1247 AD and its natural and social backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haolong

    2017-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta locating in the north subtropics of China, is famous for numerous rivers and lakes. Because of East Asian monsoon rainfall, flood is always the most primary disaster in this area during the past 2000 years. However, there were also several extreme water shortage events in the history. Example in Hangzhou in 1247 AD was such a typical year in the area. In the paper, the severity of this extreme event and the closely tied spatiotemporal variation of drought in Yangtze River Delta was quantitatively analyzed on the basis of documentary records during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, its natural and social backgrounds was discussed. The result s are summarized as follows: 1) Wells, canals and West Lake of Hangzhou dried up in 1247 AD. The water level of canals was about 1.32-2.64 m lower than that in the normal year. The reduction of storage capacity in West Lake was 21 million stere or so. 2) The droughts in Yangtze River Delta was moderate on the whole, but that in the west of Zhejiang Province was severe. The drought in Hangzhou lasted from the 2nd lunar month to the end of this year. 3) The water shortage event was closely related to the quick going north and farther northern location of summer rain belt. The descending sea-level weakening the tide in Qiantang River, can also reduce the supply of water resources. 4) The quick growth of urban population, excessive aquaculture, and ineffective government supervision played an important social role in the process of this event. In the all, this extreme water shortage event was the result of both natural and social factors. This research is very helpful for the futuristic water resource forecast in Yangtze River Delta, and it also affords us lessons on the risk management and heritage conservation that merit attention. Key Words: Hangzhou, 1247 AD, water shortage, canal, West Lake, natural factors, social factors

  18. Development of a novel information and communication technology system to compensate for a sudden shortage of emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kumiko; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Fukuma, Hiroshi; Nakao, Shota; Masunaga, Naohisa; Tomita, Keisuke; Matsumura, Yosuke; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2017-01-23

    A sudden shortage of physician resources due to overwhelming patient needs can affect the quality of care in the emergency department (ED). Developing effective response strategies remains a challenging research area. We created a novel system using information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to a sudden shortage, and tested the system to determine whether it would compensate for a shortage. Patients (n = 4890) transferred to a level I trauma center in Japan during 2012-2015 were studied. We assessed whether the system secured the necessary physicians without using other means such as phone or pager, and calculated fulfillment rate by the system as a primary outcome variable. We tested for the difference in probability of multiple casualties among total casualties transferred to the ED as an indicator of ability to respond to excessive patient needs, in a secondary analysis before and after system introduction. The system was activated 24 times (stand-by request [n = 12], attendance request [n = 12]) in 24 months, and secured the necessary physicians without using other means; fulfillment rate was 100%. There was no significant difference in the probability of multiple casualties during daytime weekdays hours before and after system introduction, while the probability of multiple casualties during night or weekend hours after system introduction significantly increased compared to before system introduction (4.8% vs. 12.9%, P improvement in the ability to respond to sudden excessive patient needs in multiple causalities. A novel system using ICT successfully secured immediate responses from needed physicians outside the hospital without increasing user workload, and increased the ability to respond to excessive patient needs. The system appears to be able to compensate for a shortage of physician in the ED due to excessive patient transfers, particularly during off-hours.

  19. Path Toward Economic Resilience for Family Caregivers: Mitigating Household Deprivation and the Health Care Talent Shortage at the Same Time

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Melissa A.; Gunia, Brian; Martin, Emily J.; Foucar, Charles E.; Kundu, Tapas; Ragas, Daiva M.; Emanuel, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Rising costs and a workforce talent shortage are two of the health care industry’s most pressing challenges. In particular, serious illnesses often impose significant costs on individuals and their families, which can place families at an increased risk for multigenerational economic deprivation or even an illness–poverty trap. At the same time, family caregivers often acquire a wide variety of health care skills that neither these caregivers nor the health care industry typically use. As the...

  20. Avoiding a Pilot Retention Death Spiral: The Pilot Shortage and DOD’s Challenge to Maintain an Effective Fighting Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    public oversight.”79 His comments apply equally well to the Air Force or the Navy. Anecdotal evidence provided by an anonymous survey on social media ...Master’s Thesis 31 July 2017- 09 APRIL 2018 Avoiding a Pilot Retention Death Spiral: The Pilot Shortage and DOD’s Challenge to Maintain an Effective ...DOD’S CHALLENGE TO MAINTAIN AN EFFECTIVE FIGHTING FORCE by Nathan Thompson Lieutenant Colonel, United States Air Force

  1. System Schema Analysis of County Economy Talents Shortages Based on the Perspective of Returning-home Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the discussion of domestic scholars on county talents,we know that the researches concerning county human resources mainly focus on discussing the problems such as the total amount,distribution,quality and introduction of county talents though the analysis of coordination between talents and county economic development,and the research of relationship between industry adjustment and talents need.However,there have no relevant documents about the analysis and discussion of county talents problems based on system schema theory.In view of this reality,on the basis of the introduction of the system schema theory propounded by management guru Peter Senge,we conduct the feedback schema analysis of the restricted factors of talents shortages during county economic development;establish the growth limits schema of county talents system;analyze the functioning mechanism of the total amount,distribution,quality and introduction of county talents on the development of county economy;discuss the relationship between the individual quality,social relation and emotional need of returning-home start-up,and talents resource shortage;propose the countermeasures and suggestions to mitigate the shortage of county talents,in order to optimize the allocation of county human resources,and promote the county’s economic development.

  2. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs

  3. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, S.

    2004-06-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs.

  4. Measuring the Impact of the Home Health Nursing Shortage on Family Caregivers of Children Receiving Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Wichman, Brittany; Bace, Sue; Schroeder, Denice; Vail, Catherine; Wichman, Chris; Macfadyen, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    The national nursing shortage translates into a gap in home nursing care available to children with complex, chronic medical conditions and their family caregivers receiving palliative care consultations. A total of 38 home health nursing surveys were completed by families receiving pediatric palliative care consultation services at a freestanding children's hospital in the Midwest. The gap in the average number of nursing hours allotted versus received was 40 h/wk per family, primarily during evening hours. Parents missed an average of 23 hours of employment per week to provide hands-on nursing care at home, ranking stress regarding personal employment due to nursing shortage at 6.2/10. Families invested an average of 10 h/mo searching for additional nursing coverage and often resorted to utilizing more than 6 different home nurse coverage personnel per month. Families reported multiple delays to hospital discharges (mean, 15 days per delay) due to inability to find home nursing coverage. Respiratory technology and lack of Medicaid coverage ( P home nursing access. This study examines how the pediatric home nursing shortage translates into a lived experience for families with children with complex medical conditions receiving palliative care.

  5. Model of inventory replenishment in periodic review accounting for the occurrence of shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the development of alternative concepts of goods flow management, the inventory management under conditions of random variations of demand is still an important issue, both from the point of view of inventory keeping and replenishment costs and the service level measured as the level of inventory availability. There is a number of inventory replenishment systems used in these conditions, but they are mostly developments of two basic systems: reorder point-based and periodic review-based. The paper deals with the latter system. Numerous researches indicate the need to improve the classical models describing that system, the reason being mainly the necessity to adapt the model better to the actual conditions. This allows a correct selection of parameters that control the used inventory replenishment system and - as a result - to obtain expected economic effects. Methods: This research aimed at building a model of the periodic review system to reflect the relations (observed during simulation tests between the volume of inventory shortages and the degree of accounting for so-called deferred demand, and the service level expressed as the probability of satisfying the demand in the review and the inventory replenishment cycle. The following model building and testing method has been applied: numerical simulation of inventory replenishment - detailed analysis of simulation results - construction of the model taking into account the regularities observed during the simulations - determination of principles of solving the system of relations creating the model - verification of the results obtained from the model using the results from simulation. Results: Presented are selected results of calculations based on classical formulas and using the developed model, which describe the relations between the service level and the parameters controlling the discussed inventory replenishment system. The results are compared to the simulation

  6. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  7. Nursing around the world: a perspective on growing concerns and the shortage of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2011-11-01

    some of these problems are. As such, questions and possible solutions are considered.Keywords: nursing shortage, aging, HIV, lifelong learning, exponential knowledge growth, limited resources, burnout

  8. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  9. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  10. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  11. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  12. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  13. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  14. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  15. Calibration of System Input Volume and Non-Revenue Water Index in Edo North, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Philipa O. Idogho; Olotu Yahaya

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious problem in developing world. It could be physical scarcity or economic water shortage. The output of physicsbased study conducted in Edo North, Nigeria revealed that physical water losses in the water distribution network have compounded the accessibility and affordability of safe drinking water. Water supply and loss variables such as Water Supply (WS) Physical Water Loss (WLρ) Apparent Water Loss (WLE) Water Loss Reduction Index (WLRI) and Av...

  16. Technetium99m shortage: Practical solutions to manage lack of the radio-isotope in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biechlin-Chassel, M.L.; Francois-Joubert, A.; Bolot, C.; Desruet, M.D.; Bourrel, F.; Pelegrin, M.; Couret, I.; Lao, S.; Quelven, I.

    2010-01-01

    Technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) shortage crisis regularly affect nuclear medicine activity and oblige the community to find solutions in order to perform most of the prescribed exams and avoid systematic substitutions by other non-nuclear medicine techniques. Firstly, some practical solutions can be set up in radiopharmacy departments such as using more than two generators together, realizing fractionated elutions, preparing radiopharmaceuticals with elutions providing from different generators.. Then, it could be interesting to have a reflexion in nuclear medicine departments to convene patients the days when 99m Tc supply is sufficient, to pool some exams or to make substitutions with more available isotopes. (authors)

  17. Outcomes analysis of an alternative formulation of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma during the drug shortage era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger JL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Berger, Ashlee Smith, Kristin K Zorn, Paniti Sukumvanich, Alexander B Olawaiye, Joseph Kelley, Thomas C Krivak Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: In response to the critical shortage of Doxil®, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA allowed temporary importation of non-FDA-approved second-generation liposomal doxorubicin, Lipo-Dox®. Lipo-Dox utilizes a different liposomal particle than Doxil and demonstrates different pharmacokinetic properties. Its use has never been evaluated in a North American population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Lipo-Dox at Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, for patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who were treated during the Doxil shortage. Methods: Patients treated with Lipo-Dox from January 2012 to December 2012 were identified retrospectively. Disease response was defined radiographically by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or biochemically by CA-125 level if measurable disease was not present. Survival was defined from the start date of Lipo-Dox until the date of progression or death. Toxicity was assessed by the Gynecologic Oncology Group common toxicity criteria. Results: Eighteen patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who received Lipo-Dox were identified. These patients had a median of three prior treatment regimens. The median number of Lipo-Dox cycles given was 3.5 (range 1–8. No patients had a complete or partial response. Two patients had stable disease over a mean follow-up of 144.5 days. Fourteen patients had progressive disease, with a median time to progression of 82 days. Progression was based on CA-125 in four patients and RECIST in the remainder. Nine patients died from the disease. Conclusion: Although this represents a small, pretreated population, there were no clinical

  18. Interference with the clinical independence of doctors in hospitals faced with a shortage of resources: what should doctors do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, D J

    2014-11-01

    In the face of interference with their clinical independence in hospitals with a shortage of resources, what should doctors do? The question can be answered by considering: (i) the constitutional right to healthcare and emergency treatment; (ii) the common-law position regarding unlawful homicide and the doctrine of 'superior orders'; (iii) the ethical rules of the Health Professions Council of South Africa; and (iv) whether there is any protection for doctors who refuse to carry out unprofessional, unethical or unlawful directives from their superiors. While this article focuses on the public sector, some of the legal principles, where relevant, apply equally to doctors in the private sector.

  19. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. Using commodity-indexed financing to fund OPEC/Alaska's development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa

    1992-01-01

    An impediment to the process of economic diversification in OPEC and Alaska is the lack of favourable access to local and international capital markets to finance development projects, particularly mineral resource development. This paper highlights the importance of commodity-indexed bonds, including oil- and gold- indexed bonds, as a financing alternative to supplement the supply shortage of loanable funds from conventional, local and international commercial banks. The indexation concept is discussed, features of different bonds issued to date are contrasted and the benefits and risks for borrowers and investors are highlighted. An analysis is made of the experience of OPEC and Alaska in using commodity-indexed bonds and the feasibility of Alaska and some OPEC countries entering into commodity-linked-financed joint ventures is examined. Future prospects for commodity-linked bonds are explored. Not withstanding the fact that the immediate market timing is unfavourable, the long-term benefits of commodity-indexed securities are recognized. (U.K.)

  1. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  2. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  3. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  4. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  5. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  6. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  7. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  8. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  9. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  10. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  11. Collaborative ReTek exchange - An innovative solution to the skills and resource shortage in the nuclear industry - 16396

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, Corhyn

    2009-01-01

    A Different Approach to the Skills and Resource Shortage The Nuclear Industry has for many years been concerned about a skills and resource shortage. This has been due to a poor perception of the industry by those on the outside, highly competitive industries vying for the same resource pool, a steep retirement curve for highly qualified staff and a lack of graduates entering industry. Here in the UK the creation of the National Skill Academy for Nuclear (NSAN) has put in place a framework to record skills and look to accredit the training providers in the nuclear industry to ensure that the correct skills for the future are available. This has gone some way to solving the skills problem and developing a well recognised accredited system but what about resource - where are the additional qualified resources going to be found? Part of the Solution - A Resource Exchange. How do we solve the skills shortage? We come together as an industry and share the available resource through a collaborative resource exchange. It has been done before in the IT industry when rates for specialists hit Pounds 1500 per day and recruitment agencies were charging extortionate fees for providing temporary resource. ReTek Consulting have developed the ReTek Resource Exchange to provide a neutral collaborative platform across the supply chain; from large scale infrastructure companies and joint venture platforms through to small companies and independent consultants. Using the ReTek Exchange permanent staff are made available to work for others during periods of under-utilisation. Links with similar highly regulated industries enable further management of peaks and troughs and a growth in experienced nuclear professionals through focused training and development. The Benefits of the ReTek Exchange are: - Increased utilisation of your current workforce. - Shared cost of permanent staff. - Speedy access to staff available in your region. - Reduced need for contract or agency staff. - Access

  12. Risk Assessment in Relation to the Effect of Climate Change on Water Shortage in the Taichung Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, J.; Chang, L.; Ho, C.; Niu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid economic development has stimulated a worldwide greenhouse effect and induced global climate change. Global climate change has increased the range of variation in the quantity of regional river flows between wet and dry seasons, which effects the management of regional water resources. Consequently, the influence of climate change has become an important issue in the management of regional water resources. In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to risk analysis of shortage of water supply in the Taichung area. This study proposed a simulation model that integrated three models: weather generator model, surface runoff model, and water distribution model. The proposed model was used to evaluate the efficiency of the current water supply system and the potential effectiveness of two additional plans for water supply: the “artificial lakes” plan and the “cross-basin water transport” plan. A first-order Markov Chain method and two probability distribution models, exponential distribution and normal distribution, were used in the weather generator model. In the surface runoff model, researchers selected the Generalized Watershed Loading Function model (GWLF) to simulate the relationship between quantity of rainfall and basin outflow. A system dynamics model (SD) was applied to the water distribution model. Results of the simulation indicated that climate change could increase the annual quantity of river flow in the Dachia River and Daan River basins. However, climate change could also increase the difference in the quantity of river flow between wet and dry seasons. Simulation results showed that in current system case or in the additional plan cases, shortage status of water for both public and agricultural uses with conditions of climate change will be mostly worse than that without conditions of climate change except for the shortage status for the public use in the current system case. With or without considering the effect of

  13. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  14. An EOQ model of time quadratic and inventory dependent demand for deteriorated items with partially backlogged shortages under trade credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpinder; Mishra, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Vikramjeet; Saxena, Seema

    2017-07-01

    In this paper a single buyer, single supplier inventory model with time quadratic and stock dependent demand for a finite planning horizon has been studied. Single deteriorating item which suffers shortage, with partial backlogging and some lost sales is considered. Model is divided into two scenarios, one with non permissible delay in payment and other with permissible delay in payment. Latter is called, centralized system, where supplier offers trade credit to retailer. In the centralized system cost saving is shared amongst the two. The objective is to study the difference in minimum costs borne by retailer and supplier, under two scenarios including the above mentioned parameters. To obtain optimal solution of the problem the model is solved analytically. Numerical example and a comparative study are then discussed supported by sensitivity analysis of each parameter.

  15. A Simple Way to Overcome the Shortage of {sup 3}He Detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, E.; Diniz, R.; Dos Santos, A.; Jerez, R.; Landim, H.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Engineering Center, Nuclear Reactor Division - IPEN/CNEN, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The presented work shows the preliminary results of an experimental procedure to overcome the helium-3 detectors shortage in the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor and be feasible the study of the high subcritical states with less sensitivity detectors. The main principle was employing the input logic nuclear module which was possible to execute logic operations with the neutron signals. Though these signals was possible to construct the Auto Power Spectral Densities (APSD) and obtain the Prompt Neutron Constant Decay (α). Two different kinds of thermal neutron detectors were used ({sup 3}He and BF{sub 3}). The arrangement was initially constituted by one of each type detector and, posteriorly, for a more complete data acquisition, in groups of two detectors for all subcritical configurations. The experiment was carried out using the control banks (BC-1 and BC-2) insertion to achieve all the subcritical states studied in this work. (authors)

  16. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, and over one-quarter of the bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. A 70-percent increase in annual aggregate production may be required to upgrade the transportation infrastructure. Natural aggregate is widespread throughout the conterminous United States, but the location of aggregate is determined by geology and is non-negotiable. Natural aggregate is in short supply in the Coastal Plain and Mississippi embayment, Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin, glaciated Midwest, High Plains, and the non-glaciated Northern Plains. A variety of techniques have been used to overcome local shortages, such as the use of substitute materials, recycling, and importing high-quality aggregates from more distant locations.

  17. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  18. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  19. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  4. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  10. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1260 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Consumption of ammonia-nitrogen by aob in immobilized batch culture, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Design an automatic temperature ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 294 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or .... S Edwards, M Hlongwane, J Thwala, N Robinson ... Vol 16, No 1 (2017), Infancy of internet cafe: The substitute of ubuntu-padare pedagogy, Abstract.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 130 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... using the technological pedagogical content knowledge(TPACK) framework, Abstract PDF ... Tamara N. Hrin, Dušica D. Milenković, Mirjana D. Segedinac.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 278 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... drie paradigmas beskou: 'n eenheid, of 'n veelheid van perspektiewe? ... Vol 45, No 1 (2011), Genre pedagogy in the mediation of socially-situated literacies ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... A James, E Ralfe, L van Laren, N Ngcobo ... 1 (2011), Recognition of prior learning in promoting lifelong learning: A pedagogy of hope or a shattering of dreams?

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 533 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... for past tense forms in Northern Sotho: verb stems with final 'm' and 'n', Abstract ... in an academic writing class: Implications for a dialogic pedagogy, Abstract.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 183 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 61 (2017), New interventions and sustainable solutions: .... Vol 35 (2011), Resurgence of tribal levies: Double taxation for the rural poor, Abstract PDF.

  18. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 736 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 5 (2008), A Contagious Malady: The Human Quest for Truth through Religion, Abstract ... A Study of Politeness Strategies Used by the National University of ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 414 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... of an algebraic function for the permutation of truth table columns, Abstract ... appraisal and productivity levels in selected Nigerian universities, Abstract.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 4 (2006), Assessing academic potential for university admission: ... Vol 16, No 2 (2002), Book Review: Rethinking truth by Higgs, P & Smith, J, Details.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 165 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 43 (2011), Assessment of the Learning Commons takeoff at the University of ... the archive of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Abstract.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 644 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Ethics review n international health research: quality assurance or bureaucratic nightmare? Details ... Audit of Management of Open Fractures, Details PDF.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 449 ... Vol 1, No 3 (2012), Adult Functional Literacy Curriculum: Effective Strategy for Human ... and Exchange Rate Influence on the Nigerian Stock Market Index ... for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 98 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 2 (2014), Book Review: How College Affects Students, A Third decade ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 76 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 4, No 1 (2011), Automation of AutoCAD for Detailing of Reinforced .... Vol 10, No 1 (2017), Housing data base for sustainable housing provision, Abstract PDF.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 147 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Library (TEEAL) Database among faculty members in Federal University, ... Vol 5, No 2 (2014), Effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 16, No 4 (2010), Origin and generation mechanisms of ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Osmotic fragility index of HBAA red blood cells in the presence of ... (2004), Photovoltaic cells, efficiency and optimization, Abstract PDF.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 985 ... Vol 17 (2010), Flood Frequency Analysis of Ikpoba River ... and the corresponding Refractive Index in Uniaxial Crystals, Abstract ... Vol 8 (2004), Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves, Abstract.

  10. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 531 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... thermal conductivity and viscosity in a flat plate solar collector, Abstract PDF .... similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body ...

  12. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  13. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  14. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  15. The Cognitive Mobilization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how the cognitive mobilization index, designed for use in observing potential political participation, can be used as an indicator of the political climate that a particular society is going through. Following a discussion of the theoretical elaborations (and their working definitions of the concept of cognitive mobilization, a longitudinal study of various European countries is used to consider the question of how political crises influence cognitive mobilization indexes and what effects they have on the political socialization process among the youngest cohorts.

  16. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  17. A review of strategies to address the shortage of science and mathematics educators in grades 10-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magano, Florence Lesedi

    For an education system to function effectively it is important that its planning functions are executed effectively and efficiently. Among others this implies that the system must know what the teacher supply and demand is and how it will change in time. If the teacher supply and demand is known it could result in sound intervention strategies being developed and implemented. Education planners will be able to plan for the number of bursaries to be awarded and in which subject fields; it will be known how many foreign teachers to employ and for which subjects. This is the basic rationale that underpins this study. This study explored the problem of teacher demand and supply in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase (Grades 10 to 12) in South Africa and offers a critical analysis of strategies adopted by Provincial Education Departments in an endeavour to diminish the demand for teachers, specifically for Mathematics and Science, in rural and poor schools. Initially the study involved a secondary data analysis to extrapolate the demand and supply of teachers in Mathematics and Science over the next ten years. The first key finding of the study was that the data needed for such an analysis does not exist in any reliable form that would facilitate the development of such a projection. What the study had to rely on was anecdotal evidence that suggests that a shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers does exist and that posts are often filled by unqualified and under-qualified staff. In the second phase of the research in which the study explored the effectiveness of strategies developed to address the shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers, a qualitative research approach was adopted within a descriptive interpretive design. The views and opinions of human resource managers responsible for post provisioning in schools were explored through in-depth interviews to understand the types of strategy adopted by the provinces, their potential to alleviate

  18. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  19. Health system's response for physician workforce shortages and the upcoming crisis in Ethiopia: a grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard

    2017-12-28

    A rapid transition from severe physician workforce shortage to massive production to ensure the physician workforce demand puts the Ethiopian health care system in a variety of challenges. Therefore, this study discovered how the health system response for physician workforce shortage using the so-called flooding strategy was viewed by different stakeholders. The study adopted the grounded theory research approach to explore the causes, contexts, and consequences (at the present, in the short and long term) of massive medical student admission to the medical schools on patient care, medical education workforce, and medical students. Forty-three purposively selected individuals were involved in a semi-structured interview from different settings: academics, government health care system, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Data coding, classification, and categorization were assisted using ATLAs.ti qualitative data analysis scientific software. In relation to the health system response, eight main categories were emerged: (1) reasons for rapid medical education expansion; (2) preparation for medical education expansion; (3) the consequences of rapid medical education expansion; (4) massive production/flooding as human resources for health (HRH) development strategy; (5) cooperation on HRH development; (6) HRH strategies and planning; (7) capacity of system for HRH development; and (8) institutional continuity for HRH development. The demand for physician workforce and gaining political acceptance were cited as main reasons which motivated the government to scale up the medical education rapidly. However, the rapid expansion was beyond the capacity of medical schools' human resources, patient flow, and size of teaching hospitals. As a result, there were potential adverse consequences in clinical service delivery, and teaching learning process at the present: "the number should consider the available resources such as number of classrooms, patient flows

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 391 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Efficacy of four Rodenticides on the Ghanaian Market, Abstract ... Vol 2, No 1 (2000):, Determination of some wear elements in used car engine oil and oil filter ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 46 of 46 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2015), Fiscal Federalism and Development In Nigeria, Abstract. Dorcas Akhere Odigwe, Stanley Aibieyi. Vol 1, No 1 (2011), Good Governance Analysing Performance of Economic Community of West African States and Southern African Development Community Members on Mo Ibrahim Index ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 73 of 73 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13 (2006), The ageing eye” functional changes from cradle to gray: A ... Vol 12 (2005), The evaluation of vision in children using monocular vision acuity and ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 224 of 224 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2010), Spatial Analysis of Particle Size Distribution of Soils Formed on ... swelling index and moisture content of white and yellow garri in ... and Composition of Milk of West African Dwarf (Wad) Sheep Fed ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 229 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title. Vol 14, No 2 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2017), Qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2013), Simple Algorithm in the Management of Fetal ...

  5. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  6. Data Citation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Pavlech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduced by Thomson Reuters in 2012 as a, ‘‘Single point of access to quality research data from repositories across disciplines and around the world’’ [1], the Data Citation Index (DCI is a searchable collection of data sets and data studies from a select list of repositories.

  7. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1215 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Vol 12, No 1 (2018), Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance of students in universities in Nigeria: Edo State as a focal point, Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 1 (2012), Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighted Index of Biotic Integrity (SIBI) for use in the assessment of biotic integrity in the Klip River, Gauteng, South Africa, Abstract. P J Kotze, G J Steyn, H H du Preez, C J Kleynhans. Vol 40, No 4 (2015), Diatoms as water ...

  10. Indexes to Volume 77

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  11. A Tourism Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 652 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 18, No 7 (2015), Introduction to virtual property: Lex virtualis ipsa ... Vol 17, No 1 (2014), Legal challenges relating to the commercial use of outer space, with ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 100 ... Vol 5, No 1 (2010), A simple note on some empirical stochastic process ... poverty index with when the parameter is strictly between 0 and 1, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 2 (2015), Bilinear regression model with Kronecker and ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 913 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2018), Modeling and comparison of IP and fuzzy-pi ... Modeling the potential impacts of global climate change in Bangladesh: An optimal ... Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue, New flood risk index in tropical ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 846 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, The effect of torrefaction on oil palm ... core competency skills of IRBM tax auditors towards their performance, Abstract PDF ... of exchange rates behavior in Malaysia by using NATREX model, Abstract PDF.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 286 of 286 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced ... the Hire Purchase and credit sale Act - An unnecessary duplication ? ... Vol 21 (2015), The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour, Abstract PDF ... quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1463 ... Vol 14, No 4 (2014), Association between mean platelet volume levels and inflammation in SLE patients presented with arthritis, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 3 (2010), Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1117 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007):, an edu-ethical perspecitve on the nature of truth: case studies in elite ... 2009: September: Supplement, An empirical study of university ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 788 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 14, No 1 (2006), Social science research: a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods ... Vol 18, No 1 (2010), Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1732 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 10, No 3 (2007), An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At ... Vol 11, No 4 (2008), An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...