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Sample records for short-term randomized controlled

  1. Steps to Health employee weight management randomized control trial: short-term follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2015-02-01

    To present the short-term follow-up findings of the Steps to Health study, a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two employee weight management programs offered within Duke University and the Health System. A total of 550 obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m2) employees were randomized 1:1 between January 2011 and June 2012 to the education-based Weight Management (WM) or the WM+ arm, which focused on behavior modification. Employees were contacted to complete a follow-up visit approximately 14 months after baseline. There were no clinically, or statistically, meaningful differences between arms, but there were modest reductions in body mass index, and positive, meaningful changes in diet and physical activity for both arms. The modest positive effects observed in this study may suggest that to achieve weight loss through the workplace more intensive interventions may be required.

  2. The effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Saral, Ilknur; Sindel, Dilsad; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Sertel-Berk, Hanife Ozlem; Oral, Aydan

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches for reducing symptoms and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical functions of patients with fibromyalgia and compared the effects of two different interdisciplinary treatment approaches. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving 66 women with fibromyalgia eligible for the study at a university hospital setting. The patients were randomized into three groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1) using a computer-generated random numbers: a long-term interdisciplinary treatment group (LG, n = 22) that participated in 10 sessions (3-h once-weekly session for 10 weeks) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) together with exercise training and other fibromyalgia related educational programs (two full days); a short-term interdisciplinary treatment group (SG, n = 22) that received two full days of educational, exercise, and CBT programs; and a control group (CG, n = 22). The patients were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (pain, fatigue, and sleep), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form-36, tender point numbers, and pressure algometry as primary outcomes. The statistical analysis was confined to the 'per-protocol' set. No blinding was performed. The number of patients analyzed was 21 in the LG, 19 in the SG, and 19 in the CG. The intensity of pain (p treatment approaches when compared with controls; the long-term treatment was found more effective in reducing pain than the short-term. Both, long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatments were effective in reducing the severity of some symptoms and disease activity in patients with fibromyalgia. The short-term program well meets the needs of women with fibromyalgia particularly in relation to pain and health status as measured using FIQ; however, a long-term program may be beneficial in reducing fatigue and

  3. Effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Mollahosseini, Mehdi; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Rahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Specific components of dairy, such as whey proteins may have beneficial effects on body composition by suppressing appetite, although the findings of existing studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to investigate effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite. A systematic search was conducted to identify eligible publications. Means and SDs for hunger, fullness, satiety, desire to eat and prospective consumption of food, before and after intervention, were extracted and then composite appetite score (CAS) calculated. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I 2 tests were used. Eight publications met inclusion criteria that 5 records were on short term and 3 records on long term appetite. The meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in long term appetite by 4.13 mm in combined appetite score (CAS) (95% Confidence interval (CI): -6.57, -1.96; p = 0.001). No significant reduction in short term appetite was also seen (Mean difference (MD) = -0.39 95% CI = -2.07, 1.30; p = 0.653). Subgroup analyses by time showed that compared with carbohydrate, the reduction in appetite following consumption of whey consumption was not significant (MD = -0.39, 95% CI = -2.07, 1.3, p = 0.65, I 2  = 0.0%.)A significant reduction in prospective food consumption was seen (MD = -2.17, 95% CI = -3.86, -0.48). The results of our meta-analysis showed that whey protein may reduce the long and short term appetite, but our finding did not show any significant difference in appetite reduction between whey protein and carbohydrate in short duration. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-inferiority of short-term urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Barone Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A vaginal fistula is a devastating condition, affecting an estimated 2 million girls and women across Africa and Asia. There are numerous challenges associated with providing fistula repair services in developing countries, including limited availability of operating rooms, equipment, surgeons with specialized skills, and funding from local or international donors to support surgeries and subsequent post-operative care. Finding ways of providing services in a more efficient and cost-effective manner, without compromising surgical outcomes and the overall health of the patient, is paramount. Shortening the duration of urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery would increase treatment capacity, lower costs of services, and potentially lower risk of healthcare-associated infections among fistula patients. There is a lack of empirical evidence supporting any particular length of time for urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery. This study will examine whether short-term (7 day urethral catheterization is not worse by more than a minimal relevant difference to longer-term (14 day urethral catheterization in terms of incidence of fistula repair breakdown among women with simple fistula presenting at study sites for fistula repair service. Methods/Design This study is a facility-based, multicenter, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing the new proposed short-term (7 day urethral catheterization to longer-term (14 day urethral catheterization in terms of predicting fistula repair breakdown. The primary outcome is fistula repair breakdown up to three months following fistula repair surgery as assessed by a urinary dye test. Secondary outcomes will include repair breakdown one week following catheter removal, intermittent catheterization due to urinary retention and the occurrence of septic or febrile episodes, prolonged hospitalization for medical reasons, catheter blockage, and

  5. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jui-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL); and the children’s upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents’ satisfaction with their children’s care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009) during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715 PMID:26983099

  6. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL; and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009 during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  7. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jui-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL); and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009) during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  8. Short-term tibolone does not interfere with endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

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    Celani, M F S; Hurtado, R; Brandão, A H F; Maciel da Fonseca, A M R; Geber, S

    2016-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with tibolone 2.5 mg daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive tibolone (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 28 days. Measurement of the FMD of the brachial artery was performed before and after the use of tibolone and placebo. Results A total of 31 women completed the study in the tibolone group, and 32 women completed the study in the control group. The results of the FMD measurements obtained from the women in the two groups before treatment were similar (0.018 and 0.091, for tibolone and placebo, p = 0.57). The values of the FMD in women who used tibolone and placebo, before and after the treatment, were similar in both groups. The numbers of women who presented an increase in the values of the FMD in both groups were also similar. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the administration of 2.5 mg tibolone to healthy postmenopausal women for 28 days does not promote endothelial-dependent vasodilation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery.

  9. Effect of short-term estrogen therapy on endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

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    Hurtado, R; Celani, M; Geber, S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial over 3 years. Randomization was performed using computer-generated sorting. All participants were blinded to the use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo and FMD was assessed by a blinded examiner, before and after 28 days of medication. A total of 64 healthy postmenopausal women were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of treatment: 0.625 mg of CEE or placebo. FMD values were statistically different between the groups (p = 0.025): the group receiving CEE showed a FMD value of 0.011 compared to the placebo group (FMD = -0.082). The two groups were additionally evaluated for homogeneity through the Shapiro-Wilk test in respect to variables that could interfere with endothelial function such as age (p = 0.729), body mass index (p = 0.891), and time since menopause (p = 0.724). Other variables were excluded during selection of the participants such as chronic vascular conditions, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Our results demonstrate that the administration of 0.625 mg CEE for 28 days is effective in improving vascular nitric oxide-dependent dilation assessed by FMD of the brachial artery in postmenopausal women. NCT01482416.

  10. Short-term effects of customized arch support insoles on symptomatic flexible flatfoot in children: A randomized controlled trial.

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    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Peng, Hui-Ling; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2018-05-01

    Limited evidence is available regarding the effects of insoles on pediatric flexible flatfoot because of the heterogeneity and low methodological quality of previous studies. The purpose of this prospective trial is to examine the short-term effects of customized arch support insoles on symptomatic flexible flatfoot in children by using the International Classification of Functioning, randomized controlled Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. This study was conducted in a rehabilitation outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital. Fifty-two children with symptomatic flexible flatfoot were included. The children in the treatment group wore customized arch support insoles for 12 weeks, whereas those in the control group did not wear the insoles. Both clinical and radiographic measurements, including the navicular drop, foot posture index, Beighton hypermobility score, talonavicular coverage angle, calcaneal inclination angle, and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle, were used for diagnosing flexible flatfoot. Physical activity (10-m normal and fast walking, stair ascent, stair descent, and chair rising), physical function, and psychometric properties (Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) were evaluated at the baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention. Compared with the control group, the treatment group exhibited significant improvement in pain/comfort (P = .048), physical health (P = .035), stair ascent time (P = .015), upper extremity and physical function (P = .016), and transfer and basic mobility (P = .042) during the intervention period. Children with flexible flatfoot who wore customized arch support insoles for 12 weeks exhibited significantly improved pain/comfort, physical health, stair ascent time, upper extremity and physical function, and transfer and basic mobility. These variables belong to the domains of body functions and structures and activity and participation in the ICF

  11. The coping with depression course: Short term outcomes and mediating effects of a randomized controlled trial in the treatment of subclinical depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allart-van Dam, E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on a randomized controlled trial investigating the short-term effectiveness of the Coping With Depression course in a sample of adults seriously at risk of developing major depression. In addition, possible mediating properties of several proximal outcome variables were

  12. The Coping with Depression course : Short-term outcomes and mediating effects of a randomized controlled trial in the treatment of subclinical depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allart-van Dam, E; Hosman, CMH; Hoogduin, CAL; Schaap, CPDR

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on a randomized controlled trial investigating the short-term effectiveness of the Coping With Depression course in a sample of adults seriously at risk of developing major depression. In addition, possible mediating properties of several proximal outcome variables were

  13. The effects of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation on exercise performance: a randomized controlled trial

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    Yarrow Joshua F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the efficacy of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC monotherapy supplementation immediately prior to moderate- and high-intensity single bout exercise performance. Methods Thirteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 2.5 years; 81.6 ± 12.6 kg participated in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover experiment. Each subject completed one familiarization and four experimental trials with either 1.5 g or 9.0 g of either KIC or isocaloric placebo control (CONT, following an overnight fast. During the experimental trials, subjects consumed the supplement regimen and then completed leg and chest press repetitions to failure and 30 s of repeated maximal vertical jumping (VJ on a force plate. Results In this treatment regimen, no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed between dosages or conditions for leg press (low CONT = 19.8 ± 0.4 SEM, low KIC = 21.0 ± 0.5, high CONT = 20.1 ± 0.3, high KIC = 22.4 ± 0.6 or chest press (low CONT = 18.1 ± 0.2, low KIC = 18.5 ± 0.3, high CONT = 17.8 ± 0.3, high KIC = 18.0 ± 0.3 repetitions to failure. Additionally, no significant differences were observed for peak or mean VJ performance (low CONT = 34.6 ± 2.2 cm and 28.6 ± 1.8 cm; low KIC = 35.6 ± 2.0 cm and 29.4 ± 1.6 cm; high CONT = 35.7 ± 2.1 cm and 29.4 ± 1.7 cm; high KIC = 34.8 ± 2.3 cm and 28.3 ± 1.7 cm, respectively. Conclusion Based on our results, we conclude that acute KIC ingestion by itself with no other ergogenic supplement, immediately prior to exercise, did not alter moderate- nor high-intensity single-bout exercise performance in young resistance-trained males. This study addressed single-dose single-bout performance events; the efficacy of KIC monotherapy supplementation on repeated high-intensity exercise bouts and long-term exercise training remains unknown.

  14. Short Term Analgesic Effects of 5% Dextrose Epidural Injections for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Maniquis-Smigel, Liza; Dean Reeves, Kenneth; Jeffrey Rosen, Howard; Lyftogt, John; Graham-Coleman, Cassie; Cheng, An-Lin; Rabago, David

    2017-02-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injection (prolotherapy) is reported to reduce pain including non-surgical chronic low back pain (CLBP), and subcutaneous injection of 5% dextrose is reported to reduce neurogenic pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. The mechanism in both cases is unclear, though a direct effect of dextrose on neurogenic pain has been proposed. This study assessed the short-term analgesic effects of epidural 5% dextrose injection compared with saline for non-surgical CLBP. Randomized double-blind (injector, participant) controlled trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe non-surgical low back pain with radiation to gluteal or leg areas for at least 6 months received a single epidurogram-confirmed epidural injection of 10 mL of 5% dextrose or 0.9% saline using a published vertical caudal injection technique. The primary outcome was change in a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0 - 10 points) pain score between baseline and 15 minutes; and 2, 4, and 48 hours and 2 weeks post-injection. The secondary outcome was percentage of participants achieving 50% or more pain improvement at 4 hours. No baseline differences existed between groups; 35 participants (54 ± 10.7 years old; 11 female) with moderate-to-severe CLBP (6.7 ± 1.3 points) for 10.6 ± 10.5 years. Dextrose participants reported greater NRS pain score change at 15 minutes (4.4 ± 1.7 vs 2.4 ± 2.8 points; P = 0.015), 2 hours (4.6 ± 1.9 vs 1.8 ± 2.8 points; P = 0.001), 4 hours (4.6 ± 2.0 vs 1.4 ± 2.3 points; P dextrose recipients and 19% (3/16) of saline recipients reported ≥ 50% pain reduction at 4 hours (P dextrose on pain at the dorsal root level; waning pain control at 2 weeks suggests the need to assess the effect of serial dextrose epidural injections in a long-term study with robust outcome assessment.

  15. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob; Rugulies, Reiner

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. The cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comprised 78 pre-schools that were allocated to the intervention (44 pre-schools with 1760 employees) or control (34 pre-schools with 1279 employees) group. The intervention lasted 25 months and followed a stepwise and structured approach, consisting of seminars, workshops, and workplace-directed intervention activities focusing on the core task at work. Using Poisson regression, we tested differences in incidence rates in short-term sickness absence between the intervention and control groups during a 29-months follow-up. Estimated short-term sickness absence days per person-year during follow-up were 8.68 and 9.17 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The rate ratio (RR) for comparing incident sickness absence in the intervention to control groups during follow-up was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.86-1.00] in the crude analysis and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.96) when adjusting for age, sex, job group, type and size of workplace, and workplace average level of previous short-term sickness absence. A supplementary analysis showed that the intervention also was associated with a reduced risk of long-term sickness absence with a crude RR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-0.99) and an adjusted RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.69-1.01). Pre-school employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence during a 29-month follow-up compared with control group employees.

  16. Short-term effect of cocoa product consumption on lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Jia, Lei; Liu, Xuan; Bai, Yong Yi; Li, Shao Hua; Sun, Kai; He, Chen; Hui, Rutai

    2010-07-01

    The effect of cocoa products on lipid changes is controversial. We aimed to identify and quantify the effect of cocoa on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for relevant trials of cocoa on lipid profile. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Eight trials (involving 215 participants) were included and evaluated. Because there was only one relatively longer-term study, we focused on the short-term data to evaluate the effects of cocoa on plasma lipid. Cocoa consumption significantly lowered LDL cholesterol by 5.87 mg/dL (95% CI: -11.13, -0.61; P consumption significantly reduced blood cholesterol, but the changes were dependent on the dose of cocoa consumption and the healthy status of participants. There was no dose response and no effect in healthy participants. Future high-quality studies are needed to determine the efficiency of moderate cocoa consumption on lipid profile in long-term intervention and in subjects with other cardiometabolic risk factors.

  17. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach.

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    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H N; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2017-10-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 healthy subjects received a single administration of a cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe cocktail, consisting of caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19) and warfarin (CYP2C9), on four occasions: an oral (1) and intravenous (2) administration after an overnight fast (control) and an oral (3) and intravenous (4) administration after 36 h of fasting. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the probe drugs were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling software NONMEM. Short-term fasting increased systemic caffeine clearance by 17% (p = 0.04) and metoprolol clearance by 13% (p < 0.01), whereas S-warfarin clearance decreased by 19% (p < 0.01). Fasting did not affect bioavailability. The study demonstrates that short-term fasting alters CYP-mediated drug metabolism in a non-uniform pattern without affecting oral bioavailability.

  18. The effect of perioperative probiotics treatment for colorectal cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

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    Yang, Yongzhi; Xia, Yang; Chen, Hongqi; Hong, Leiming; Feng, Junlan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Shi, Chenzhang; Wu, Wen; Gao, Renyuan; Wei, Qing; Qin, Huanlong; Ma, Yanlei

    2016-02-16

    This study was designed to mainly evaluate the anti-infective effects of perioperative probiotic treatment in patients receiving confined colorectal cancer (CRC) respective surgery. From November 2011 to September 2012, a total of 60 patients diagnosed with CRC were randomly assigned to receive probiotic (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) treatment. The operative and post-operative clinical results including intestinal cleanliness, days to first - flatus, defecation, fluid diet, solid diet, duration of pyrexia, average heart rate, length of intraperitoneal drainage, length of antibiotic therapy, blood index changes, rate of infectious and non-infectious complications, postoperative hospital stay, and mortality were investigated. The patient demographics were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the probiotic treated and the placebo groups. The days to first flatus (3.63 versus 3.27, p = 0.0274) and the days to first defecation (4.53 versus 3.87, p = 0.0268) were significantly improved in the probiotic treated patients. The incidence of diarrhea was significantly lower (p = 0.0352) in probiotics group (26.67%, 8/30) compared to the placebo group (53.33%, 16/30). There were no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in other infectious and non-infectious complication rates including wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, anastomotic leakage, and abdominal distension. In conclusion, for those patients undergoing confined CRC resection, perioperative probiotic administration significantly influenced the recovery of bowel function, and such improvement may be of important clinical significance in reducing the short-term infectious complications such as bacteremia.

  19. Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwerenz Rüdiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20 + 5 sessions or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information. We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination and 12 months (follow-up. The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588

  20. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term memory, and prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-11-01

    The broader purpose of this study was to examine the temporal effects of high-intensity exercise on learning, short-term and long-term retrospective memory and prospective memory. Among a sample of 88 young adult participants, 22 were randomized into one of four different groups: exercise before learning, control group, exercise during learning, and exercise after learning. The retrospective assessments (learning, short-term and long-term memory) were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Long-term memory including a 20-min and 24-hr follow-up assessment. Prospective memory was assessed using a time-based procedure by having participants contact (via phone) the researchers at a follow-up time period. The exercise stimulus included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. High-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding (vs. exercise during memory encoding or consolidation) was effective in enhancing long-term memory (for both 20-min and 24-h follow-up assessments). We did not observe a differential temporal effect of high-intensity exercise on short-term memory (immediate post-memory encoding), learning or prospective memory. The timing of high-intensity exercise may play an important role in facilitating long-term memory. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevention of colonic neoplasia with polyethylene glycol: A short term randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded trial.

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    Wali, Ramesh K; Bianchi, Laura; Kupfer, Sonia; De La Cruz, Mart; Jovanovic, Borko; Weber, Christopher; Goldberg, Michael J; Rodriguez, L M; Bergan, Raymond; Rubin, David; Tull, Mary Beth; Richmond, Ellen; Parker, Beth; Khan, Seema; Roy, Hemant K

    2018-01-01

    Chemoprevention represents an attractive modality against colorectal cancer (CRC) although widespread clinical implementation of promising agents (e.g. aspirin/NSAIDS) have been stymied by both suboptimal efficacy and concerns over toxicity. This highlights the need for better agents. Several groups, including our own, have reported that the over-the-counter laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable efficacy in rodent models of colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we undertook the first randomized human trial to address the role of PEG in prevention of human colonic neoplasia. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm trial where eligible subjects were randomized to 8g PEG-3350 (n = 27) or 17g PEG-3350 (n = 24), or placebo (n = 24; maltodextrin) orally for a duration of six months. Our initial primary endpoint was rectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) but this was changed during protocol period to rectal mucosal epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Of the 87 patients randomized, 48 completed study primary endpoints and rectal EGFR unchanged PEG treatment. Rectal ACF had a trend suggesting potentially reduction with PEG treatment (pre-post change 1.7 in placebo versus -0.3 in PEG 8+ 17g doses, p = 0.108). Other endpoints (proliferation, apoptosis, expression of SNAIL and E-cadherin), previously noted to be modulated in rodent models, appeared unchanged with PEG treatment in this clinical trial. We conclude that PEG was generally well tolerated with the trial failing to meet primary efficacy endpoints. However, rectal ACFs demonstrated a trend (albeit statistically insignificant) for suppression with PEG. Moreover, all molecular assays including EGFR were unaltered with PEG underscoring issues with lack of translatability of biomarkers from preclinical to clinical trials. This data may provide the impetus for future clinical trials on PEG using more robust biomarkers of chemoprevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00828984.

  2. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  3. Short-term effectiveness of web-based guided self-help for phobic outpatients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Robin N; van Straten, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-09-29

    Internet-based guided self-help has been successfully used in the general population, but it is unknown whether this method can be effectively used in outpatient clinics for patients waiting for face-to-face psychotherapy for phobias. The aim was to assess the clinical effectiveness of Phobias Under Control, an Internet-based intervention based on exposure therapy with weekly guidance. We conducted a randomized controlled trial, recruiting 212 outpatients scheduled to receive face-to-face psychotherapy for any type of phobia at an outpatient clinic. Participants suffering from at least 1 DSM-IV or ICD-10 classified phobia (social phobia, agoraphobia with or without panic disorder, and/or specific phobia as ascertained by a telephone interview at baseline) were randomly allocated to either a 5-week Internet-based guided self-help program based on exposure therapy with weekly student support followed by face-to-face psychotherapy (n=105) or a wait-list control group followed by face-to-face psychotherapy (n=107). Primary outcome was the Fear Questionnaire (FQ). Secondary outcomes were the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Assessments took place by telephone at baseline (T0) and on the Internet at posttest (T1, self-assessment at 5 weeks after baseline). Missing data at T1 were imputed. At posttest, analysis of covariance on the intention-to-treat sample showed significant but small effect sizes between intervention and control groups on the FQ (d=0.35, P=.02), CES-D (d=0.34, P=.03), and a nonsignificant effect size on the BAI (d=0.28. P=.05). Although initial acceptance was good, high nonresponse was observed, with 86 of 212 participants (40.5%) lost to follow-up at T1 and only 14 of 105 (13.3%) intervention participants finishing all 5 weeks. Phobias Under Control is modestly effective in lowering phobic and depressive symptoms in a relatively short period and may be clinically beneficial when implemented in

  4. Effects of a short-term parental education program on childhood atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamura, Masaki; Masuko, Ikuyo; Hayashi, Keiichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Ito, Komei

    2013-01-01

    Parental education is important in managing childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the long-term effects of a 2-day parental education program (PEP) on childhood AD. In an investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 59 children age 6 months to 6 years with moderate to severe AD and their mothers were recruited in Japan. Participants were given a booklet about AD and received conventional treatment alone or in combination with a 2-day PEP comprising three lectures, three practical sessions, and a group discussion. The primary outcome was evaluation of eczema severity using SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in symptom scores, amount of corticosteroid used, parental quality of life as determined according to the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire, and change in parental anxiety regarding the use of corticosteroids in their children. Participants in the PEP group had a significantly lower SCORAD score than those in the control group at 6 months (mean difference 10.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3-17.7, p = 0.01) and objective SCORAD score (mean difference 7.1, 95% CI = 0.8-13.5, p = 0.03). The sleeplessness symptom score (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI = 0.0-3.1, p = 0.048) and corticosteroid anxiety score (p = 0.02) in the PEP group were significantly better than in the control group at 6 months. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of corticosteroid used or quality of life. The PEP had positive long-term effects on eczema severity and parental anxiety about corticosteroid usage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Short-term androgen priming by use of aromatase inhibitor and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lossl, K; Andersen, C Yding; Loft, A

    2008-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may augment follicular responsiveness. The present study tested whether short-term androgen priming by aromatase inhibitor and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) before controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) increases the number of top......-quality embryos after IVF/ICSI....

  6. Stress-relieving effects of short-term balneotherapy - a randomized controlled pilot study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzer, Franziska; Nagele, Eva; Bahadori, Babak; Dam, Karl; Fazekas, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of balneotherapy compared to progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and to resting were investigated by measuring subjective relaxation and salivary cortisol. It was also examined whether participants with a high versus low stress level would have a different relaxation response. A sample of healthy volunteers was randomized to balneotherapy, PMR, or a resting control group, each intervention lasting for 25 min. Pre- and post-intervention salivary cortisol samples were collected, and participants rated their status of relaxation on a quantitative scale. In addition, 3 questionnaires were applied to detect participants' stress level and bodily complaints. 49 healthy participants were recruited (65.3% female). In a pre-post comparison, salivary cortisol decreased (F = 23.53, p balneotherapy group rated themselves as more relaxed after the intervention as compared to the other groups (F = 5.22, p balneotherapy seems to be more beneficial with regard to subjective relaxation effects and similarly beneficial with regard to a decrease in salivary cortisol. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  7. Long-term Diet and Biomarker Changes after a Short-term Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors: The ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Ogden Gaffney, Ann; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Shi, Zaixing; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Santella, Regina M; Blaner, William S; Clugston, Robin D; Cremers, Serge; Pollak, Susan; Sirosh, Iryna; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-11-01

    Among Hispanic breast cancer survivors, we examined the long-term effects of a short-term culturally based dietary intervention on increasing fruits/vegetables (F/V), decreasing fat, and changing biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. Spanish-speaking women (n = 70) with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer who completed treatment were randomized to ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (n = 34), a culturally based 9-session program (24 hours over 12 weeks, including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips), or a control group (n = 36, written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors). Diet recalls, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We report changes between groups at 12 months in dietary intake and biomarkers using 2-sample Wilcoxon t tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. At 12 months, the intervention group compared with the control group reported higher increases in mean daily F/V servings (total: +2.0 vs. -0.4; P Salud! program was effective at increasing long-term F/V intake in Hispanic breast cancer survivors and changed biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. It is possible for short-term behavioral interventions to have long-term effects on behaviors and biomarkers in minority cancer patient populations. Results can inform future study designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1491-502. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Efficacy of short-term high-dose statin in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchuan Li

    Full Text Available A few studies focused on statin therapy as specific prophylactic measures of contrast-induced nephropathy have been published with conflicting results. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of short-term high-dose statin treatment for the prevention of CIN and clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of statin therapy.We searched PubMed, OVID, EMBASE, Web of science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing short-term high-dose statin treatment versus low-dose statin treatment or placebo for preventing CIN. Our outcome measures were the risk of CIN within 2-5 days after contrast administration and need for dialysis.Seven randomized controlled trials with a total of 1,399 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model showed that the use of short-term high-dose statin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in risk of CIN (RR =0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, p =0.001; I(2 = 0%. The incidence of acute renal failure requiring dialysis was not significant different after the use of statin (RR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.05-2.10, p = 0.24; I(2 = 0%. The use of statin was not associated with a significant decrease in the plasma C-reactive protein level (SMD -0.64, 95% CI: -1.57 to 0.29, P = 0.18, I(2 = 97%.Although this meta-analysis supports the use of statin to reduce the incidence of CIN, it must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made in favour of the use of statin based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of CIN is required to more adequately assess the role for statin in CIN prevention.

  9. Traditional Chinese Herbal Patch for Short-Term Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of two kinds of Traditional Chinese herbal patches, Fufang Nanxing Zhitong Gao (FNZG and Shangshi Jietong Gao (SJG, for painful knee osteoarthritis (OA. Methods. Patients were randomly enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive FNZG (n=60, SJG (n=60, or placebo patch (n=30 for 7 days. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Questionnaire (TCMSQ subscale. Results. Although there was no significant difference among, three groups in short-term pain management, patients receiving FNZG got significant improvement in symptom of fear of coldness as compared with placebo patch (P=0.029. The most common local adverse events of rash, itching, erythema, and slightly damaged skin were observed in 7% of participants. Conclusions. FNZG may be a useful treatment for symptom of knee OA and merits long-term study in broader populations.

  10. Comparison between the effects of trigger point mesotherapy versus acupuncture points mesotherapy in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a short term randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Annalisa; Giombini, Arrigo; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Ripani, Maurizio; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of trigger point (TRP) mesotherapy and acupuncture (ACP) mesotherapy in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain. Short term randomized controlled trial. 62 subjects with chronic low back pain were recruited at outpatients Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" in the period between July 2006 and May 2008. Study subjects were assigned to receive 4 weeks treatments with either trigger point mesotherapy (TRP mesotherapy, n=29) or acupoints mesotherapy (ACP mesotherapy, n=33). Pain intensity with a pain visual analogic scale (VAS) and verbal rating scale (VRS) and pain disability with McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form (SFMPQ), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionaire (ODQ). ACP mesotherapy shows a more effective results in VRS and VAS measures in the follow-up (p(VRS)=mesotherapy group. Our results suggest that the response to ACP mesotherapy may be greater than the response to TRP mesotherapy in the short term follow-up. This technique could be nevertheless a viable option as an adjunct treatment in an overall treatment planning of CLBP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of selenium on short-term control of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease treated with methimazole: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, M; Bartalena, L; Rotondo Dottore, G; Piantanida, E; Premoli, P; Ionni, I; Di Cera, M; Masiello, E; Sassi, L; Tanda, M L; Latrofa, F; Vitti, P; Marcocci, C; Marinò, M

    2017-03-01

    In spite of previous conflicting results, an adjuvant role of selenium in the treatment of Graves' disease (GD) hyperthyroidism has been proposed. To address this issue, a randomized clinical trial was carried out aimed at investigating whether selenium is beneficial on the short-term control of GD hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole (MMI). Thirty newly diagnosed hyperthyroid GD patients were randomly assigned to treatment with: (i) MMI or (ii) MMI plus selenium. Primary outcomes were: control of hyperthyroidism and clinical and biochemical manifestations of hyperthyroidism [heart rate, cholesterol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), hyperthyroidism symptoms] at 90 days. Baseline features of the two groups did not differ. Serum selenium at baseline was similar in the two groups and within the recommended range to define selenium sufficiency. Selenium increased with treatment in the MMI-selenium group and became significantly higher than in the MMI group. Serum malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress, was similar in the two groups and decreased significantly with treatment, with no difference between groups. Administration of MMI was followed by a reduction of FT 3 and FT 4 , with no difference between groups. Heart rate, SHBG and symptoms of hyperthyroidism decreased, whereas total cholesterol increased in both groups with no difference between groups. Our study, carried out in a selenium-sufficient cohort of GD patients, failed to show an adjuvant role of selenium in the short-term control of hyperthyroidism. However, selenium might be beneficial in patients from selenium-deficient areas, as well as in the long-term outcome of antithyroid treatment.

  12. Enriched enteral nutrition may improve short-term survival in stage IV gastric cancer patients: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw; Scislo, Lucyna; Walewska, Elzbieta; Choruz, Ryszard; Galas, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the postoperative use of enteral nutrition enriched with arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids influences survival in patients diagnosed with stomach cancer. For the purpose of the study, the second wave of the trial performed in 2003 to 2009 was done. Ninety-nine patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer (27 F, 72 M, mean age: 62.9 y) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 54 were randomized to standard and 45 to enriched enteral nutrition (EEN). In all patients, short- and long-term (5 y) survival was analyzed. Analysis of the overall survival time did not reveal differences between groups (P = 0.663). Until the end of the third month, however, there were nine deaths in the standard enteral nutrition group and no deaths in the EEN group (16.7% versus 0.0%, P = 0.004). The univariate analyses suggested that the EEN group may have lower risk, especially during the first year after intervention. A significant reduction in the risk of death was seen during the early period after surgery (first 6 mo) in the EEN group in stage IV patients (hazard ratio = 0.25, P = 0.049). The use of enriched enteral diet did not influence, however, the risk of dying when patients were analyzed together. The study does not support the beneficial effect of enriched enteral nutrition in long-term survival; however, the positive impact on the stage IV patients suggests the need for further, more detailed studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of neurofeedback on the short-term memory and continuous attention of patients with moderate traumatic brain injury: A preliminary randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rostami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are some studies which showed neurofeedback therapy (NFT can be effective in clients with traumatic brain injury (TBI history. However, randomized controlled clinical trials are still needed for evaluation of this treatment as a standard option. This preliminary study was aimed to evaluate the effect of NFT on continuous attention (CA and short-term memory (STM of clients with moderate TBI using a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT. Methods: In this preliminary RCT, seventeen eligible patients with moderate TBI were randomly allocated in two intervention and control groups. All the patients were evaluated for CA and STM using the visual continuous attention test and Wechsler memory scale-4th edition (WMS-IV test, respectively, both at the time of inclusion to the project and four weeks later. The intervention group participated in 20 sessions of NFT through the first four weeks. Conversely, the control group participated in the same NF sessions from the fifth week to eighth week of the project. Results: Eight subjects in the intervention group and five subjects in the control group completed the study. The mean and standard deviation of participants' age were (26.75 ± 15.16 years and (27.60 ± 8.17 years in experiment and control groups, respectively. All of the subjects were male. No significant improvement was observed in any variables of the visual continuous attention test and WMS-IV test between two groups (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion: Based on our literature review, it seems that our study is the only study performed on the effect of NFT on TBI patients with control group. NFT has no effect on CA and STM in patients with moderate TBI. More RCTs with large sample sizes, more sessions of treatment, longer time of follow-up and different protocols are recommended. Keywords: Neurofeedback, Brain injuries, Attention, Short-term memory

  14. Effect of Lifestyle Modification Using a Smartphone Application on Obesity With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Short-term, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Wee, Jee Hye; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eunyoung; Ryu, Borim; Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Joong Seek; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2018-01-30

    To investigate the short-term effects of a lifestyle modification intervention based on a mobile application (app) linked to a hospital electronic medical record (EMR) system on weight reduction and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We prospectively enrolled adults (aged >20 years) with witnessed snoring or sleep apnea from a sleep clinic. The patients were randomized into the app user (n=24) and control (n=23) groups. The mobile app was designed to collect daily lifestyle data by wearing a wrist activity tracker and reporting dietary intake. A summary of the lifestyle data was displayed on the hospital EMR and was reviewed. In the control group, the lifestyle modification was performed as per usual practice. All participants underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (WatchPAT) and body mass index (BMI) measurements at baseline and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Age and BMI did not differ significantly between the two groups. While we observed a significant decrease in the BMI of both groups, the decrease was greater in the app user group (P sleep spent snoring at >45 dB was significantly improved in the app user group alone (P =0.014). In either group, among the participants with successful weight reduction, the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly reduced after 4 weeks (P =0.015). Multiple regression analyses showed that a reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly associated with BMI. Although a short-term lifestyle modification approach using a mobile app was more effective in achieving weight reduction, improvement in OSA was not so significant. Long-term efficacy of this mobile app should be evaluated in the future studies.

  15. Short-term soy isoflavone intervention in patients with localized prostate cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Hamilton-Reeves

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of soy isoflavone consumption on prostate specific antigen (PSA, hormone levels, total cholesterol, and apoptosis in men with localized prostate cancer.We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of soy isoflavone capsules (80 mg/d of total isoflavones, 51 mg/d aglucon units on serum and tissue biomarkers in patients with localized prostate cancer. Eighty-six men were randomized to treatment with isoflavones (n=42 or placebo (n=44 for up to six weeks prior to scheduled prostatectomy. We performed microarray analysis using a targeted cell cycle regulation and apoptosis gene chip (GEArrayTM. Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol were analyzed at baseline, mid-point, and at the time of radical prostatectomy. In this preliminary analysis, 12 genes involved in cell cycle control and 9 genes involved in apoptosis were down-regulated in the treatment tumor tissues versus the placebo control. Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol in the isoflavone-treated group compared to men receiving placebo were not statistically significant.These data suggest that short-term intake of soy isoflavones did not affect serum hormone levels, total cholesterol, or PSA.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00255125.

  16. Fall Preventive Exercise With or Without Behavior Change Support for Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Short-Term Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-02-27

    In Western countries, falls and fall-related injuries are a well-known threat to health in the aging population. Studies indicate that regular exercise improves strength and balance and can therefore decrease the incidence of falls and fall-related injuries. The challenge, however, is to provide exercise programs that are safe, effective, and attractive to the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of a home-based exercise program with or without motivational interviewing (MI) compared with standard care on physical performance, fall self-efficacy, balance, activity level, handgrip strength, adherence to the exercise, and fall frequency. A total of 175 older adults participated in this randomized controlled study. They were randomly allocated for the Otago Exercise Program (OEP) (n = 61), OEP combined with MI (n = 58), or a control group (n = 56). The participants' mean age was 83 years. The recruitment period was from October 2012 to May 2015. Measurements of physical performance, fall self-efficacy, balance, activity level, handgrip strength, adherence to the exercise, and fall frequency were done before and 12 weeks after randomization. A total of 161 participants were followed up, and there were no significant differences between groups after a period of 12 weeks of regular exercise. Within the OEP + MI group, physical performance, fall self-efficacy, physical activity level, and handgrip strength improved significantly; likewise, improved physical performance and fall self-efficacy were found in the control group. A corresponding difference did not occur in the OEP group. Adherence to the exercise was generally high in both exercise groups. In the short-term perspective, there were no benefits of an exercise program with or without MI regarding physical performance, fall self-efficacy, activity level, handgrip strength, adherence to the exercise, and fall frequency in comparison to a control group. However, some small

  17. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping in Women with Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Şeyhmus; Alpayci, Mahmut; Karaman, Erbil; Çetin, Orkun; Özkan, Yasemin; İlter, Server; Şah, Volkan; Şahin, Hanım Güler

    2016-04-18

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy-related low back pain is a common condition during pregnancy. Kinesio tape is a drug-free elastic therapeutic tape used for treating various musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of lumbar Kinesio taping on pain intensity and disability in women with pregnancy-related low back pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 65 patients with pregnancy-related low back pain were randomly allocated into either Kinesio taping (n=33) or control (n=32) groups. The intervention group was treated with paracetamol plus Kinesio taping, while the control group received only paracetamol. Kinesio taping was applied in the lumbar flexion position, and four I-shaped bands were used. Two bands were attached horizontally, with space correction technique. The remaining 2 bands, 1 on each side of the lumbar spine, were placed vertically, with inhibition technique. Low back pain intensity was measured on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) was used for evaluation of disability. RESULTS Pain intensity and RMDQ scores improved significantly in both groups at 5 days compared with baseline. Considering the degree of treatment effect (the change from baseline to day 5), the Kinesio taping group was significantly superior than the control group in all outcome measures (for all, Plow back pain.

  18. Short-term effects of instruction in home heating on indoor temperature and blood pressure in elderly people: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Kurumatani, Norio

    2015-11-01

    Increased mortality from cardiovascular disease in winter is partly explained by increased blood pressure (BP) caused by cold exposure. For physicians, instruction in home heating is feasible option to reduce cold exposure, but the effectiveness remains unknown. To determine whether instruction in home heating increases indoor temperatures and decreases ambulatory BP among elderly people, we conducted an open-label, simply randomized, controlled trial in the winters. As an intervention, the participants were asked to set the heating device in the living room to start 1 h before estimated rising time with target temperature at 24°C, and to stay in the living room until 2 h after rising as long as possible. Repeatedly measured ambulatory BP, physical activity, and indoor temperatures until 4 h after rising were assessed using multilevel linear regression model with random intercept among individual. A total of 359 eligible participants (mean age ± standard deviation: 71.6 ± 6.6) were randomly allocated to the control group (n = 173) and intervention group (n = 186). Intervention significantly increased living room temperature by 2.09°C (95% confidence interval 1.28-2.90), and significantly decreased SBP and DBP by 4.43/2.33 mmHg (95% confidence interval 0.97-7.88/0.08-4.58 mmHg) after adjusting for confounders including age, sex, antihypertensive medication, household income, and physical activity. Short-term effect of instruction in home heating showed larger increase of indoor temperature than that of insulation intervention. Significant reduction of BPsuggests the effectiveness on preventing cardiovascular incidence in winter. To summarize, instruction in heating significantly decreased BP.

  19. Effects of a manualized short-term treatment of internet and computer game addiction (STICA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger Susanne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, excessive internet use and computer gaming have increased dramatically. Salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse have been defined as diagnostic criteria for internet addiction (IA and computer addiction (CA in the scientific community. Despite a growing number of individuals seeking help, there are no specific treatments of established efficacy. Methods/design This clinical trial aims to determine the effect of the disorder-specific manualized short-term treatment of IA/CA (STICA. The cognitive behavioural treatment combines individual and group interventions with a total duration of 4 months. Patients will be randomly assigned to STICA treatment or to a wait list control group. Reliable and valid measures of IA/CA and co-morbid mental symptoms (for example social anxiety, depression will be assessed prior to the beginning, in the middle, at the end, and 6 months after completion of treatment. Discussion A treatment of IA/CA will establish efficacy and is desperately needed. As this is the first trial to determine efficacy of a disorder specific treatment, a wait list control group will be implemented. Pros and cons of the design were discussed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT01434589

  20. Effects of a manualized short-term treatment of internet and computer game addiction (STICA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last few years, excessive internet use and computer gaming have increased dramatically. Salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse have been defined as diagnostic criteria for internet addiction (IA) and computer addiction (CA) in the scientific community. Despite a growing number of individuals seeking help, there are no specific treatments of established efficacy. Methods/design This clinical trial aims to determine the effect of the disorder-specific manualized short-term treatment of IA/CA (STICA). The cognitive behavioural treatment combines individual and group interventions with a total duration of 4 months. Patients will be randomly assigned to STICA treatment or to a wait list control group. Reliable and valid measures of IA/CA and co-morbid mental symptoms (for example social anxiety, depression) will be assessed prior to the beginning, in the middle, at the end, and 6 months after completion of treatment. Discussion A treatment of IA/CA will establish efficacy and is desperately needed. As this is the first trial to determine efficacy of a disorder specific treatment, a wait list control group will be implemented. Pros and cons of the design were discussed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT01434589) PMID:22540330

  1. Effects of a manualized short-term treatment of internet and computer game addiction (STICA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Susanne; Müller, Kai W; Ruckes, Christian; Wittig, Tobias; Batra, Anil; Musalek, Michael; Mann, Karl; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E

    2012-04-27

    In the last few years, excessive internet use and computer gaming have increased dramatically. Salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse have been defined as diagnostic criteria for internet addiction (IA) and computer addiction (CA) in the scientific community. Despite a growing number of individuals seeking help, there are no specific treatments of established efficacy. This clinical trial aims to determine the effect of the disorder-specific manualized short-term treatment of IA/CA (STICA). The cognitive behavioural treatment combines individual and group interventions with a total duration of 4 months. Patients will be randomly assigned to STICA treatment or to a wait list control group. Reliable and valid measures of IA/CA and co-morbid mental symptoms (for example social anxiety, depression) will be assessed prior to the beginning, in the middle, at the end, and 6 months after completion of treatment. A treatment of IA/CA will establish efficacy and is desperately needed. As this is the first trial to determine efficacy of a disorder specific treatment, a wait list control group will be implemented. Pros and cons of the design were discussed. ClinicalTrials (NCT01434589).

  2. Short-term effects of the "Together at School" intervention program on children's socio-emotional skills: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviruusu, Olli; Björklund, Katja; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Liski, Antti; Lindblom, Jallu; Kuoppamäki, Heini; Alasuvanto, Paula; Ojala, Tiina; Samposalo, Hanna; Harmes, Nina; Hemminki, Elina; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Santalahti, Päivi

    2016-05-26

    Together at School is a universal intervention program designed to promote socio-emotional skills among primary-school children. It is based on a whole school approach, and implemented in school classes by teachers. The aim of the present study is to examine the short-term effects of the intervention program in improving socio-emotional skills and reducing psychological problems among boys and girls. We also examine whether these effects depend on grade level (Grades 1 to 3) and intervention dosage. This cluster randomized controlled trial design included 79 Finnish primary schools (40 intervention and 39 control) with 3 704 children. The outcome measures were the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale (MASCS) with teachers as raters. The intervention dosage was indicated by the frequencies six central tools were used by the teachers. The data was collected at baseline and 6 months later. Intervention effects were analyzed using multilevel modeling. When analyzed across all grades no intervention effect was observed in improving children's socio-emotional skills or in reducing their psychological problems at 6-month follow-up. Among third (compared to first) graders the intervention decreased psychological problems. Stratified analyses by gender showed that this effect was significant only among boys and that among them the intervention also improved third graders' cooperation skills. Among girls the intervention effects were not moderated by grade. Implementing the intervention with intended intensity (i.e. a high enough dosage) had a significant positive effect on cooperation skills. When analyzed separately among genders, this effect was significant only in girls. These first, short-term results of the Together at School intervention program did not show any main effects on children's socio-emotional skills or psychological problems. This lack of effects may be due to the relatively short follow

  3. Effect of Sucrose Analgesia, for Repeated Painful Procedures, on Short-term Neurobehavioral Outcome of Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Shreshtha; Datta, Vikram; Rehan, Harmeet Singh; Bhakhri, Bhanu Kiran

    2016-04-01

    Safety of oral sucrose, commonly used procedural analgesic in neonates, is questioned. To evaluate the effect of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures, on short-term neurobehavioral outcome of preterm neonates. Stable preterm neonates were randomized to receive either sucrose or distilled water orally, for every potentially painful procedure during the first 7 days after enrollment. Neurodevelopmental status at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) measured using the domains of Neurobehavioral Assessment of Preterm Infants scale. A total of 93 newborns were analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the groups were comparable. No statistically significant difference was observed in the assessment at 40 weeks PCA, among the groups. Use of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures on newborns, does not lead to any significant difference in the short-term neurobehavioral outcome. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of neurofeedback on the short-term memory and continuous attention of patients with moderate traumatic brain injury: A preliminary randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Reza; Salamati, Payman; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Khoshnevisan, Alireza; Saadat, Soheil; Kamali, Zeynab Sadat; Ghiasi, Somaie; Zaryabi, Atefeh; Ghazi Mir Saeid, Seyed Shahab; Arjipour, Mehdi; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-10-01

    There are some studies which showed neurofeedback therapy (NFT) can be effective in clients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) history. However, randomized controlled clinical trials are still needed for evaluation of this treatment as a standard option. This preliminary study was aimed to evaluate the effect of NFT on continuous attention (CA) and short-term memory (STM) of clients with moderate TBI using a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT). In this preliminary RCT, seventeen eligible patients with moderate TBI were randomly allocated in two intervention and control groups. All the patients were evaluated for CA and STM using the visual continuous attention test and Wechsler memory scale-4th edition (WMS-IV) test, respectively, both at the time of inclusion to the project and four weeks later. The intervention group participated in 20 sessions of NFT through the first four weeks. Conversely, the control group participated in the same NF sessions from the fifth week to eighth week of the project. Eight subjects in the intervention group and five subjects in the control group completed the study. The mean and standard deviation of participants' age were (26.75 ± 15.16) years and (27.60 ± 8.17) years in experiment and control groups, respectively. All of the subjects were male. No significant improvement was observed in any variables of the visual continuous attention test and WMS-IV test between two groups (p ≥ 0.05). Based on our literature review, it seems that our study is the only study performed on the effect of NFT on TBI patients with control group. NFT has no effect on CA and STM in patients with moderate TBI. More RCTs with large sample sizes, more sessions of treatment, longer time of follow-up and different protocols are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy and short-term safety of topical Dwarf Elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) versus diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Marzie; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Razavi, Seyede Zahra Emami; Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Emtiazy, Majid

    2016-07-21

    Sambucus ebulus L. (S. ebulus) has had long-standing application in Traditional Persian Medicine for joint pain and for a variety of bone and joint disorders. According to traditional use of S. ebulus and its relevant pharmacologic properties, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and short-term safety of topical use of S. ebulus in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Seventy nine patients with knee OA were randomly enrolled in 2 parallel arms of a pilot randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial. The patients were treated by topical S. ebulus gel or 1% diclofenac gel, three times a day, as much as a fingertip unit for 4 weeks. Patients were assessed prior to enrollment and, then, 2 and 4 weeks subsequent to the intervention, in terms of scores of visual analogue scale (VAS) for self-grading of their knee joint pain, and according to 3 different domains of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Any observed adverse effects were also scrutinized. The mean values of WOMAC pain score, total WOMAC score and VAS score for pain of the S. ebulus group were significantly lower compared with the diclofenac group (P=0.004, P=0.04, and P<0.001, respectively). In addition, no serious adverse effect was reported. This pilot study showed that topical treatment with S. ebulus gel can be recommended for alleviating symptoms of patients with knee OA. However, longer trials involving larger samples size, are needed for achieving a comprehensive understanding about the efficacy and safety of S. ebulus in knee OA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an experimental short-term inpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Louisa M C; Sinnaeve, Roland; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; van Furth, Eric F

    2014-05-01

    outpatient patients can pose a dilemma for mental health care professionals. Although hospitalization seems inevitable under some circumstances, it has proven to be harmful in its own right. This paper outlines the background and methods of a randomized trial evaluating the possible surplus value of a short-term inpatient DBT program.

  7. Behavioural Models of Motor Control and Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Imanaka, Kuniyasu; Funase, Kozo; Yamauchi, Masaki

    1995-01-01

    We examined in this review article the behavioural and conceptual models of motor control and short-term memory which have intensively been investigated since the 1970s. First, we reviewed both the dual-storage model of short-term memory in which movement information is stored and a typical model of motor control which emphasizes the importance of efferent factors. We then examined two models of preselection effects: a cognitive model and a cognitive/ efferent model. Following this we reviewe...

  8. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.

  9. Comparative short-term effects of two thoracic spinal manipulation techniques in subjects with chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Méndez, Amaloha; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Gogorza-Arroitaonandia, Kristobal; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-08-01

    Spinal Manipulation (SM) has been purported to decrease pain and improve function in subjects with non-specific neck pain. Previous research has investigated which individuals with non-specific neck pain will be more likely to benefit from SM. It has not yet been proven whether or not the effectiveness of thoracic SM depends on the specific technique being used. This double-blind randomized trial has compared the short-term effects of two thoracic SM maneuvers in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sixty participants were distributed randomly into two groups. One group received the Dog technique (n = 30), with the subject in supine position, and the other group underwent the Toggle-Recoil technique (n = 30), with the participant lying prone, T4 being the targeted area in both cases. Evaluations were made of self-reported neck pain (Visual Analogue Scale); neck mobility (Cervical Range of Motion); and pressure pain threshold at the cervical and thoracic levels (C4 and T4 spinous process) and over the site described for location of tense bands of the upper trapezius muscle. Measurements were taken before intervention, immediately afterward, and 20 min later. Both maneuvers improved neck mobility and mechanosensitivity and reduced pain in the short term. No major or clinical differences were found between the groups. In the between-groups comparison slightly better results were observed in the Toggle-Recoil group only for cervical extension (p = 0.009), right lateral flexion (p = 0.004) and left rotation (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary Prevention of Chronic PTSD by Early and Short-Term Administration of Escitalopram: A Prospective Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Fostick, Leah; Juven-Wetzler, Alzabeta; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Hadar; Schreiber, Gavriel; Miroshnik, Natalie; Shalev, Arieh Y; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Suliman, Sharain; Klein, Ehud

    Prospective studies have not identified a viable pharmacologic strategy for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether preventive intervention via early and short-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), within 1 month of exposure to a traumatic event (before diagnosis of PTSD could be made), may reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-IV at 13 months' follow-up. Over 25,000 screening calls to patients referred to an emergency department for a traumatic event performed between June 2006 and December 2008 yielded 353 participants who were recruited within the month following a traumatic event . Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to escitalopram (n = 176) or placebo (n = 177). The per-protocol analysis comprised 198 participants (escitalopram, n = 102; placebo, n = 96) who received treatment for 12 to 24 weeks and were available for follow-up at week 56. The primary outcome measure, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), revealed no prevention effect. However, a secondary outcome, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), showed better results for the SSRI group than for the placebo group. For a subset of participants who experienced intentional trauma (missile attacks, rape, or physical assault; n = 50), the prevention effect was found on both primary and secondary measures (CAPS, PSQI and measures of depression and global illness severity). Early and short-term administration of escitalopram was not shown to prevent PTSD, although it did improve sleep quality. In a subgroup of participants who experienced intentional trauma, however, this early-treatment approach may be effective as secondary prevention. This large study is the first to investigate the preventive effect of early administration of escitalopram on PTSD. It highlights the relevance of the type of trauma (intentional vs unintentional) to the outcome. Clinical

  11. A randomly-controlled study on the cardiac function at the early stage of return to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiquan Zhou

    Full Text Available High altitude acclimatization and adaptation mechanisms have been well clarified, however, high altitude de-adaptation mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a controlled study on cardiac functions in 96 healthy young male who rapidly entered the high altitude (3700 m and returned to the plains (1500 m after 50 days. Ninety eight healthy male who remained at low altitude were recruited as control group. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, cardiac function index (Tei index were tested. Levels of serum creatine kinase isoform MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-1 (LDH-1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, nitrogen oxide (NO, serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α (8-iso PGF(2α, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malonaldehyde (MDA were measured at an altitude of 3700 m and 1500 m respectively. The results showed that after short-term exposure to high altitude mPAP and Tei index increased significantly, while LVEF and LVFS decreased significantly. These changes were positively correlated with altitude. On the 15(th day after the subjects returned to low altitude, mPAP, LVEF and LVFS levels returned to the same level as those of the control subjects, but the Tei index in the returned subjects was still significantly higher than that in the control subjects (P<0.01. We also found that changes in Tei index was positively correlated with mPAP, ET-1, HIF-1α and 8-iso PGF(2α levels, and negatively correlated with the level of NO, LVEF, LVFS, CK-MB and LDH-1. These findings suggest that cardiac function de-adapts when returning to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude and the function recovery takes a relatively long time.

  12. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Laureen A.; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a

  13. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions: A controlled and randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group. METHOD: Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise; 2 traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise; and 3 control (CON; no exercise. The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3x2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT, rating of acceleration development (RAD and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque. RESULTS: A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstraram que a pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas pode aumentar o desempenho neuromuscular agonista. Além disso, estudos sugerem que programas de exercício resistido (ER de curta duração podem ser úteis para aumentar a força muscular e o desempenho. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de três sessões de ER por meio do método de ações recíprocas no desempenho muscular de homens sadios e comparar com um grupo de ER tradicional. MÉTODO: Trinta e três homens (21,1 ± 2,3 anos foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: Recíproco (REC: uma repetição de flexão do joelho imediatamente seguida por uma de extensão do joelho; Tradicional (TRA: exercício concêntrico de extensão do joelho e Controle (CON: não realizaram

  14. Friction massage versus kinesiotaping for short-term management of latent trigger points in the upper trapezius: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Marzieh; Piroozi, Soraya; Rashidi, Iman; Hosseinifard, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Latent trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle may disrupt muscle movement patterns and cause problems such as cramping and decreased muscle strength. Because latent trigger points may spontaneously become active trigger points, they should be addressed and treated to prevent further problems. In this study we compared the short-term effect of kinesiotaping versus friction massage on latent trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Fifty-eight male students enrolled with a stratified sampling method participated in this single-blind randomized clinical trial (Registration ID: IRCT2016080126674N3) in 2016. Pressure pain threshold was recorded with a pressure algometer and grip strength was recorded with a Collin dynamometer. The participants were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups: kinesiotape or friction massage. Friction massage was performed daily for 3 sessions and kinesiotape was used for 72 h. One hour after the last session of friction massage or removal of the kinesiotape, pressure pain threshold and grip strength were evaluated again. Pressure pain threshold decreased significantly after both friction massage (2.66 ± 0.89 to 2.25 ± 0.76; P  = 0.02) and kinesiotaping (2.00 ± 0.74 to 1.71 ± 0.65; P  = 0.01). Grip strength increased significantly after friction massage (40.78 ± 9.55 to 42.17 ± 10.68; P  = 0.03); however there was no significant change in the kinesiotape group (39.72 ± 6.42 to 40.65 ± 7.3; P  = 0.197). There were no significant differences in pressure pain threshold (2.10 ± 0.11 & 1.87 ± 0.11; P  = 0.66) or grip strength (42.17 ± 10.68 & 40.65 ± 7.3; P  = 0.53) between the two study groups. Friction massage and kinesiotaping had identical short-term effects on latent trigger points in the upper trapezius. Three sessions of either of these two interventions did not improve latent trigger points. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2016080126674N3.

  15. Vortioxetine: a meta-analysis of 12 short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials for the treatment of major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Chi-Un; Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Masand, Praksh S.; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Vortioxetine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 2013 for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). Thus far, a number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of vortioxetine have been conducted in patients with MDD. We performed a meta-analysis to increase the statistical power of these studies and enhance our current understanding of the role of vortioxetine in the treatment of MDD. Methods We performed an extensive search of databases and the clinical trial registry. The mean change in total scores on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) from the baseline were the primary outcome measures. The secondary efficacy measures were the response and remission rates, as defined by a 50% or greater reduction in HAM-D/MADRS total scores and as a score of 10 or less in the MADRS and 7 or less in the HAM-D total scores at the end of treatment. Results We included 7 published and 5 unpublished short-term (6–12 wk) RCTs in our meta-analysis. Vortioxetine was significantly more effective than placebo, with an effect size (standardized mean difference [SMD]) of −0.217 (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.313 to −0.122) and with odds ratios (ORs) for response and remission of 1.652 (95% CI 1.321 to 2.067) and 1.399 (95% CI 1.104 to 1.773), respectively. Those treated with vortioxetine did not differ significantly from those treated with selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors/agomelatine with regard to the SMD of the primary outcome measure (0.081, −0.062 to 0.223) or for response (OR 0.815, 95% CI 0.585 to 1.135) and remission (OR 0.843, 95% CI 0.575 to 1.238) rates. Discontinuation owing to lack of efficacy (OR 0.541, 95% CI 0.308 to 0.950) was significantly less common among those treated with vortioxetine than among those who received placebo, whereas discontinuation owing to adverse events (AEs; OR 1

  16. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  17. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions : A controlled and randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, Rafael; Carregaro, Rodrigo L.; Martorelli, André; Vieira, Amilton; Oliveira, Ana B.; Bottaro, Martim

    Background: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE) programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance.

  18. INCAP - Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding , Hermann; Lohmann , Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  19. Achievement of Virtual and Real Objects Using a Short-Term Motor Learning Protocol in People with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Thais; Fávero, Francis Meire; Menezes, Lilian Del Ciello de; Alvarez, Mayra Priscila Boscolo; Crocetta, Tânia Brusque; Guarnieri, Regiani; Nunes, Fátima L S; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Silva, Talita Dias da

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate whether people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) practicing a task in a virtual environment could improve performance given a similar task in a real environment, as well as distinguishing whether there is transference between performing the practice in virtual environment and then a real environment and vice versa. Twenty-two people with DMD were evaluated and divided into two groups. The goal was to reach out and touch a red cube. Group A began with the real task and had to touch a real object, and Group B began with the virtual task and had to reach a virtual object using the Kinect system. ANOVA showed that all participants decreased the movement time from the first (M = 973 ms) to the last block of acquisition (M = 783 ms) in both virtual and real tasks and motor learning could be inferred by the short-term retention and transfer task (with increasing distance of the target). However, the evaluation of task performance demonstrated that the virtual task provided an inferior performance when compared to the real task in all phases of the study, and there was no effect for sequence. Both virtual and real tasks promoted improvement of performance in the acquisition phase, short-term retention, and transfer. However, there was no transference of learning between environments. In conclusion, it is recommended that the use of virtual environments for individuals with DMD needs to be considered carefully.

  20. Home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with built-in software in stable hypercapnic COPD: a short-term prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luqian; Li, Xiaoying; Guan, Lili; Chen, Jianhua; Guo, Bingpeng; Wu, Weiliang; Huo, Yating; Zhou, Ziqing; Liang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yuqi; Tan, Jie; Chen, Xin; Song, Yuanlin; Chen, Rongchang

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with hypercapnic COPD are controversial. It is presumed that methodology and appropriate use of NIV ventilator might be crucial for the outcomes. With the new built-in software, the performance of NIV can be monitored at home, which can guarantee the compliance and appropriate use. This study investigated effects of home use of NIV in hypercapnia in COPD patients using the NIV ventilator with built-in software for monitoring. The current multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled trial enrolled patients with stable GOLD stages III and IV hypercapnic COPD. Patients were randomly assigned via a computer-generated randomization sequence, with a block size of four patients, to continue optimized treatment (control group) or to receive additional NPPV (intervention group) for 3 months. The primary outcome was arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO 2 ). Data were derived from built-in software and analyzed every 4 weeks. Analysis was carried out with the intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02499718. Patients were recruited from 20 respiratory units in China from October 1, 2015, and recruitment was terminated with a record of the vital statistics on May 31, 2016. A total of 115 patients were randomly assigned to the NPPV group (n=57) or the control group (n=58). Patients complied well with NPPV therapy (mean [± standard deviation] day use 5.6±1.4 h). The mean estimation of leaks was 37.99±13.71 L/min. The changes in PaCO 2 (-10.41±0.97 vs -4.32±0.68 mmHg, P =0.03) and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) (38.2% vs 18.2%, P =0.02) were statistically significant in the NPPV group versus the control group. COPD assessment test (CAT) showed a positive trend ( P =0.06) in favor of the NPPV group. Pulmonary function and dyspnea were not different between groups. Ventilators equipped with built-in software provided methodology for monitoring NIV use at home

  1. The short-term safety and efficacy of fluoxetine in depressed adolescents with alcohol and cannabis use disorders: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingler Jacqui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine whether fluoxetine was superior to placebo in the acute amelioration of depressive symptomatology in adolescents with depressive illness and a comorbid substance use disorder. Methods Eligible subjects ages 12–17 years with either a current major depressive disorder (MDD or a depressive disorder that were also suffering from a comorbid substance-related disorder were randomized to receive either fluoxetine or placebo in this single site, 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome analysis was a random effects mixed model for repeated measurements of Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R scores compared between treatment groups across time. Results An interim analysis was performed after 34 patients were randomized. Based on the results of a futility analysis, study enrollment was halted. Twenty-nine males and 5 females were randomized to receive fluoxetine (n = 18 or placebo (n = 16. Their mean age was 16.5 (1.1 years. Overall, patients who received fluoxetine and placebo had a reduction in CDRS-R scores. However, there was no significant difference in mean change in CDRS-R total score in those subjects treated with fluoxetine and those who received placebo (treatment difference = 0.19, S.E. = 0.58, F = 0.14, p = .74. Furthermore, there was not a significant difference in rates of positive urine drug toxicology results between treatment groups at any post-randomization visit (F = 0.22, df = 1, p = 0.65. The main limitation of this study is its modest sample size and resulting low statistical power. Other significant limitations to this study include, but are not limited to, the brevity of the trial, high placebo response rate, limited dose range of fluoxetine, and the inclusion of youth who met criteria for depressive disorders other than MDD. Conclusion Fluoxetine was not superior to placebo in alleviating depressive symptoms or in decreasing

  2. Short-term influence of cataract surgery on circadian biological rhythm and related health outcomes (CLOCK-IOL trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Nishi, Tomo; Miyata, Kimie; Maruoka, Shinji; Ueda, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Taiji; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Tone, Nobuhiro; Ogata, Nahoko; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-12-29

    Light information is the most important cue of circadian rhythm which synchronizes biological rhythm with external environment. Circadian misalignment of biological rhythm and external environment is associated with increased risk of depression, insomnia, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Increased light transmission by cataract surgery may improve circadian misalignment and related health outcomes. Although some observational studies have shown improvement of depression and insomnia after cataract surgery, randomized controlled trials are lacking. We will conduct a parallel-group, assessor-blinded, simple randomized controlled study comparing a cataract surgery group at three months after surgery with a control group to determine whether cataract surgery improves depressive symptoms, sleep quality, body mass regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. We will recruit patients who are aged 60 years and over, scheduled to receive their first cataract surgery, and have grade 2 or higher nuclear opacification as defined by the lens opacities classification system III. Exclusion criteria will be patients with major depression, severe corneal opacity, severe glaucoma, vitreous haemorrhage, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, macular oedema, age-related macular degeneration, and patients needing immediate or combined cataract surgery. After baseline participants will be randomized to two groups. Outcomes will be measured at three months after surgery among the intervention group, and three months after baseline among the control group. We will assess depressive symptoms as a primary outcome, using the short version geriatric depression scale (GDS-15). Secondary outcomes will be subjective and actigraph-measured sleep quality, sleepiness, glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, abdominal circumference, circadian rhythms of physical

  3. An Herbal Drug, Gongjin-dan, Ameliorates Acute Fatigue Caused by Short-Term Sleep-Deprivation: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi Ju; Im, Hwi-Jin; Ku, Boncho; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Jung, So Young; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung Bae; Kim, Jun Young; Son, Chang-Gue

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Gongjin-dan (GJD) is an herbal drug commonly used in Korea and China to combat fatigue, but there are only few clinical studies on its effectiveness and experimental studies on its mechanism of action, and no randomized controlled trial of GJD on the efficacy and mechanism of action has been reported. Here, we performed an exploratory study to evaluate both questions regarding GJD use in humans. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in the Republic of Korea. Healthy male participants were recruited and randomly allocated to groups receiving GJD-placebo or placebo-GJD in sequence. Fatigue was artificially induced by sleep deprivation for 2 nights. The primary outcome was a change in serum cortisol level; levels of biomarkers for stress hormones as well as oxidative stress and immunologic factors were also assessed, and questionnaires on fatigue and sleep quality were conducted. Results: Twelve and 11 participants were assigned to the GJD-placebo and placebo-GJD groups, respectively. Of all 23 participants, depending on crossover design, we analyzed a total of 20 participants for GJD, and 21 for placebo. An increase in serum cortisol appeared to be attenuated by GJD administration ( p = 0.25), but the effect was not statistically significant; a similar pattern was observed in salivary cortisol levels ( p = 0.14). Overall, GJD showed a tendency to reduce fatigue according to the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI, p = 0.07) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, p = 0.13) questionnaires. BFI and FSS scores in the first stage (before the crossover), however, were significantly improved (BFI, p = 0.02; FSS, p = 0.05) after GJD treatment (relative to placebo). GJD also seemed to improve sleep quality as assessed by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire ( p = 0.06), with a significant improvement specifically in the condition "Getting To Sleep" ( p = 0.02). Five participants experienced minor adverse

  4. An Herbal Drug, Gongjin-dan, Ameliorates Acute Fatigue Caused by Short-Term Sleep-Deprivation: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ju Son

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Gongjin-dan (GJD is an herbal drug commonly used in Korea and China to combat fatigue, but there are only few clinical studies on its effectiveness and experimental studies on its mechanism of action, and no randomized controlled trial of GJD on the efficacy and mechanism of action has been reported. Here, we performed an exploratory study to evaluate both questions regarding GJD use in humans.Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in the Republic of Korea. Healthy male participants were recruited and randomly allocated to groups receiving GJD-placebo or placebo-GJD in sequence. Fatigue was artificially induced by sleep deprivation for 2 nights. The primary outcome was a change in serum cortisol level; levels of biomarkers for stress hormones as well as oxidative stress and immunologic factors were also assessed, and questionnaires on fatigue and sleep quality were conducted.Results: Twelve and 11 participants were assigned to the GJD-placebo and placebo-GJD groups, respectively. Of all 23 participants, depending on crossover design, we analyzed a total of 20 participants for GJD, and 21 for placebo. An increase in serum cortisol appeared to be attenuated by GJD administration (p = 0.25, but the effect was not statistically significant; a similar pattern was observed in salivary cortisol levels (p = 0.14. Overall, GJD showed a tendency to reduce fatigue according to the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI, p = 0.07 and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, p = 0.13 questionnaires. BFI and FSS scores in the first stage (before the crossover, however, were significantly improved (BFI, p = 0.02; FSS, p = 0.05 after GJD treatment (relative to placebo. GJD also seemed to improve sleep quality as assessed by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (p = 0.06, with a significant improvement specifically in the condition “Getting To Sleep” (p = 0.02. Five participants experienced minor

  5. Short-term memory, executive control, and children's route learning

    OpenAIRE

    Purser, H. R.; Farran, E. K.; Courbois, Y.; Lemahieu, A.; Mellier, D.; Sockeel, P.; Blades, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and visuospatial long-term memory; the route-learning task was conducted using a maze in a virtual environment. In contrast to previous research, correlation...

  6. Peri-apatite coating decreases uncemented tibial component migration: long-term RSA results of a randomized controlled trial and limitations of short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamersveld, Koen T; Marang-Van De Mheen, Perla J; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2018-05-09

    Background and purpose - Biological fixation of uncemented knee prostheses can be improved by applying hydroxyapatite coating around the porous surface via a solution deposition technique called Peri-Apatite (PA). The 2-year results of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the effect of PA, revealed several components with continuous migration in the second postoperative year, particularly in the uncoated group. To evaluate whether absence of early stabilization is diagnostic of loosening, we now present long-term follow-up results. Patients and methods - 60 patients were randomized to PA-coated or uncoated (porous only) total knee arthroplasty of which 58 were evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) performed at baseline, at 3 months postoperatively and at 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 years. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the repeated measurements. Results - PA-coated components had a statistically significantly lower mean migration at 10 years of 0.94 mm (95% CI 0.72-1.2) compared with the uncoated group showing a mean migration of 1.72 mm (95% CI 1.4-2.1). Continuous migration in the second postoperative year was seen in 7 uncoated components and in 1 PA-coated component. All of these implants stabilized after 2 years except for 2 uncoated components. Interpretation - Peri-apatite enhances stabilization of uncemented components. The number of components that stabilized after 2 years emphasizes the importance of longer follow-up to determine full stabilization and risk of loosening in uncemented components with biphasic migration profiles.

  7. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Guided Self-help Intervention for Outpatients With a Depressive Disorder: Short-term Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Robin Maria Francisca; Cuijpers, Pim; Beekman, Aartjan; van Straten, Annemieke

    2016-03-31

    Research has convincingly demonstrated that symptoms of depression can be reduced through guided Internet-based interventions. However, most of those studies recruited people form the general population. There is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness when delivered in routine clinical practice in outpatient clinics. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to study patients with a depressive disorder (as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, fourth edition), as assessed by trained interviewers with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, who registered for treatment at an outpatient mental health clinic. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of guided Internet-based self-help before starting face-to-face treatment. We recruited 269 outpatients, aged between 18 and 79 years, from outpatient clinics and randomly allocated them to Internet-based problem solving therapy (n=136), with weekly student support, or to a control condition, who remained on the waitlist with a self-help booklet (control group; n=133). Participants in both conditions were allowed to take up face-to-face treatment at the outpatient clinics afterward. We measured the primary outcome, depressive symptoms, by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Secondary outcome measures were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire (ISI), and EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS). All outcomes were assessed by telephone at posttest (8 weeks after baseline). Posttest measures were completed by 184 (68.4%) participants. We found a moderate to large within-group effect size for both the intervention (d=0.75) and the control (d=0.69) group. However, the between-group effect size was very small (d=0.07), and regression analysis on posttreatment CES-D scores revealed no significant differences between the groups (b=1.134, 95% CI -2.495 to 4.763). The per-protocol analysis (

  8. An Internet- and mobile-based tailored intervention to enhance maintenance of physical activity after cardiac rehabilitation: short-term results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antypas, Konstantinos; Wangberg, Silje C

    2014-03-11

    An increase in physical activity for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cardiac rehabilitation has multiple therapeutic benefits, including decreased mortality. Internet- and mobile-based interventions for physical activity have shown promising results in helping users increase or maintain their level of physical activity in general and specifically in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac rehabilitation. One component related to the efficacy of these interventions is tailoring of the content to the individual. Our trial assessed the effect of a longitudinally tailored Internet- and mobile-based intervention for physical activity as an extension of a face-to-face cardiac rehabilitation stay. We hypothesized that users of the tailored intervention would maintain their physical activity level better than users of the nontailored version. The study population included adult participants of a cardiac rehabilitation program in Norway with home Internet access and a mobile phone. The participants were randomized in monthly clusters to a tailored or nontailored (control) intervention group. All participants had access to a website with information regarding cardiac rehabilitation, an online discussion forum, and an online activity calendar. Those using the tailored intervention received tailored content based on models of health behavior via the website and mobile fully automated text messages. The main outcome was self-reported level of physical activity, which was obtained using an online international physical activity questionnaire at baseline, at discharge, and at 1 month and 3 months after discharge from the cardiac rehabilitation program. Included in the study were 69 participants. One month after discharge, the tailored intervention group (n=10) had a higher median level of overall physical activity (median 2737.5, IQR 4200.2) than the control group (n=14, median 1650.0, IQR 2443.5), but the difference was not significant

  9. Short-term and long-term effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal impairment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruifei; Wang, Rui; Li, Haixia; Sun, Sihao; Zou, Meijuan; Cheng, Gang

    2016-09-01

    To assess the short-term and long-term effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal impairment, a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of DPP-4 inhibitor interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal impairment was performed. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched through the end of March 2015. Randomized clinical trials were selected if (1) DPP-4 inhibitors were compared with a placebo or other active-comparators, (2) the treatment duration was ≥12 weeks and (3) data regarding changes in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ), changes in fasting plasma glucose or hypoglycaemia and other adverse events were reported. Of 790 studies, ten studies on eight randomized clinical trials were included. Compared with the control group, DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with a greater HbA1c reduction in both the short-term [mean differences (MD) = -0.45, 95% confidence intervals (-0.57, -0.33), p 1] and long-term [MD = -0.33, 95% confidence intervals (-0.63, -0.03), p = 0.03] treatments. However, the long-term greater reduction in HbA1c with DPP-4 inhibitor treatment was only significant when the control treatment comprised placebo plus stable background treatment, but not glipizide plus stable background treatment. DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with a greater fasting plasma glucose reduction [MD = -12.59, 95% confidence intervals (-22.01, -3.17), p = 0.009] over the short-term; however, this effect was not present over the long-term. Regarding the hypoglycaemia adverse events assessment, the long-term treatment data indicated there was no increased risk of hypoglycaemia compared with placebo or active-controlled anti-diabetic drugs. The present meta-analysis confirms that DPP-4 inhibitors are effective and equivalent to other agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal impairment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015

  10. Whole-body protein turnover response to short-term high-protein diets during weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Determine whole-body protein turnover responses to high protein diets during weight loss. Design: Thirty-nine adults (age, 21 ± 1 yr; VO2peak, 48 ± 1 ml'kg-1'min-1; body mass index, 25 ± 1 kg•m2) were randomized to diets providing protein at the recommend dietary allowance (RDA), 2X-RD...

  11. Short-Term-Effectiveness of a Relationship Education Program for Distressed Military Couples, in the Context of Foreign Assignments for the German Armed Forces. Preliminary Findings From a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Kliem, Sören; Zimmermann, Peter; Kowalski, Jens

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the short-term effectiveness of a relationship education program designed for military couples. Distressed couples were randomly placed in either a wait-list control group or an intervention group. We conducted training sessions before a 3-month foreign assignment, and refresher courses approximately 6-week post-assignment. We analyzed the dyadic data of 32 couples, using hierarchical linear modeling in a two-level model. Reduction in unresolved conflicts was found in the intervention group, with large pre-post effects for both partners. Relationship satisfaction scores were improved, with moderate-to-large effects only for soldiers, rather than their partners. Post-follow-up effect sizes suggested further improvement in the intervention group. Future research should examine the long-term effectiveness of this treatment. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. The Short-Term Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Electroencephalography in Children with Autism: A Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuwat Amatachaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal synaptic maturation and connectivity are possible etiologies of autism. Previous studies showed significantly less alpha activity in autism than normal children. Therefore, we studied the effects of anodal tDCS on peak alpha frequency (PAF related to autism treatment evaluation checklist (ATEC. Twenty male children with autism were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive a single session of both active and sham tDCS stimulation (11 mA over F3 (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Pre- to postsession changes in a measure of cortical activity impacted by tDCS (PAF and ATEC were compared between groups. We also examined the associations between pre- and postsession changes in the PAF and ATEC. The results show significant pre- to postsession improvements in two domains of ATEC (social and health/behavior domains following active tDCS, relative to sham treatment. PAF also significantly increased at the stimulation site, and an increase in PAF was significantly associated with improvements in the two domains of ATEC impacted by tDCS. The findings suggest that a single session of anodal tDCS over the F3 may have clinical benefits in children with autism and that those benefits may be related to an increase in PAF.

  13. Effect of mindfulness meditation on short-term weight loss and eating behaviors in overweight and obese adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Kathleen C; Davis, Kelliann K; Sereika, Susan M; Gibbs, Bethany B; Jakicic, John M; Cohen, Susan M

    2017-12-05

    Background There is a significant health crisis with rates of obesity continuing to increase despite research and clinical standard behavioral weight loss programs (SBWP). Mindfulness meditation (MM), with demonstrated benefits on physical, psychological health, and self-regulation behaviors was explored with SBWP. Methods Forty-six adults (BMI=32.5±3.7 kg/m2; age=45.2±8.2 years, 87 % female, 21.7 % African American) were randomly assigned to a 6-month SBWP only (n=24) or SBWP+MM (n=22) at a university-based physical activity and weight management research center in a northeastern US city. Participants were instructed to decrease intake (1200-1500 kcal/day), increase physical activity (300 min/wk), and attend weekly SBWP or SBWP+MM sessions. SBWP+MM had the same SBWP lessons with addition of focused MM training. Outcome measures collected at 0, 3, and 6 months included: weight, Block Food Frequency Questionnaire, Eating Behavior Inventory, Eating Inventory and Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed modeling for efficacy analysis of weight (primary) and eating, exercise and mindfulness (secondary outcomes). Results Retention rate was 76.1 % (n=35). A significant group by time interaction (p=0.03) was found for weight, with weight loss favoring SBWP+MM (-6.9 kg+2.9) over SBWP (-4.1 kg+2.8). Eating behaviors (p=0.02) and dietary restraint (p=0.02) improved significantly in SBWP+MM, compared to SBWP. MM enhanced weight loss by 2.8 kg potentially through greater improvements in eating behaviors and dietary restraint. Conclusions These findings support further study into the use of MM strategies with overweight and obese adults. The use of this low-cost, portable strategy with standard behavioral interventions could improve weight management outcomes.

  14. Tamsulosin or Silodosin Adjuvant Treatment Is Ineffective in Improving Shockwave Lithotripsy Outcome: A Short-Term Follow-Up Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Cosimo; Brassetti, Aldo; Bellangino, Mariangela; Trucchi, Alberto; Petta, Stefano; Presicce, Fabrizio; Tubaro, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    The role of α-blockers after shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin and silodosin after SWL for kidney stones. From 2012 onward, a consecutive series of patients undergoing SWL were prospectively enrolled and randomized by closed envelopes in three groups receiving tamsulosin 0.4 mg (A), silodosin 8 mg (B), and placebo (C) daily for 21 days after SWL. Anthropometrics, stone size, and location were recorded before SWL. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was collected at 6, 12, and 24 hours after treatment to evaluate patients' discomfort. Stone-free rate was assessed 1 and 3 weeks postoperatively. Complications and medical treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Differences in VAS score, stone-free rate, and complications were compared among the groups. Overall, 60 patients were enrolled. Mean stone sizes were 10.28 ± 2.46 mm, 10.45 ± 1.73 mm, and 9.23 ± 2.04 mm in groups A, B, and C, respectively (p = 0.474). There was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to stone location. Comparable energy was used to treat patients from the three groups. The overall 3-week stone-free rate was 53%: 58% in the tamsulosin group, 47% in the silodosin group, and 55% in the placebo group (p = 0.399). No significant differences were observed in the VAS scores reported by the groups at 6 hours (p = 1.254), 12 hours (p = 0.075), and 24 hours (p = 0.490). Overall, 12 complications were reported: 11 patients (7 in group C and 4 in group B) needed analgesics for colic, and 1 patient (group B) was surgically treated for Steinstrasse. Tamsulosin was superior to placebo (p = 0.008) and silodosin (p = 0.021) in preventing complications; no difference between silodosin and placebo (p = 0.629) was noted. Tamsulosin and silodosin are ineffective in increasing stone-free rate as well as early patients' discomfort after extracorporeal

  15. A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial Comparing Davanloo Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy as Internet-Delivered Vs Treatment as Usual for Medically Unexplained Pain: A 6-Month Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavooshi, Behzad; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Dolatshahi, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) can effectively decrease pain intensity and improve quality of life in patients with medically unexplained pain. Understanding that not all patients with medically unexplained pain have access to in-person ISTDP, this study aims to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-delivered ISTDP for individuals with medically unexplained pain using Skype in comparison with treatment as usual. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 patients were randomly allocated into Internet-delivered ISTDP (n = 50) and treatment-as- usual (n = 50) groups. Treatment intervention consisted of 16 weekly, hour-long therapy sessions. The primary outcome was perceived pain assessed using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. The secondary outcome included Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and Quality-of-Life Inventory. Blind assessments were conducted at the baseline, posttreatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. In the intention-to-treat analysis, pain symptoms in the intervention group were significantly reduced (p Skype can significantly improve pain intensity and clinical symptoms of medically unexplained pain. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated levels of endothelial cell-derived microparticles following short-term withdrawal of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Ferry, Berne; Stradling, John; Kohler, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with impaired endothelial function; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are not completely understood. Cell-derived microparticles may provide a link between obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effect of a 2-week withdrawal of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on levels of circulating microparticles. Forty-one obstructive sleep apnea patients established on CPAP treatment were randomized to either CPAP withdrawal (subtherapeutic CPAP) or continuing therapeutic CPAP, for 2 weeks. Polysomnography was performed and circulating levels of microparticles were analyzed by flow cytometry at baseline and 2 weeks. CPAP withdrawal led to a recurrence of obstructive sleep apnea. Levels of CD62E+ endothelium-derived microparticles increased significantly in the CPAP withdrawal group compared to the continuing therapeutic CPAP group (median difference in change +32.4 per µl; 95% CI +7.3 to +64.1 per µl, p = 0.010). CPAP withdrawal was not associated with a statistically significant increase in granulocyte, leukocyte, and platelet-derived microparticles when compared with therapeutic CPAP. Short-term withdrawal of CPAP therapy leads to a significant increase in endothelium-derived microparticles, suggesting that microparticle formation may be causally linked to obstructive sleep apnea and may promote endothelial activation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Does a single gait training session performed either overground or on a treadmill induce specific short-term effects on gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Zory, Raphael; Bensmail, Djamel; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Gait training for patients with hemiparesis is carried out independently overground or on a treadmill. Several studies have shown differences in hemiparetic gait parameters during overground versus treadmill walking. However, few studies have compared the effects of these 2 gait training conditions on gait parameters, and no study has compared the short-term effects of these techniques on all biomechanical gait parameters. To determine whether a gait training session performed overground or on a treadmill induces specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis. Twenty-six subjects with hemiparesis were randomly assigned to a single session of either overground or treadmill gait training. The short-term effects on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameters were assessed using gait analysis before and immediately after the training and after a 20-minute rest. Speed, cadence, percentage of single support phase, peak knee extension, peak propulsion, and braking on the paretic side were significantly increased after the gait training session. However, there were no specific changes dependent on the type of gait training performed (overground or on a treadmill). A gait training session performed by subjects with hemiparesis overground or on a treadmill did not induce specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters. The increase in gait velocity that followed a gait training session seemed to reflect specific modifications of the paretic lower limb and adaptation of the nonparetic lower limb.

  18. The effect of short-term low-energy ultraviolet B irradiation on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: A randomized single-blinded controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The importance of vitamin D on bone health and osteoporosis was studied by many researchers. The main role of the Vitamin D is to absorb calcium and phosphate and increase bone mineralization. Older people are at an increased risk of the inadequate vitamin D production in the skin because of lower sun exposure and reduced ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D. Objective. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of short-term (2 weeks low energy UVB irradiation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis using bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Methods. A three-month, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at the University hospital in Daegu, Republic of Korea. Fifty-two postmenopausal Korean women (older than 65 years with osteoporosis were randomly allocated to have either low energy UVB or placebo for 30 minutes a day for two weeks of treatment during winter. Laboratory analysis and physical examination before and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment were carried out and BMD was measured before and 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. The effects of time and treatment interaction between these two groups were evaluated by repeated-measure two-factor analysis, and subgroup analysis was performed to examine UVB effect on the vitamin D insufficient group [serum 25(OHD3 concentration <30 ng/mL]. Results. In vitamin D insufficient group, the effect of UVB irradiation on vitamin D and bone ALP as well as additional benefit on bone formation was confirmed. The vitamin D insufficient group showed statistically significant increment in serum 25(OHD3 compared with the normal group (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference between two groups in the other bone turnover markers, such as serum calcium, PTH-C, serum osteocalcin, serum CTX and BMD. Conclusion. Low-energy-short-term UVB radiation for postmenopausal women may be of use in vitamin D

  19. An adaptive random search for short term generation scheduling with network constraints.

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    J A Marmolejo

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive random search approach to address a short term generation scheduling with network constraints, which determines the startup and shutdown schedules of thermal units over a given planning horizon. In this model, we consider the transmission network through capacity limits and line losses. The mathematical model is stated in the form of a Mixed Integer Non Linear Problem with binary variables. The proposed heuristic is a population-based method that generates a set of new potential solutions via a random search strategy. The random search is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The main key of the proposed method is that the noise level of the random search is adaptively controlled in order to exploring and exploiting the entire search space. In order to improve the solutions, we consider coupling a local search into random search process. Several test systems are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic. We use a commercial optimizer to compare the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed method. The solution of the proposed algorithm showed a significant reduction in computational effort with respect to the full-scale outer approximation commercial solver. Numerical results show the potential and robustness of our approach.

  20. Short-term effect of add on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular functions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasukeerthi, Padakandla; Mooventhan, A; Manjunath, N K

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. Though various studies have reported the beneficial effect of Yoga in patient with T2DM, there is a lack of study in combination with bell pepper and yoga. Hence, the present study aims at evaluating short-term effect of add on bell pepper juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular variables in patients with T2DM. Fifty T2DM subjects with the age varied from 34 to 69-years were recruited and randomly divided into either study group or control group. The study group received 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT while the control group received only IAYT for 4-consecutive days. Baseline and post-test assessments were taken before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for the social sciences, version-16. Results of this study showed no significant difference in overall (fasting and post prandial) blood glucose level in the study group compared with control group. However, a significant reduction in Post prandial blood glucose (PPBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), rate pressure product (RPP) and Double product (Do-P) was observed in the study group compared with control group. Results of this study suggest that though an addition of 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT is not more effective in reducing fasting blood glucose, it may be more effective in reducing PPBG, SBP, PP, RPP and Do-P than IAYT alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-Term High-Dose Vitamin E to Prevent Contrast Medium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Elective Coronary Angiography: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Yousef; Khademvatani, Kamal; Rahimi, Behzad; Khoshfetrat, Mehran; Arjmand, Nasim; Seyyed-Mohammadzad, Mir-Hossein

    2016-03-15

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a leading cause of acquired renal impairment. The effects of antioxidants have been conflicting regarding the prevention of CIAKI. We performed a study of vitamin E use to decrease CIAKI in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. In a placebo-controlled randomized trial at 2 centers in Iran, 300 patients with chronic kidney disease-defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate vitamin E 12 hours before plus 400 mg vitamin E 2 hours before coronary angiography or to receive placebo. The primary end point was the development of CIAKI, defined as an increase ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% in serum creatinine that peaked within 72 hours. Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, CIAKI developed in 10 (6.7%) and 21 (14.1%) patients in the vitamin E and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.037). Change in white blood cell count from baseline to peak value was greater in the vitamin E group compared with the placebo group (-500 [-1500 to 200] versus 100 [-900 to 600]×10(3)/mL, P=0.001). In multivariate analysis, vitamin E (odds ratio 0.408, 95% CI 0.170-0.982, P=0.045) and baseline Mehran score (odds ratio 1.257, 95% CI 1.007-1.569; P=0.043) predicted CIAKI. Prophylactic short-term high-dose vitamin E combined with 0.9% saline infusion is superior to placebo for prevention of CIAKI in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT02070679. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Short-term effect of ultrasound-guided low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid injection on clinical outcomes and imaging changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle and foot joints. A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Chih; Lee, Si-Huei; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Liu, Fu-Wei; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chan, Rai-Chi; Chou, Chen-Liang

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into rheumatoid arthritis ankles and feet can achieve improvement in foot function and reduce synovial hyper-vascularization. Forty-four patients with RA having unilateral or bilateral painful ankle and foot involvement (N = 75) were studied. All the patients were randomized to receive HA (N = 40) or lidocaine (LI) (N = 35) injection at 2-week intervals; Clinical assessments were performed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and foot function index (FFI total ) including subscales of pain (FFI pain) before injection at baseline, 4 weeks (first evaluation) and 12 weeks (secondary evaluation). Imaging evaluation based on color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and synovitis scores was performed simultaneously. HA injection improved the VAS score (p = .009), FFI pain (p = .041), and FFI total (p = .032) considerably more than LI injections did at the first evaluation. The CDUS values at first evaluation (p = .005) and secondary evaluation (p injections reduced the CDUS values of more than half of the joints (54%, p = .042) while the control group exhibited no change (20%, p = .56). However, HA injection did not reduce the CDUS values more than LI injection did. Regarding the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy, no significant difference was observed between or within the groups in the synovitis scores. HA injection improved short-term foot function and pain reduction. HA injection may have a modest effect in reducing synovial hyper-vascularization. Further large-scale study is warranted to confirm this result.

  3. Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-07-29

    Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following

  4. Exposure to and recall of violence reduce short-term memory and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogliacino, Francesco; Grimalda, Gianluca; Ortoleva, Pietro; Ring, Patrick

    2017-08-08

    Previous research has investigated the effects of violence and warfare on individuals' well-being, mental health, and individual prosociality and risk aversion. This study establishes the short- and long-term effects of exposure to violence on short-term memory and aspects of cognitive control. Short-term memory is the ability to store information. Cognitive control is the capacity to exert inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Both have been shown to affect positively individual well-being and societal development. We sampled Colombian civilians who were exposed either to urban violence or to warfare more than a decade earlier. We assessed exposure to violence through either the urban district-level homicide rate or self-reported measures. Before undertaking cognitive tests, a randomly selected subset of our sample was asked to recall emotions of anxiety and fear connected to experiences of violence, whereas the rest recalled joyful or emotionally neutral experiences. We found that higher exposure to violence was associated with lower short-term memory abilities and lower cognitive control in the group recalling experiences of violence, whereas it had no effect in the other group. This finding demonstrates that exposure to violence, even if a decade earlier, can hamper cognitive functions, but only among individuals actively recalling emotional states linked with such experiences. A laboratory experiment conducted in Germany aimed to separate the effect of recalling violent events from the effect of emotions of fear and anxiety. Both factors had significant negative effects on cognitive functions and appeared to be independent from each other.

  5. A Low-Intensity Mobile Health Intervention With and Without Health Counseling for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes, Part 1: Baseline and Short-Term Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Norwegian Part of RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Arsand, Eirik; Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Ribu, Lis

    2014-12-11

    Self-management support for people with type 2 diabetes is essential in diabetes care. Thus, mobile health technology with or without low-intensity theory-based health counseling could become an important tool for promoting self-management. The aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of technology-supported self-management using the Few Touch Application (FTA) diabetes diary with or without health counseling improved glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, self-management, behavioral change, and health-related quality of life, and to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants after 4 months. A 3-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted in Norway during 2011-2013. In the 2 intervention groups, participants were given a mobile phone for 1 year, which provided access to the FTA diary, a self-help tool that recorded 5 elements: blood glucose, food habits, physical activity, personal goal setting, and a look-up system for diabetes information. One of the intervention groups was also offered theory-based health counseling with a specialist diabetes nurse by telephone for 4 months from baseline. Both intervention groups and the control group were provided usual care according to the national guidelines. Adults with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥7.1% were included (N=151). There were 3 assessment points: baseline, 4 months, and 1 year. We report the short-term findings after 4 months. HbA1c was the primary outcome and the secondary outcomes were self-management (Health Education Impact Questionnaire, heiQ), behavioral change (diet and physical activity), and health-related quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire). The data were analyzed using univariate methods (ANOVA), multivariate linear, and logistic regression. Data were analyzed from 124 individuals (attrition rate was 18%). The groups were well balanced at baseline. There were no differences in HbA1c between groups after 4 months, but there was a decline in all

  6. Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Web-Based Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, Michael A; Khan, Rishad; Wang, Christopher; Keren, Daniela; Tsui, Cindy; Garg, Ankit; Brar, Simarjeet; Valoo, Kamesha; Bonert, Michael; de Wolff, Jacob F; Heilman, James; Grover, Samir C

    2017-10-31

    Web-based resources are commonly used by medical students to supplement curricular material. Three commonly used resources are UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer Inc), digital textbooks, and Wikipedia; there are concerns, however, regarding Wikipedia's reliability and accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Wikipedia use on medical students' short-term knowledge acquisition compared with UpToDate and a digital textbook. This was a prospective, nonblinded, three-arm randomized trial. The study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2016. Preclerkship medical students were recruited from four Canadian medical schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants through word of mouth, social media, and email. Participants must have been enrolled in their first or second year of medical school at a Canadian medical school. After recruitment, participants were randomized to one of the three Web-based resources: Wikipedia, UpToDate, or a digital textbook. During testing, participants first completed a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) of 25 questions emulating a Canadian medical licensing examination. During the MCQ, participants took notes on topics to research. Then, participants researched topics and took written notes using their assigned resource. They completed the same MCQ again while referencing their notes. Participants also rated the importance and availability of five factors pertinent to Web-based resources. The primary outcome measure was knowledge acquisition as measured by posttest scores. The secondary outcome measures were participants' perceptions of importance and availability of each resource factor. A total of 116 medical students were recruited. Analysis of variance of the MCQ scores demonstrated a significant interaction between time and group effects (P<.001, η g 2 =0.03), with the Wikipedia group scoring higher on the MCQ posttest compared with the textbook group (P<.001, d=0.86). Access to hyperlinks, search

  7. Short-term impact of a stress management and health promotion program on perceived stress, parental stress, health locus of control, and cortisol levels in parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouli, Eleni; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George; Darviri, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 (DT1) usually experience high stress levels, as they have to cope with multiple demands in their everyday life. Different complex interventions have been implemented, which sometimes have led to opposite results. The purpose of this study was to assess stress levels in parents of children and adolescents with DT1 and to evaluate the effectiveness of a stress management program (progressive muscle relaxation combined with diaphragmatic breathing) in reducing perceived and parenting stress, increasing internal locus of control, promoting healthy lifestyle, and normalizing cortisol levels. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 44 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention group (performing relaxation for eight weeks, n = 19) and control group (n = 25). Pre-post measurements included cortisol levels, lifestyle characteristics, perceived stress, perception of health, and parenting stress. A statistically significant decrease in perceived stress (from 27.21 to 19.00, P = .001), as well as in parenting stress (from 85.79 to 73.68, P = .003), was observed in the intervention group. A statistically significant difference was found in perceived stress between the two groups after the intervention (Dmean = 6.64, P = .010). No significant difference was revealed between or within the groups in cortisol levels. Significant improvement was reported by the subjects of the intervention group in various lifestyle parameters. Relaxation techniques seem to have a positive impact on stress and on various lifestyle factors in parents of children and adolescents with DT1. Future research on long-term benefits of an intervention program comprising of various relaxation schemes is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dulce Wireless Tijuana: A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Impact of Project Dulce and Short-Term Mobile Technology on Glycemic Control in a Family Medicine Clinic in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo-Campos, María Cecilia; Contreras, Sonia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana; Menchaca-Díaz, Rufino; Fortmann, Addie; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2016-04-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes calls for innovative interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Project Dulce model, with and without wireless technology, on glycemic control and other clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥8% were recruited from Family Medical Unit #27 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Tijuana, México, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: Project Dulce-only (PD); Project Dulce technology-enhanced with mobile tools (PD-TE); or IMSS standard of care/control group (CG). Clinical and self-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 10. Time-by-group interactions and within-group changes were analyzed. HbA1c reductions from baseline to Month 10 were significantly greater in PD-TE (-3.0% [-33 mmol/mol]) and PD (-2.6% [-28.7 mmol/mol]) compared with CG (-1.3% [-14.2 mmol/mol]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). PD-TE and PD also exhibited significant improvement in diabetes knowledge when compared with CG (P improvements were observed on other clinical and self-report indicators but did not vary significantly across groups. Project Dulce with and without wireless technology substantially improved glycemic control and diabetes knowledge in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican family medical unit, suggesting that integrating peer-led education, nurse coordination, and 3G wireless technology is an effective approach for improving diabetes outcomes in high-risk populations.

  9. Dulce Wireless Tijuana: A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Impact of Project Dulce and Short-Term Mobile Technology on Glycemic Control in a Family Medicine Clinic in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sonia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana; Menchaca-Díaz, Rufino; Fortmann, Addie; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The global epidemic of diabetes calls for innovative interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Project Dulce model, with and without wireless technology, on glycemic control and other clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Subjects and Methods: Adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥8% were recruited from Family Medical Unit #27 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Tijuana, México, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: Project Dulce–only (PD); Project Dulce technology-enhanced with mobile tools (PD-TE); or IMSS standard of care/control group (CG). Clinical and self-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 10. Time-by-group interactions and within-group changes were analyzed. Results: HbA1c reductions from baseline to Month 10 were significantly greater in PD-TE (−3.0% [−33 mmol/mol]) and PD (−2.6% [−28.7 mmol/mol]) compared with CG (−1.3% [−14.2 mmol/mol]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). PD-TE and PD also exhibited significant improvement in diabetes knowledge when compared with CG (P diabetes knowledge in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican family medical unit, suggesting that integrating peer-led education, nurse coordination, and 3G wireless technology is an effective approach for improving diabetes outcomes in high-risk populations. PMID:26914371

  10. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  11. Effectiveness and short-term safety of modified sodium hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose at cesarean delivery: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Daniel G; Muscat, Jolene C; Santorelli, Jarrett; Chavez, Martin R; Ananth, Cande V; Smulian, John C; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2016-03-01

    The rising cesarean birth rate has drawn attention to risks associated with repeat cesarean birth. Prevention of adhesions with adhesion barriers has been promoted as a way to decrease operative difficulty. However, robust data demonstrating effectiveness of such interventions are lacking. We report data from a multicenter trial designed to evaluate the short-term safety and effectiveness of a modified sodium hyaluronic acid (HA)-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) absorbable adhesion barrier for reduction of adhesions following cesarean delivery. Patients who underwent primary or repeat cesarean delivery were included in this multicenter, single-blinded (patient), randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized into either HA-CMC (N = 380) or no treatment (N = 373). No other modifications to their treatment were part of the protocol. Short-term safety data were collected following randomization. The location and density of adhesions (primary outcome) were assessed at their subsequent delivery using a validated tool, which can also be used to derive an adhesion score that ranges from 0-12. No differences in baseline characteristics, postoperative course, or incidence of complications between the groups following randomization were noted. Eighty patients from the HA-CMC group and 92 controls returned for subsequent deliveries. Adhesions in any location were reported in 75.6% of the HA-CMC group and 75.9% of the controls (P = .99). There was no significant difference in the median adhesion score; 2 (range 0-10) for the HA-CMC group vs 2 (range 0-8) for the control group (P = .65). One third of the HA-CMC patients met the definition for severe adhesions (adhesion score >4) compared to 15.5% in the control group (P = .052). There were no significant differences in the time from incision to delivery (P = .56). Uterine dehiscence in the next pregnancy was reported in 2 patients in HA-CMC group vs 1 in the control group (P = .60). Although we did not identify any short-term

  12. Short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast and nodal targets under active breathing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moran, Jean M.; Balter, James M.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Marsh, Robin B.; van Herk, Marcel; Pierce, Lori J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients

  13. Impaired vascular function during short-term poor glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V.R.; Mathiassen, E.R.; Clausen, P.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of short-term poor glycaemic control on vascular function in Type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: Ten Type 1 diabetic patients, with diabetes duration of less than 10 years and normal urinary albumin excretion and ophthalmoscopy, were studied. All patients were examined af...

  14. Influence of Random Inclusion of Coconut Fibres on the Short term Strength of Highly Compressible Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani Sujatha, Evangelin; SaiSree, S.; Prabalini, C.; Aysha Farsana, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The choice of natural fibres for soil stabilization provides an economic, safe and eco-friendly alternative to improve the properties of soil. They are an important step forward toward sustainable development. An attempt was made to study the influence of the random addition of untreated coconut fibres on the short term strength of soil, its stress-strain behavior, compaction characteristics and index properties. The soil selected for the study is a highly compressible clay sample with a liquid limit of 52.5 % and plasticity index of 38 %. The soil has no organic content. The study reveals that the compaction curves tend to shift to the right side, indicating more plastic behavior with the addition of fibres. The addition of fibres also reorient the soil structure to a more dispersed fashion. A significant increase in the unconfined compressive strength is also observed. An increase of nearly 51 % in the unconfined compressive strength is observed at 0.75 % coir inclusion. The stress-strain behavior of the soil shows a shift toward more plastic behavior. The mode of failure of the soil specimen is by cracking and with fibre inclusion, length of the failure cracks is restrained as the fibre tends to hold the cracks together, resulting in shorter cracks, with significant bulging of the specimen at failure.

  15. Using Random Forests to Select Optimal Input Variables for Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving relatively high-accuracy short-term wind speed forecasting estimates is a precondition for the construction and grid-connected operation of wind power forecasting systems for wind farms. Currently, most research is focused on the structure of forecasting models and does not consider the selection of input variables, which can have significant impacts on forecasting performance. This paper presents an input variable selection method for wind speed forecasting models. The candidate input variables for various leading periods are selected and random forests (RF is employed to evaluate the importance of all variable as features. The feature subset with the best evaluation performance is selected as the optimal feature set. Then, kernel-based extreme learning machine is constructed to evaluate the performance of input variables selection based on RF. The results of the case study show that by removing the uncorrelated and redundant features, RF effectively extracts the most strongly correlated set of features from the candidate input variables. By finding the optimal feature combination to represent the original information, RF simplifies the structure of the wind speed forecasting model, shortens the training time required, and substantially improves the model’s accuracy and generalization ability, demonstrating that the input variables selected by RF are effective.

  16. Smart Demand for Improving Short-term Voltage Control on Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    customer integration to aid power system performance is almost inevitable. This study introduces a new type of smart demand side technology, denoted demand as voltage controlled reserve (DVR), to improve short-term voltage control, where customers are expected to play a more dynamic role to improve voltage...... control. The technology can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology is proven to be effective in case of distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, where the voltage presents a slow recovery characteristic due to deceleration...... of the motors during faults. This study presents detailed models, discussion and simulation tests to demonstrate the technical viability and effectiveness of the DVR technology for short-term voltage control....

  17. Dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G H; Liu, X S; Yu, F Q; Gu, E W; Zhang, J; Royse, A G; Wang, K

    2012-05-01

    Prior reports suggest that dreaming during anaesthesia is dependent on recovery time. Dreaming during sedation may impact patient satisfaction. The current study explores the incidence and content of dreaming during short-term sedation with sevoflurane or propofol and investigates whether dreaming is affected by recovery time. A total of 200 women undergoing first trimester abortion (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I) participated in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either sevoflurane or propofol for short-term sedation. Patients were interviewed upon emergence with the modified Brice questionnaire. The results showed the incidence of dreaming was significantly different between anaesthesia groups with 60% (60/100) of the sevoflurane group and 33% (33/100) of the propofol group (P=0.000). However, recovery time did not significantly differ between groups. In the sevoflurane group, a greater number of dreamers could not recall what they had dreamed about (P=0.02) and more patients reported dreams that had no sound (P=0.03) or movement (P=0.001) compared with dreamers in the propofol group. Most participants reported dreams with positive emotional content and this did not significantly differ between groups. Anaesthesia administered had no effect on patient satisfaction. The results suggest that the incidence of dreaming was not affected by recovery time. Patient satisfaction was not influenced by choice of sedative and/or by the occurrence of dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation.

  18. Visual discrimination and short-term memory for random patterns in patients with a focal cortical lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenlee, MW; Koessler, M; Cornelissen, FW; Mergner, T

    1997-01-01

    Visual discrimination and short-term recognition memory for computer-generated random patterns were explored in 23 patients with a postsurgical lesion in one of the cortical hemispheres. Their results are compared with those of 23 age-matched volunteers. In a same-different forced-choice

  19. Attentional control constrains visual short-term memory: Insights from developmental and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, D.E.; Nobre, A.C.; Scerif, G.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which attentional control biases mnemonic representations have attracted much interest but remain poorly understood. As attention and memory develop gradually over childhood and variably across individuals, assessing how participants of different ages and ability attend to mnemonic contents can elucidate their interplay. In Experiment 1, 7-, 10-year-olds and adults were asked to report whether a probe item had been part of a previously presented four-item array. The initial array could either be uncued, preceded (“pre-cued”) or followed (“retro-cued”) by a spatial cue orienting attention to one of the potential item locations. Performance across groups was significantly improved by both cue types and individual differences in children’s retrospective attentional control predicted their visual short-term and working memory span, whereas their basic ability to remember in the absence of cues did not. Experiment 2 imposed a variable delay between the array and the subsequent orienting cue. Cueing benefits were greater in adults compared to 10-year-olds, but they persisted even when cues followed the array by nearly 3 seconds, suggesting that orienting operated on durable short-term representations for both age groups. The findings indicate that there are substantial developmental and individual differences in the ability to control attention to memory and that in turn these differences constrain visual short-term memory capacity. PMID:20680889

  20. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  1. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with short-term beta-glucuronidase therapy in children with chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma due to dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E; Bassi, M S; Mora, E; Martelli, M; Gianni, S; Auricchio, G; Arabito, E; Rossi, P

    2006-01-01

    Enzyme potentiated desensitization, in which beta-glucuronidase (BG) is administered with low doses of mixed allergens, was proposed in the 1970s for specific immunotherapy. The BG currently commercially available in a purified and standardized preparation devoid of any allergen has been suggested as a regulator in the allergic immune response, acting on the cytokine-network of type 2 helper T cells. A double-blind trial with a single-dose of BG proved effective in preventing symptoms in adult patients with rhinoconjunctivitis due to grass pollens. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to confirm the safety and effectiveness of double-dose intradermal BG immunotherapy in preventing symptoms in children suffering from chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma due to dust mite. We randomized 125 children with dust-mite related chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma to the BG treated group (67) or the placebo group (58). All patients were screened before treatment (TO), at BG or placebo administration (T1 and T3), and at 3 and 9 months after T1 (T2 and T4). Drug intake and bronchial, nasal and ocular symptoms were recorded in a diary. Patients in both groups completed the study and BG treatment was well tolerated without side effects. Significant differences in symptoms were observed, in particular for conjunctivitis (P= .008). The total drug intake for allergic symptoms was significantly lower in the treated group than in the placebo group (P<. 01). BG immunotherapy is efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in allergic children. Moreover, good compliance with the administration of 2 doses per year and the lack of significant side effects makes the benefit/risk ratio of this treatment particularly favorable.

  2. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI foods seems to be beneficial for these patients, but additional studies are required before this treatment is recommended. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416960

  3. Circulating adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with or without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Results of a small, open-label, randomized controlled intervention trial in a subgroup receiving short-term exenatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidou, Savvoula; Karatzidou, Kyparissia; Tsakiri, Kalliopi; Gagalis, Asterios; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Goulis, John

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are both characterized by decreased circulating adiponectin. Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have been shown to induce adiponectin's expression. However, their interaction on clinical grounds needs to be further elucidated. DMT2 patients with abnormal aminotransferases were screened for NAFLD and subjected to liver biopsy (group A, n=17). A subgroup of patients (n=110), after assessed for eligibility criteria, was blindly randomized to receive either 6-month exenatide supplementation on glargine insulin (group B) or intense, self-regulated, insulin therapy alone (group C). Baseline patient characteristics: 49(38.6%) males, aged 63.1 ± 7.5 years-old, BMI 32.9 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), HbA1c 8.1 ± 1.2% (65 ± 14 mmol/mol), median ALT 23 U/L (range 5-126), AST 20 U/L (7-72). Group A had biopsy-proven NAFLD with a median Activity Score of 5 and fibrosis stage 3. Presence of NAFLD was accompanied by a significant decline in adiponectin (p<0.001), which was negatively correlated with the degree of ALT in all groups (Spearman's correlation, rs=-0.644, p<0.001). In the subgroup intervention trial, adiponectin was significantly raised in both groups B and C (t-Student for paired samples, p=0.001) by Δ=+24.2% (interquartile range 14.8-53.2%). This elevation was not associated with the type of intervention but with weight loss, glycemic control and reduction of C-reactive protein (one-way ANCOVA). Supplementation of exenatide to glargine insulin compared to standard insulin was: (i) effective in inducing weight loss, (ii) non-inferior in lowering HbA1c and (iii) non-inferior in increasing circulating adiponectin. Higher adiponectin was associated with lower ALT, suggesting a hepato-protective role for this cytokine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Portion controlled ready-to-eat meal replacement is associated with short term weight loss: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; D'Souza, Ninoshka; Priscilla, Divya J; Peris, Chandni Halcyon; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V

    2017-01-01

    Strategies to prevent and treat overweight/obesity are urgently needed. This study assessed the effect of a short-term intake of ready-to-eat cereal on body weight and waist circumference of overweight/obese individuals in comparison to a control group. A randomized, controlled 2-arm trial was carried out on 101 overweight/obese (Body Mass Index - 29.2±2.4 kg/m2) females aged 18 to 44 years, at St. John's Medical College Hospital. The intervention group received a low fat, ready to eat cereal, replacing two meals/day for two weeks. The control group was provided with standard dietary guidelines for weight loss and energy requirements for both groups were calculated similarly. Anthropometric, dietary, appetite and health status assessments were carried out at baseline and at the end of two weeks. At the end of two weeks, the mean reductions in body weight and waist circumference were significantly greater in the intervention group, -0.53 kg; 95% CI (-0.86 to -0.19) for body weight and -1.39 cm; 95% CI (-1.78, -0.99) for waist circumference. The intervention group had a significantly higher increase in dietary intakes of certain vitamins, fiber and sugar, and significantly higher reductions in total and polyunsaturated fats and sodium intakes, as compared to the control group (peat cereal could be effective for short-term weight loss, with some improvements in the nutrient intake profile. However, studies of longer duration are needed.

  5. Methods for short-term control of Imperata grass in Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Polesny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional control of Imperata brasiliensis grasslands used by farmers in the Peruvian Amazon is to burn the grass. The objective of this study was to compare different methods of short-term control. Biological, mechanical, chemical and traditional methods of control were compared. Herbicide spraying and manual weeding have shown to be very effective in reducing above- and below-ground biomass growth in the first 45 days after slashing the grass, with effects persisting in the longer term, but both are expensive methods. Shading seems to be less effective in the short-term, whereas it influences the Imperata growth in the longer term. After one year shading, glyphosate application and weeding significantly reduced aboveground biomass by 94, 67 and 53%; and belowground biomass by 76, 65 and 58%, respectively, compared to control. We also found a significant decrease of Imperata rhizomes in soil during time under shading. Burning has proved to have no significant effect on Imperata growth. The use of shade trees in a kind of agroforestry system could be a suitable method for small farmers to control Imperata grasslands.

  6. Prevalence of intrauterine adhesions after the application of hyaluronic acid gel after dilatation and curettage in women with at least one previous curettage: short-term outcomes of a multicenter, prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Angelo B; de Leeuw, Robert; van de Ven, Peter M; Bakkum, Erica A; Thurkow, Andreas L; Vogel, Niels E A; van Vliet, Huib A A M; Bongers, Marlies Y; Emanuel, Mark H; Verdonkschot, Annelies E M; Brölmann, Hans A M; Huirne, Judith A F

    2017-05-01

    To examine whether intrauterine application of auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (ACP) gel, after dilatation and curettage (D&C), reduces the incidence of intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). Multicenter; women and assessors blinded prospective randomized trial. University and university-affiliated teaching hospitals. A total of 152 women with a miscarriage of Gynecological Endoscopy classifications systems of adhesions. Intrauterine application of ACP gel after D&C for miscarriage in women with at least one previous D&C seems to reduce the incidence and severity of IUAs but does not eliminate the process of adhesion formation completely. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings and to evaluate the effect of ACP gel on fertility and reproductive outcomes. NTR 3120. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Force control tasks with pure haptic feedback promote short-term focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Gaofeng; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Focused attention has great impact on our quality of life. Our learning, social skills and even happiness are closely intertwined with our capacity for focused attention. Attention promotion is replete with examples of training-induced increases in attention capability, most of which rely on visual and auditory stimulation. Pure haptic stimulation to increase attention capability is rarely found. We show that accurate force control tasks with pure haptic feedback enhance short-term focused attention. Participants were trained by a force control task in which information from visual and auditory channels was blocked, and only haptic feedback was provided. The trainees were asked to exert a target force within a pre-defined force tolerance for a specific duration. The tolerance was adaptively modified to different levels of difficulty to elicit full participant engagement. Three attention tests showed significant changes in different aspects of focused attention in participants who had been trained as compared with those who had not, thereby illustrating the role of haptic-based sensory-motor tasks in the promotion of short-term focused attention. The findings highlight the potential value of haptic stimuli in brain plasticity and serve as a new tool to extend existing computer games for cognitive enhancement.

  8. Early short-term management of control-actuator failures in a linear dynamic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Early short-term management of malfunction attempts to maintain system stability during the early development stages of a failure. This is achieved in two stages. First, the failure is partially diagnosed by comparing observed system behavior against the performance expected for each of the selected set of hypothesized malfunctions. Second, the normal controller is replaced by a compensatory controller whose aim is to maintain system stability while compensating for the failure. Malfunctions involving control actuators are studied here. The aim of this study is to develop a technique for choosing the set of hypothesized failures and compensatory controllers which assure that the state of the system remains within specified bounds for a given duration after initiation of failure, regardless of the precise temporal development of the failure

  9. Addition of topical pimecrolimus to once-daily mid-potent steroid confers no short-term therapeutic benefit in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, J M; Boguniewicz, M; Paller, A S; Hebert, A A; Gallagher, P R; McCormick, C; Parneix-Spake, A; Hultsch, T

    2007-08-01

    Combination therapy with pimecrolimus cream 1%, a topical calcineurin inhibitor (TCI), and fluticasone propionate cream 0.05% (FP), a mid-potency topical corticosteroid, may have a synergistic effect for treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) because their mechanism of action differs. To assess the efficacy of concomitant pimecrolimus twice daily/FP once daily vs. vehicle twice daily/FP once daily in patients with severe AD. An exploratory, 2-week, double-blind, randomized, within-patient study was conducted (n = 45). Two target areas of similar severity, size and location were assessed. Assessments included the modified Eczema Area and Severity Index (0-12 scale) (primary variable), localized investigator global assessment (0-4 scale) and Patients' Self-Assessment of Disease Severity (0-4 scale). Data for all variables were similar for the TCI/FP and vehicle/FP treatments. The efficacy observed for treatment of severe AD flares with this TCI/FP combination regimen was equivalent to that of vehicle/FP.

  10. Evaluation of Short-Term Changes in Serum Creatinine Level as a Meaningful End Point in Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Steven G; Zabetian, Azadeh; Ferket, Bart S; Zhou, Jing; Testani, Jeffrey M; Garg, Amit X; Parikh, Chirag R

    2016-08-01

    Observational studies have shown that acute change in kidney function (specifically, AKI) is a strong risk factor for poor outcomes. Thus, the outcome of acute change in serum creatinine level, regardless of underlying biology or etiology, is frequently used in clinical trials as both efficacy and safety end points. We performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials to quantify the relationship between positive or negative short-term effects of interventions on change in serum creatinine level and more meaningful clinical outcomes. After a thorough literature search, we included 14 randomized trials of interventions that altered risk for an acute increase in serum creatinine level and had reported between-group differences in CKD and/or mortality rate ≥3 months after randomization. Seven trials assessed interventions that, compared with placebo, increased risk of acute elevation in serum creatinine level (pooled relative risk, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 1.89), and seven trials assessed interventions that, compared with placebo, reduced risk of acute elevation in serum creatinine level (pooled relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.74). However, pooled risks for CKD and mortality associated with interventions did not differ from those with placebo in either group. In conclusion, several interventions that affect risk of acute, mild to moderate, often temporary elevation in serum creatinine level in placebo-controlled randomized trials showed no appreciable effect on CKD or mortality months later, raising questions about the value of using small to moderate changes in serum creatinine level as end points in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Short-Term Effectiveness of a Mobile Phone App for Increasing Physical Activity and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial (EVIDENT II Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; González-Viejo, Mª Natividad; Fernandez-Alonso, Mª Del Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Maria Soledad; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose-Angel; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-12-19

    The use of mobile phone apps for improving lifestyles has become generalized in the population, although little is still known about their effectiveness in improving health. We evaluate the effect of adding an app to standard counseling on increased physical activity (PA) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, 3 months after implementation. A randomized, multicenter clinical trial was carried out. A total of 833 participants were recruited in six primary care centers in Spain through random sampling: 415 in the app+counseling group and 418 in the counseling only group. Counseling on PA and the Mediterranean diet was given to both groups. The app+counseling participants additionally received training in the use of an app designed to promote PA and the Mediterranean diet over a 3-month period. PA was measured with the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire and an accelerometer; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener questionnaire. Participants were predominantly female in both the app+counseling (249/415, 60.0%) and counseling only (268/418, 64.1%) groups, with a mean age of 51.4 (SD 12.1) and 52.3 (SD 12.0) years, respectively. Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by 7-day PAR increased in the app+counseling (mean 29, 95% CI 5-53 min/week; P=.02) but not in the counseling only group (mean 17.4, 95% CI -18 to 53 min/week; P=.38). No differences in increase of activity were found between the two groups. The accelerometer recorded a decrease in PA after 3 months in both groups: MVPA mean -55.3 (95% CI -75.8 to -34.9) min/week in app+counseling group and mean -30.1 (95% CI -51.8 to -8.4) min/week in counseling only group. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet increased in both groups (8.4% in app+counseling and 10.4% in counseling only group), with an increase in score of 0.42 and 0.53 points, respectively (Pincreased more in the app+counseling than counseling only group

  12. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Akyol

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25 were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON, oat β-glucan (B-GLU, dark chocolate (DARK or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  13. β-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H Tanju

    2014-09-23

    The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  14. Short-term airing by natural ventilation - modeling and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, M; Heiselberg, P

    2009-10-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates traditional mechanical ventilation components with natural ventilation devices, such as motorized windows and louvers. Among the various ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and IAQ control. However, in order to promote a wider applications of these systems, an improvement in the knowledge of their working principles and the availability of new design and simulation tools is necessary. In this context, the paper analyses and presents the results of a research that was aimed at developing and validating numerical models for the analysis of buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation systems. Once validated, these models can be used to optimize control strategies in order to achieve satisfactory indoor comfort conditions and IAQ. Practical Implications Numerical and experimental analyses have proved that short-term airing by intermittent ventilation is an effective measure to satisfactorily control IAQ. Different control strategies have been investigated to optimize the capabilities of the systems. The proposed zonal model has provided good performances and could be adopted as a design tool, while CFD simulations can be profitably used for detailed studies of the pollutant concentration distribution in a room and to address local discomfort problems.

  15. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri; Marcello eRosa; Nafiseh eAtapour

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor ...

  16. How long-term dynamics of sediment subduction controls short-term dynamics of seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, S.; van Zelst, I.; van Dinther, Y.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the world's greatest earthquakes occur along the subduction megathrust. Weak and porous sediments have been suggested to homogenize the plate interface and thereby promote lateral rupture propagation and great earthquakes. However, the importance of sediment thickness, let alone their physical role, is not yet unequivocally established. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis of a global database of 62 subduction segments, we confirm that sediment thickness is one of the key parameters controlling the maximum magnitude a megathrust can generate. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations highlighted that the occurrence of great earthquakes on sediment-rich subduction segments is very unlikely (p-value≪0.05) related to pure chance. To understand how sediments in the subduction channel regulate earthquake size, this study extends and demystifies multivariate, spatiotemporally limited data through numerical modeling. We use the 2D Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical modeling approach to simulate both the long- and short-term dynamics of subduction and related seismogenesis (van Dinther et al., JGR, 2013). These models solve for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy using a visco-elasto-plastic rheology with rate-dependent friction. Results show that subducted sediments have a strong influence on the long-term evolution of the convergent margin. Increasing the sediment thickness on the incoming plate from 0 to 6 km causes a decrease of slab dip from 23° to 10°. This, in addition to increased radiogenic heating, extends isotherms, thereby widening the seismogenic portion of the megathrust from 80 to 150 km. Consequently, over tens of thousands of years, we observe that the maximum moment magnitude of megathrust earthquakes increases from 8.2 to 9.2 for these shallower and warmer interfaces. In addition, we observe more and larger splay faults, which could enhance vertical seafloor displacements. These results highlight the primary role of subducted sediments in

  17. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  19. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  20. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  1. Photodynamic therapy in non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: short term randomized clinical trial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, C.; Palaia, G.; Loskutova, E.; Libotte, F.; Kornblit, R.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease due to exposition to plaque and tartar. Conventional treatments consist of scaling and root planing (SRP) and antibiotics administration. Among them encouraging results have been obtained using alternative protocols, like the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT). Aim of the Study: Evaluation of PDT effects added to conventional methods. Materials and Methods: 11 patients (4M/7F, 37-67 years aged, non-smoking) affected by untreated chronic periodontal disease, with >3mm pockets in at least 4 teeth were divided in two groups, test and control group. Each patient had to made full-intraoral before and after the treatment. The test group received SRP+PDT, while the control group was subjected to SRP. The PDT was performed through the HELBO®TheraLite (Bredent Medical), diode laser battery powered 670nm with an output of 75mW/cm2. The Helbo Blue photosensitizer, containing methylene blue, was used. The exposure time to the laser effect was of 10'' for each site, for a total of 60'' at 3J/cm2. Results: Both groups had a significant improvement in the reduction of pocket depth (PD), above all in the test group. Statistical analysis was performed through the T-test, evaluating PD between the two groups p=0.96 (p> 0.05), resulting not statistically significant. Conclusion: PDT is a promising support to SRP, achieving a significant reduction in the pocket depth, but more cases are needed to confirm the validity of the used protocol.

  2. Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural control in unilateral chronic stroke patients: preliminary evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, I.J.W. van; Geurts, A.C.H.; Hendricks, H.T.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The short-term effects of whole-body vibration as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation on postural control were investigated in 23 chronic stroke patients. While standing on a commercial platform, patients received 30-Hz oscillations at 3 mm of amplitude in the frontal plane. Balance was

  3. Short-term genome evolution of Listeria monocytogenes in a non-controlled environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Reid A

    2008-11-01

    outbreak was caused by a L. monocytogenes strain that persisted in a food processing facility over 12 years and show that genome sequencing is a valuable and feasible tool for retrospective epidemiological analyses. Short-term evolution of L. monocytogenes in non-controlled environments appears to involve limited diversification beyond plasmid gain or loss and prophage diversification, highlighting the importance of phages in bacterial evolution.

  4. Towards the characterization of short-term memory of zebrafish: effect of fixed versus random reward location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Talpos, Andrea; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-02

    The zebrafish has been proposed as an efficient tool for the analysis of behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of learning and memory. However, compared to traditional laboratory rodents, it is a relatively newcomer. In fact, only limited information on its mnemonic and cognitive abilities has been obtained, and only a small number of learning and memory paradigms have been available for its testing. Previously, we have shown that zebrafish are capable of learning the systematic alternating sequence of reward location in a shuttle box task in which we evaluated behavioral responses manually. Here, we employ a computerized, automated version of this task. We study whether zebrafish can remember the prior location of a reward (the sight of conspecifics) when the location is fixed (constant), or when the sequence of the location of presentation randomly changes between the left and the right side of the experimental tank. We also analyze performance features including the swim speed of experimental fish as well as the temporal changes of the position of fish when the reward (stimulus) is not presented. Our results show that under both the fixed and randomly changing reward location conditions zebrafish exhibit a significant preference for the prior location of reward, albeit the preference is stronger under the fixed location condition. We conclude that adult zebrafish have short-term associative memory that can be induced and quantified in an automated manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term results of a prospective randomized evaluator blinded multicenter study comparing TVT and TVT-Secur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada Hamer, Maria; Larsson, Per-Göran; Teleman, Pia; Etén-Bergqvist, Christina; Persson, Jan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) with TVT-Secur in terms of efficacy and safety. We set out to enrol 280 stress incontinent women with a half time interim analysis of short-term cure and a continuous registration of adverse events. Of 133 randomized women, 126 were operated and 123 (TVT n = 62, TVT-Secur n = 61) available for 2 months follow-up. No significant differences were found between groups regarding demographics or grade of incontinence. At 2 months follow-up, subjective cure rate following TVT-Secur was significantly lower than for TVT (72% and 92%, respectively, p = 0.01). Three major complications occurred in the TVT-Secur group: tape erosion into the urethra, a tape inadvertently placed inside the bladder, and an immediate postoperative bleeding from the corona mortis. No major complications occurred in the TVT group. No significant differences were found between groups regarding perioperative bleeding, hospital stay, urge symptoms, or postoperative urinary tract infections. Median time for surgery was 13 and 22 min for TVT-Secur and TVT, respectively (p TVT-Secur procedure had a significantly lower subjective cure rate than the retropubic TVT procedure. Due to this, in addition to three serious complications in the TVT-Secur group, we decided to stop further enrolment after the interim analysis. We discourage from further use of the TVT-Secur.

  6. Eficácia a curto prazo do laser de baixa intensidade em pacientes com osteoartrite do joelho: ensaio clínico aleatório, placebo-controlado e duplo-cego Short-term efficacy of low-level laser therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ovanessian Fukuda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo foi designado para avaliar a eficácia a curto prazo da laserterapia de baixa intensidade (LBI na melhora da dor e função em pacientes portadores de osteoartrite (OA do joelho. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste ensaio clínico aleatório, duplo-cego e controlado 47 pacientes (79 joelhos de ambos os sexos portadores de OA do joelho, que foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos; grupo laser com 25 pacientes (41 joelhos e grupo placebo com 22 pacientes (38 joelhos. A LBI foi realizada três vezes por semana totalizando nove sessões, com uso do laser AsGa de 904nm, 60mW de potência média e 0,5cm² de área do feixe, sendo irradiados nove pontos no joelho com energia de 3,0J por ponto. O grupo placebo foi tratado com o mesmo aparelho de laser, porém com uma caneta selada. As avaliações Lequesne, escala visual numérica (EVN, Timed Up and Go (TUG, goniometria e dinamometria foram realizadas antes do início do tratamento e após as nove sessões da LBI. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada melhora significante da dor e função para todas as avaliações aplicadas no grupo laser. Quando comparado o grupo laser ao grupo placebo encontrou-se diferença significante para as avaliações EVN-Repouso e Lequesne. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com a LBI melhora a dor e função a curto prazo de pacientes portadores de OA do joelho.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT for improving pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with knee osteoarthritis (79 knees, of both genders, participated in this randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. They were randomly allocated to two groups: laser group with 25 patients (41 knees and placebo group with 22 patients (38 knees. LLLT was performed three times a week, totaling nine sessions, using a AsGa 904 nm laser with mean power of 60 mW and beam area of 0.5 cm². Nine points were

  7. Randomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, B D; Muhlestein, J B; Lappé, D L; May, H T; Carlquist, J F; Galenko, O; Brunisholz, K D; Anderson, J L

    2013-11-01

    Routine, periodic fasting is associated with a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Animal studies show that fasting may increase longevity and alter biological parameters related to longevity. We evaluated whether fasting initiates acute changes in biomarker expression in humans that may impact short- and long-term health. Apparently-healthy volunteers (N = 30) without a recent history of fasting were enrolled in a randomized cross-over trial. A one-day water-only fast was the intervention and changes in biomarkers were the study endpoints. Bonferroni correction required p ≤ 0.00167 for significance (p fasting intervention acutely increased human growth hormone (p = 1.1 × 10⁻⁴), hemoglobin (p = 4.8 × 10⁻⁷), red blood cell count (p = 2.5 × 10⁻⁶), hematocrit (p = 3.0 × 10⁻⁶), total cholesterol (p = 5.8 × 10⁻⁵), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0015), and decreased triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10⁻⁴), bicarbonate (p = 3.9 × 10⁻⁴), and weight (p = 1.0 × 10⁻⁷), compared to a day of usual eating. For those randomized to fast the first day (n = 16), most factors including human growth hormone and cholesterol returned to baseline after the full 48 h, with the exception of weight (p = 2.5 × 10⁻⁴) and (suggestively significant) triglycerides (p = 0.028). Fasting induced acute changes in biomarkers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and general health. The long-term consequences of these short-term changes are unknown but repeated episodes of periodic short-term fasting should be evaluated as a preventive treatment with the potential to reduce metabolic disease risk. Clinical trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01059760 (Expression of Longevity Genes in Response to Extended Fasting [The Fasting and Expression of Longevity Genes during Food abstinence {FEELGOOD} Trial]). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (ma...

  9. A randomized clinical trial evaluating plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) versus hyaluronic acid in the short-term treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mikel; Fiz, Nicolás; Azofra, Juan; Usabiaga, Jaime; Aduriz Recalde, Enmanuel; Garcia Gutierrez, Antonio; Albillos, Javier; Gárate, Ramón; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Padilla, Sabino; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    This multicenter, double-blind clinical trial evaluated and compared the efficacy and safety of PRGF-Endoret (BTI Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain), an autologous biological therapy for regenerative purposes, versus hyaluronic acid (HA) as a short-term treatment for knee pain from osteoarthritis. We randomly assigned 176 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis to receive infiltrations with PRGF-Endoret or with HA (3 injections on a weekly basis). The primary outcome measure was a 50% decrease in knee pain from baseline to week 24. As secondary outcomes, we also assessed pain, stiffness, and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; the rate of response using the criteria of the Outcome Measures for Rheumatology Committee and Osteoarthritis Research Society International Standing Committee for Clinical Trials Response Criteria Initiative (OMERACT-OARSI); and safety. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years, and 52% were women. Compared with the rate of response to HA, the rate of response to PRGF-Endoret was 14.1 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 27.6; P = .044). Regarding the secondary outcome measures, the rate of response to PRGF-Endoret was higher in all cases, although no significant differences were reached. Adverse events were mild and evenly distributed between the groups. Plasma rich in growth factors showed superior short-term results when compared with HA in a randomized controlled trial, with a comparable safety profile, in alleviating symptoms of mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee. Level I, randomized controlled multicenter trial. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Network with a Conditional Random Field Layer for Uyghur Part-Of-Speech Tagging

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    Maihemuti Maimaiti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uyghur is an agglutinative and a morphologically rich language; natural language processing tasks in Uyghur can be a challenge. Word morphology is important in Uyghur part-of-speech (POS tagging. However, POS tagging performance suffers from error propagation of morphological analyzers. To address this problem, we propose a few models for POS tagging: conditional random fields (CRF, long short-term memory (LSTM, bidirectional LSTM networks (BI-LSTM, LSTM networks with a CRF layer, and BI-LSTM networks with a CRF layer. These models do not depend on stemming and word disambiguation for Uyghur and combine hand-crafted features with neural network models. State-of-the-art performance on Uyghur POS tagging is achieved on test data sets using the proposed approach: 98.41% accuracy on 15 labels and 95.74% accuracy on 64 labels, which are 2.71% and 4% improvements, respectively, over the CRF model results. Using engineered features, our model achieves further improvements of 0.2% (15 labels and 0.48% (64 labels. The results indicate that the proposed method could be an effective approach for POS tagging in other morphologically rich languages.

  11. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

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    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  12. Servo-controlled hind-limb electrical stimulation for short-term arterial pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Shimizu, Shuji; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Shishido, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Atsunori; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2009-05-01

    Autonomic neural intervention is a promising tool for modulating the circulatory system thereby treating some cardiovascular diseases. In 8 pentobarbital-anesthetized cats, it was examined whether the arterial pressure (AP) could be controlled by acupuncture-like hind-limb electrical stimulation (HES). With a 0.5-ms pulse width, HES monotonically reduced AP as the stimulus current increased from 1 to 5 mA, suggesting that the stimulus current could be a primary control variable. In contrast, the depressor effect of HES showed a nadir approximately 10 Hz in the frequency range between 1 and 100 Hz. Dynamic characteristics of the AP response to HES approximated a second-order low-pass filter with dead time (gain: -10.2 +/- 1.6 mmHg/mA, natural frequency: 0.040 +/- 0.004 Hz, damping ratio 1.80 +/- 0.24, dead time: 1.38 +/- 0.13 s, mean +/- SE). Based on these dynamic characteristics, a servo-controlled HES system was developed. When a target AP value was set at 20 mmHg below the baseline AP, the time required for the AP response to reach 90% of the target level was 38 +/- 10 s. The steady-state error between the measured and target AP values was 1.3 +/- 0.1 mmHg. Autonomic neural intervention by acupuncture-like HES might provide an additional modality to quantitatively control the circulatory system.

  13. A pilot randomized crossover trial assessing the safety and short-term effects of pomegranate supplementation in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Matthew B; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Linke, Lori; Ruzinski, John; Ikizler, T Alp; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are highly prevalent in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and are linked to excess cardiovascular risk. This study examined whether short-term supplementation with pomegranate juice and extract is safe and well tolerated by MHD patients. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of pomegranate supplementation on oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, monocyte function, and blood pressure. Prospective, randomized, crossover, pilot clinical trial (NCT01562340). The study was conducted from March to October 2012 in outpatient dialysis facilities in the Seattle metropolitan area. Twenty-four patients undergoing MHD (men, 64%; mean age, 61 ± 14 years) were randomly assigned to receive pomegranate juice or extract during a 4-week intervention period. After a washout period, all patients received the alternative treatment during a second 4-week intervention period. Patients assigned to receive pomegranate juice received 100 mL of juice before each dialysis session. Patients assigned to receive pomegranate extract were given 1,050 mg of extract daily. The main outcome measures were safety and tolerability of pomegranate juice and extract. Additional secondary outcomes assessed included serum lipids, laboratory biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) and oxidative stress (plasma F2 isoprostanes and isofurans), monocyte cytokine production, and predialysis blood pressure. Both pomegranate juice and extract were safe and well tolerated by study participants. Over the study period, neither treatment had a significant effect on lipid profiles, plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, F2-isoprostane or isofuran concentrations, predialysis systolic or diastolic blood pressure nor changed the levels of monocyte cytokine production. Both pomegranate juice and extract are safe and well tolerated by patients undergoing MHD but do not influence markers of inflammation or oxidative stress

  14. Do TETRA (Airwave) base station signals have a short-term impact on health and well-being? A randomized double-blind provocation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    "Airwave" is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported "electrosensitivity" and of participants who served as controls. Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself.

  15. Cardiac complications associated with short-term mortality in schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia: a nationwide case-control study.

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    Ya-Tang Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature. METHODS: In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741, we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia. Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality. RESULTS: Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01. Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01, incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183 and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01. Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.

  16. A bilateral advantage in controlling access to visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jessica L; Delvenne, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on visual short-term memory (VSTM) has revealed the existence of a bilateral field advantage (BFA--i.e., better memory when the items are distributed in the two visual fields than if they are presented in the same hemifield) for spatial location and bar orientation, but not for color (Delvenne, 2005; Umemoto, Drew, Ester, & Awh, 2010). Here, we investigated whether a BFA in VSTM is constrained by attentional selective processes. It has indeed been previously suggested that the BFA may be a general feature of selective attention (Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2005; Delvenne, 2005). Therefore, the present study examined whether VSTM for color benefits from bilateral presentation if attentional selective processes are particularly engaged. Participants completed a color change detection task whereby target stimuli were presented either across both hemifields or within one single hemifield. In order to engage attentional selective processes, some trials contained irrelevant stimuli that needed to be ignored. Targets were selected based on spatial locations (Experiment 1) or on a salient feature (Experiment 2). In both cases, the results revealed a BFA only when irrelevant stimuli were presented among the targets. Overall, the findings strongly suggest that attentional selective processes at encoding can constrain whether a BFA is observed in VSTM.

  17. Short term impact of Tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudan, Christophe; Baume, Norbert; Emery, Caroline; Strahm, Emmanuel; Saugy, Martial

    2008-06-10

    Tribulus terrestris is a nutritional supplement highly debated regarding its physiological and actual effects on the organism. The main claimed effect is an increase of testosterone anabolic and androgenic action through the activation of endogenous testosterone production. Even if this biological pathway is not entirely proven, T. terrestris is regularly used by athletes. Recently, the analysis of two female urine samples by GC/C/IRMS (gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry) conclusively revealed the administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursors, even if the testosterone glucuronide/epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio and steroid marker concentrations were below the cut-off values defined by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To argue against this adverse analytical finding, the athletes recognized having used T. terrestris in their diet. In order to test this hypothesis, two female volunteers ingested 500 mg of T. terrestris, three times a day and for two consecutive days. All spot urines were collected during 48 h after the first intake. The (13)C/(12)C ratio of ketosteroids was determined by GC/C/IRMS, the T/E ratio and DHEA concentrations were measured by GC/MS and LH concentrations by radioimmunoassay. None of these parameters revealed a significant variation or increased above the WADA cut-off limits. Hence, the short-term treatment with T. terrestris showed no impact on the endogenous testosterone metabolism of the two subjects.

  18. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  19. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Ossmy

    Full Text Available Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement, manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  20. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures

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    Lyudmila T. Kovtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. Objective . The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively and their changes after cold acclimation. Design . Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days. Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. Results . It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1 – with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2 – medium and Group 3 – low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Conclusions . Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between

  1. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and non-verbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a non-verbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. PMID:26709746

  2. Behavior control in the sensorimotor loop with short-term synaptic dynamics induced by self-regulating neurons

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    Hazem eToutounji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and skills of living systems depend on the distributed control provided by specialized and highly recurrent neural networks. Learning and memory in these systems is mediated by a set of adaptation mechanisms, known collectively as neuronal plasticity. Translating principles of recurrent neural control and plasticity to artificial agents has seen major strides, but is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the agent's body and its environment. One of the important standing issues is for the agent to support multiple stable states of behavior, so that its behavioral repertoire matches the requirements imposed by these interactions. The agent also must have the capacity to switch between these states in time scales that are comparable to those by which sensory stimulation varies. Achieving this requires a mechanism of short-term memory that allows the neurocontroller to keep track of the recent history of its input, which finds its biological counterpart in short-term synaptic plasticity. This issue is approached here by deriving synaptic dynamics in recurrent neural networks. Neurons are introduced as self-regulating units with a rich repertoire of dynamics. They exhibit homeostatic properties for certain parameter domains, which result in a set of stable states and the required short-term memory. They can also operate as oscillators, which allow them to surpass the level of activity imposed by their homeostatic operation conditions. Neural systems endowed with the derived synaptic dynamics can be utilized for the neural behavior control of autonomous mobile agents. The resulting behavior depends also on the underlying network structure, which is either engineered, or developed by evolutionary techniques. The effectiveness of these self-regulating units is demonstrated by controlling locomotion of a hexapod with eighteen degrees of freedom, and obstacle-avoidance of a wheel-driven robot.

  3. Extended vs short-term buprenorphine-naloxone for treatment of opioid-addicted youth: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, George E; Poole, Sabrina A; Subramaniam, Geetha; Dugosh, Karen; Bogenschutz, Michael; Abbott, Patrick; Patkar, Ashwin; Publicker, Mark; McCain, Karen; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Forman, Robert; Vetter, Victoria; McNicholas, Laura; Blaine, Jack; Lynch, Kevin G; Fudala, Paul

    2008-11-05

    negative for hepatitis C at baseline were positive for hepatitis C at week 12. Continuing treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone improved outcome compared with short-term detoxification. Further research is necessary to assess the efficacy and safety of longer-term treatment with buprenorphine for young individuals with opioid dependence. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00078130.

  4. Obstacles to condom use: the combination of other forms of birth control and short-term monogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, J W; Suire, D M

    1998-03-01

    Two hundred thirty-seven college students involved in heterosexual relationships were surveyed to determine the effects of relationship type and use of forms of contraception other than condoms on condom use. Findings indicated that in the context of a short-term, monogamous relationship, the use of another form of birth control was associated with decreased condom use. In addition, 20% of the participants reported that they had wanted to use a condom for disease prevention on at least one occasion but had decided not to do so because they were using another form of contraception. Implications for preventive health are discussed.

  5. Home Computers and Child Outcomes: Short-Term Impacts from a Randomized Experiment in Peru. NBER Working Paper No. 18818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuermann, Diether W.; Cristia, Julian P.; Cruz-Aguayo, Yyannu; Cueto, Santiago; Malamud, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a randomized control trial in which approximately 1,000 OLPC XO laptops were provided for home use to children attending primary schools in Lima, Peru. The intervention increased access and use of home computers, with some substitution away from computer use outside the home. Beneficiaries were more likely to…

  6. A Bayesian Method for Short-Term Probabilistic Forecasting of Photovoltaic Generation in Smart Grid Operation and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Ferruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new short-term probabilistic forecasting method is proposed to predict the probability density function of the hourly active power generated by a photovoltaic system. Firstly, the probability density function of the hourly clearness index is forecasted making use of a Bayesian auto regressive time series model; the model takes into account the dependence of the solar radiation on some meteorological variables, such as the cloud cover and humidity. Then, a Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate the predictive probability density function of the hourly active power by applying the photovoltaic system model to the random sampling of the clearness index distribution. A numerical application demonstrates the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed forecasting method.

  7. Using the LHC control system - 2016 retrospective and short term plans

    CERN Document Server

    Crockford, G

    2017-01-01

    The paper will discuss the LHC control system performance during 2016 operation. It aims to answer the following questions: In retrospect, which controls facilities, if any, were missing and what could be improved? How did we perform on follow-up of requests from Evian 2015? Human errors committed while interacting with the control system are discussed and suggestions made for possible mitigation measures. Looking forward to EYETS (the extended year end technical stop), the planned control system changes and their impact will be presented.

  8. Differences between resource control types revisited : A short term longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/265818494; Vermande, Marjolijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138483515; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Vink, Gerko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323348793; Aleva, Liesbeth|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141299789; van der Meulen, Matty

    2018-01-01

    Hawley's influential resource control theory (RCT) posits that both coercive and prosocial strategies may yield social dominance, as indexed by resource control. Based on differences in youths’ relative use of these strategies, RCT a priori defines five distinct subtypes. Several studies by Hawley

  9. The Comparison Study of Short-Term Prediction Methods to Enhance the Model Predictive Controller Applied to Microgrid Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Hernández-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting, optimal power system operation and energy management play key roles that can bring significant operational advantages to microgrids. This paper studies how methods based on time series and neural networks can be used to predict energy demand and production, allowing them to be combined with model predictive control. Comparisons of different prediction methods and different optimum energy distribution scenarios are provided, permitting us to determine when short-term energy prediction models should be used. The proposed prediction models in addition to the model predictive control strategy appear as a promising solution to energy management in microgrids. The controller has the task of performing the management of electricity purchase and sale to the power grid, maximizing the use of renewable energy sources and managing the use of the energy storage system. Simulations were performed with different weather conditions of solar irradiation. The obtained results are encouraging for future practical implementation.

  10. Statistical Control Charts: Performances of Short Term Stock Trading in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumičić Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stock exchange, as a regulated financial market, in modern economies reflects their economic development level. The stock market indicates the mood of investors in the development of a country and is an important ingredient for growth. Objectives: This paper aims to introduce an additional statistical tool used to support the decision-making process in stock trading, and it investigate the usage of statistical process control (SPC methods into the stock trading process. Methods/Approach: The individual (I, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA and cumulative sum (CUSUM control charts were used for gaining trade signals. The open and the average prices of CROBEX10 index stocks on the Zagreb Stock Exchange were used in the analysis. The statistical control charts capabilities for stock trading in the short-run were analysed. Results: The statistical control chart analysis pointed out too many signals to buy or sell stocks. Most of them are considered as false alarms. So, the statistical control charts showed to be not so much useful in stock trading or in a portfolio analysis. Conclusions: The presence of non-normality and autocorellation has great impact on statistical control charts performances. It is assumed that if these two problems are solved, the use of statistical control charts in a portfolio analysis could be greatly improved.

  11. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  12. On the short-term predictability of fully digital chaotic oscillators for pseudo-random number generation

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-18

    This paper presents a digital implementation of a 3rd order chaotic system using the Euler approximation. Short-term predictability is studied in relation to system precision, Euler step size and attractor size and optimal parameters for maximum performance are derived. Defective bits from the native chaotic output are neglected and the remaining pass the NIST SP. 800-22 tests without post-processing. The resulting optimized pseudorandom number generator has throughput up to 17.60 Gbits/s for a 64-bit design experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.85%.

  13. On the short-term predictability of fully digital chaotic oscillators for pseudo-random number generation

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Salama, Khaled N.; Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a digital implementation of a 3rd order chaotic system using the Euler approximation. Short-term predictability is studied in relation to system precision, Euler step size and attractor size and optimal parameters for maximum performance are derived. Defective bits from the native chaotic output are neglected and the remaining pass the NIST SP. 800-22 tests without post-processing. The resulting optimized pseudorandom number generator has throughput up to 17.60 Gbits/s for a 64-bit design experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.85%.

  14. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    restrictions for the wind turbines behavior especially under grid faults. Wind turbines are requested to stay connected even during faults. These new requirements are challenging the control of the wind turbines and new control strategies are required to meet the target. This paper dealt...... with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink.......The increased penetration of wind power in the grid has led to important technical barriers that limit the development, where the stability of the system plays a key issue. Grid operators in different countries are issuing new grid requirements, the so-called grid codes that impose more...

  15. The effect of metabolic control on hemodynamics in short-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Hilsted, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1985-01-01

    Hemodynamics variables (heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, hepato-splanchnic blood flow, forearm blood flow, and plasma catecholamines) were measured during good (median blood glucose 4.7 mmol/L) and poor (median blood glucose 16.3 mmol/L) metabolic control in eight young, short...

  16. Modeling of short-term mechanism of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: object-oriented and acausal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánek, Tomáš; Kofránek, Jiří; Mateják, Marek

    2014-11-01

    This letter introduces an alternative approach to modeling the cardiovascular system with a short-term control mechanism published in Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 47 (2014), pp. 104-112. We recommend using abstract components on a distinct physical level, separating the model into hydraulic components, subsystems of the cardiovascular system and individual subsystems of the control mechanism and scenario. We recommend utilizing an acausal modeling feature of Modelica language, which allows model variables to be expressed declaratively. Furthermore, the Modelica tool identifies which are the dependent and independent variables upon compilation. An example of our approach is introduced on several elementary components representing the hydraulic resistance to fluid flow and the elastic response of the vessel, among others. The introduced model implementation can be more reusable and understandable for the general scientific community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term effects of a rights-based sexuality education curriculum for high-school students: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F; Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Chou, Chih-Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A

    2015-03-26

    An emerging model for sexuality education is the rights-based approach, which unifies discussions of sexuality, gender norms, and sexual rights to promote the healthy sexual development of adolescents. A rigorous evaluation of a rights-based intervention for a broad population of adolescents in the U.S. has not previously been published. This paper evaluates the immediate effects of the Sexuality Education Initiative (SEI) on hypothesized psychosocial determinants of sexual behavior. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with ninth-grade students at 10 high schools in Los Angeles. Classrooms at each school were randomized to receive either a rights-based curriculum or basic sex education (control) curriculum. Surveys were completed by 1,750 students (N = 934 intervention, N = 816 control) at pretest and immediate posttest. Multilevel regression models examined the short-term effects of the intervention on nine psychosocial outcomes, which were hypothesized to be mediators of students' sexual behaviors. Compared with students who received the control curriculum, students receiving the rights-based curriculum demonstrated significantly greater knowledge about sexual health and sexual health services, more positive attitudes about sexual relationship rights, greater communication about sex and relationships with parents, and greater self-efficacy to manage risky situations at immediate posttest. There were no significant differences between the two groups for two outcomes, communication with sexual partners and intentions to use condoms. Participation in the rights-based classroom curriculum resulted in positive, statistically significant effects on seven of nine psychosocial outcomes, relative to a basic sex education curriculum. Longer-term effects on students' sexual behaviors will be tested in subsequent analyses. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02009046.

  18. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  19. Assessing and comparing the short-term effects of TPB only and TPB plus implementation intentions interventions on snacking behavior in Iranian adolescent girls: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash; Omidvar, Nasrin; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based interventions is mixed. There is also mixed evidence on the effectiveness of adding implementation intentions to TPB-based interventions. In this study we assessed and compared the short-term effects of TPB-only intervention and TPB plus implementation intentions intervention on snacking behavior and intention to consume unhealthy snacks in Iranian adolescent girls. Three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Ten middle schools in Tehran (Iran). A total of 29 classes included 739 female adolescents (age range: 12-15 years). Intervention. Two brief interventions including TPB-only intervention and TPB plus implementation intentions intervention. Food frequency questionnaire and intentions at baseline, 10 days, and 3 months measuring snacking behavior and cognitions about unhealthy snack consumption, respectively. Hierarchical linear modeling to assess the interventions' effects. Both interventions successfully decreased intention to consume and consumption of unhealthy snacks at postintervention. Calculation of the effect sizes revealed that the TPB plus implementation intentions intervention was more effective than the TPB-only intervention. The effects remained significant at 3-month follow-up in the TPB plus implementation intentions intervention group only, although the effect size decreased. Overall, the study suggests that adding implementation intentions on top of TPB-based persuasive messages improves effectiveness and sustainability of desirable changes.

  20. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived...... experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient...... to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture....

  1. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, J.; Frigaard, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture.

  2. Cardiovascular autonomic control during short-term thermoneutral and cool head-out immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Bouhaddi, Malika; Gandelin, Emmanuel; Cappelle, Sylvie; Dumoulin, Gilles; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rouillon, Jean Denis; Regnard, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Moderately cold head-out water immersion stimulates both baro- and cold-receptors, and triggers complex and contradictory effects on the cardiovascular system and its autonomic nervous control. To assess the effects of water immersion and cold on cardiovascular status and related autonomic nervous activity. Hemodynamic variables and indexes of autonomic nervous activity (analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability) were evaluated in 12 healthy subjects during 3 exposures of 20 min each in the upright position, i.e., in air (AIR, 24-25 degrees C), and during head-out water immersion at 35-36 degrees C (WIn) and 26-27 degrees C (WIc). Plasma noradrenaline, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistances were reduced during WIn compared to AIR (263.9 +/- 39.4 vs. 492.5 +/- 35.7 pg x ml(-1), 116.5 +/- 3.7 and 65.4 +/- 1.7 mmHg vs. 140.8 +/- 4.7 and 89.8 +/- 2.8 mmHg, 14.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.3 +/- 0.9 mmHg x L(-1) x min, respectively) while they were increased during WIc (530.8 +/- 84.7 pg ml(-1), 148.0 +/- 7.0 mmHg, 80.8 +/- 3.0 mmHg, and 25.8 +/- 1.9 mmHg x L(-1) x min, respectively). The blood pressure variability was reduced to the same extent during WIc and Win compared to AIR. Heart rate decreased during WIn (67.8 +/- 2.7 vs. 81.2 +/- 2.7 bpm during AIR), in parallel with an increased cardiac parasympathetic activity. This pattern was strengthened during WIc (55.3 +/- 2.2 bpm). Thermoneutral WI lowered sympathetic activity and arterial tone, while moderate whole-body skin cooling triggered vascular sympathetic activation. Conversely, both WI and cold triggered cardiac parasympathetic activation, highlighting a complex autonomic control of the cardiovascular system.

  3. Probiotics for future caries control: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Chinnappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare mutans streptococci levels in saliva, before and after consumption of probiotic ice-cream and curds. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free children in the age group of 12-14 years were selected and equally divided into four groups I, II, III, IV. Children in group I and II were given 100 ml probiotic ice-cream and plain ice cream respectively and group III and IV were given 100 ml probiotic curd and plain curd respectively for a period of 7 days. Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, 1 hour after consumption and after 7 days intervention period using Mitis salivarius Bacitracin agar. The number of colonies was counted and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The study revealed a reduction in salivary mutans streptococci (MS counts after 1 hour in all the groups. However after 7 days, probiotic ice-cream and curd showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001 reduction in MS counts as compared to the control ice cream and curd. The difference in the reduction of MS counts with probiotic ice-cream and probiotic curd at 1 hour and 7 days was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The use of probiotic products could be an alternative strategy of displacing pathogenic microorganisms by probiotic bacteria and can thus be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization.

  4. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Short-term effect of black film covering on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng-bang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Li, Lin-han; Wu, Jin-yi; Yao, Bao-dong; Zhu, Shao-ping; Wei, Cheng-jian; Li, Fu-ping; Hu, Ben-jiao; Ren, Guang-hui; Yi, Ping; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of the black film covering combined with niclosamide on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions. A ditch with snails in Anxiang County was selected as the experimental sites. The ditch was divided into 3 groups: a film group, a niclosamide group, and a niclosamide and film group. The snails were surveyed before the test and 1, 3, 5, 7 days after the experiment. After the film covering, the highest temperature of the surface of soil was 63.7 degrees C on the first day, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.34 hours. On the second day, the highest temperature was 52.3 degrees C, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.96 hours. On the fourth day and fifth day, the temperature was lower than 30 degrees C, while the temperature was lower than 34 degrees C on the sixth day. On the seventh day of the experiment, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group on the soil surface were 16.36%, 58.40% and 53.57%, respectively. On the seventh day, the snail death rates of the film group, and the niclosamide and film group under the soil were 20.00% and 40.00%, respectively, while no snails were found under the soil in the niclosamide group 3 days after the experiment. In mesh bags, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group were 84.00%, 95.33% and 95.33%, respectively. The short-term effect of the black film covering on snail control is not obvious, and the black film covering does no promote the molluscicidal effect of niclosamide.

  6. What is Result: Short-term Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet Effective on
Postoperative Outcome in Lung Cancer Surgery? A Prospective Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na DU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that medium chain triglyceride (MCT diet was contribute to fast track recovery after surgery in patients with operation. In this study, the benefit of postoperative short term MCT diet support was investigated for non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent anatomic resection. Methods A prospective study was planned with the approval of our institutional review board. 117 lung cancer patients who underwent anatomic resection in a single medical group between December 2015 and March 2016 were randomized. 62 patients were applied a MCT diet. and 55 patients in the control group who were fed with only normal diet, and the serum albumin levels, anus exhaust time, chest drainage, chest drainage time, the hospitalization time of post operation, average hospital cost were analysed. Results The mean anus exhaust time in MCT group [(27.87±14.38 h] was significantly shorter than that in RDG group [(45.18±8.62 h] (P<0.001; The mean chest tube drainage time in MCT group [(75.40±48.41 h] were less than that in RDG group [(110.64±94.19 h] (P=0.025. The mean chest tube drainage volume in MCT group [395 mL] were less than that in RDG group [590 mL] (P=0.027. The hospitalization time of post operation was (5.26±2.96 d in MCT group against (6.73±3.99 d in RGD group (P=0.030. The serum albumin levels of postoperative in MCT group [(37.26±2.70 g/L] was significantly higher than that in RDG group [(35.92±3.12 g/L] (P=0.023. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that postoperative short term MCT diet is beneficial in postoperative gastrointestinal function fast recovered and shorten the hospitalization time in non-small cell lung cancer patients after surgery.

  7. Short-term hypertension management in community is associated with long-term risk of stroke and total death in China: A community controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengwu; Hao, Guang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Chen, Weiwei; Zhu, Manlu

    2016-11-01

    It is not fully clear whether the effect of short-term management in community can reduce the long-term risk of stroke OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate whether short-term hypertension management is associated with long-term incidence of stroke and total death in community health centers in China. Community controlled trail. Six community health centers (4 active, 2 control) in China, patients with hypertension. Patients were treated with normally therapy method. Patients were treated oriented by the Guideline for hypertension management. Two centers (Hebei and Zhejiang) from the Hypertension Control in Community (HCC) Project, which was conducted from 2005 to 2008, were randomly selected for this study. Four thousand hypertensive patients from these centers, who were under management for one year in the baseline, were followed up in 2013. The electronic health record system (2005-2008) was used to identify 2000 hypertensive patients, who were not included in HCC but lived in comparable community health center in the same province, as the control group. All baseline and follow-up data were collected using standardized questionnaires for stroke outcomes. Stroke. Of the 6000 participants, 3787 (63.1%) were eligible for analysis. At the time of follow-up, the average BP was kept in the lower level than that in baseline, and the control rate was 59.3%. After propensity-score matching, 110 strokes (2.0% vs 4.6%) and 141 deaths (1.4% vs 3.8%) were noted in the matched intervention and control groups (1078 pairs), respectively. Patients in the intervention group were less likely to experience a stroke or die than those in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.62, P stroke in hypertensive patients.

  8. Dual nitrergic/cholinergic control of short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs to striatal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Peter Blomeley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of nitric oxide and acetylcholine to modulate the short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs was investigated using current-clamp recordings in BAC mouse brain slices. Glutamatergic responses were evoked by stimulation of corpus callosum in D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSN, respectively. Paired-pulse stimulation (50 ms intervals evoked depressing or facilitating responses in subgroups of both D1-MSNs and D2 MSNs. In both neuronal types, glutamatergic responses of cells that displayed paired-pulse depression were not significantly affected by the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 100 µM. Conversely, in D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs that displayed paired-pulse facilitation, SNAP did not affect the first evoked response, but significantly reduced the amplitude of the second evoked EPSP, converting paired-pulse facilitation into paired-pulse depression. SNAP also strongly excited cholinergic interneurons and increased their cortical glutamatergic responses acting through a presynaptic mechanism. The effects of SNAP on glutamatergic response of D1-MSNs and D2-MSN were mediated by acetylcholine. The broad-spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (25 µM did not affect paired-pulse ratios and did not prevent the effects of SNAP. Conversely, the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist tubocurarine (10 µM fully mimicked and occluded the effects of SNAP. We concluded that phasic acetylcholine release mediates feedforward facilitation in MSNs through activation of nicotinic receptors on glutamatergic terminals and that nitric oxide, while increasing cholinergic interneurons’ firing, functionally impairs their ability to modulate glutamatergic inputs of MSNs. These results show that nitrergic and cholinergic transmission control the short-term plasticity of glutamatergic inputs in the striatum and reveal a novel cellular mechanism underlying paired

  9. Effects of modafinil on attention performance, short-term memory and executive function in university students: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alejandro; Mascayano, Franco; Lips, Walter; Painel, Andrés; Norambuena, Jonathan; Madrid, Eva

    2015-06-30

    Modafinil is a drug developed and used for the treatment of excessive lethargy. Even though very effective for sleep disorders, it is still controversial whether modafinil can improve performance in high-order cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was designed to evaluate the effect of modafinil (compared to placebo) on the cognitive functions of healthy students. 160 volunteers were recruited and allocated randomly to modafinil or placebo group, and were assessed using the Stroop Test, BCET test and Digit span test. We found a significant difference in favor of modafinil compared to placebo in the proportion of correct answers of Stroop Test in congruent situation. A significant shorter latency of modafinil group in the incongruent situation of Stroop test was also found. No differences were found in Digit Span, or BCET tests. The study demonstrated that modafinil does not enhance the global cognitive performance of healthy non-sleep deprived students, except regarding non-demanding tasks. In particular, this drug does not seem to have positive effects on mental processes that sustain studying tasks in the college population under normal conditions. We expect these findings to demystify the use of this drug and help decision making concerning pharmacological public policies.

  10. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of Upper Thoracic Manipulation on Myoelectric Activity of Sternocleidomastoid Muscles in Young Women With Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Paulo Fernandes; Packer, Amanda Carine; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immediate and short-term effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on pain intensity and myoelectric activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in young women with chronic neck pain. A randomized clinical trial was carried out involving 32 women with chronic neck pain (mean age, 24.8 ± 5.4 years) allocated to an experimental group and a placebo group. Three evaluations were carried out: baseline, immediate postintervention, and short-term postintervention (48-72 hours after intervention). Myoelectric activity of the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles was assessed at rest and during isometric contractions for cervical flexion and elevation of the shoulder girdle. Neck pain intensity was assessed at rest using a visual analog scale. Comparisons of the data were performed using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction. The level of significance was set at P 0.40). No statistically significant differences were found for any of the variables analyzed in the intergroup comparisons at the different evaluation times (P > .05). No statistically significant differences were found in the intragroup or intergroup analyses of the experimental and placebo groups regarding myoelectric activity of the cervical muscles or the intensity of neck pain at rest in the immediate or short-term postintervention evaluations. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Patterns of Change in Interpersonal Problems During and After Short-term and Long-term Psychodynamic Group Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Anette; Høglend, Per; Lorentzen, Steinar

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we compared the patterns of change in interpersonal problems between short-term and long-term psychodynamic group therapy. A total of 167 outpatients with mixed diagnoses were randomized to 20 or 80 weekly sessions of group therapy. Interpersonal problems were assessed with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems at six time points during the 3-year study period. Using linear mixed models, change was linearly modelled in two steps. Earlier (within the first 6 months) and later (during the last 2.5 years) changes in five subscales were estimated. Contrary to what we expected, short-term therapy induced a significantly larger early change than long-term therapy on the cold subscale and there was a trend on the socially avoidant subscale, using a Bonferroni-adjusted alpha. There was no significant difference between short-term and long-term group therapy for improving problems in the areas cold, socially avoidant, nonassertive, exploitable, and overly nurturant over the 3 years.

  12. Quantifying short-term foraging movements in a marsupial pest to improve targeted lethal control and disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockney, Ivor J; Latham, M Cecilia; Rouco, Carlos; Cross, Martin L; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a pest species subject to control measures, primarily to limit its ability to transmit bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock and for conservation protection. To better define parameters for targeted possum control and TB surveillance, we here applied a novel approach to analyzing GPS data obtained from 44 possums fitted with radio-tracking collars, producing estimates of the animals' short-term nocturnal foraging patterns based on 1-, 3- or 5-nights' contiguous data. Studies were conducted within two semi-arid montane regions of New Zealand's South Island High Country: these regions support low-density possum populations (control) or monitoring devices (for TB surveillance), set for > 3 consecutive nights at 150 m interval spacings, would likely place >95% of the possums in this type of habitat at risk of encountering these devices, year-round. Modelling control efficacy against operational expenditure, based on these estimations, identified the relative cost-effectiveness of various strategies that could be applied to a typical aerial poisoning operation, to reduce the ongoing TB vectorial risk that possums pose in the High Country regions. These habitat-specific findings are likely to be more relevant than the conventional pest control and monitoring methodologies developed for possums in their more typical forested habitat.

  13. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  14. Patient preference compared with random allocation in short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy with indicated addition of pharmacotherapy for depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Koelen, J.; Kool, S.; van Aalst, G.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Peen, J.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Depressed patients randomized to psychotherapy were compared with those who had been chosen for psychotherapy in a treatment algorithm, including addition of an antidepressant in case of early nonresponse. There were no differences between randomized and by-preference patients at baseline in

  15. Short-Term Hypocaloric High-Fiber and High-Protein Diet Improves Hepatic Steatosis Assessed by Controlled Attenuation Parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanow, Anita; Teutsch, Melanie; Walle, Hardy; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank; Stokes, Caroline S

    2016-06-16

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases and increases the risk of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Current standard treatment focuses on lifestyle interventions. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term low-calorie diet on hepatic steatosis, using the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) as quantitative tool. In this prospective observational study, 60 patients with hepatic steatosis were monitored during a hypocaloric high-fiber, high-protein diet containing 1,000 kcal/day. At baseline and after 14 days, we measured hepatic fat contents using CAP during transient elastography, body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum liver function tests and lipid profiles using standard clinical-chemical assays. The median age was 56 years (25-78 years); 51.7% were women and median body mass index was 31.9 kg/m(2) (22.4-44.8 kg/m(2)). After 14 days, a significant CAP reduction (14.0%; Pdiet, together with reductions of body composition parameters, serum lipids, and liver enzymes, pointing to the dynamics of hepatic lipid turnover.

  16. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  17. Short-term vegetation response following mechanical control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on the Virgin River, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Dudley, Tom; Lee, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Tamarisk (a.k.a. saltcedar, Tamarix spp.) is an invasive plant species that occurs throughout western riparian and wetland ecosystems. It is implicated in alterations of ecosystem structure and function and is the subject of many local control projects, including removal using heavy equipment. We evaluated short-term vegetation responses to mechanical Tamarix spp. removal at sites ranging from 2 to 5 yr post-treatment along the Virgin River in Nevada, USA. Treatments resulted in lower density and cover (but not eradication) of Tamarix spp., increased cover of the native shrub Pluchea sericia (arrow weed), decreased density and cover of all woody species combined, increased density of both native annual forbs and the nonnative annual Salsola tragus (prickly Russian-thistle), and lower density of nonnative annual grasses. The treated plots had lower mean woody species richness, but greater herbaceous species richness and diversity. Among herbaceous species, native taxa increased in richness whereas nonnative species increased in both species richness and diversity. Thus, efforts to remove Tamarix,/i> spp. at the Virgin River reduced vegetative cover contributing to fuel loads and probability of fire, and resulted in positive effects for native plant diversity, with mixed effects on other nonnative species. However, absolute abundances of native species

  18. Short-Term Changes in General and Memory-Specific Control Beliefs and Their Relationship to Cognition in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A. M.; Hultsch, David F.; Levy-Ajzenkopf, Judi; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hunter, Michael A.; Strauss, Esther

    2007-01-01

    We examined short-term changes in younger and older adults' control beliefs. Participants completed measures of general and memory-specific competence and locus of control on 10 bi-monthly occasions. At each occasion, participants rated their control beliefs prior to and following completion of a battery of cognitive tasks. Exposure to the set of…

  19. No short-term effects of calorie-controlled Mediterranean or fast food dietary interventions on established biomarkers of vascular or metabolic risk in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcina, Marijo; Brune, Maik; Kaese, Vareska; Zorn, Markus; Spiegel, Rainer; Vojvoda, Valerija; Fleming, Thomas; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Paul Nawroth, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the question whether the composition of supposedly 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' dietary regimes has a calorie-independent short-term effect on biomarkers of metabolic stress and vascular risk in healthy individuals. Healthy male volunteers (age 29.5 ± 5.9 years, n = 39) were given a standardized baseline diet for two weeks before randomization into three groups of different dietary regimes: fast food, Mediterranean and German cooking style. Importantly, the amount of calories consumed per day was identical in all three groups. Blood samples were analyzed for biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and metabolic stress after two weeks of the baseline diet and after two weeks of the assigned dietary regime. No dietary intervention affected the metabolic or cardiovascular risk profile when compared in-between groups or compared to baseline. Subjects applied to the Mediterranean diet showed a statistically significant increase of uric acid compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. Plasma concentrations of urea were significantly higher in both the fast food group and the Mediterranean group, when compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. No significant differences were detected for the levels of vitamins, trace elements or metabolic stress markers (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde and methylglyoxal, a potent glycating agent). Established parameters of vascular risk (e.g. LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine) were not significantly changed in-between groups or compared to baseline during the intervention period. The calorie-controlled dietary intervention caused neither protective nor harmful short-term effects regarding established biomarkers of vascular or metabolic risk. When avoiding the noxious effects of overfeeding, healthy individuals can possess the metabolic capacity to compensate for a potentially disadvantageous composition of a certain diet.

  20. Biological control of short-term variations in the concentration of DMSP and DMS during a Phaeocystis spring bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duyl, FC; Gieskes, WWC; Kop, AJ; Lewis, WE

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1995. short-term variations in the concentration of particulate and dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) were monitored in the western Wadden Sea, a shallow coastal region in open connection with the North Sea. Significant correlations were found

  1. Short-term intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis for elective rectal cancer surgery: results of a prospective randomized non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Kouki; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Kumamoto, Kensuke

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the non-inferiority of postoperative single-dose intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis to multiple-dose intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis in terms of the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing elective rectal cancer surgery by a prospective randomized study. Patients undergoing elective surgery for rectal cancer were randomized to receive a single intravenous injection of flomoxef (group 1) or five additional doses (group 2) of flomoxef after the surgery. All the patients had received preoperative oral antibiotic prophylaxis (kanamycin and erythromycin) after mechanical cleansing within 24 h prior to surgery, and had received intravenous flomoxef during surgery. A total of 279 patients (including 139 patients in group 1 and 140 in group 2) were enrolled in the study. The incidence of SSIs was 13.7% in group 1 and 13.6% in group 2 (difference [95% confidence interval]: -0.2% [-0.9 to 0.7%]). The incidence of SSIs was not significantly different in patients undergoing elective rectal surgery who were treated using a single dose of postoperative antibiotics compared to those treated using multiple-dose antibiotics when preoperative mechanical and chemical bowel preparations were employed.

  2. [Work-Related Medical Rehabilitation in Cancer Rehabilitation - Short-Term Results from a Cluster-Randomized Multicenter-Trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Bethge, Matthias

    2018-05-25

    Rehabilitation programs that support return to work become increasingly relevant for cancer survivors. In Germany, such programs were established as work-related medical rehabilitation (WMR). The study investigated whether WMR leads to better results compared to medical rehabilitation (MR). We report effects on secondary outcomes when the rehabilitation program was completed. Clusters of participants were randomly assigned to WMR or MR. Patients of working age and an elevated risk of not returning to work were included. The grade of implementation was assessed by dose delivered and dose received. Study outcomes were assessed using scales measuring functioning and symptoms, coping with illness as well as self-reported work ability. Treatment effects were estimated using mixed linear models. From 232 planned randomized intervention groups, 165 (71%) were realized. In total, 476 patients were included. Mean age of participants was 50.7 years (SD=7.3). Most frequent primary diagnoses were malignant neoplasms of the breast. Participants in the WMR program reported significantly better outcomes regarding quality of life (SMD=0.17-0.25), fatigue (SMD=0.18-0.27), coping with illness (SMD=0.17-0.22), and self-reported work-ability (SMD=0.16) compared to participants in MR program (all p<0.05). The results indicate a positive effect in favor of WMR for cancer patients with an elevated risk of not returning to work at the end of their treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Acute and Short-Term Toxicities of Conventionally Fractionated Versus Hypofractionated Whole Breast Irradiation in a Prospective, Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Schlembach, Pamela J.; Arzu, Isidora; Ballo, Matthew; Bloom, Elizabeth S.; Buchholz, Daniel; Chronowski, Gregory M.; Dvorak, Tomas; Grade, Emily; Hoffman, Karen E.; Kelly, Patrick; Ludwig, Michelle; Perkins, George H.; Reed, Valerie; Shah, Shalin; Stauder, Michael C.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy A.; Ensor, Joe; Baumann, Donald; Thompson, Alastair M.; Amaya, Diana; Davis, Tanisha; Guerra, William; Hamblin, Lois; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The most appropriate dose-fractionation for whole breast irradiation (WBI) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE To assess acute and six-month toxicity and quality of life (QoL) with conventionally fractionated WBI (CF-WBI) versus hypofractionated WBI (HF-WBI). DESIGN Unblinded randomized trial of CF-WBI (n=149; 50 Gy/25 fractions + boost [10–14 Gy/5–7 fractions]) versus HF-WBI (n=138; 42.56 Gy/16 fractions + boost [10–12.5 Gy/4–5 fractions]). SETTING Community-based and academic cancer centers. PARTICIPANTS 287 women age ≥ 40 years with stage 0–II breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery for whom whole breast irradiation without addition of a third field was recommended. 76% (n=217) were overweight or obese. Patients were enrolled from February 2011 through February 2014. INTERVENTION(S) FOR CLINICAL TRIALS CF-WBI versus HF-WBI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Physician-reported acute and six-month toxicities using NCICTCv4.0 and patient-reported QoL using the FACT-B version 4. All analyses were intention-to-treat, with outcomes compared using chi-square, Cochran-Armitage test, and ordinal logistic regression. Patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. RESULTS Treatment arms were well-matched for baseline characteristics including FACT-B total score (P=0.46) and individual QoL items such as lack of energy (P=0.86) and trouble meeting family needs (P=0.54). Maximal physician-reported acute dermatitis (P<0.001), pruritus (P<0.001), breast pain (P=0.001), hyperpigmentation (P=0.002), and fatigue (P=0.02) during radiation were lower in patients randomized to HF-WBI. Overall grade ≥2 acute toxicity was less with HF-WBI vs. CF-WBI (47% vs. 78%; P<0.001). Six months after radiation, physicians reported less fatigue in patients randomized to HF-WBI (P=0.01), and patients randomized to HF-WBI reported less lack of energy (P<0.001) and less trouble meeting family needs (P=0.01). Multivariable regression confirmed the superiority of HF-WBI in terms

  4. Cerebral hemodynamics and systemic endothelial function are already impaired in well-controlled type 2 diabetic patients, with short-term disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palazzo

    Full Text Available Impaired cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were found in selected subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with long-term disease. Our study aimed to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics, systemic endothelial function and sympatho-vagal balance in a selected population of well-controlled T2DM patients with short-term disease and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Twenty-six T2DM patients with short-term (4.40±4.80 years and well-controlled (HbA1C = 6.71±1.29% disease, without any complications, treated with diet and/or metformin, were consecutively recruited. Eighteen controls, comparable by sex and age, were enrolled also.FMD and shear rate FMD were found to be reduced in T2DM subjects with short-term disease (8.5% SD 3.5 and 2.5 SD 1.3, respectively compared to controls (15.4% SD 4.1 and 3.5 SD 1.4; p.05.In well-controlled T2DM patients with short-term disease cerebral hemodynamics and systemic endothelial function are altered while autonomic balance appeared to be preserved.

  5. The efficacy of short-term psycho-oncological interventions for women with gynaecological cancer: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerling, Ute; Jaeger, Carolin; Walz, Annette; Stickel, Anna; Mangler, Mandy; van der Meer, Elke

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to examine the efficacy of two psycho-oncological interventions in anxiety, depression, and self-perceived as well as physiological stress in inpatients with gynaecological cancer. Forty-five women were included in the trial. Thirty-five were categorized as being at high risk of anxiety and depression, and were randomized to either a single psycho-oncological therapy session or a single-session relaxation intervention. A significant decrease in anxiety [mean (t0) = 12, mean (t1) = 7.47, p = 0.001] and depression [mean (t0) = 9.71, mean (t1) = 6.35, p psycho-oncological intervention group. In the relaxation group, anxiety also significantly decreased [mean (t0) = 11.67, mean (t1) = 8.22, p = 0.003], whereas depression did not. A comparative analysis of both interventions showed a trend in favour of psycho-oncological therapy for the treatment of depression (F = 3.3, p = 0.078). However, self-reported stress (p = 0.031) and different objective stress parameters only significantly decreased in the relaxation group. Psycho-oncological interventions should represent an essential part of interdisciplinary care for gynaecological cancer patients. Both types of intervention may reduce anxiety. However, the single psycho-oncological therapy session might be slightly more effective in treating depression, whereas the single-session relaxation intervention seems to have a stronger effect on physiological stress parameters. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Short-term Effects of ASPIRA: A Web-based, Multimedia Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents in Romania: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Foley, Kristie L; Pénzes, Melinda; Paulik, Edit; Mihăicuţă, Ștefan; Ábrám, Zoltán; Bálint, Jozsef; Csibi, Monika; Urbán, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Although web-based, multimedia smoking prevention programs have been tested in several high-income countries, their efficacy in Central and Eastern Europe is unknown. The aim of this trial was to assess the short-term effects of ASPIRA, among Romanian and Hungarian speaking ninth graders in Tirgu Mures, Romania. ASPIRA is the Romanian acronym for the translated and adapted version of ASPIRE, "A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience," an evidence-based smoking prevention program originally developed to prevent tobacco use among high school students in the United States. Sixteen high schools in Tirgu Mures, Romania were randomized to receive five weekly sessions of the ASPIRA web-based, multimedia program or to a control condition. Socio-demographic data, psychosocial characteristics, and smoking behavior were collected from students at baseline and at 6 months. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the efficacy of the intervention on smoking initiation and current smoking among 1369 students. Never-smoker students in the intervention arm were 35% less likely to report smoking initiation 6 months after the baseline assessment (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.44-0.97). Reduced smoking initiation was observed most notably among students who were exposed to at least 75% of the ASPIRA program. There was no statistically significant effect of the intervention on current tobacco use (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.44-1.46). ASPIRA, an adapted version of the evidence-based, multimedia ASPIRE program that was originally developed and tested in the United States may decrease smoking initiation among multi-ethnic adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe. (1). Web-based, multimedia smoking prevention programs may be effective tools to prevent smoking initiation among multi-ethnic adolescent communities in Central and Eastern Europe. (2). The degree of exposure is critical, only high exposure to the multimedia smoking prevention program is associated with reduced

  7. Short-term combined effects of thoracic spine thrust manipulation and cervical spine nonthrust manipulation in individuals with mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaracchio, Michael; Cleland, Joshua A; Hellman, Madeleine; Hagins, Marshall

    2013-03-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the short-term effects of thoracic spine thrust manipulation combined with cervical spine nonthrust manipulation (experimental group) versus cervical spine nonthrust manipulation alone (comparison group) in individuals with mechanical neck pain. Research has demonstrated improved outcomes with both nonthrust manipulation directed at the cervical spine and thrust manipulation directed at the thoracic spine in patients with neck pain. Previous studies have not determined if thoracic spine thrust manipulation may increase benefits beyond those provided by cervical nonthrust manipulation alone. Sixty-four participants with mechanical neck pain were randomized into 1 of 2 groups, an experimental or comparison group. Both groups received 2 treatment sessions of cervical spine nonthrust manipulation and a home exercise program consisting of active range-of-motion exercises, and the experimental group received additional thoracic spine thrust manipulations. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and at a 1-week follow-up, and included the numeric pain rating scale, the Neck Disability Index, and the global rating of change. Participants in the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements (Ppain rating scale and Neck Disability Index at the 1-week follow-up compared to those in the comparison group. In addition, 31 of 33 (94%) participants in the experimental group, compared to 11 of 31 participants (35%) in the comparison group, indicated a global rating of change score of +4 or higher at the 1-week follow-up, with an associated number needed to treat of 2. Individuals with neck pain who received a combination of thoracic spine thrust manipulation and cervical spine nonthrust manipulation plus exercise demonstrated better overall short-term outcomes on the numeric pain rating scale, the Neck Disability Index, and the global rating of change.

  8. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  9. Vegetative filter strips efficiency controlling soil loss and trapping herbicides in two olive orchards at the short-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, José A.

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of water use in a semi-arid climate is based on an optimal use of rainwater adopting management practices that prevent and/or control runoff. This is a key point for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture due to the minimization of diffuse pollution associated to runoff and to sediment and chemical transport. One strategy is the establishment of vegetative filters strips that prevent pesticides (Stehle et al. 2011), herbicides (Vianello et al. 2005), fertilizers (Withers et al. 2009) and runoff-sediment (Campo-Bescós et al. 2013) from entering streams or surface water reservoirs. To evaluate the short-term risks associated with the use of herbicides a trial was designed in two olive groves located in Benacazón (Sevilla) and Cabra (Córdoba) both with an average steepness of 11%. Two different management systems were evaluated, bare soil and bare soil with vegetative filter strips. Pre-emergence herbicides were applied and analysed at the beginning of the trial by chromatography GC-MS and after each rainfall event both in soil and sediment. Runoff and soil losses were measured, as well. The results obtained from this study show that soil management practices such as, the use of vegetative filter strips results in a reduction of soil losses and runoff. This it is translated in the improvement of soil quality and a reduction of water pollution caused by the use of herbicides. This information will improve the understanding of insufficiently known aspects and it will help to increase the knowledge for a better implementation of sustainable management practices at a farm scale and at larger temporal scale. References: Campo-Bescós, M. A., Muñoz-Carpena, R., & Kiker, G. (2013) Influencia del suelo en la eficiencia de la implantación de filtros verdes en un distrito de riego por superficie en medio árido. En Estudios de la Zona no Saturada del Suelo, Vol. XI: 183-187. Stehle, S., Elsaesser, D., Gregoire, C., Imfeld

  10. Comparative randomized open-label trial on efficacy and safety of Persen® and Persen® Night herbal extracts in patients with short-term insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rachin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal sedatives serve an alternative to antipsychotics and hypnotics aimed to alleviate symptoms of anxious disorders and insomnia. Valeriana officinalis L., Mentha piperita L. and Melissa officinalis are most widely used in neurology as sedatives of herbal origin. We present the results of a randomized open-label trial on efficiency and safety of Persen® and Persen® Night containing extracts of the above mentioned plants in patients with short-term insomnia. The study consisted of 60 subjects of 18–65 y.o. (mean 42.4 ± 6.9 y.o. with short-term insomnia due to adjustment disorder or mixed anxiety-depressive disorders: 30 of them got Persen® 2 tablets a day and 30 – Persen® Night, 1 capsule 30–60 min before sleep during 4 weeks. The majority (76.5 % of patients referred the onset of insomnia with psychosocial traumatic stressor. Persen® Night’s main action was found on superficial sleep, number of night awakenings, sleep onset rate. At the end of the therapy with this substance 39.7 % of patients fell asleep in 10–15 min, and 92.2 % – in 30 min, accordingly, while for Persen® at 17.4 and 80.3 % accordingly (р < 0.05. In the meantime Persen® decreased the bad sleep perception at awakening and day somnolence, mostly attributed to the mood improvement and decrease of anxiety. Levels of efficacy and safety for both substances were significant, allowing to regard them as potential phytotherapeutic agent in the treatment of insomnia and mixed anxiety-depressive disorders.

  11. Short-term use of continuous glucose monitoring system adds to glycemic control in young type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in the long run: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukara-Radujković Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Balancing strict glycemic control with setting realistic goals for each individual child and family can optimize growth, ensure normal pubertal development and emotional maturation, and control long term complications in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of short-term continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS application in improvement of glycemic control in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM patients. Methods. A total of 80 pediatric T1DM patients were randomly assigned into the experimental and the control group. The experimental group wore CGMS sensor for 72 hours at the beginning of the study. Self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG levels and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels were obtained for both groups at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months. Results. There was a significant improvement in HbA1c (p < 0.001, in both the experimental and the control group, without a significant difference between the groups. Nevertheless, after 6 months the improvement of mean glycemia was noticed only in the experimental group. This finding was accompanied with a decrease in the number of hyperglycemic events and no increase in the number of hypoglycemic events in the experimental group. Conclusions. The results suggest that the CGMS can be considered as a valuable tool in treating pediatric T1DM patients, however further research is needed to more accurately estimate to what extent, if any, it outperforms intensive self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  12. A randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioural therapy versus short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy versus no intervention for patients with hypochondriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per; Birket-Smith, M; Wattar, U

    2011-01-01

    Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim of this ......Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim...... of this study was to test CBT for hypochondriasis in a centre that was not involved in its development and compare both CBT and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) to a waiting-list control and to each other. CBT was modified by including mindfulness and group therapy sessions, reducing the therapist...

  13. Randomised controlled trial evaluating the short-term analgesic effect of topical diclofenac on chronic Achilles tendon pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussin, Erin Rebecca; Cairns, Brian; Bovard, Jim; Scott, Alexander

    2017-05-04

    To determine if a topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) can provide short-term pain relief for chronic Achilles tendinopathy (CAT), in order to inform the development of a new rehabilitation protocol. Pilot double-blind, cross-over randomised controlled trial providing participants with tertiary care. The study was conducted at a single research centre in Vancouver, BC. Sixteen adults with unilateral CAT and three adults with bilateral CAT participated. Participants received two successive treatments (10% diclofenac gel or placebo gel) in random order over a 3-day period. There was a 1-week washout period between the treatments. Allocation was by simple randomisation, and the participants as well as the assessing/treating researcher were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was pain level (0-10) during tendon loading (hopping). Secondary outcome measures included pain at rest, pressure pain threshold of the Achilles tendon and symptom improvement. Nineteen adults participated in the study, and all were included in the analysis. Diclofenac gel significantly reduced the average pain during tendon loading (pdiclofenac. Pain at rest was decreased and pressure pain threshold increased with diclofenac treatment, but not with placebo gel. There were no observed or reported side effects of either treatment. In this small, short-term study, diclofenac was able to improve symptoms and reduce pain during tendon loading in participants with CAT, whereas placebo gel was not. A future study of diclofenac as a supplement to rehabilitation, with longer follow-up and powered to detect a difference between diclofenac and placebo, is indicated. ISRCTN60151284, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN60151284 ETHICS: UBC Clinical Research Ethics Board approval was obtained for this research. The certificate number of the ethics certificate of approval to conduct research is H15-00999. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  14. Placebo-controlled study of montelukast and budesonide on short-term growth in prepubertal asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Agertoft, Lone; Williams-Herman, Debora

    2007-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids and anti-leukotriene agents are widely used in the treatment of pediatric asthma. Although data on the effect of corticosteroids on growth are available, there are few such data on anti-leukotriene agents. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of montelukast on...... on short-term lower leg growth rate (LLGR) in prepubertal children with asthma.......Inhaled corticosteroids and anti-leukotriene agents are widely used in the treatment of pediatric asthma. Although data on the effect of corticosteroids on growth are available, there are few such data on anti-leukotriene agents. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of montelukast...

  15. Are intragastric N-nitroso compounds elevated after short-term acid suppression?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.M.P.; Hooi, J.D.; Brummer, R.J.M.; Stobberingh, E.E.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Are intragastric N-nitroso compounds elevated after short-term acid suppression? Houben GM, Hooi J, Brummer RJ, Stobberingh EE, Stockbrugger RW. Department of Gastroenterolgy, Academic Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. Publication Types: Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial

  16. A randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of a reintegration training program versus booster sessions after short-term inpatient psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, M.; Duivenvoorden, H.; Busschbach, J.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; van Tilburg, W.; Verheul, R.; Trijsburg, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although several studies show symptomatic improvements in patients with personality disorders after short-term inpatient psychotherapy, reintegration remains difficult. In this study the effectiveness of a specifically designed reintegration training program is investigated. One hundred twenty-eight

  17. A randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of a reintegration training program versus booster sessions after short-term inpatient psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Thunnissenl (Moniek); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); W. van Tilburg (Willem); R. Verheul (Roel); W. Trijsburg (Wim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough several studies show symptomatic improvements in patients with personality disorders after short-term inpatient psychotherapy, reintegration remains difficult. In this study the effectiveness of a specifically designed reintegration training program is investigated. One hundred

  18. Short-term adhesion and long-term biofouling testing of polydopamine and poly(ethylene glycol) surface modifications of membranes and feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Daniel J.

    2012-08-01

    Ultrafiltration, nanofiltration membranes and feed spacers were hydrophilized with polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) surface coatings. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes was evaluated by short-term batch protein and bacterial adhesion tests. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes and spacers was evaluated by continuous biofouling experiments in a membrane fouling simulator. The goals of the study were: 1) to determine the effectiveness of polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) membrane coatings for biofouling control and 2) to compare techniques commonly used in assessment of membrane biofouling propensity with biofouling experiments under practical conditions. Short-term adhesion tests were carried out under static, no-flow conditions for 1 h using bovine serum albumin, a common model globular protein, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common model Gram-negative bacterium. Biofouling tests were performed in a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) for several days under flow conditions similar to those encountered in industrial modules with the autochthonous drinking water population and acetate dosage as organic substrate. Polydopamine- and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol)-modified membranes showed significantly reduced adhesion of bovine serum albumin and P. aeruginosa in the short-term adhesion tests, but no reduction of biofouling was observed during longer biofouling experiments with modified membranes and spacers. These results demonstrate that short-term batch adhesion experiments using model proteins or bacteria under static conditions are not indicative of biofouling, while continuous biofouling experiments showed that membrane surface modification by polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) is not effective for biofouling control. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ultra-Short-Term Wind-Power Forecasting Based on the Weighted Random Forest Optimized by the Niche Immune Lion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in energy consumption has made the potential of wind-power generation tremendous. However, the obvious intermittency and randomness of wind speed results in the fluctuation of the output power in a wind farm, seriously affecting the power quality. Therefore, the accurate prediction of wind power in advance can improve the ability of wind-power integration and enhance the reliability of the power system. In this paper, a model of wavelet decomposition (WD and weighted random forest (WRF optimized by the niche immune lion algorithm (NILA-WRF is presented for ultra-short-term wind power prediction. Firstly, the original serials of wind speed and power are decomposed into several sub-serials by WD because the original serials have no obvious day characteristics. Then, the model parameters are set and the model trained with the sub-serials of wind speed and wind power decomposed. Finally, the WD-NILA-WRF model is used to predict the wind power of the relative sub-serials and the result is reconstructed to obtain the final prediction result. The WD-NILA-WRF model combines the advantage of each single model, which uses WD for signal de-noising, and uses the niche immune lion algorithm (NILA to improve the model’s optimization efficiency. In this paper, two empirical analyses are carried out to prove the accuracy of the model, and the experimental results verify the proposed model’s validity and superiority compared with the back propagation neural network (BP neural network, support vector machine (SVM, RF and NILA-RF, indicating that the proposed method is superior in cases influenced by noise and unstable factors, and possesses an excellent generalization ability and robustness.

  20. A self-administered method of acute pressure block of sciatic nerves for short-term relief of dental pain: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-08-01

    While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. This was a randomized, single-blind study. Hospital patients. Patients aged 16-60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. © 2014 The Authors. Pain Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  1. The effects of short-term fasting on tolerance to (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients: a randomized pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, Stefanie de; Vreeswijk, Maaike PG; Welters, Marij JP; Gravesteijn, Gido; Boei, Jan JWA; Jochems, Anouk; Houtsma, Daniel; Putter, Hein; Hoeven, Jacobus JM van der; Nortier, Johan WR; Pijl, Hanno; Kroep, Judith R

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects healthy cells against side effects of chemotherapy and makes cancer cells more vulnerable to it. This pilot study examines the feasibility of STF and its effects on tolerance of chemotherapy in a homogeneous patient group with early breast cancer (BC). Eligible patients had HER2-negative, stage II/III BC. Women receiving (neo)-adjuvant TAC (docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) were randomized to fast 24 h before and after commencing chemotherapy, or to eat according to the guidelines for healthy nutrition. Toxicity in the two groups was compared. Chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was quantified by the level of γ-H2AX analyzed by flow cytometry. Thirteen patients were included of whom seven were randomized to the STF arm. STF was well tolerated. Mean erythrocyte- and thrombocyte counts 7 days post-chemotherapy were significantly higher (P = 0.007, 95 % CI 0.106-0.638 and P = 0.00007, 95 % CI 38.7-104, respectively) in the STF group compared to the non-STF group. Non-hematological toxicity did not differ between the groups. Levels of γ-H2AX were significantly increased 30 min post-chemotherapy in CD45 + CD3- cells in non-STF, but not in STF patients. STF during chemotherapy was well tolerated and reduced hematological toxicity of TAC in HER2-negative BC patients. Moreover, STF may reduce a transient increase in, and/or induce a faster recovery of DNA damage in PBMCs after chemotherapy. Larger studies, investigating a longer fasting period, are required to generate more insight into the possible benefits of STF during chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01304251, March 2011

  2. The effects of short-term fasting on tolerance to (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Stefanie; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Welters, Marij J P; Gravesteijn, Gido; Boei, Jan J W A; Jochems, Anouk; Houtsma, Daniel; Putter, Hein; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Nortier, Johan W R; Pijl, Hanno; Kroep, Judith R

    2015-10-05

    Preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects healthy cells against side effects of chemotherapy and makes cancer cells more vulnerable to it. This pilot study examines the feasibility of STF and its effects on tolerance of chemotherapy in a homogeneous patient group with early breast cancer (BC). Eligible patients had HER2-negative, stage II/III BC. Women receiving (neo)-adjuvant TAC (docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) were randomized to fast 24 h before and after commencing chemotherapy, or to eat according to the guidelines for healthy nutrition. Toxicity in the two groups was compared. Chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was quantified by the level of γ-H2AX analyzed by flow cytometry. Thirteen patients were included of whom seven were randomized to the STF arm. STF was well tolerated. Mean erythrocyte- and thrombocyte counts 7 days post-chemotherapy were significantly higher (P = 0.007, 95 % CI 0.106-0.638 and P = 0.00007, 95 % CI 38.7-104, respectively) in the STF group compared to the non-STF group. Non-hematological toxicity did not differ between the groups. Levels of γ-H2AX were significantly increased 30 min post-chemotherapy in CD45 + CD3- cells in non-STF, but not in STF patients. STF during chemotherapy was well tolerated and reduced hematological toxicity of TAC in HER2-negative BC patients. Moreover, STF may reduce a transient increase in, and/or induce a faster recovery of DNA damage in PBMCs after chemotherapy. Larger studies, investigating a longer fasting period, are required to generate more insight into the possible benefits of STF during chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01304251 , March 2011.

  3. Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Mirshekar-Syahkal, Dariush; Rasor, Paul; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    Individuals with idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) believe they suffer negative health effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields from everyday objects such as mobile phone base stations. This study used both open provocation and double-blind tests to determine if sensitive and control individuals experience more negative health effects when exposed to base station-like signals compared with sham. Fifty-six self-reported sensitive and 120 control participants were tested in an open provocation test. Of these, 12 sensitive and 6 controls withdrew after the first session. The remainder completed a series of double-blind tests. Subjective measures of well-being and symptoms as well as physiological measures of blood volume pulse, heart rate, and skin conductance were obtained. During the open provocation, sensitive individuals reported lower levels of well-being in both the global system for mobile communication (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) compared with sham exposure, whereas controls reported more symptoms during the UMTS exposure. During double-blind tests the GSM signal did not have any effect on either group. Sensitive participants did report elevated levels of arousal during the UMTS condition, whereas the number or severity of symptoms experienced did not increase. Physiological measures did not differ across the three exposure conditions for either group. Short-term exposure to a typical GSM base station-like signal did not affect well-being or physiological functions in sensitive or control individuals. Sensitive individuals reported elevated levels of arousal when exposed to a UMTS signal. Further analysis, however, indicated that this difference was likely to be due to the effect of order of exposure rather than the exposure itself.

  4. Short term reproducibility of a high contrast 3-D isotropic optic nerve imaging sequence in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The optic nerve (ON) plays a crucial role in human vision transporting all visual information from the retina to the brain for higher order processing. There are many diseases that affect the ON structure such as optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Because the ON is the sole pathway for visual information from the retina to areas of higher level processing, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. Increased intracranial pressure has been shown to correlate with the size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the ON. These measures are generally taken at an arbitrary point along the nerve and do not account for changes along the length of the ON. We propose a high contrast and high-resolution 3-D acquired isotropic imaging sequence optimized for ON imaging. We have acquired scan-rescan data using the optimized sequence and a current standard of care protocol for 10 subjects. We show that this sequence has superior contrast-to-noise ratio to the current standard of care while achieving a factor of 11 higher resolution. We apply a previously published automatic pipeline to segment the ON and CSF sheath and measure the size of each individually. We show that these measures of ON size have lower short- term reproducibility than the population variance and the variability along the length of the nerve. We find that the proposed imaging protocol is (1) useful in detecting population differences and local changes and (2) a promising tool for investigating biomarkers related to structural changes of the ON.

  5. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Min-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tung, Yu-Tang; Kao, Chao-Chih; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg) supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg) and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC) turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  7. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks.

  8. The effects of short-term fasting on tolerance to (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients: a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S. de; Vreeswijk, M.P.; Welters, M.J.; Gravesteijn, G.; Boei, J.J.; Jochems, A.; Houtsma, D.; Putter, H.; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Nortier, J.W.; Pijl, H.; Kroep, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects healthy cells against side effects of chemotherapy and makes cancer cells more vulnerable to it. This pilot study examines the feasibility of STF and its effects on tolerance of chemotherapy in a homogeneous patient group

  9. Short-term efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogen Bård

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment efficacy of physical agents in osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK pain has been largely unknown, and this systematic review was aimed at assessing their short-term efficacies for pain relief. Methods Systematic review with meta-analysis of efficacy within 1–4 weeks and at follow up at 1–12 weeks after the end of treament. Results 36 randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs were identified with 2434 patients where 1391 patients received active treatment. 33 trials satisfied three or more out of five methodological criteria (Jadad scale. The patient sample had a mean age of 65.1 years and mean baseline pain of 62.9 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS. Within 4 weeks of the commencement of treatment manual acupuncture, static magnets and ultrasound therapies did not offer statistically significant short-term pain relief over placebo. Pulsed electromagnetic fields offered a small reduction in pain of 6.9 mm [95% CI: 2.2 to 11.6] (n = 487. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, including interferential currents, electro-acupuncture (EA and low level laser therapy (LLLT offered clinically relevant pain relieving effects of 18.8 mm [95% CI: 9.6 to 28.1] (n = 414, 21.9 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 26.5] (n = 73 and 17.7 mm [95% CI: 8.1 to 27.3] (n = 343 on VAS respectively versus placebo control. In a subgroup analysis of trials with assumed optimal doses, short-term efficacy increased to 22.2 mm [95% CI: 18.1 to 26.3] for TENS, and 24.2 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 31.3] for LLLT on VAS. Follow-up data up to 12 weeks were sparse, but positive effects seemed to persist for at least 4 weeks after the course of LLLT, EA and TENS treatment was stopped. Conclusion TENS, EA and LLLT administered with optimal doses in an intensive 2–4 week treatment regimen, seem to offer clinically relevant short-term pain relief for OAK.

  10. Short-term effectiveness of low dose liraglutide in combination with metformin versus high dose liraglutide alone in treatment of obese PCOS: randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensterle, Mojca; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Goričar, Katja; Janez, Andrej

    2017-01-31

    Liraglutide 3 mg was recently approved as an anti-obesity drug. Metformin is weight neutral, yet it could enhance the therapeutic index of GLP-1 agonist. We compared weight-lowering potential of liraglutide 1.2 mg in combination with metformin to liraglutide 3 mg monotherapy in obese PCOS. Thirty obese women with PCOS (aged 33.1 ± 6.1 years, BMI 38.3 ± 5.4 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to combination (COMBO) of metformin (MET) 1000 mg BID and liraglutide 1.2 mg QD (N = 15) or liraglutide 3 mg (LIRA3) QD alone (N = 15) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Both treatments led to significant weight loss (-3.6 ± 2.5 kg, p = 0.002 in COMBO vs -6.3 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.001 in LIRA3). BMI and waist circumference reduction in LIRA3 was greater than in COMBO (-2.2 ± 1.3 vs -1.3 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 , p = 0.05 and -4.2 ± 3.4 vs -2.2 ± 6.2 cm, p = 0.014, respectively). Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease of post-OGTT glucose levels. COMBO significantly reduced total testosterone and was associated with less nausea. Short-term interventions with COMBO and LIRA3 both led to significant improvement of measures of obesity in obese PCOS, LIRA3 being superior to COMBO. However, COMBO further improved androgen profile beyond weight reduction and was associated with better tolerability. The study was retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02909933 ) on 16 th of September 2016.

  11. Relative impact of short-term emissions controls on gas and particle-phase oxidative potential during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Dongqing; Shang, Jing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yang; Huo, Peng; Liu, Zhaoying; Schauer, James J.; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2018-06-01

    A field observation focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS) was conducted before, during, and after the 2015 China Victory Day Parade to understand the influence of short-term emissions controls on atmospheric oxidative activity. The hourly average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3, as well as gas and particle-phase ROS, were measured using a series of online instruments. PM2.5 concentrations during control days were significantly lower than non-control days, which directly lead to the "Parade Blue", yet reductions of most gaseous pollutants except SO2 were not so obvious as PM. Similarly, the control measures also led to a great loss of particle-phase ROS throughout the control period, while the reduction of ROS in gas phase was not obvious until the more stringent measures implemented since September 1. Furthermore, only weak positive correlations were observed among ROS and some other measured species, indicating ROS concentrations were affected by a number of comprehensive factors that single marker could not capture. Meanwhile, meteorological condition and regional transportation were also shown to be the minor factors affecting atmospheric oxidizing capacity. The results of this observation mainly revealed the control measures were conducive to reducing particle-related ROS. However, the reduction of gas-phase ROS activity was less effective given the menu of controls employed for the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. Therefore, short-term emissions controls only aimed to PM reduction and visibility improvement will produce the blue sky but will not equivalently reduce the gas-phase ROS. Supplemental control measures will be needed to further reduce gas-phase ROS concentrations.

  12. Modelling of long-term and short-term mechanisms of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: an object-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Canete, J; Luque, J; Barbancho, J; Munoz, V

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model that provides an overall description of both the short- and long-term mechanisms of arterial pressure regulation is presented. Short-term control is exerted through the baroreceptor reflex while renal elimination plays a role in long-term control. Both mechanisms operate in an integrated way over the compartmental model of the cardiovascular system. The whole system was modelled in MODELICA, which uses a hierarchical object-oriented modelling strategy, under the DYMOLA simulation environment. The performance of the controlled system was analysed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data, demonstrating the effectiveness of both regulation mechanisms under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Short-Term Outage Model of Wind Turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generators Based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a short-term wind turbine (WT outage model based on the data collected from a wind farm supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system. Neural networks (NNs are used to establish prediction models of the WT condition parameters that are dependent on environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and wind speed. The prediction error distributions are discussed and used to calculate probabilities of the operation of protection relays (POPRs that were caused by the threshold exceedance of the environmentally sensitive parameters. The POPRs for other condition parameters are based on the setting time of the operation of protection relays. The union probability method is used to integrate the probabilities of operation of each protection relay to predict the WT short term outage probability. The proposed method has been used for real 1.5 MW WTs with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs. The results show that the proposed method is more effective in WT outage probability prediction than traditional methods.

  14. Short-Term Wave Forecasting with AR models in Real-Time Optimal Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Time domain control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach conditions for optimal energy extraction. Autoregressive models revealed to be a promising approach to the prediction of future values of the wave elevation only from its past history. Results on real wave observations from different ocean locations show that AR models allow to achieve very good predictions for more than one wave period in the future if ...

  15. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  16. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  17. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  18. Cell-type specific short-term plasticity at auditory nerve synapses controls feed-forward inhibition in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav eSedlacek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward inhibition represents a powerful mechanism by which control of the timing and fidelity of action potentials in local synaptic circuits of various brain regions is achieved. In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we investigated the synaptic circuit associated with fusiform cells (FCs, principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN that receive excitation from auditory nerve fibers and inhibition from tuberculoventral cells (TVCs on their basal dendrites in the deep layer of DCN. Despite the importance of these inputs in regulating fusiform cell firing behavior, the mechanisms determining the balance of excitation and feed-forward inhibition in this circuit are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven feed-forward inhibition (FFI onto FCs. We find that in some FCs, excitatory and inhibitory components of feed-forward inhibition had the same stimulation thresholds indicating they could be triggered by activation of the same fibers. In other FCs, excitation and inhibition exhibit different stimulus thresholds, suggesting FCs and TVCs might be activated by different sets of fibers. In addition we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct modes of short-term plasticity. Feed-forward inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs in FCs exhibit short-term depression because of prominent synaptic depression at the auditory nerve-TVC synapse. Depression of this feedforward inhibitory input causes a shift in the balance of fusiform cell synaptic input towards greater excitation and suggests that fusiform cell spike output will be enhanced by physiological patterns of auditory nerve activity.

  19. Cell-type specific short-term plasticity at auditory nerve synapses controls feed-forward inhibition in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Miloslav; Brenowitz, Stephan D

    2014-01-01

    Feed-forward inhibition (FFI) represents a powerful mechanism by which control of the timing and fidelity of action potentials in local synaptic circuits of various brain regions is achieved. In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we investigated the synaptic circuit associated with fusiform cells (FCs), principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) that receive excitation from auditory nerve fibers and inhibition from tuberculoventral cells (TVCs) on their basal dendrites in the deep layer of DCN. Despite the importance of these inputs in regulating fusiform cell firing behavior, the mechanisms determining the balance of excitation and FFI in this circuit are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven FFI onto FCs. We find that in some FCs, excitatory and inhibitory components of FFI had the same stimulation thresholds indicating they could be triggered by activation of the same fibers. In other FCs, excitation and inhibition exhibit different stimulus thresholds, suggesting FCs and TVCs might be activated by different sets of fibers. In addition, we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct modes of short-term plasticity. Feed-forward inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in FCs exhibit short-term depression because of prominent synaptic depression at the auditory nerve-TVC synapse. Depression of this feedforward inhibitory input causes a shift in the balance of fusiform cell synaptic input towards greater excitation and suggests that fusiform cell spike output will be enhanced by physiological patterns of auditory nerve activity.

  20. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  1. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  2. Short-term effects of kinesio taping versus cervical thrust manipulation in patients with mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida M; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cleland, Joshua A; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada C; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-08-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To compare the effectiveness of cervical spine thrust manipulation to that of Kinesio Taping applied to the neck in individuals with mechanical neck pain, using self-reported pain and disability and cervical range of motion as measures. The effectiveness of cervical manipulation has received considerable attention in the literature. However, because some patients cannot tolerate cervical thrust manipulation, alternative therapeutic options should be investigated. Eighty patients (36 women) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the manipulation group, which received 2 cervical thrust manipulations, and the tape group, which received Kinesio Taping applied to the neck. Neck pain (11-point numeric pain rating scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and cervical-range-of-motion data were collected at baseline and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of the treatment on each outcome variable, with group as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variable. The primary analysis was the group-by-time interaction. No significant group-by-time interactions were found for pain (F = 1.892, P = .447) or disability (F = 0.115, P = .736). The group-by-time interaction was statistically significant for right (F = 7.317, P = .008) and left (F = 9.525, P = .003) cervical rotation range of motion, with the patients who received the cervical thrust manipulation having experienced greater improvement in cervical rotation than those treated with Kinesio Tape (Pcervical spine range of motion for flexion (F = 0.944, P = .334), extension (F = 0.122, P = .728), and right (F = 0.220, P = .650) and left (F = 0.389, P = .535) lateral flexion. Patients with mechanical neck pain who received cervical thrust manipulation or Kinesio Taping exhibited similar reductions in neck pain intensity and disability and similar

  3. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  5. Induction of a specific strong polyantigenic cellular immune response after short-term chemotherapy controls bacillary reactivation in murine and guinea pig experimental models of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Evelyn; Gil, Olga; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-08-01

    RUTI is a therapeutic vaccine that is generated from detoxified and liposomed Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell fragments that has demonstrated its efficacy in the control of bacillus reactivation after short-term chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the cellular immune response generated after the therapeutic administration of RUTI and to corroborate the lack of toxicity of the vaccine. Mouse and guinea pig experimental models were infected with a low-dose M. tuberculosis aerosol. RUTI-treated animals showed the lowest bacillary load in both experimental models. RUTI also decreased the percentage of pulmonary granulomatous infiltration in the mouse and guinea pig models. This was not the case after Mycobacterium bovis BCG treatment. Cellular immunity was studied through the characterization of the intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing cells after the splenocytes' stimulation with M. tuberculosis-specific structural and growth-related antigens. Our data show that the difference between the therapeutic administration of BCG and RUTI resides mainly in the stronger activation of IFN-gamma(+) CD4(+) cells and CD8(+) cells against tuberculin purified protein derivative, ESAT-6, and Ag85B that RUTI generates. Both vaccines also triggered a specific immune response against the M. tuberculosis structural antigens Ag16kDa and Ag38kDa and a marked mRNA expression of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and RANTES in the lung. The results show that RUTI's therapeutic effect is linked not only to the induction of a Th1 response but also to the stimulation of a quicker and stronger specific immunity against structural and growth-related antigens that reduces both the bacillary load and the pulmonary pathology.

  6. Towards an integrative model of visual short-term memory maintenance: Evidence from the effects of attentional control, load, decay, and their interactions in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Scerif, Gaia

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades there has been a surge of research aiming to shed light on the nature of capacity limits to visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, an integrative account of this evidence is currently missing. We argue that investigating parameters constraining VSTM in childhood suggests a novel integrative model of VSTM maintenance, and that this in turn informs mechanisms of VSTM maintenance in adulthood. Over 3 experiments with 7-year-olds and young adults (total N=206), we provide evidence for multiple cognitive processes interacting to constrain VSTM performance. While age-related increases in storage capacity are undisputable, we replicate the finding that attentional processes control what information will be encoded and maintained in VSTM in the face of increased competition. Therefore, a central process to the current model is attentional refreshment, a mechanism that it is thought to reactivate and strengthen the signal of the visual representations. Critically, here we also show that attentional influences on VSTM are further constrained by additional factors, traditionally studied to the exclusion of each other, such as memory load and temporal decay. We propose that these processes work synergistically in an elegant manner to capture the adult-end state, whereas their less refined efficiency and modulations in childhood account for the smaller VSTM capacity that 7-year-olds demonstrate compared to older individuals. We conclude that going beyond the investigation of single cognitive mechanisms, to their interactions, holds the promise to understand both developing and fully developed maintenance in VSTM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of short-term cardiovascular autonomic control in cardiac surgery patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting or correction of valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartz, Vladimir A; Kiselev, Anton R; Karavaev, Anatoly S; Vulf, Kristina A; Borovkova, Ekaterina I; Prokhorov, Mikhail D; Petrosyan, Andrey D; Bockeria, Olga L

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to perform a comparative study of short-term cardiovascular autonomic control in cardiac surgery patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or surgical correction of valvular heart disease (SCVHD ). Methods: The synchronous 15 minutes records of heart rate variability (HRV) and finger's photoplethysmographic waveform variability (PPGV) were performed in 42 cardiac surgery patients (12 women) aged 61.8 ± 8.6 years (mean ± standard deviation), who underwent CABG, and 36 patients (16 women) aged 54.2 ± 14.9 years, who underwent SCVHD , before surgery and in 5-7 days after surgery. Conventional time and frequency domain measures of HRV and index S of synchronization between the slow oscillations in PPGV and HRV were analyzed. We also calculated personal dynamics of these indices after surgery. Results: We found no differences ( Р > 0.05) in all studied autonomic indices (preoperative and post-surgery) between studied patients' groups, except for the preoperative heart rate, which was higher in patients who underwent SCVHD ( P = 0.013). We have shown a pronounced preoperative and post-surgery variability (magnitude of inter-quartile ranges) of all autonomic indices in studied patients. In the cluster analysis based on cardiovascular autonomic indices (preoperative and post-surgery), we divided all patients into two clusters (38 and 40 subjects) which did not differ in all clinical characteristics (except for the preoperative hematocrit, P = 0.038), index S, and all post-surgery HRV indices. First cluster (38 patients) had higher preoperative values of the HR, TP, HF, and HF%, and lower preoperative values of the LF% and LF/HF. Conclusion: The variability of cardiovascular autonomic indices in on-pump cardiac surgery patients (two characteristic clusters were identified based on preoperative indices) was not associated with their clinical characteristics and features of surgical procedure (including cardioplegia).

  8. Effects of Short-Term Cognitive Remediation on Cognitive Dysfunction in Partially or Fully Remitted Individuals with Bipolar Disorder: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsa M Demant

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is common in bipolar disorder (BD but is not sufficiently addressed by current treatments. Cognitive remediation (CR may improve cognitive function in schizophrenia but no randomised controlled trial has investigated this intervention in BD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CR on persistent cognitive dysfunction in BD.Patients with BD in partial remission with cognitive complaints were randomised to 12 weeks group-based CR (n=23 or standard treatment (ST (n=23. Outcomes were improved verbal memory (primary, sustained attention, executive and psychosocial function (secondary and additional measures of cognitive and psychosocial function (tertiary. Participants were assessed at baseline and weeks 12 and 26.Of the 46 randomised participants five dropped out and one was excluded after baseline. CR (n=18 had no effect on primary or secondary measures of cognitive or psychosocial function compared with ST (n=22. However, CR improved subjective sharpness at week 12, and quality of life and verbal fluency at week 26 follow-up (tertiary outcomes. Although the trial turned out to have suboptimal statistical power for the primary outcome analysis, calculation of the 95% confidence interval showed that it was highly unlikely that an increase in sample size would have rendered any beneficial effects of CR vs. ST on the verbal memory.Short-term group-based CR did not seem to improve overall cognitive or psychosocial function in individuals with BD in full or partial remission. The present findings suggest that that longer-term, more intensive and individualised CR may be necessary to improve cognition in BD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01457235.

  9. Short-term and practice effects of metronome pacing in Parkinson's disease patients with gait freezing while in the 'on' state: randomized single blind evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Leurgans, Sue; Goetz, Christopher G

    2004-12-01

    In a randomized single blind parallel study, we tested the efficacy of an auditory metronome on walking speed and freezing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with freezing gait impairment during their 'on' function. No pharmacological treatment is effective in managing 'on' freezing in PD. Like visual cues that can help overcome freezing, rhythmic auditory pacing may provide cues that help normalize walking pace and overcome freezing. Non-demented PD patients with freezing during their 'on' state walked under two conditions, in randomized order: unassisted walking and walking with the use of an audiocassette with a metronome recording. The walking trials were randomized and gait variables were rated from videotapes by a blinded evaluator. Outcome measures were total walking time (total trial time-total freezing time), which was considered the time over a course of specified length, freezing time, average freeze duration and number of freezes. All outcomes were averaged across trials for each person and then compared across conditions using Signed Rank tests. Twelve non-demented PD patients with a mean age of 65.8 +/- 11.2 years, and mean PD duration of 12.4 +/- 7.3 years were included. The use of the metronome slowed ambulation and increased the total walking time (P metronome recording home and used it daily for 1 week while walking, freezing remained unimproved. Though advocated in prior publications as a walking aid for PD patients, auditory metronome pacing slows walking and is not a beneficial intervention for freezing during their 'on' periods.

  10. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of

  11. Brief communication: sliding displacement of amnion and chorion following controlled laser wounding suggests a mechanism for short-term sealing of ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Dickinson, M R; Charlton, A; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The Erbium-YAG laser was used to produce narrow wounds of defined depth in term amniochorion. The charring effect of the laser meant that sites could be readily localized in histological sections. During brief post-wounding incubations, sliding displacement of the amnion relative to the chorion occurred through the plane of the spongy layer. This suggests a possible short-term mechanism whereby a spontaneous rupture could be sealed in vivo.

  12. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden......, and reduced the risk for type 2 diabetes, but the effects persisted only as long as the new lifestyle was maintained. Increased physical activity seemed to be the behaviour that was most easy to preserve....... between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending...

  13. Interspinous process device versus standard conventional surgical decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Moojen (Wouter); M.P. Arts (Mark); W.C.H. Jacobs (Wilco); E.W. van Zwet (Erik); M.E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); B.W. Koes (Bart); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Objective To assess whether interspinous process device implantation is more effective in the short term than conventional surgical decompression for patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis. Design Randomized controlled

  14. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  15. Effect of milrinone on short term outcome of patients with myocardial dysfunction undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hadadzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial dysfunction is a major complication in cardiac surgery that needs inotropic support. This study evaluates the effect of milrinone on patients with low ventricular ejection fraction undergoing off- pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB. The present study is designed to evaluate the effect of milrinone on myocardial dysfunction. Eighty patients with low ventricular ejection fraction (<35%, candidate for elective OPCAB, were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received milrinone (50 μg/kg intravenously and another group received a saline as placebo followed by 24 hours infusion of each agent (0.5 μg/kg/min. Short outcome of patients such as hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular ejection fraction were variables evaluated. Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, occurrence of arrhythmias and mean duration of mechanical ventilation were significantly lower in milrinone group (P<0.05. The mean post operative left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in milrinone group (P=0.031. There were no statistical significant differences between the two groups in terms of intra-aortic balloon pump, inotropic support requirement, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, duration of inotropic support, duration of intensive care unit stay, mortality and morbidity rate. Administration of milrinone in patients undergoing OPCAB with low ventricular ejection fraction is useful and effective.

  16. Short-term and long-term effect of diaphragm biofeedback training in gastroesophageal reflux disease: an open-label, pilot, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Shang, W; Wang, Z; Liu, X; Fang, X; Ke, M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of diaphragm biofeedback training (DBT) for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 40 patients with GERD treated at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between September 2004 and July 2006 were randomized to receive DBT and rabeprazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or rabeprazole alone. The DBT + rabeprazole group received DBT during the 8-week initial treatment; the rabeprazole group did not. During the 6-month follow up, all patients took acid suppression according to their reflux symptoms, and the patients in the DBT + rabeprazole group were required to continue DBT. The primary outcome (used for power analysis) was the amount of acid suppression used at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were reflux symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and esophageal motility differences after the 8-week treatment compared with baseline. Acid suppression usage significantly decreased in the DBT + rabeprazole group compared with the rabeprazole group at 6 months (P reflux symptoms and GERD-HRQL were significantly improved in both groups (P gastroesophageal junction pressure (GEJP) significantly increased in the DBT + rabeprazole group (P reflux barrier, providing a non-pharmacological maintenance therapy and reducing medical costs for patients with GERD. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. Acute side effects and complications after short-term preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision in primary rectal cancer: report of a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, C.A.; Kapiteijn, E.; Veld, C.J.H. van de; Martijn, H.; Steup, W.H.; Wiggers, T.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Leer, J.W.H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery in the treatment of rectal cancer has been shown to result in a reduction in the number of local recurrences in retrospective studies. Reports on improved local control after preoperative, hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) have led to the

  18. Acute side effects and complications after short-term preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision in primary rectal cancer : Report of a multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, CAM; Kapiteijn, E; van de Velde, CJH; Martijn, H; Steup, WH; Wiggers, T; Kranenbarg, EK; Leer, JWH

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery in the treatment of rectal cancer has been shown to result in a reduction in the number of local recurrences in retrospective studies. Reports on improved local control after preoperative, hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) have led to the

  19. Short-Term Effects of Lupin vs. Whey Supplementation on Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Standardized Meal in a Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopen, Kathrin; Ewald, Ann C; Johannes, Bernd W; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn; Frings-Meuthen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whey protein is known to reduce postprandial glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lupin as a vegetable source of protein could be considered as an alternative, as the percentage of vegetarian and vegan consumers is raising. The present study compares the acute glycemic effects of whey and lupin in healthy volunteers following a carbohydrate-rich reference meal. Methods In cross-over design, three standardized meals (reference meal; reference meal + whey; reference meal + lupin) were provided to 12 healthy male and female volunteers, aged between 23 and 33, in a balanced, randomized order. Volunteers' blood glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed at baseline and at seven time points following the ingestion of the meals. Results: The supplementation of whey or lupin significantly blunted the postprandial increase in blood glucose concentrations compared to the reference meal ( p AUC whey-lupin = 8%, 0-60 min area under the curve (0-60 min AUC), p = 0.937], with a blunting effect of -46% by whey ( p = 0.005, 0-60 min AUC) and of -54% by lupin ( p AUC). When comparing whey and lupin data only, the insulin increase was found to be more pronounced for whey protein than for lupin supplementation (Δ AUC whey-lupin = 39%, 0-60 min AUC, p = 0.022). However, when comparing the insulin response of each supplementation to the one of the reference meal, no differences could be detected (whey p = 0.259, 0-60 min AUC; lupin p = 0.275, 0-60 min AUC). Conclusions: Results suggest that lupin and whey can both lower the increase of postprandial blood glucose concentrations to a comparable extent, implying the usability of lupin to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, the insulin response following the supplementations to a carbohydrate-rich meal seems to differ for these two protein sources.

  20. The effect of short-term dimethylglycine treatment on oxygen consumption in cytochrome oxidase deficiency: a double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liet, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Véronique; Robinson, Brian H; Laryea, Maurice D; Wendel, Udo; Morneau, Sylvain; Morin, Charles; Mitchell, Grant; Lacroix, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of dimethylglycine (DMG) on oxygen consumption (VO(2)) in children with Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean cytochrome-c oxidase (SLSJ-COX) deficiency (OMIM 220111). In a crossover randomized double-blind clinical trial, 5 children with SLSJ-COX deficiency, who were stable and old enough to comply with VO(2) measurement, were treated with placebo or DMG for 3 days, and with the alternate treatment after a 2-week washout period. VO(2) was measured by indirect calorimetry before and after treatment. Dietary caloric intake was calculated for 3 days before each measurement. Mean caloric intakes per day were 1562 and 1342 kcal x m(-2) before and during placebo, 1,336 and 1,380 before and during DMG, respectively. DMG was well tolerated and, in all cases, resulted in markedly increased blood DMG levels (617 + 203 mmol x L(-1)), versus 0 to 2 mmol x L(-1) without treatment. Mean VO(2) was lower after administration of either DMG (-1 +/- 3 mL x min(-1) x m(-2)) or placebo (-6 +/- 4), but neither difference was statistically significant. There was no detectable effect of DMG treatment on blood levels of lactate, pyruvate, bicarbonate, or pH. VO(2) values of patients (range, 101-135 mL x min(-1) x m(-2)) were lower than published norms (150-160 mL x min(-1) x m(-2)). This study suggests that treatment with DMG does not substantially change VO(2) in children with SLSJ-COX deficiency.

  1. Is the adjuvant albendazole treatment really needed with PAIR in the management of liver hydatid cysts? A prospective, randomized trial with short-term follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Okan; Yildiz, Adalet Elcin; Akinci, Devrim; Yildiz, Baris Dogu; Ciftci, Turkmen

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of adjuvant albendazole medication in percutaneous liver hydatid cyst treatment with puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) method. Between November 2007 and May 2011, total of 39 patients with newly diagnosed liver hydatid cyst (total of 77 cysts) were prospectively randomized and enrolled in 3 groups. In the first group, cysts (n = 14) were treated with PAIR without albendazole. In the second (n = 16) and third groups (n = 47), cysts were treated with PAIR with albendazole 1 week before and 1 month after the procedure, with albendazole 1 week before and 3 months after the procedure respectively. Technical and clinical success rates were 100 and 96.1% respectively. In 3 of 77 cysts (3.9%), findings of recurrence were detected on US imaging. All recurrent cysts were in group 1 and recurrence rates in this group were statistically different from cysts of second and third groups (p = 0.005). Side effects of albendazole were detected in 7 of 29 patients (24.1%), and no statistically significant difference was observed between the second (15.3%) and third (38.4%) groups (p = 0.378). Use of albendazole medication as an adjuvant to percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cyst decreases the recurrence rate. Although there is no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3 in terms of efficacy and recurrence rate, patients in group 3 had a higher rate of side effect. Therefore, we conclude that albendazole treatment 1 week before and 1 month after PAIR treatment is sufficient to reduce/prevent recurrences.

  2. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Miraldi, Fabio; Frati, Giacomo; Macrina, Francesco; Toscano, Michele

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis >70% receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). From January 2004 to December 2009, 185 patients with unilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis >70%, candidates for CABG, were randomized into two groups. In group A, 94 patients received a CABG with previous or simultaneous CEA. In group B, 91 patients underwent CABG, followed by CEA. All patients underwent preoperative helical computed tomography scans, excluding significant atheroma of the ascending aorta or aortic arch. Baseline characteristics of the patients, type of coronary artery lesion, and preoperative myocardial function were comparable in the two groups. In group A, all patients underwent CEA under general anesthesia with the systematic use of a carotid shunt, and 79 patients had a combined procedure and 15 underwent CEA a few days before CABG. In group B, all patients underwent CEA, 1 to 3 months after CABG, also under general anesthesia and with systematic carotid shunting. Two patients (one in each group) died of cardiac failure in the postoperative period. Operative mortality was 1.0% in group A and 1.1% in group B (P = .98). No strokes occurred in group A vs seven ipsilateral ischemic strokes in group B, including three immediate postoperative strokes and four late strokes, at 39, 50, 58, and 66 days, after CABG. These late strokes occurred in patients for whom CEA was further delayed due to an incomplete sternal wound healing or because of completion of a cardiac rehabilitation program. The 90-day stroke and death rate was 1.0% (one of 94) in group A and 8.8% (eight of 91) in group B (odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.91; P = .02). Logistic regression analysis showed that only delayed CEA (OR, 14.2; 95% CI, 1.32-152.0; P = .03) and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .004) reliably predicted

  3. Short-term Effects of High-Dose Caffeine on Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients With Heart Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchinali, Priccila; Souza, Gabriela C; Pimentel, Maurício; Chemello, Diego; Zimerman, André; Giaretta, Vanessa; Salamoni, Joyce; Fracasso, Bianca; Zimerman, Leandro I; Rohde, Luis E

    2016-12-01

    The presumed proarrhythmic action of caffeine is controversial. Few studies have assessed the effect of high doses of caffeine in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias. To compare the effect of high-dose caffeine or placebo on the frequency of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, both at rest and during a symptom-limited exercise test. Double-blinded randomized clinical trial with a crossover design conducted at the heart failure and cardiac transplant clinic of a tertiary-care university hospital. The trial included patients with chronic heart failure with moderate-to-severe systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction capsules, in addition to 5 doses of 100 mL decaffeinated coffee at 1-hour intervals, for a total of 500 mg of caffeine or placebo during a 5-hour protocol. After a 1-week washout period, the protocol was repeated. Number and percentage of ventricular and supraventricular premature beats assessed by continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. We enrolled 51 patients (37 [74%] male; mean [SD] age, 60.6 [10.9] years) with predominantly moderate-to-severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (mean [SD] left ventricular ejection fraction, 29% [7%]); 31 [61%] had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator device. No significant differences between the caffeine and placebo groups were observed in the number of ventricular (185 vs 239 beats, respectively; P = .47) and supraventricular premature beats (6 vs 6 beats, respectively; P = .44), as well as in couplets, bigeminal cycles, or nonsustained tachycardia during continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Exercise test-derived variables, such as ventricular and supraventricular premature beats, duration of exercise, estimated peak oxygen consumption, and heart rate, were not influenced by caffeine ingestion. We observed no increases in ventricular premature beats (91 vs 223 vs 207 beats, respectively

  4. The acceptability, usability and short-term outcomes of Get Real: A web-based program for psychotic-like experiences (PLEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Stafford

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The current study provided initial support for the acceptability, utility and positive short-term outcomes of Get Real. The program now requires efficacy testing in randomized controlled trials.

  5. Short term benefits for laparoscopic colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Neudecker, J; Müller, J M

    2005-07-20

    Colorectal resections are common surgical procedures all over the world. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is technically feasible in a considerable amount of patients under elective conditions. Several short-term benefits of the laparoscopic approach to colorectal resection (less pain, less morbidity, improved reconvalescence and better quality of life) have been proposed. This review compares laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection with regards to possible benefits of the laparoscopic method in the short-term postoperative period (up to 3 months post surgery). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1991 to 2004. We also handsearched the following journals from 1991 to 2004: British Journal of Surgery, Archives of Surgery, Annals of Surgery, Surgery, World Journal of Surgery, Disease of Colon and Rectum, Surgical Endoscopy, International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, Der Chirurg, Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Aktuelle Chirurgie/Viszeralchirurgie. Handsearch of abstracts from the following society meetings from 1991 to 2004: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons, Royal Society of Surgeons, British Assocation of Coloproctology, Surgical Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Asian Society of Endoscopic Surgeons. All randomised-controlled trial were included regardless of the language of publication. No- or pseudorandomised trials as well as studies that followed patient's preferences towards one of the two interventions were excluded, but listed separately. RCT presented as only an abstract were excluded. Results were extracted from papers by three observers independently on a predefined data sheet. Disagreements were solved by discussion. 'REVMAN 4.2' was used for statistical analysis. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals) were used for analysing continuous variables. If

  6. Short-term supervised inpatient physiotherapy exercise protocol improves cardiac autonomic function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; De Souza Melo Costa, Fernando; Pantoni, Camila Bianca Falasco; Di Thommazo, Luciana; Luzzi, Sérgio; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is accompanied by severe impairment of cardiac autonomous regulation (CAR). This study aimed to determine whether a short-term physiotherapy exercise protocol post-CABG, during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR), might improve CAR. Seventy-four patients eligible for CABG were recruited and randomised into physiotherapy exercise group (EG) or physiotherapy usual care group (UCG). EG patients underwent a short-term supervised inpatient physiotherapy exercise protocol consisting of an early mobilisation with progressive exercises plus usual care (respiratory exercises). UCG only received respiratory exercises. Forty-seven patients (24 EG and 23 UGC) completed the study. Outcome measures of CAR included linear and non-linear measures of heart rate variability (HRV) assessed before discharge. By hospital discharge, EG presented significantly higher parasympathetic HRV values [rMSSD, high frequency (HF), SD1)], global power (STD RR, SD2), non-linear HRV indexes [detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)alpha1, DFAalpha2, approximate entropy (ApEn)] and mean RR compared to UCG (pexercise protocol during inpatient CR improves CAR at the time of discharge. Thus, exercise-based inpatient CR might be an effective non-pharmacological tool to improve autonomic cardiac tone in patient's post-CABG.

  7. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  8. A fuzzy inference model for short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamlook, Rustum; Badran, Omar; Abdulhadi, Emad

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the short-term load forecasting (STLF) in power system operations. It provides load prediction for generation scheduling and unit commitment decisions, and therefore precise load forecasting plays an important role in reducing the generation cost and the spinning reserve capacity. Short-term electricity demand forecasting (i.e., the prediction of hourly loads (demand)) is one of the most important tools by which an electric utility/company plans, dispatches the loading of generating units in order to meet system demand. The accuracy of the dispatching system, which is derived from the accuracy of the forecasting algorithm used, will determine the economics of the operation of the power system. The inaccuracy or large error in the forecast simply means that load matching is not optimized and consequently the generation and transmission systems are not being operated in an efficient manner. In the present study, a proposed methodology has been introduced to decrease the forecasted error and the processing time by using fuzzy logic controller on an hourly base. Therefore, it predicts the effect of different conditional parameters (i.e., weather, time, historical data, and random disturbances) on load forecasting in terms of fuzzy sets during the generation process. These parameters are chosen with respect to their priority and importance. The forecasted values obtained by fuzzy method were compared with the conventionally forecasted ones. The results showed that the STLF of the fuzzy implementation have more accuracy and better outcomes

  9. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard Short-term measures for runoff water control on sloping land (temporary ditches and grass strips in controlling soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The agronomic measures made obligatory by the cross-compliance Standard Temporary measures for runoff water control on sloping land included in the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF decree on cross compliance until 2008, and by Standard 1.1 Creation of temporary ditches for the prevention of soil erosion in the 2009 decree, certainly appear to be useful for the control of soil erosion and runoff. The efficacy of temporary drainage ditches and of grass strips in controlling runoff and erosion has been demonstrated in trials conducted in field test plots in Italy. When level temporary drainage ditches are correctly built, namely with an inclination of not more than 2.5% in relation to the maximum hillslope gradient, they allow the suspended sediment eroded upstream to settle in the ditches, retaining the material carried away on the slope and, as a result, reducing the quantity of sediment delivered to the hydrographic network. In particular, among all the results, the erosion and runoff data in a trial conducted in Guiglia (Modena showed that in corn plots, temporary drainage ditches reduced soil erosion by 94%, from 14.4 Mg ha-1 year-1 (above the limit established by the NRCS-USDA of 11.2 Mg ha-1 year-1 to 0.8 Mg ha-1 year-1 (within the NRCS limit and also within the more restrictive limit established by the OECD of 6.0 Mg ha-1 year-1. With respect to the grass buffer strips the most significant research was carried out in Volterra. This research demonstrated their efficacy in reducing erosion from 8.15 Mg ha-1 to 1.6 Mg ha-1, which is approximately 5 times less than the erosion observed on bare soil. The effectiveness of temporary drainage ditches was also assessed through the application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE erosion model to 60 areas under the control of the Agency for Agricultural Payments (AGEA in 2009, comparing the risk of erosion in these sample areas by simulating the presence and

  10. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  11. Remote monitoring of inhaled bronchodilator use and weekly feedback about asthma management: an open-group, short-term pilot study of the impact on asthma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Van Sickle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adequate symptom control is a problem for many people with asthma. We asked whether weekly email reports on monitored use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators might improve scores on composite asthma-control measures. METHODS: Through an investigational electronic medication sensor attached to each participant's inhaler, we monitored 4 months' use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators. Participants completed surveys, including the Asthma Control Test(TM (ACT, to assess asthma control at entry and monthly thereafter. After the first month, participants received weekly email reports for 3 months. The reports summarized inhaled bronchodilator use during the preceding week and provided suggestions derived from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP guidelines. Paired t-tests and random-effects mixed models were implemented to assess changes in primary asthma endpoints. RESULTS: Thirty individuals participated in the 4-month study; 29 provided complete asthma control information. Mean age was 36.8 years (range: 19-74 years; 52% of respondents were female. Mean ACT scores were 17.6 (Standard Deviation [SD]  = 3.35 at entry and 18.4 (SD = 3.60 at completion of the first month. No significant difference appeared between ACT values at entry and completion of the first month (p = 0.66; however, after participants began receiving email reports and online information about their inhaler use, mean ACT scores increased 1.40 points (95% CI: 0.61, 2.18 for each subsequent study month. Significant decreases occurred in 2-week histories of daytime symptoms (β = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.65, -0.04 and nighttime symptoms (β = -0.84, 95% CI: -1.25, -0.44; no significant change in activity limitation (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.69, 0.26 was observed. Participants reported increased awareness and understanding of asthma patterns, level of control, bronchodilator use (timing, location and triggers, and improved

  12. A randomized controlled trial to establish effects of short-term rapamycin treatment in 24 middle-aged companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Silvan R; Kaeberlein, Tammi L; Mailheau, Susan; Bergman, Philip J; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2017-04-01

    Age is the single greatest risk factor for most causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and their companion animals. As opposed to other model organisms used to study aging, dogs share the human environment, are subject to similar risk factors, receive comparable medical care, and develop many of the same age-related diseases humans do. In this study, 24 middle-aged healthy dogs received either placebo or a non-immunosuppressive dose of rapamycin for 10 weeks. All dogs received clinical and hematological exams before, during, and after the trial and echocardiography before and after the trial. Our results showed no clinical side effects in the rapamycin-treated group compared to dogs receiving the placebo. Echocardiography suggested improvement in both diastolic and systolic age-related measures of heart function (E/A ratio, fractional shortening, and ejection fraction) in the rapamycin-treated dogs. Hematological values remained within the normal range for all parameters studied; however, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was decreased in rapamycin-treated dogs. Based on these results, we will test rapamycin on a larger dog cohort for a longer period of time in order to validate its effects on cardiac function and to determine whether it can significantly improve healthspan and reduce mortality in companion dogs.

  13. Short-term effectiveness of web-based guided self-help for phobic outpatients: Randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.N.; van Straten, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Cuijpers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet-based guided self-help has been successfully used in the general population, but it is unknown whether this method can be effectively used in outpatient clinics for patients waiting for face-to-face psychotherapy for phobias. Objective: The aim was to assess the clinical

  14. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies...... that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...

  15. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  16. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 1: Short-term changes in ozone air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations and models demonstrate that ozone and its precursors can be transported between continents and across oceans. We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between all source-receptor pairs, for direct short-term ozone changes. We find that for population-weighted concentrations during the three-month "ozone-season", the strongest inter-regional influences are from Europe to the Former Soviet Union, East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for source regions in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, which we attribute mainly to greater sensitivity to changes in NOx in the lower troposphere, and secondarily to increased vertical convection to the free troposphere in tropical regions, allowing pollutants to be transported further. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are ~20% as effective per unit NOx in reducing ozone in Europe during summer, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. Reducing anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide (CO by 10% in selected regions, can have as large an impact on long-range ozone transport as NOx reductions, depending on the source region. We find that for many source-receptor pairs, the season of greatest long-range influence does not coincide with the season when ozone is highest in the receptor region. Reducing NOx emissions in most source regions causes a larger decrease in export of ozone from the source region than in ozone production outside of the source region.

  17. [A Paired Case Controlled Study Comparing the Short-term Outcomes of Da Vinci RATS and VATS Approach for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Feng; Xu, Shiguang; Xu, Wei; Ding, Renquan; Liu, Bo; Meng, Hao; Kang, Yunteng; Meng, Xiangrui; Lin, Jie; Wang, Shumin

    2018-03-20

    Da Vinci Surgical System is one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, which represents the development direction of the precise minimally invasive surgical techniques, the aim of this study was to comparing the short-term outcomes between da Vinci robot-assisted lobectomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer. 45 pairs of non-small cell lung cancer patients underwent pulmonary lobectomy with da Vinci Robotic assisted thoracoscopic (RATS) and VATS approach during the same period from January 2014 to January 2017. The operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), total number and total groups of dissected lymph nodes, postoperative duration of drainage, the first day volume of drainage, total volume of drainage were compared. No perioperative death and convertion to thoracotomy occured in both groups. There were significant difference between RATS group and VATS group in EBL [(50.30±32.33) mL vs (208.60±132.63) mL], the first day volume of drainage [(275.00±145.42) mL vs (347.60±125.80) mL], the dissected total number [(22.67±9.67) vs (15.51±5.41)] and total team [(6.31±1.43) vs (4.91±1.04)] of lymph node. There were no significant difference in other outcomes. RATS is safe and effective and took better short-outcomes than VATS in non-small cell lung cancer.

  18. Plant growth controls short-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of croplands - new insights from the CarboZALF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Joana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The long-term influence of crop rotations, climate conditions or soil type on soil organic carbon stock (SOC) patterns and gaseous C emissions of agricultural landscapes is widely recognized. However, the question of short-term seasonal changes in SOC within these areas remains unclear. A main reason for this is the detection problem of temporal and spatial variability in gaseous C exchange and thus, changes in SOC stocks (ΔSOC) in a high resolution. This study introduces dynamic C balances as a method to obtain seasonal changes in SOC stocks. Dynamic C balances were calculated by a combination of automatic chamber CO2 exchange measurements and empirical biomass models. Measurements were performed for three consecutive years at a colluvial depression (Colluvic Regosol) in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE Germany (CarboZALF experimental site). The investigated crop rotation was maize, winter fodder rye, maize, winter fodder rye, and sudangrass. The site is characterized by a gradient in ground water level (GWL) and related spatial heterogeneity in soil properties, such as SOC as well as soil nitrogen (Nt) stocks. Modelled dynamic C balances reveal that up to 79% of the standard deviation of estimated annual ΔSOC between single chambers emerged during the main period of crop growth (three months in summer). No significant changes in ΔSOC were detected outside the growing season. Instead, differences between chambers remain constant despite ΔSOC dynamics. Environmental variables (Nt stocks of Ap horizon and GWL), affecting plant-mediated C sequestration, explained up to 95% of temporal and spatial variability in CO2 exchange and ΔSOC. Thus, plant activities were the major catalyst for small scale differences in annual ΔSOC of croplands.

  19. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model – Part II: The role of the upper ocean short-term periodic and episodic mixing events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of 6 h, daily, weekly and monthly atmospheric forcing resulted in dramatically different predictions of plankton productivity in a global 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Resolving the diurnal cycle of atmospheric variability by use of 6 h forcing, and hence also diurnal variability in UML depth, produced the largest difference, reducing predicted global primary and new production by 25% and 10% respectively relative to that predicted with daily and weekly forcing. This decrease varied regionally, being a 30% reduction in equatorial areas primarily because of increased light limitation resulting from deepening of the mixed layer overnight as well as enhanced storm activity, and 25% at moderate and high latitudes primarily due to increased grazing pressure resulting from late winter stratification events. Mini-blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occur in the model during these events, leading to zooplankton populations being sufficiently well developed to suppress the progress of phytoplankton blooms. A 10% increase in primary production was predicted in the peripheries of the oligotrophic gyres due to increased storm-induced nutrient supply end enhanced winter production during the short term stratification events that are resolved in the run forced by 6 h meteorological fields. By resolving the diurnal cycle, model performance was significantly improved with respect to several common problems: underestimated primary production in the oligotrophic gyres; overestimated primary production in the Southern Ocean; overestimated magnitude of the spring bloom in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, and overestimated primary production in equatorial areas. The result of using 6 h forcing on predicted ecosystem dynamics was profound, the effects persisting far beyond the hourly timescale, and having major consequences for predicted global and new production on an annual basis.

  20. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy versus exercise program in patients with low back pain: short-term results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Gallone, M F; Mastromauro, L; Rifino, F; Pesce, V; Covelli, I; Moretti, B

    2018-01-01

    The physiotherapy treatment of low back pain (LBP) with physical stimulation offers different possibilities of application. Until now, the physical therapies used in LBP are laser therapy, ultrasonotherapy and currents. We conducted a clinical trial in order to verify whether shockwave therapy, which is very effective in treating tendinopathies and fracture consolidation delays, leads to clinical and electromyographic improvement in patients affected by LBP. We randomized thirty patients affected by LBP treated with shock waves (shockwave group) or a standard protocol characterized by rehabilitative exercises (control group). At one and three months, the patients treated with shockwave therapy showed clinical improvement measured by VAS scales (p=0.002; p= 0.02), and disability evaluated with Roland scales (p=0.002; p=0.002) and Oswestry (p=0.002; p=0.002). At three months, the patients treated with shock waves, showed a significant improvement in terms of values of amplitude of the sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of the plantar medialis nerve (left: p=0.007; right: p=0.04), the motor nerve muscular conduction (MNCV) of the deep peroneal nerve (left: p=0.28; right: p=0.01) and recruitment of motor units of finger brevis extensor (left: p = 0.02; right: p=0.006). In the control group, there was a trend to increase the clinical and electromyographic results without statistical significance. The preliminary results suggest a good applicability of shockwave therapy in the treatment of LBP, in accordance with the antiinflammatory, antalgic, decontracting effects and remodeling of the nerve fiber damage verified in previous studies conducted on other pathological models. Future research will allow us to verify the integration of this therapy into a rehabilitation protocol combined with other physical therapies.

  1. The Demonstration of Short-Term Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)

  2. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  3. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  4. Short-term effects of a standardized glucose load on region-specific aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Tjeerdema, N.; Hensen, L.C.; Lamb, H.J.; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.; Westenberg, J.J.; Roos, A. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the short-term effects of a standardized oral glucose load on regional aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) using two-directional in-plane velocity encoded MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, controlled intervention was performed in 16 male subjects (mean +/- standard deviation:

  5. Short-term oral nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D decreases falls in malnourished older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, Floor; Lips, Paul; Bosmans, Judith E; Thijs, Abel; Seidell, Jaap C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a short-term nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D on falls in malnourished older adults. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: From hospital admission until 3 months after discharge. PARTICIPANTS: Malnourished older adults (≥ 60) newly

  6. Short term memory in echo state networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, H.

    2001-01-01

    The report investigates the short-term memory capacity of echo state recurrent neural networks. A quantitative measure MC of short-term memory capacity is introduced. The main result is that MC 5 N for networks with linear Output units and i.i.d. input, where N is network size. Conditions under which these maximal memory capacities are realized are described. Several theoretical and practical examples demonstrate how the short-term memory capacities of echo state networks can be exploited for...

  7. Fast Weight Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...

  8. Short-term poor glycemic control and retinal microvascular changes in pediatric Type 1 Diabetes patients in Singapore: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Jun; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Wong, Tien Yin; Lek, Ngee

    2017-06-15

    Poor glycemic control in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients is strongly associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related microvascular complications later in life, but it is unclear whether short period of poor glycemic control in children with T1D can cause evident microvascular morphological changes long before any pathological manifestation. Our study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between poor glycemic control and subsequent changes in retinal microvasculature, in a pilot study of 55 pediatric T1D patients from Singapore after a one-year follow-up. This is a hospital-based, exposure-matched and retrospective longitudinal study. A total of 55 T1D patients were included from Singapore KK Women's and Children Hospital, 28 of whom had poor glycemic control (average glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥8% during the year) while the other 27 age- and gender-matched subjects had good glycemic control (HbA1c Singapore I Vessel Assessment [SIVA], version 4.0, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore) and a spectrum of retinal vascular parameters (e.g. caliber, tortuosity, branching angle and fractal dimension) were measured quantitatively from 0.5 to 2.0 disc diameters. There was no significant difference in ethnicity, duration of T1D, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and low-density cholesterol lipoprotein (LDL) between the two groups. Retinal imaging was obtained at the end of 1 year of glycemic control assessment. In multiple linear regression adjusting for ethnicity, BMI, LDL and duration of T1D, patients with poor glycemic control tended to have marginally wider retinal arteriolar caliber (6.0 μm, 95% CI: -0.9, 12.8) and had significantly larger retinal arteriolar branching angle (10.1 degrees, 95% CI: 1.4, 18.9) compared with their age- and gender- matched counterparts with good glycemic control. Our findings showed that abnormal retinal microvascular morphology was evident in pediatric patients with T1D after one-year's poor glycemic

  9. Short term effects of kinesio taping on pain and functional disability in young females with menstrual low back pain: A randomised control trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forozeshfard, Mohammad; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Aminianfar, Atefeh; Sheikhian, Sajedeh; Akbarzadeh, Zeinab

    2016-11-21

    Menstrual low back pain (LBP) in young females can reduce daily activity and cause functional disability, while the progressive application of kinesio-taping (KT) on pain reduction and functional correction has been stated. This study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of the lumbar vertebral column KT in young female with menstrual LBP. Thirty-two young females with menstrual LBP participated in this crossover study and were assigned randomly in two separate groups. The first group received KT during their first menstrual cycle and No-KT in their next menstrual, while the other group had no KT during the first mentrual cycle and received KT during the next menstrual cycle. The primary outcome measurements included the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, Oswestry disability index and McGill pain questionnaire score which were planned to collect at the end of the third day of the menstrual cycle. Comparing pain and disability between two conditions, of menstrual cycle with KT and menstrual cycle without KT, revealed significant reduction in VAS (mean change = 1.7; 95%CI = 0.6 to 2.8; P= 0.005), McGill pain score (mean change = 20.1; 95%CI = 8.7 to 31.3; P= 0.001) and functional disability (mean change = 12.3; 95%CI = 7.2 to 17.5; Pkinesiotaping in young females with menstrual LBP.

  10. Outcome of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in chronic pain: short-term results of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, J.; Boo, T.M. de; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Crul, B.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of shortterm transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment in chronic pain with respect to pain intensity and patients' satisfaction with treatment results. We therefore performed a randomised controlled trial comparing TENS and sham

  11. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome demonstrate worsening markers of cardiovascular risk over the short-term despite declining hyperandrogenaemia: Results of a longitudinal study with community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Heather G; Quinn, Molly M; Kao, Chia-Ning; Lenhart, Nikolaus; Rosen, Mitchell P; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2017-12-01

    To compare age-associated changes in cardiovascular risk markers in lean and obese reproductive-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with community controls. Longitudinal study at an academic medical centre PATIENTS: Patients diagnosed with PCOS by 2004 Rotterdam criteria in a multidisciplinary clinic were systematically enrolled from 2006-2014 in a PCOS cohort study and subsequently agreed to participate in a longitudinal study. The comparison controls were from the prospective, longitudinal Ovarian Aging (OVA) study, which consists of healthy women with regular menstrual cycles recruited from 2006 to 2011. Cardiovascular risk markers and hormone parameters at baseline and follow-up. Obese and lean PCOS (n = 38) and control women (n = 296) completed two study visits. The follow-up time (3.5 ± 1.5 vs 4.0 ± 0.8 years, P = .06) and magnitude of BMI gain (+0.1 kg/m 2 /y [-0.11, 0.36] vs +0.26 [-0.18, 0.87] P = .19) did not differ between obese and lean PCOS and controls. In PCOS subjects, total testosterone decreased in both obese and lean, but the decrease was greater in obese subjects (-0.09 nmol/L per year; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.02 vs -0.04 nmol/L per year; 95%CI: -0.11, 0.03). Compared to their respective controls, obese and lean PCOS saw worsening triglyceride (TG) levels (P women with PCOS demonstrated declines in biochemical hyperandrogenaemia over time. Despite this, PCOS subjects experienced steeper increases in cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance, including triglycerides and HOMA-IR. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, John E.; Agrawal, Nalini; Horsley, Elizabeth T.M.; Leakey, Tatiana I.; Scherer, Erin M.; Xia, Shijun; Allaben, William T.; Leakey, Julian E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  13. Fuzzy approach for short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)

  14. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzkowski Z

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Pietrzkowski,1 Michael J Phelan,2 Robert Keller,3 Cynthia Shu,1 Ruby Argumedo,1 Tania Reyes-Izquierdo11FutureCeuticals, Inc., Applied BioClinical Laboratory; 2Department of Statistics, School of Information and Computer Science, University of California at Irvine; 3NutraClinical Inc., Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Calcium fructoborate (CFB at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were -5.8 (P=0.0009 and -8.9 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were -5.3 (P=0.06 and -13.73 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake.Keywords: CFB, joint discomfort, WOMAC score, McGill pain score

  15. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma

    2012-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies......OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk...

  16. Pivmecillinam versus sulfamethizole for short-term treatment of uncomplicated acute cystitis in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Grinsted, Per

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. General practice, Denmark. Subjects. Patients (n =167) with uncomplica......Objective. To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. General practice, Denmark. Subjects. Patients (n =167......) with uncomplicated UTI confirmed by positive urine phase-contrast microscopy. Main outcome measures. Drug efficacy based on clinical and bacteriological cure. Results. Urinary symptoms disappeared first in patients treated with pivmecillinam, but after five days there was no significant difference in clinical cure...... in 68.8% of patients randomized to pivmecillinam and in 77.9% randomized to sulfamethizole (difference -9.2%, CI -24.7%; 6.3%). Some 26.8% of patients randomized to pivmecillinam experienced a new UTI within 6 months after treatment compared with 18.4% of patients randomized to sulfamethizole...

  17. Short-term additional enfuvirtide therapy is associated with a greater immunological recovery in HIV very late presenters: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, S; Calcagno, A; Cometto, C; Fontana, S; Aguilar, D; D'Avolio, A; Gonzalez de Requena, D; Maiello, A; Dal Conte, I; Lucchini, A; Di Perri, G

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate whether the addition of enfuvirtide to standard highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could confer immunovirological benefits in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected very late presenters. The current study is an open comparative therapeutic trial of standard protease inhibitor (PI)-based HAART ± additional enfuvirtide in treatment-naïve deeply immunologically impaired HIV-positive patients. Very late presenters (CD4 HIV RNA was intensively monitored in the first month, and, thereafter, monthly, as for CD4+ cell count and percentage, clinical data, and plasma drug concentrations. Of 22 enrolled patients (11 per arm), 19 completed the study (10 in the ENF arm). Baseline CD4+ cell counts and % were comparable, with 20 CD4+/mm(3) (12-37) and a percentage of 3.3 (1.7-7.1) in the ENF arm, and 16 CD4+/mm(3) (9-29) and a percentage of 3.1 (2.3-3.8) in the CO arm, respectively. The baseline viral load was also comparable between the two arms, with 5.77 log10 (5.42-6) and 5.39 log10 (5.06-6) in the ENF and CO arms, respectively. Enfuvirtide recipients had higher CD4+ percentage at week 8 (7.6 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.02) and at week 24 (10.7 vs. 5.9%, p = 0.02), and a greater CD4+ increase at week 24 (207 vs. 134 cells/mm(3), p = 0.04), with 70% of enfuvirtide intakers versus 12.5% of controls who achieved a CD4+ cell count >200/mm(3) (p = 0.01). At 48 weeks, patients in the ENF arm had CD4+ cell counts higher than controls (251 vs. 153cells/mm(3), p = 0.04) and were also found to be faster in reaching a CD4 cell count over 200/mm(3): 18 (8-24) versus 48 (36-108) weeks (p = 0.01). Viral load decay at week 4 was greater in the ENF arm (-3 vs. -2.2 log, p = 0.04), while the proportion of patients with viral load discovered HIV-positive patients with very low CD4+ cell counts. Induction strategies using an enfuvirtide-based approach in such subjects warrant further investigation.

  18. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  20. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  1. Does an intraneural interface short-term implant for robotic hand control modulate sensorimotor cortical integration? An EEG-TMS co-registration study on a human amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, F; Ponzo, D; Vollero, L; Guerra, A; Di Pino, G; Petrichella, S; Benvenuto, A; Tombini, M; Rossini, L; Denaro, L; Micera, S; Iannello, G; Guglielmelli, E; Denaro, V; Rossini, P M

    2014-01-01

    Following limb amputation, central and peripheral nervous system relays partially maintain their functions and can be exploited for interfacing prostheses. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time by means of an EEG-TMS co-registration study, whether and how direct bidirectional connection between brain and hand prosthesis impacts on sensorimotor cortical topography. Within an experimental protocol for robotic hand control, a 26 years-old, left-hand amputated male was selected to have implanted four intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) in the median and ulnar nerves of the stump for 4 weeks. Before tf-LIFE-4s implant (T0) and after the training period, once electrodes have been removed (T1), experimental subject's cortico-cortical excitability, connectivity and plasticity were tested via a neuronavigated EEG-TMS experiment. The statistical analysis clearly demonstrated a significant modulation (with t-test p < 0.0001) of EEG activity between 30 and 100 ms post-stimulus for the stimulation of the right hemisphere. When studying individual latencies in that time range, a global amplitude modulation was found in most of the TMS-evoked potentials; particularly, the GEE analysis showed significant differences between T0 and T1 condition at 30 ms (p < 0.0404), 46 ms (p < 0.0001) and 60 ms (p < 0.007) latencies. Finally, also a clear local decrement in N46 amplitude over C4 was evident. No differences between conditions were observed for the stimulation of the left hemisphere. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that bidirectional neural interface could redirect cortical areas -deprived of their original input/output functions- toward restorative neuroplasticity. This reorganization strongly involves bi-hemispheric networks and intracortical and transcortical modulation of GABAergic inhibition.

  2. Improvement in blood pressure after short-term inorganic nitrate supplementation is attenuated in cigarette smokers compared to non-smoking controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Wylie, Lee J; Holland, Terezia; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-12-30

    Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO 3 - ) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN - ), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO 3 - ) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO 3 - metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO 3 - supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite concentration ([NO 2 - ]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS). Nine healthy smokers and eight healthy non-smoking controls reported to the laboratory at baseline (CON) and following six day supplementation periods with 140 mL day -1 NO 3 - -rich (8.4 mmol NO 3 -  day -1 ; NIT) and NO 3 - -depleted (0.08 mmol NO 3 -  day -1 ; PLA) beetroot juice in a cross-over experiment. Plasma and salivary [SCN - ] were elevated in smokers compared to non-smokers in all experimental conditions (P smokers and non-smokers (P vs. NS: 7.5 ± 4.4 mM), plasma [NO 3 - ] (S: 484 ± 198 vs. NS: 802 ± 199 μM) and plasma [NO 2 - ] (S: 218 ± 128 vs. NS: 559 ± 419 nM) between the CON and NIT conditions was lower in the smokers compared to the non-smokers (P smokers and non-smokers (P > 0.05). Systolic blood pressure was lowered compared to PLA with NIT in non-smokers (P smokers (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that dietary NO 3 - metabolism is compromised in smokers leading to an attenuated blood pressure reduction compared to non-smokers after NO 3 - supplementation. These observations may provide novel insights into the cardiovascular risks associated with cigarette smoking and suggest that this population may be less likely to benefit from improved cardiovascular health if they increase dietary NO 3 - intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term electric load forecasting using computational intelligence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sergio; Peralta, J.; Nebot, Àngela; Mugica, Francisco; Cortez, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate time series forecasting is a key issue to support individual and organizational decision making. In this paper, we introduce several methods for short-term electric load forecasting. All the presented methods stem from computational intelligence techniques: Random Forest, Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks, Evolutionary Support Vector Machines and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. The performance of the suggested methods is experimentally justified with several experiments carried out...

  4. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  5. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance...... increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests...... that the playful interaction with the modular interactive tiles has a significant effect even after a very short time of play. The average total training time to obtain the statistical significant effect amounted to just 2h45m....

  6. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  7. Risk Analysis of Reservoir Operations Considering Short-Term Flood Control and Long-Term Water Supply: A Case Study for the Da-Han Creek Basin in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ming Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study applies an integrated methodology to assess short-term over-levee risk and long-term water shortage risk in the Da-Han Creek basin, which is the most important flood control and water storage system in northern Taiwan. An optimization model for reservoir flood control and water supply is adopted, to determine reservoir releases based on synthetic inflow hydrographs during typhoons, which are generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The release is then used to calculate the water level at a downstream control point using a novel developed back-propagation neural network-based model, to reduce computational complexity and achieve automatic-efficient risk evaluation. The calculated downstream water levels and final reservoir water levels after a typhoon event are used to evaluate the mapped over-levee risk and water shortage risk, respectively. The results showed that the different upper limit settings for the reservoir have a significant influence on the variation of 1.19 × 10−5% to 75.6% of the water shortage risk. This occurs because of the insufficient inflow and narrow storage capacity of the Shih-Men Reservoir during drought periods. However, the upper limit settings have a minor influence (with a variation of only 0.149% to 0.157% on the over-levee risk in typhoon periods, because of the high protection standards for the downstream embankment.

  8. Short-term Memory of Deep RNN

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The extension of deep learning towards temporal data processing is gaining an increasing research interest. In this paper we investigate the properties of state dynamics developed in successive levels of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in terms of short-term memory abilities. Our results reveal interesting insights that shed light on the nature of layering as a factor of RNN design. Noticeably, higher layers in a hierarchically organized RNN architecture results to be inherently biased ...

  9. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  10. A short-term neural network memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.J.T.; Wong, W.S.

    1988-12-01

    Neural network memories with storage prescriptions based on Hebb's rule are known to collapse as more words are stored. By requiring that the most recently stored word be remembered precisely, a new simple short-term neutral network memory is obtained and its steady state capacity analyzed and simulated. Comparisons are drawn with Hopfield's method, the delta method of Widrow and Hoff, and the revised marginalist model of Mezard, Nadal, and Toulouse.

  11. Short-term memory in networks of dissociated cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranias, Mark R; Ju, Han; Rajaram, Ezhilarasan; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2013-01-30

    Short-term memory refers to the ability to store small amounts of stimulus-specific information for a short period of time. It is supported by both fading and hidden memory processes. Fading memory relies on recurrent activity patterns in a neuronal network, whereas hidden memory is encoded using synaptic mechanisms, such as facilitation, which persist even when neurons fall silent. We have used a novel computational and optogenetic approach to investigate whether these same memory processes hypothesized to support pattern recognition and short-term memory in vivo, exist in vitro. Electrophysiological activity was recorded from primary cultures of dissociated rat cortical neurons plated on multielectrode arrays. Cultures were transfected with ChannelRhodopsin-2 and optically stimulated using random dot stimuli. The pattern of neuronal activity resulting from this stimulation was analyzed using classification algorithms that enabled the identification of stimulus-specific memories. Fading memories for different stimuli, encoded in ongoing neural activity, persisted and could be distinguished from each other for as long as 1 s after stimulation was terminated. Hidden memories were detected by altered responses of neurons to additional stimulation, and this effect persisted longer than 1 s. Interestingly, network bursts seem to eliminate hidden memories. These results are similar to those that have been reported from similar experiments in vivo and demonstrate that mechanisms of information processing and short-term memory can be studied using cultured neuronal networks, thereby setting the stage for therapeutic applications using this platform.

  12. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  13. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-06

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term fasting protects mice against γ ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengnan; Gu Xiuling; Song Lian; Tong Jian; Li Jianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antagonistic effects of short-term fasting against 60 Co γ ray radiation. Methods: After fasting ICR mice were irradiated for 3 min at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min and then returned to normal diet. General situation, body weight changes, food consumption and toxic status were observed. WBC, organ index and anti-oxidative ability (ROS, SOD, MDA, T-AOC) were analyzed. Results: After 60 Co γ ray radiation, the mice exhibited severe toxic symptoms before death. The survival rates were 0 for control and 12 h group, 12.5% for 48 h group and 50% for 72 h group respectively. ROS production of 72 h group was reduced compared with 0 h group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Short-term fasting may attenuate radiation induced injuries, evidenced by a significant increase in mice survival rate. (authors)

  15. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L; Joensen, A; Giebel, G [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  16. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  18. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection. CRESST Report 822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  19. Clinical trials with rasagiline: evidence for short-term and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderowf, Andrew; Stern, Matthew

    2006-05-23

    Rasagiline (N-propargyl-1 (R)-aminoindan) is a selective, potent irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B that possesses neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties in a variety of in vitro and in vivo animal models relevant to Parkinson's disease (PD). Several randomized controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of rasagiline as monotherapy in PD and as adjunctive therapy for patients receiving levodopa. In addition, the 1-year randomized, delayed-start analysis of the TEMPO study suggests that rasagiline may slow the rate of progression of PD. The randomized delayed-start paradigm has potential to differentiate short-term symptomatic effects from long-term effects of anti-parkinsonian agents. In the future, long-term trials to examine the potential disease-modifying effects of rasagiline, which incorporate biological markers as well as clinical endpoints, may further elucidate the role of rasagiline in the treatment of both early and advanced PD.

  20. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  1. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  4. Questioning short-term memory and its measurement: Why digit span measures long-term associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2015-11-01

    Traditional accounts of verbal short-term memory explain differences in performance for different types of verbal material by reference to inherent characteristics of the verbal items making up memory sequences. The role of previous experience with sequences of different types is ostensibly controlled for either by deliberate exclusion or by presenting multiple trials constructed from different random permutations. We cast doubt on this general approach in a detailed analysis of the basis for the robust finding that short-term memory for digit sequences is superior to that for other sequences of verbal material. Specifically, we show across four experiments that this advantage is not due to inherent characteristics of digits as verbal items, nor are individual digits within sequences better remembered than other types of individual verbal items. Rather, the advantage for digit sequences stems from the increased frequency, compared to other verbal material, with which digits appear in random sequences in natural language, and furthermore, relatively frequent digit sequences support better short-term serial recall than less frequent ones. We also provide corpus-based computational support for the argument that performance in a short-term memory setting is a function of basic associative learning processes operating on the linguistic experience of the rememberer. The experimental and computational results raise questions not only about the role played by measurement of digit span in cognition generally, but also about the way in which long-term memory processes impact on short-term memory functioning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term forecasting of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frees, E W

    1993-11-01

    A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt

  6. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  7. Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2007-12-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.

  8. MR imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: Reduction of false-negative biopsies by short-term control MRI 24–48 h after biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrs, S.D.; Hattermann, V.; Preibsch, H.; Hahn, M.; Staebler, A.; Claussen, C.D.; Siegmann-Luz, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether another contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination 24–48 h after MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (MRI-VAB) can reduce the rate of false-negative cases. Materials and methods: The study included 252 patients who underwent MRI-VAB for the clarification of 299 lesions. The success of MRI-VAB was assessed at interventional MRI and another CE MRI 24–48 h after the intervention. In cases of successful MRI-VAB (complete or partial lesion removal) and benign histological results, follow-up breast MRI was performed. In cases of unsuccessful biopsy (unchanged lesion), tissue sampling was repeated. False-negative cases were calculated to assess the diagnostic value of MRI follow-up within 2 days after intervention. Results: Ninety-eight malignant (32.8%) and 201 (67.2%) benign lesions were diagnosed using MRI-VAB. At immediate unenhanced control MRI, all lesions were assessed as successfully biopsied. In 18 benign cases (6%), CE MRI after 24–48 h showed an unsuccessful intervention. Further tissue sampling revealed another 13 cancers in these patients. This results in a false-negative rate of 11.7%. Follow-up MRI of the benign lesions presented no further malignancy. Conclusions: MRI-VAB with immediate unenhanced control offers a success rate of 94%. The rate of false-negative biopsies (11.7%) could be reduced to zero by using short-term follow-up MRI. Therefore, a further CE breast MRI 24–48 h after benign MRI-VAB to eliminate missed cancers is recommended. - Highlights: • Some suspicious breast lesions are only seen on MRI. • They can be biopsied by a MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy system. • Inadequate sampling causes some false-negative biopsies. • We evaluate an additional control MRI 24 to 48 hours after biopsy. • A reduced rate of the false-negative biopsies was found

  9. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    OpenAIRE

    Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK

    2016-01-01

    Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...

  10. Hypothalamus-Related Resting Brain Network Underlying Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Primary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to explore modulated hypothalamus-seeded resting brain network underlying the cardiovascular system in primary hypertensive patients after short-term acupuncture treatment. Thirty right-handed patients (14 male were divided randomly into acupuncture and control groups. The acupuncture group received a continuous five-day acupuncture treatment and undertook three resting-state fMRI scans and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM as well as SF-36 questionnaires before, after, and one month after acupuncture treatment. The control group undertook fMRI scans and 24-hour ABPM. For verum acupuncture, average blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR decreased after treatment but showed no statistical differences. There were no significant differences in BP and HR between the acupuncture and control groups. Notably, SF-36 indicated that bodily pain (P = 0.005 decreased and vitality (P = 0.036 increased after acupuncture compared to the baseline. The hypothalamus-related brain network showed increased functional connectivity with the medulla, brainstem, cerebellum, limbic system, thalamus, and frontal lobes. In conclusion, short-term acupuncture did not decrease BP significantly but appeared to improve body pain and vitality. Acupuncture may regulate the cardiovascular system through a complicated brain network from the cortical level, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem.

  11. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  12. Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Armstrong, B K

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. METHODS: Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded...... with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists....... by operators or through the use of software modified phones, and compared to use recalled six months later using the Interphone study questionnaire. Agreement between recalled and actual phone use was analysed using both categorical and continuous measures of number and duration of phone calls. RESULTS...

  13. Short-term wind speed prediction using an unscented Kalman filter based state-space support vector regression approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuilin; Yu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid modeling method is proposed for short-term wind speed forecasting. • Support vector regression model is constructed to formulate nonlinear state-space framework. • Unscented Kalman filter is adopted to recursively update states under random uncertainty. • The new SVR–UKF approach is compared to several conventional methods for short-term wind speed prediction. • The proposed method demonstrates higher prediction accuracy and reliability. - Abstract: Accurate wind speed forecasting is becoming increasingly important to improve and optimize renewable wind power generation. Particularly, reliable short-term wind speed prediction can enable model predictive control of wind turbines and real-time optimization of wind farm operation. However, this task remains challenging due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty of wind speed. In this study, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is integrated with support vector regression (SVR) based state-space model in order to precisely update the short-term estimation of wind speed sequence. In the proposed SVR–UKF approach, support vector regression is first employed to formulate a nonlinear state-space model and then unscented Kalman filter is adopted to perform dynamic state estimation recursively on wind sequence with stochastic uncertainty. The novel SVR–UKF method is compared with artificial neural networks (ANNs), SVR, autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive integrated with Kalman filter (AR-Kalman) approaches for predicting short-term wind speed sequences collected from three sites in Massachusetts, USA. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed method has much better performance in both one-step-ahead and multi-step-ahead wind speed predictions than the other approaches across all the locations

  14. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  15. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  16. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  18. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  19. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the health......Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...

  20. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S., E-mail: almir@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adelaide@ird.gov.br, E-mail: vanessa@ird.gov.br, E-mail: maura@ird.gov.br, E-mail: poliana@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  1. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  2. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  3. Study of short term memory status in adult bipolar disorder patients in south Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mohammed; Siddiq, Mohamed; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K; Kulkarni, B R

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish short term memory status in bipolar disorder cases as compared with normal age and sex matched control group in Bijapur (Karnataka). Results showed that a significant decrease in short term memory status in bipolar disorder cases as compared to their control group .Loss of attention, decreased processing speed and executive function patterns may be the probable causes of such observations.

  4. The Delicate Analysis of Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changwei; Zheng, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new method for short-term load forecasting based on the similar day method, correlation coefficient and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to achieve the precision analysis of load variation from three aspects (typical day, correlation coefficient, spectral analysis) and three dimensions (time dimension, industry dimensions, the main factors influencing the load characteristic such as national policies, regional economic, holidays, electricity and so on). First, the branch algorithm one-class-SVM is adopted to selection the typical day. Second, correlation coefficient method is used to obtain the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, which can reflect the influence caused by the customer macro policy and the scale of production to the electricity price. Third, Fourier transform residual error correction model is proposed to reflect the nature of load extracting from the residual error. Finally, simulation result indicates the validity and engineering practicability of the proposed method.

  5. Short-term therapy with combination dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin/metformin extended release (XR) is superior to saxagliptin or metformin XR monotherapy in prediabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a single-blind, randomized, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind-Hirsch, Karen E; Paterson, Martha S; Seidemann, Ericka L; Gutowski, Hanh C

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin (SAXA), metformin extended release (MET), and combination (SAXA-MET) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and impaired glucose regulation. Prospective, randomized, single-blind drug study. Outpatient clinic. Patients (n = 38) with PCOS (aged 18-42 years) and prediabetic hyperglycemia determined by a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test. Patients were randomized to SAXA-MET (5 mg/2,000 mg), SAXA (5 mg), or MET (2,000 mg) for 16 weeks. Fasting and mean blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (IS-SI) by oral glucose tolerance tests. Free androgen index and lipid levels, average menstrual interval, and anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/height ratio). The study was completed by 34 patients. Nineteen patients had normal glucose tolerance: 3 of 12 (25%) on MET; 6 of 11 (55%) on SAXA; and 10 of 11 (91%) on SAXA-MET (SAXA-MET statistically superior to MET) at study completion. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist/height ratio, free androgen index, insulin sensitivity, IS-SI, and menses improved in all groups; however, IS-SI and menstrual regularity were significantly better with SAXA-MET vs. MET treatment. Triglyceride, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and mean blood glucose significantly declined in the SAXA-MET and SAXA groups only. This pilot work provides the first evidence regarding the effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alone and in combination with MET in this patient population. Treatment with SAXA-MET was superior to either drug alone in terms of clinical and metabolic benefits in prediabetic patients with PCOS. NCT02022007. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (Ppain intensity and widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and also increase active cervical range of motion, in patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Changes in pain, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion surpassed their respective minimal detectable change values, supporting clinically relevant treatment effects. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-.

  7. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBehrens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue

  8. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy after short-term therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon N; Chun, Dal W

    2014-01-01

    To report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity after short-term therapy. Observational case report. A 56-year-old woman presented to the Ophthalmology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) with a 6-month history of gradually decreasing vision in both eyes. The patient had been taking hydroxychloroquine for the preceding 48 months for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Examination of the posterior segment revealed bilateral "bull's eye" macular lesions. Fundus autofluorescence revealed hyperfluorescence of well-defined bull's eye lesions in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography revealed corresponding parafoveal atrophy with a loss of the retinal inner segment/outer segment junction. Humphrey visual field 10-2 white showed significant central and paracentral defects with a generalized depression. The patient was on a standard dose of 400 mg daily, which was above her ideal dose. The patient had no history of kidney or liver dysfunction. There were no known risk factors but there were several possible confounding factors. The patient was started on high-dose nabumetone, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, at the same time she was started on hydroxychloroquine. She also reported taking occasional ibuprofen. Retinal toxicity from chloroquine has been recognized for decades with later reports showing retinopathy from long-term hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) use for the treatment of antiinflammatory diseases. Hydroxychloroquine is now widely used and retinal toxicity is relatively uncommon. However, it can cause serious vision loss and is usually irreversible. The risk of hydroxychloroquine toxicity rises to nearly 1% with a total cumulative dose of 1,000 g, which is ∼5 years to 7 years of normal use. Toxicity is rare under this dose. For this reason, the American Academy of Ophthalmology has revised its recommendations such that annual screenings begin 5 years after therapy with hydroxychloroquine has begun unless there are known risk

  9. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements, slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry. This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  10. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qvenild Torgunn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET. The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03. The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.

  11. Short-term effects of playing computer games on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-05-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour. The TBAG form of the Stroop task was administered to all participants twice, before playing and immediately after playing the game. Participants with improved posttest scores, compared to their pretest scores, used the computer on average 0.67 +/- 1.1 hr/day, while the average administered was measured at 1.6 +/- 1.4 hr/day and 1.3 +/- 0.9 hr/day computer use for participants with worse or unaltered scores, respectively. According to the regression model, male gender, younger ages, duration of daily computer use, and ADHD inattention type were found to be independent risk factors for worsened posttest scores. Time spent playing computer games can exert a short-term effect on attention as measured by the Stroop test.

  12. Short-term cortical plasticity induced by conditioning pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Buchgreitz, Line; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical stimulat......To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical......, and after homotopic and heterotopic CPM versus control. Peak latencies at N100, P200, and P300 were extracted and the location/strength of corresponding dipole current sources and multiple dipoles were estimated. Homotopic CPM caused hypoalgesia (P = 0.032, 30.6% compared to baseline) to electrical...... stimulation. No cortical changes were found for homotopic CPM. A positive correlation at P200 between electrical pain threshold after tonic pain and the z coordinate after tonic pain (P = 0.032) was found for homotopic CPM. For heterotopic CPM, no significant hypoalgesia was found and a dipole shift of the P...

  13. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a characterization of short-term stability of random Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given any distribution of transfer functions for a random Boolean network, we present a formula that decides whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. We provide a formal proof for this formula, and empirically show that its predictions are accurate. Previous work only works for special cases of balanced families. Finally, it has been observed that these characterizations fail for unbalanced families, yet such families are widespread in real biological networks.

  14. Randomized Crossover Comparison of the Short-Term Efficacy and Safety of Single Half-Dose Silodosin and Tamsulosin Hydrochoride in Men With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hideki; Moriyama, Shingo; Arai, Yoshiaki; Washino, Satoshi; Saito, Kimitoshi; Chiba, Koji; Horiuchi, Susumu; Noro, Akira

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of single half-dose silodosin and single full-dose tamsulosin in Japanese men with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). Japanese men aged ≥50 years with LUTS/BPH and an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥8 were enrolled in the randomized crossover study and divided into silodosin-preceding (S-T) and tamsulosin-preceding (T-S) groups. The S-T group received 4 mg silodosin once daily for 4 weeks followed by 0.2 mg tamsulosin once daily for 4 weeks. The T-S group received the reverse treatment sequence. A washout period prior to drug crossover was not included. Subjective and objective efficacy parameters including IPSS, quality of life (QOL) index, uroflowmetry, and safety were compared between the two groups. Thirty of 34 men (S-T group n = 16; T-S group n = 14) completed the study. Both drugs significantly improved all IPSS items and QOL index in the first treatment period. Subjective improvement in nocturia by silodosin was observed in both the first and crossover treatment periods. Objective improvement in maximum flow rate by silodosin was only observed in the first treatment period. Adverse events occurred more frequently with silodosin than with tamsulosin; however, none of the adverse events required treatment discontinuation. Ejaculation disorders occurred in three participants (10%) and were associated with silodosin use. Single half-dose silodosin has a similar efficacy to full-dose tamsulosin in Japanese men with LUTS/BPH and thus, may represent an effective, safe, and affordable treatment option. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Renal function, efficacy, and safety of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil after short-term calcineurin inhibitor-based quadruple therapy in de novo renal transplant patients: one-year analysis of a randomized multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guba, Markus; Pratschke, Johann; Hugo, Christian; Krämer, Bernhard K; Nohr-Westphal, Constanze; Brockmann, Jens; Andrassy, Joachim; Reinke, Petra; Pressmar, Katharina; Hakenberg, Oliver; Fischereder, Michael; Pascher, Andreas; Illner, Wolf-Dieter; Banas, Bernhard; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2010-07-27

    De novo sirolimus in calcineurin inhibitor-free regimens, although potentially useful to improve early renal function, are complicated by various drug-related side effects. We report a prospective open-label, multicenter, randomized trial to evaluate early conversion from a CsA-based to a sirolimus (SRL)-based regimen 10 to 24 days after renal transplantation. Of the 196 patients, 141 patients with a low-to-moderate immunological risk were eligible to be converted to SRL or to continue CsA. All patients received antithymocyte globulin-F single-bolus induction, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The primary endpoint, renal function determined by S-creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by Nankivell formula at 12 months was significantly better in the SRL group (1.51+/-0.59 vs. 1.87+/-0.98 mg/dL or 64.5+/-25.2 vs. 53.4+/-18.0 mL/min/1.73 m). Patient survival, graft survival, and incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection after conversion were not statistically different. Drug discontinuations were significantly higher in the SRL group (36.2% vs. 19.7%). Significantly, more patients in the SRL group reported acne, aphtous, and temporary hyperlipidemia, whereas cytomegalovirus viremia was significantly decreased (7.3% vs. 28.2%). Early conversion to a calcineurin inhibitor-free regimen with SRL in combination with mycophenolate mofetil may be a useful strategy to improve renal function. The identification of appropriate candidates and safe management of SRL-related adverse events will be a key to avoid the high rate of dropouts, which currently limit the broad applicability of this protocol.

  16. The Role of Short-term Consolidation in Memory Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Ricker

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into s...

  17. Self-construal priming affects speed of retrieval from short-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A Macdonald

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of collective or individual self-construal priming on recall in a short-term memory (STM task. We primed participants to either their individual or their collective self-construals or a neutral control condition. Participants then completed a STM retrieval task using either random or patterned digit strings. Findings revealed that priming an individual self-construal resulted in faster retrieval of information from STM for both stimulus types. These results indicate that individual self-accessibility improves retrieval speed of digits from STM, regardless of set configuration. More broadly, the present findings extend prior research by adding further evidence of the effects of self-construal priming on cognitive information processing.

  18. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, w...

  20. Short-term variability of Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Doi, K.; Ogawara, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The short-term X-ray variability distinguishes Cyg X-1, which is the most likely candidate for a black hole, from other X-ray sources. The present status of our knowledge on this short-term variation, mainly from the UHURU, the MIT and the GSFC observations, is reviewed. The nature of impulsive variations which compose the time variation exceeding the statistical fluctuation is discussed. There are indications that the energy spectrum of large pulses is harder than the average spectrum, or that the large pulses are the characteristics of the hard component of the spectrum if it is composed of two, soft and hard, components. Features of the variations may be partly simulated by the superposition of random shot-noise pulses with a fraction of a second duration. However, the autocorrelation analysis and the dynamic spectrum analysis indicate that the correlation lasts for several seconds and in the variation are buried some regularities which exhibit power concentrations in several frequency bands; 0.2-0.3, 0.4-0.5, 0.8, 1.2-1.5 Hz. There are several possible interpretations of these results in terms of; e.g. (a) a mixture of shot-noise pulses with two or more constant durations, (b) the shape of the basic shot-noise pulse, (c) bunching of the pulses, (d) superposition of wave-packets or temporal oscillations. But we have not yet reached any definite understandings in the nature of the variabilities. The substructure of the fluctuations on a time scale of milliseconds suggested by two investigations is also discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Short-term variability of CYG X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Doi, K.; Ogawara, Y.; Takagishi, K.; Wada, M.

    1975-01-01

    The short-term X-ray variability distinguishes Cyg X-1, which is the most likely candidate of the black hole, from other X-ray sources. Present status of our knowledge on this short-term variation mainly from the Uhuru, the MIT and the GSFC observations is reviewed. The nature of impulsive variations which compose the time variation exceeding the statistical fluctuation is discussed. There are indications that the energy spectrum of large pulses is harder than the average spectrum or the large pulses are the characteristics of the hard component of the spectrum if it is composed of two, soft and hard, components. Features of the variations may be partly simulated by the superposition of random short-noise pulses with a fraction of a second duration. However, the autocorrelation analysis and the dynamic spectrum analysis indicate that the correlation lasts for several seconds and in the variation buried are some regularities which exhibit power concentrations in several frequency bands; 0.2 -- 0.3, 0.4 -- 0.5, 0.8, 1.2 -- 1.5 Hz. There are several possible interpretation of these results in terms of: e.g. a) a mixture of short-noise pulses with two or more constant durations, b) the shape of the basic shot-noise pulse, c) bunching of the pulses, d) superposition of wave-packets or temporal oscillations. But we have not yet reached any definite understandings in the nature of the variabilities. The sub-structure of the fluctuations on a time scale of milli-second suggested by two investigations is also discussed. (auth.)

  2. Short term aerobic exercise training increases postprandial pancreatic polypeptide but not peptide YY concentrations in obese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Fairchild, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Short-term exercise training improves glycemic control, but the effect of short-term training on postprandial satiety peptide responses or perceived satiety remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that short-term aerobic exercise training (15 days) would alter postprandial pancreatic and gut peptide [pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY)] responses and perceived appetite and satiety in obese individuals. Subjects Thirteen healthy obese men and women (age: 42±2 y; BMI: 3...

  3. a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Yıldırım

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching and Mulligan technique on hip flexion range of motion (ROM in subjects with bilateral hamstring tightness. A total of 40 students (mean age: 21.5±1.3 years, mean body height: 172.8±8.2 cm, mean body mass index: 21.9±3.0 kg • m-2 with bilateral hamstring tightness were enrolled in this randomized trial, of whom 26 completed the study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups performing (I typical static stretching, (II PNF stretching, (III Mulligan traction straight leg raise (TSLR technique, (IV no intervention. Hip flexion ROM was measured using a digital goniometer with the passive straight leg raise test before and after 4 weeks by two physiotherapists blinded to the groups. 52 extremities of 26 subjects were analyzed. Hip flexion ROM increased in all three intervention groups (p<0.05 but not in the no-intervention group after 4 weeks. A statistically significant change in initial–final assessment differences of hip flexion ROM was found between groups (p<0.001 in favour of PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique in comparison to typical static stretching (p=0.016 and p=0.02, respectively. No significant difference was found between Mulligan TSLR technique and PNF stretching (p=0.920. The initial–final assessment difference of hip flexion ROM was similar in typical static stretching and no intervention (p=0.491. A 4-week stretching intervention is beneficial for increasing hip flexion ROM in bilateral hamstring tightness. However, PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique are superior to typical static stretching. These two interventions can be alternatively used for stretching in hamstring tightness.

  4. A short-term double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial with active or placebo pindolol in patients treated with venlafaxine for major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    Pindolol has been widely investigated as an augmenter of antidepressant drug response. Results have been inconsistent. In this study, we used pindolol together with venlafaxine because of its ability to achieve a rapid onset of serotonin transporter blockade.......Pindolol has been widely investigated as an augmenter of antidepressant drug response. Results have been inconsistent. In this study, we used pindolol together with venlafaxine because of its ability to achieve a rapid onset of serotonin transporter blockade....

  5. Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, J.H.; Baek, S.H.; Woo, Y.; Han, J.K.; Lee, van L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods - This study was designed for

  6. Short-term role of the dietary total antioxidant capacity in two hypocaloric regimes on obese with metabolic syndrome symptoms: the RESMENA randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Legarrea Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results Both diets equally (p > 0.05 improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034, body mass index (p = 0.026, waist circumference (p = 0.083 and fat mass (p = 0.015 reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086

  7. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an experimental short-term inpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) program: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.C. van den Bosch (Louise M.); R. Sinnaeve (Roland); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); E.F. van Furth (Eric)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a serious psychiatric condition associated with substantial mortality, burden and public health costs. DBT is the treatment model with the largest number of published research articles showing effectiveness.

  8. Short-term performance effects of three different low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training.......001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players....

  9. Energy storage systems impact on the short-term frequency stability of distributed autonomous microgrids, an analysis using aggregate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus; Marinescu, Corneliu

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the integration impact of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) on the short-term frequency control in autonomous microgrids (MGs). Short-term frequency stability relates with the primary or speed control level, as defined in the regulations of the classical grids. The focus...

  10. Types of urethral catheter for reducing symptomatic urinary tract infections in hospitalised adults requiring short-term catheterisation: multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of antimicrobial- and antiseptic-impregnated urethral catheters (the CATHETER trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, R; Lam, T; Maclennan, G; Starr, K; Kilonzo, M; McPherson, G; Gillies, K; McDonald, A; Walton, K; Buckley, B; Glazener, C; Boachie, C; Burr, J; Norrie, J; Vale, L; Grant, A; N'dow, J

    2012-11-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a major preventable cause of harm for patients in hospital and incurs significant costs for health-care providers such as the UK NHS. Many preventative strategies and measures have been introduced to minimise CAUTI risk, including the use of antimicrobial catheters. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding their usefulness in terms of reducing symptomatic CAUTI, and whether or not they are cost-effective. Do antimicrobial catheters reduce the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) during short-term hospital use and is their use cost-effective for the UK NHS? A pragmatic multicentre UK randomised controlled trial comparing three catheters as they would be used in the UK NHS: antimicrobial-impregnated (nitrofurazone) and antiseptic-coated (silver alloy) catheters with the standard polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-coated catheters. Economic evaluation used a decision model populated with data from the trial. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainty. Relevant clinical departments in 24 NHS hospitals throughout the UK. Adults requiring temporary urethral catheterisation for a period of between 1 and 14 days as part of their care, predominantly as a result of elective surgery. Eligible participants were randomised 1 : 1 : 1 to one of three types of urethral catheter in order to make the following pragmatic comparisons: nitrofurazone-impregnated silicone catheter compared with standard PTFE-coated latex catheter; and silver alloy-coated hydrogel latex catheter compared with standard PTFE-coated latex catheter. The primary outcome for clinical effectiveness was the incidence of UTI at any time up to 6 weeks post randomisation. This was defined as any symptom reported during catheterisation, up to 3 days or 1 or 2 weeks post catheter removal or 6 weeks post randomisation combined with a prescription of antibiotics, at any of these times, for presumed symptomatic UTI. The primary economic

  11. Short-term memories with a stochastic perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Jose C.A. de; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate short-term memories in linear and weakly nonlinear coupled map lattices with a periodic external input. We use locally coupled maps to present numerical results about short-term memory formation adding a stochastic perturbation in the maps and in the external input

  12. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  13. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  14. Comparison of Sugammadex and Neostigmine in Short Term Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the efficacy and cost effectivines of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for short term elective surgery. Material and Method: After written informed consent, 33 patients aged 18%u201365, ASA I-III, who were undergoing short term surgery (

  15. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  16. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  17. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  18. Assessment of short-term memory in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, F A; Shoeib, R M; Mahmoud, H E

    2010-12-15

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) may have some kind of memory disorder that could increase their linguistic impairment. This study assessed the short-term memory skills in Arabic speaking children with either Expressive Language Impairment (ELI) or Receptive/Expressive Language Impairment (R/ELI) in comparison to controls in order to estimate the nature and extent of any specific deficits in these children that could explain the different prognostic results of language intervention. Eighteen children were included in each group. Receptive, expressive and total language quotients were calculated using the Arabic language test. Assessment of auditory and visual short-term memory was done using the Arabic version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Both groups of SLI performed significantly lower linguistic abilities and poorer auditory and visual short-term memory in comparison to normal children. The R/ELI group presented an inferior performance than the ELI group in all measured parameters. Strong association was found between most tasks of auditory and visual short-term memory and linguistic abilities. The results of this study highlighted a specific degree of deficit of auditory and visual short-term memories in both groups of SLI. These deficits were more prominent in R/ELI group. Moreover, the strong association between the different auditory and visual short-term memories and language abilities in children with SLI must be taken into account when planning an intervention program for these children.

  19. Effects of Short-term Hypergravity Exposure on Germination, Growth and Photosynthesis of Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Pandit B.; Jagtap, Sagar S.; Dixit, Jyotsana P.; Kamble, Shailendra M.; Dhepe, Aarti P.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the hypergravity effect on plants, where seedlings (4-5 days old) were continuously exposed and grown under hypergravity condition. Here, we have used a novel `shortterm hypergravity exposure experimental method' where imbibed caryopses (instead of seedlings) were exposed to higher hypergravity values ranging from 500 g to 2500 g for a short interval time of 10 minutes and post short-term hypergravity treated caryopses were grown under 1 g conditions for five days. Changing patterns in caryopsis germination and growth, along with various photosynthetic and biochemical parameters were studied. Results revealed the significant inhibition of caryopsis germination and growth in short-term hypergravity treated seeds over control. Photosynthesis parameters such as chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis (PN), transpiration rate (Evap) and stomatal conductance (Gs), along with intracellular CO2 concentration (Cint) were found to be affected significantly in 5 days old seedlings exposed to short-term hypergravity treatment. In order to investigate the cause of observed inhibition, we examined the α-amylase activity and antioxidative enzyme activities. α-amylase activity was found to be inhibited, along with the reduction of sugars necessary for germination and earlier growth in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and guaiacol peroxidase were increased in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses, suggesting that caryopses might have experienced oxidative stress upon short-term hypergravity exposure.

  20. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, C.P.G.M. de

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Repolarization gradients in the canine left ventricle before and after induction of short-term cardiac memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Michiel J.; Sosunov, Eugene A.; Coronel, Ruben; Opthof, Tobias; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Plotnikov, Alexei N.; Shlapakova, Iryna N.; Danilo, Peter; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Questions remain about the contributions of transmural versus apicobasal repolarization gradients to the configuration of the T wave in control settings and after the induction of short-term cardiac memory. Methods and Results - Short-term cardiac memory is seen as T-wave changes

  3. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERGÜL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.

  4. Evaluating the short-term and long-term effects of an internet-based aural rehabilitation programme for hearing aid users in general clinical practice: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Milijana; Lunner, Thomas; Kähäri, Kim; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-06-06

    Guided internet-based intervention beyond hearing aid (HA) fitting has been shown to be efficacious in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, internet interventions have rarely been applied clinically as a part of regular aural rehabilitation (AR). Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based AR for HA users from a clinical population. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) was used as the primary outcome measure, and the Communication Strategies Scale (CSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used as secondary outcome measures. All questionnaires were administered before and directly after the intervention and at 6 months postintervention. We used a parallel group design (RCT). The data were collected in 2013-2014 at three different clinics. Seventy-four HA users were randomly assigned to receive either full internet-based AR (intervention group, n=37) or one element of the internet-based AR (control group, n=37). Data were analysed following the intention-to-treat principle. Each group showed improved HHIE scores over time and did not differ significantly from each other. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement compared with the control group for the CSS total and the non-verbal subscale scores. The intervention group and control group were also subdivided into two age groups: 20-59 years and 60-80 years. Significantly better improvement on the CSS total and non-verbal subscale scores was found in the older group compared with the younger participants. This study indicates that participants in an internet-based intervention applied in general clinical practice showed improved self-reported communication skills compared with a control group. Receiving a full intervention was not more effective in improving self-reported hearing problems than receiving just one element of the internet-based intervention. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrals.gov, NCT01837550; results. © Article author

  5. Visual short-term memory deficits associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaei, Nahid; McNeill, Alisdair; Proukakis, Christos; Beavan, Michelle; Jarman, Paul; Korlipara, Prasad; Hughes, Derralynn; Mehta, Atul; Hu, Michele T M; Schapira, Anthony H V; Husain, Masud

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with mutation in the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are at significantly high risk of developing Parkinson's disease with cognitive deficit. We examined whether visual short-term memory impairments, long associated with patients with Parkinson's disease, are also present in GBA-positive individuals-both with and without Parkinson's disease. Precision of visual working memory was measured using a serial order task in which participants observed four bars, each of a different colour and orientation, presented sequentially at screen centre. Afterwards, they were asked to adjust a coloured probe bar's orientation to match the orientation of the bar of the same colour in the sequence. An additional attentional 'filtering' condition tested patients' ability to selectively encode one of the four bars while ignoring the others. A sensorimotor task using the same stimuli controlled for perceptual and motor factors. There was a significant deficit in memory precision in GBA-positive individuals-with or without Parkinson's disease-as well as GBA-negative patients with Parkinson's disease, compared to healthy controls. Worst recall was observed in GBA-positive cases with Parkinson's disease. Although all groups were impaired in visual short-term memory, there was a double dissociation between sources of error associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson's disease. The deficit observed in GBA-positive individuals, regardless of whether they had Parkinson's disease, was explained by a systematic increase in interference from features of other items in memory: misbinding errors. In contrast, impairments in patients with Parkinson's disease, regardless of GBA status, was explained by increased random responses. Individuals who were GBA-positive and also had Parkinson's disease suffered from both types of error, demonstrating the worst performance. These findings provide evidence for dissociable signature deficits within the domain of visual short-term

  6. Effects of short-term pressure-controlled ventilation on gas exchange, airway pressures, and gas distribution in patients with acute lung injury/ARDS: comparison with volume-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prella, Maura; Feihl, François; Domenighetti, Guido

    2002-10-01

    The potential clinical benefits of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) over volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS still remain debated. We compared PCV with VCV in patients with ALI/ARDS with respect to the following physiologic end points: (1) gas exchange and airway pressures, and (2) CT scan intrapulmonary gas distribution at end-expiration. Prospective, observational study. A multidisciplinary ICU in a nonuniversity, acute-care hospital. Ten patients with ALI or ARDS (9 men and 1 woman; age range, 17 to 80 years). Sequential ventilation in PCV and VCV with a constant inspiratory/expiratory ratio, tidal volume, respiratory rate, and total positive end-expiratory pressure; measurement of gas exchange and airway pressures; and achievement of CT sections at lung base, hilum, and apex for the quantitative analysis of lung densities and of aerated vs nonaerated zones. PaO(2), PaCO(2), and PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio levels did not differ between PCV and VCV. Peak airway pressure (Ppeak) was significantly lower in PCV compared with VCV (26 +/- 2 cm H(2)O vs 31 +/- 2 cm H(2)O; p mean +/- SEM). The surface areas of the nonaerated zones as well as the total areas at each section level were unchanged in PCV compared with VCV, except at the apex level, where there was a significantly greater nonaerated area in VCV (11 +/- 2 cm(2) vs 9 +/- 2 cm(2); p mean CT number of each lung (20 lungs from 10 patients) was similar in the two modes, as were the density values at the basal and apical levels; the hilum mean CT number was - 442 +/- 28 Hounsfield units (HU) in VCV and - 430 +/- 26 HU in PCV (p lower Ppeaks through the precise titration of the lung distending pressure, and might be applied to avoid regional overdistension by means of a more homogeneous gas distribution.

  7. International Short-Term Countermeasures Survey - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, Grant

    2013-01-01

    information, general objectives and criteria, national organisation, emergency planning zones, emergency plans, implementation of short-term countermeasures, information for the public, countermeasures for special groups, and harmonisation. It is aimed at comparing countries' current approach to nuclear emergency planning, and excludes proposed arrangements for new build. In February 2012, a questionnaire was sent to NEA members to gather information on the countermeasure provisions in place. Data was obtained from 20 countries (listed in Appendix A) and this report presents the findings from this survey. The full questionnaire can be found in Appendix B. The information given in this report allows NEA member countries to compare national practices with other countries, and identify areas for further review and co-ordination. The information may also be used to understand the basis for decisions in various countries, and, if deemed necessary, as a basis for international harmonisation. This may help to explain to the public affected by an emergency why the decisions in neighbouring countries may vary. The nuclear regulator was involved in completing the questionnaire for all countries. In many cases other key government departments such as health, environment, or emergency management agencies contributed to the response. In some countries the technical nuclear agencies provided expertise where required. In some countries, competencies and duties in connection with short-term countermeasures are shared between different levels, e.g. federal and regional levels such as Laender or provinces. Most countries plan to use stable iodine, sheltering, evacuation, access controls, and food restrictions in the case of a near field accident. Countries are more likely to have planned food and water restrictions in the case of a far field accident, although many still do not rule out use of iodine and sheltering. Evacuation is much less likely but still considered. Most countries have

  8. Short-term efficacy of surgical treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Sun, Y; Ren, L; Qi, X-W; Li, Y; Zhang, F

    2015-10-01

    We wished to explore short-term efficacy of surgical treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with the end-stage renal disease. The treatment methods were subtotal or total parathyroidectomy, or total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation. 63 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism were randomly divided into three groups which were respectively treated with subtotal parathyroidectomy (SPTX group), total parathyroidectomy (TPTX group), or total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation (TPTX+AT group). The surgical outcomes included operating time, transoperative bleeding volume, length of stay, and cost of hospitalization. In addition, complication (e.g., postoperative wound infection, hematoma, hypocalcemia in perioperative period) rates were compared among groups. Blood levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone were assessed before the surgery, and 1 day, 1 months, 3 months and 6 months after the surgery. The follow-up period comprised 6 months. Surgical outcomes were the lowest in SPTX group and the highest in in TPTX+AT group. There were no significant differences among groups in treatment efficacy. Complication rates were also comparable among the three groups. The occurrence of hypocalcemia was the lowest in SPTX group (p < 0.05 vs. other groups). However, postoperative relapse rate was the highest in this group (p < 0.05 vs. other groups). There were no correlations between the levels of blood calcium and PTH preoperatively and postoperatively. Appropriate surgical treatment is selected in accordance with the patient's condition and willingness, with the attention paid to the prevention of hypocalcemia.

  9. Effect of green tea catechins in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Results of a short-term double-blind placebo controlled phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Micali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and study objective: Several studies suggest a protective role of green tea catechins against prostate cancer (PCa. In order to evaluate the efficacy of green tea catechins for chemoprevention of PCa in patients with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN we performed a phase II clinical trial. Methods: Sixty volunteers with HG-PIN were enrolled to carry out a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. Treated group took daily 600 mg of green tea catechins (Categ Plus® for 1 year. Patients were screened at 6 and 12 months through prostatic biopsy and measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Results: Despite the statistically significant reduction of PSA observed in subjects who received green tea catechins for 6 and 12 months, we did not find any statistical difference in PCa incidence between the experimental groups neither after 6 nor after 12 months. However, throughout the one-year follow- up we observed very limited adverse effects induced by green tea catechins and a not significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions: Although the small number of patients enrolled in our study and the relatively short duration of intervention, our findings seems to deny the efficacy of green tea catechins. However, results of our clinical study, mainly for its low statistical strength, suggest that the effectiveness of green tea catechins should be evaluated in both a larger cohort of men and longer trial.

  10. Tactile short-term memory in sensory-deprived individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Minniti, Giovanna; Mattavelli, Giulia C; Mantovan, Lara; Cecchetto, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on practice or are biologically determined, we investigated 13 deafblind participants, 16 deaf participants, 15 blind participants, and 13 matched normally sighted and hearing controls on a tactile short-term memory task, using checkerboard matrices of increasing length in which half of the squares were made up of a rough texture and half of a smooth one. Time of execution of a fixed matrix, number of correctly reproduced matrices, largest matrix correctly reproduced and tactile span were recorded. The three groups of sensory-deprived individuals did not differ in any measure, while blind and deaf participants outscored controls in all parameters except time of execution; the difference approached significance for deafblind people compared to controls only in one measure, namely correctly reproduced matrices. In blind and deafblind participants, performance negatively correlated with age of Braille acquisition, the older being the subject when acquiring Braille, the lower the performance, suggesting that practice plays a role. However, the fact that deaf participants, who did not share tactile experience, performed similarly to blind participants and significantly better than controls highlights that practice cannot be the only contribution to better tactile memory.

  11. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Visscher

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches; the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples. Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1 the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity, and (2 the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity. A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  12. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Kristina M; Kaplan, Elina; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches); the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples). Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1) the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity), and (2) the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity). A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  13. Acupuncture Improves Peri-menopausal Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Cong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhen; Yuan, Lu-Hua; Xie, Chen; Yang, Wen-Jia; Yu, Xin-Tong; Yu, Huan; Chen, Yun-Fei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of peri-menopausal insomnia (PMI). Design: A randomized, participant-blind, placebo-controlled trial consisted of the acupuncture group (n = 38) and placebo-acupuncture group (n = 38). Setting: A tertiary teaching and general hospital. Participants: 76 peri-menopausal women with insomnia disorder based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition. Interventions: A 10-session of acupuncture at bilateral Shenshu (BL 23) and Ganshu (BL 18) with unilateral Qimen (LR 14) and Jingmen (GB 25) or Streitberger needles at the same acupoints was performed for over 3 weeks. Measurements: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) with over-night polysomnography (PSG) exam were completed at baseline and post-treatment. After the treatments, the decrease from baseline in PSQI score was 8.03 points in acupuncture group and 1.29 points in placebo-acupuncture group. The change from baseline in ISI score was 11.35 points in acupuncture group and 2.87 points in placebo-acupuncture group. In PSG data, acupuncture significantly improved the sleep efficiency and total sleep time, associated with less wake after sleep onset and lower percent stage 1 after the treatment. No significant differences from baseline to post-treatment were found in placebo-acupuncture group. Acupuncture can contribute to a clinically relevant improvement in the short-term treatment of PMI, both subjectively and objectively. Acupuncture for peri-menopause insomnia: a randomized controlled trial, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=12118 ChiCTR-IPR-15007199, China. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Short-Term Impact of a Teen Pregnancy-Prevention Intervention Implemented in Group Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Green, Jennifer; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Youth living in group home settings are at significantly greater risk for sexual risk behaviors; however, there are no sexual health programs designed specifically for these youth. The study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of a teen pregnancy-prevention program for youth living in group home foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial involving youth (N = 1,037) recruited from 44 residential group homes located in California, Maryland, and Oklahoma. Within each state, youth (mean age = 16.2 years; 82% male; 37% Hispanic, 20% African-American, 20% white, and 17% multiracial) in half the group homes were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 40 clusters) and the other half were randomly assigned to a control group that offered "usual care" (n = 40 clusters). The intervention (i.e., Power Through Choices [PTC]) was a 10-session, age-appropriate, and medically accurate sexual health education program. Compared to the control group, youth in the PTC intervention showed significantly greater improvements (p attitude areas, all three self-efficacy areas, and two of three behavioral intention areas. This is the first published randomized controlled trial of a teen pregnancy-prevention program designed for youth living in foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The numerous significant improvements in short-term outcomes are encouraging and provide preliminary evidence that the PTC program is an effective pregnancy-prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term airing by natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates traditio......The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates...... traditional mechanical ventilation components with natural ventilation devices, such as motorized windows and louvers. Among the various ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates...... that was aimed at developing and validating numerical models for the analysis of buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation systems. Once validated, these models can be used to optimize control strategies in order to achieve satisfactory indoor comfort conditions and IAQ....

  16. Short-term effects of simultaneous cardiovascular workout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMD), has become a growing public health concern, as it may potentially result in the development of hearing difficulties. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the differential impact and short-term effects of simultaneous ...

  17. Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral therapy in the intensive care unit, general medical wards and outpatient HIV clinics at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

  18. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  19. Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral shaft fracture treated with locking intramedullary sign nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Tanzania. Billy T. Haonga, Felix S. Mrita, Edmundo E. Ndalama, Jackline E. Makupa ...

  20. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  1. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss

  2. The nature of forgetting from short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Muter, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Memory and forgetting are inextricably intertwined. Any account of short-term memory (STM) should address the following question: If three, four, or five chunks are being held in STM, what happens after attention is diverted?

  3. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  4. Effect of Short-Term Hypergravity Treatment on Mouse 2-Cell Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li-Na; Lei, Xiao-Hua; Cao, Yu-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Fang; Cao, Zhong-Hong; Chen, Qi; Duan, En-Kui

    2015-11-01

    Though there are numerous biological experiments, which have been performed in a space environment, to study the physiological effect of space travel on living organisms, while the potential effect of weightlessness or short-term hypergravity on the reproductive system in most species, particularly in mammalian is still controversial and unclear. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of space microgravity on the development of mouse 4-cell embryos by using Chinese SJ-8. .Unexpectedly, we did not get any developed embryo during the space-flight. Considering that the process of space experiment is quite different from most experiments done on earth in several aspects such as, the vibration and short-term hypergravity during the rock launching and landing. Thus we want to know whether the short-term hypergravity produced by the launch process affect the early embryo development in mice, and howthe early embryos respond to the hypergravity. In present study, we are mimicking the short-term hypergravity during launch by using a centrifuge to investigate its influence on the development of early embryo (2-cell) in mice. We also examined the actin filament distribution in 2-cell embryos by immunostaining to test their potential capacity of development under short-term hypergravity exposure. Our results showed that most 2-cell embryos in the hypergravity exposure groups developed into blastocysts with normal morphology after 72h cultured in vitro, and there is no obvious difference in the development rate of blastocyst formation compared to the control. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in birth rates after oviduct transfer of 2-cell mouse embryos exposed on short-term hypergravity compared with 1 g condition. In addition, the well-organized actin distribution appeared in 2-cell embryos after exposed on hypergravity and also in the subsequent developmental blastocysts. Taken together, our data shows that short-term exposure in

  5. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Grantham, Theodore E.; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm −1 ) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm −1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm −1 . ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  6. Quality of rearing practices as predictor of short-term outcome in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J; Toro, J; Cruz, M

    2000-01-01

    Studies of family relationships in anorexia nervosa have produced conflicting results. Some authors claim that family factors are related to short-term outcomes. Perceived rearing practices, as measured by the EMBU (Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostran: 'My memories of Upbringing') were examined in a sample (N = 158) of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and compared with the perceptions of adolescents (N = 159) from the general population. A further comparison was made between the groups of patients with good and bad short-term outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of different variables on short-term outcome. Overall, small differences were observed in the perceptions of rearing practices as expressed by the controls and the anorexic patients. Patients with bad short-term outcome perceived more rejection and control-overprotection from both parents than those with good outcome. In the logistic regression analysis only Rejection from father and the EAT (Eating Attitudes Test) total score gave independent prediction of treatment response. Taken as a whole, these results do not support the idea of altered rearing practices in anorexic patients, at least in young patients with a short evolution of the disease. Perceived rearing practices, especially 'rejection', appear to have an appreciable effect on the short-term outcome.

  7. Short-term Consumer Benefits of Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Benjamin; De Jonghe, Cedric; Kessels, Kris; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Consumer benefits of dynamic pricing depend on a variety of factors. Consumer characteristics and climatic circumstances widely differ, which forces a regional comparison. This paper presents a general overview of demand response programs and focuses on the short-term benefits of dynamic pricing for an average Flemish residential consumer. It reaches a methodology to develop a cost reflective dynamic pricing program and to estimate short-term bill savings. Participating in a dynamic pricing p...

  8. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...

  9. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention. Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals. Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context. Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed. Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention. Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  10. Short-term mechanisms influencing volumetric brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Dieleman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and brain analysis tools, it has become possible to measure brain volume changes up to around 0.5%. Besides long-term brain changes caused by atrophy in aging or neurodegenerative disease, short-term mechanisms that influence brain volume may exist. When we focus on short-term changes of the brain, changes may be either physiological or pathological. As such determining the cause of volumetric dynamics of the brain is essential. Additionally for an accurate interpretation of longitudinal brain volume measures by means of neurodegeneration, knowledge about the short-term changes is needed. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms influencing brain volumes on a short-term basis and set-out a framework of MRI techniques to be used for volumetric changes as well as the used analysis tools. 3D T1-weighted images are the images of choice when it comes to MRI of brain volume. These images are excellent to determine brain volume and can be used together with an analysis tool to determine the degree of volume change. Mechanisms that decrease global brain volume are: fluid restriction, evening MRI measurements, corticosteroids, antipsychotics and short-term effects of pathological processes like Alzheimer's disease, hypertension and Diabetes mellitus type II. Mechanisms increasing the brain volume include fluid intake, morning MRI measurements, surgical revascularization and probably medications like anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-hypertensive medication. Exercise was found to have no effect on brain volume on a short-term basis, which may imply that dehydration caused by exercise differs from dehydration by fluid restriction. In the upcoming years, attention should be directed towards studies investigating physiological short-term changes within the light of long-term pathological changes. Ultimately this may lead to a better understanding of the physiological short-term effects of

  11. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-01-01

    We provided novel evidence of a frequency-specific effect by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the left posterior parietal cortex on short-term memory, during a digit span task. the effect was prominent with stimulation at beta frequency for young and not for middle-aged adults and correlated with age. Our findings highlighted a short-term memory capacity improvement by tACS application.

  12. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content

    OpenAIRE

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: Higher aro...

  13. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....

  14. Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test: a new procedure for the detection of feigned memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.; Schmand, B.; de Sterke, S.; Lindeboom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The validity of two malingering tests, the newly developed Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test and the Distraction test (Baker, Hanley, Jackson, Kimmance, & Slade, 1993) was examined in a group of patients with closed-head injury (CHI), a normal control group, and a control group with

  15. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  17. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on attention span and short-term memory skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A; Halpern, Leslie F

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown cognitive problems in adults treated with anticholinergics. It is unclear if children are also susceptible to anticholinergic adverse effects. This study evaluates the effects of long-acting oxybutynin and tolterodine on short-term memory and attention in children with urgency and urge incontinence. Children with urgency or urge incontinence were recruited to take part in a prospective, randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial using long-acting oxybutynin or tolterodine. Patients underwent a baseline test of their memory/recall ability and attention span using a standardized developmental/neuropsychological assessment tool. They were then randomized to either medication or placebo with retesting in 2 weeks, at which time they were crossed. They were retested after the second 2 weeks. Fourteen children (9 boys and 5 girls), ranging in age from 5 to 11 (M = 7.7) participated in the study. Attention and memory scores increased over time in all children, however, the analyses showed no significant negative effects of anticholinergic medications on attention or memory. Indeed, though not statistically significant, trends were for improvement in test scores in both areas. Our results in a double blinded cross-over trial suggest that long-acting oxybutynin and tolterodine do not have a deleterious effect on children's attention and memory. Other cognitive functions may be affected. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  19. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martín Muñoz, F. J.; Gómez Briceño, D.

    2001-07-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400°C and 600°C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase.

  20. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martin Munoz, F.J.; Gomez Briceno, D.

    2001-01-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400 o C and 600 o C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase

  1. Rhythmic Haptic Stimuli Improve Short-Term Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shusheng; Wang, Dangxiao; Afzal, Naqash; Zhang, Yuru; Wu, Ruilin

    2016-01-01

    Brainwave entrainment using rhythmic visual and/or auditory stimulation has shown its efficacy in modulating neural activities and cognitive ability. In the presented study, we aim to investigate whether rhythmic haptic stimulation could enhance short-term attention. An experiment with sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) increasing protocol was performed in which participants were presented sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulus of 15 Hz on their palm. Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.) was performed before and after the stimulating session. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded across the stimulating session and the two attention test sessions. SMR band power manifested a significant increase after stimulation. Results of T.O.V.A. tests indicated an improvement in the attention of participants who had received the stimulation compared to the control group who had not received the stimulation. The D prime score of T.O.V.A. reveals that participants performed better in perceptual sensitivity and sustaining attention level compared to their baseline performance before the stimulating session. These findings highlight the potential value of using haptics-based brainwave entrainment for cognitive training.

  2. Short term load forecasting using neuro-fuzzy networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.; Hassan, A. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Martinez, D. [Black Hills Power and Light, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Details of a neuro-fuzzy network-based short term load forecasting system for power utilities were presented. The fuzzy logic controller was used to fuzzify inputs representing historical temperature and load curves. The fuzzified inputs were then used to develop the fuzzy rules matrix. Output membership function values were determined by evaluating the fuzzified inputs with the fuzzy rules. Output membership function values were used as inputs for the neural network portion of the system. The training process used a back propagation gradient descent algorithm to adjust the weight values of the neural network in order to reduce the error between the neural network output and the desired output. The neural network was then used to predict future load values. Sample data were taken from a local power company's daily load curve to validate the system. A 10 per cent forecast error was introduced in the temperature values to determine the effect on load prediction. Results of the study suggest that the combined use of fuzzy logic and neural networks provide greater accuracy than studies where either approach is used alone. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  4. Short-term stress enhances cellular immunity and increases early resistance to squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Saul, Alison N; Daugherty, Christine; Holmes, Tyson H; Bouley, Donna M; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to chronic/long-term stress that suppresses/dysregulates immune function, an acute/short-term fight-or-flight stress response experienced during immune activation can enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Moderate ultraviolet-B (UV) exposure provides a non-invasive system for studying the naturalistic emergence, progression and regression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Because SCC is an immunoresponsive cancer, we hypothesized that short-term stress experienced before UV exposure would enhance protective immunity and increase resistance to SCC. Control and short-term stress groups were treated identically except that the short-term stress group was restrained (2.5h) before each of nine UV-exposure sessions (minimum erythemal dose, 3-times/week) during weeks 4-6 of the 10-week UV exposure protocol. Tumors were measured weekly, and tissue collected at weeks 7, 20, and 32. Chemokine and cytokine gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, the short-term stress group showed greater cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27, RANTES, IL-12, and IFN-gamma gene expression at weeks 7, 20, and 32, higher skin infiltrating T cell numbers (weeks 7 and 20), lower tumor incidence (weeks 11-20) and fewer tumors (weeks 11-26). These results suggest that activation of short-term stress physiology increased chemokine expression and T cell trafficking and/or function during/following UV exposure, and enhanced Type 1 cytokine-driven cell-mediated immunity that is crucial for resistance to SCC. Therefore, the physiological fight-or-flight stress response and its adjuvant-like immuno-enhancing effects, may provide a novel and important mechanism for enhancing immune system mediated tumor-detection/elimination that merits further investigation.

  5. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789

  6. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Circadian modulation of short-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C; Roman, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks are widespread regulators of behavior and physiology, allowing for a more efficient allocation of efforts and resources over the course of a day. The extent that different processes are regulated by circadian oscillators, however, is not fully understood. We investigated the role of the circadian clock on short-term associative memory formation using a negatively reinforced olfactory-learning paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that memory formation was regulated in a circadian manner. The peak performance in short-term memory (STM) occurred during the early subjective night with a twofold performance amplitude after a single pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. This rhythm in memory is eliminated in both timeless and period mutants and is absent during constant light conditions. Circadian gating of sensory perception does not appear to underlie the rhythm in short-term memory as evidenced by the nonrhythmic shock avoidance and olfactory avoidance behaviors. Moreover, central brain oscillators appear to be responsible for the modulation as cryptochrome mutants, in which the antennal circadian oscillators are nonfunctional, demonstrate robust circadian rhythms in short-term memory. Together these data suggest that central, rather than peripheral, circadian oscillators modulate the formation of short-term associative memory and not the perception of the stimuli.

  8. LANGUAGE REPETITION AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY: AN INTEGRATIVE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eMajerus

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the nonword-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.

  9. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.

  10. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund T Rolls

    Full Text Available Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  11. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  12. Brain oscillatory substrates of visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauseng, Paul; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Heise, Kirstin F; Gruber, Walter R; Holz, Elisa; Karim, Ahmed A; Glennon, Mark; Gerloff, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2009-11-17

    The amount of information that can be stored in visual short-term memory is strictly limited to about four items. Therefore, memory capacity relies not only on the successful retention of relevant information but also on efficient suppression of distracting information, visual attention, and executive functions. However, completely separable neural signatures for these memory capacity-limiting factors remain to be identified. Because of its functional diversity, oscillatory brain activity may offer a utile solution. In the present study, we show that capacity-determining mechanisms, namely retention of relevant information and suppression of distracting information, are based on neural substrates independent of each other: the successful maintenance of relevant material in short-term memory is associated with cross-frequency phase synchronization between theta (rhythmical neural activity around 5 Hz) and gamma (> 50 Hz) oscillations at posterior parietal recording sites. On the other hand, electroencephalographic alpha activity (around 10 Hz) predicts memory capacity based on efficient suppression of irrelevant information in short-term memory. Moreover, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at alpha frequency can modulate short-term memory capacity by influencing the ability to suppress distracting information. Taken together, the current study provides evidence for a double dissociation of brain oscillatory correlates of visual short-term memory capacity.

  13. Relationship between Short Term Memory and Cardiopulmonary Fitness of Administrative Officers at Universitas Padjadjaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswaran Ampalakan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The work of administrative officers depends a lot on their capability in memorizing. Increased fitness is strongly associated with a better memory. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between cardiopulmonary fitness and short term memory. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was carried out from August to September 2014. Subjects from administrative offices within Universitas Padjadjaran were chosen by simple random sampling. 101 individuals were selected, comprising of 68 males and 33 females. Data were obtained through Digit Span Test for short term memory and the cardiopulmonary fitness was measured using Harvard Step Test. The VO2 Max obtained was correlated with the Digit Span Test score. Results: The mean for cardiopulmonary fitness of males was found to be 36.1, with standard deviation 8.63, whereas mean cardiopulmonary fitness for females was found to be 32.94, with standard deviation 7.5. For correlation analysis, the result of Spearman’s rank analysis from the study showed that the p-value is 0.00. Comparing to the significance level α=5%, the p value is worth less, thus the null hypothesis, Ho is rejected. Therefore, it could be concluded that there was a relationship between cardiopulmonary fitness and short term memory of male and female administrative officers at Universitas Padjadjaran. Conclusions: There is a relationship between cardiopulmonary fitness and short term memory of male and female administrative officers at Universitas Padjadjaran.

  14. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  15. Orienting Attention within Visual Short-Term Memory: Development and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna C.; Astle, Duncan; Scerif, Gaia

    2014-01-01

    How does developing attentional control operate within visual short-term memory (VSTM)? Seven-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults (total n = 205) were asked to report whether probe items were part of preceding visual arrays. In Experiment 1, central or peripheral cues oriented attention to the location of to-be-probed items either prior to…

  16. Plasma HIV-1 tropism and risk of short-term clinical progression to AIDS or death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontdevila, Maria Casadellà; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Phillips, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is uncertain if plasma HIV-1 tropism is an independent predictor of short-term risk of clinical progression / death, in addition to the CD4 count and HIV RNA level. We conducted a nested case-control study within EuroSIDA to assess this question amongst people with current HIV RNA...

  17. Short-term Preoperative Octreotide for Thyrotropin-secreting Pituitary Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Fang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: OCT can control hormone levels and damage the ultrastructure of tumor cells and organelles. Short-term response to OCT may be related to SSTR5 expression. Preoperative SST analog treatment for TSHoma could be considered as a combination therapy.

  18. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14)

  19. a randomized, placebo- controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Franziska van

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a well-tolerated non-invasive method, which has also been proved to have mild antidepressant effects and is used as “add-on“-therapy in treating pharmaco-resistant major depression. Objective: The efficacy of an escitalopram plus rTMS-combination-treatment was evaluated and compared to escitalopram plus sham rTMS. Methods: We designed a four week-, randomized, rater-blinded, and controlled add-on study with two trea...

  20. Short-term and working memory impairments in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potagas, Constantin; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate short-term memory and working memory deficits in aphasics in relation to the severity of their language impairment. Fifty-eight aphasic patients participated in this study. Based on language assessment, an aphasia score was calculated for each patient. Memory was assessed in two modalities, verbal and spatial. Mean scores for all memory tasks were lower than normal. Aphasia score was significantly correlated with performance on all memory tasks. Correlation coefficients for short-term memory and working memory were approximately of the same magnitude. According to our findings, severity of aphasia is related with both verbal and spatial memory deficits. Moreover, while aphasia score correlated with lower scores in both short-term memory and working memory tasks, the lack of substantial difference between corresponding correlation coefficients suggests a possible primary deficit in information retention rather than impairment in working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  2. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook

  3. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages.

  4. The role of inhibition for working memory processes: ERP evidence from a short-term storage task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzmann, Stephan; Wascher, Edmund; Schneider, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Human working memory is the central unit for short-term storage of information. In addition to the selection and adequate storage of relevant information, the suppression of irrelevant stimuli from the environment seems to be of importance for working memory processes. To learn more about the interplay of information uptake and inhibition of irrelevant information, the present study used ERP measures and a short-term storage and retrieval task, in which pairs of either numbers or letters had to be compared. Random sequences of four stimuli (two numbers and two letters) were presented, with either the numbers or the letters being relevant for comparison. The analysis of ERPs to each of the four stimuli indicated more pronounced P2 and P3b amplitudes for relevant than irrelevant stimuli. In contrast, the N2 (reflecting inhibitory control) was only elicited by irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, the N2 amplitude of the second irrelevant stimulus was associated with behavioral performance, indicating the importance of inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli for working memory processes. In sum, the findings demonstrate the role of cognitive control mechanisms for protecting relevant contents in working memory against irrelevant information. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Antidepressants for bipolar disorder A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingli Zhang; Huan Yang; Shichang Yang; Wei Liang; Ping Dai; Changhong Wang; Yalin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of short-term and long-term use of antidepres-sants in the treatment of bipolar disorder. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of randomized, double-blind, control ed trials published until December 2012 was performed using the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials databases. The keywords“bipolar disorder, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, cyclothymia, mixed mania and depression, rapid cycling and bipolar disorder”, AND “antidepressant agent, antidepressive agents second-generation, antidepressive agents tricyclic, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, noradrenaline uptake in-hibitor, serotonin uptake inhibitor, and tricyclic antidepressant agent” were used. The studies that were listed in the reference list of the published papers but were not retrieved in the above-mentioned databases were supplemented. STUDY SELECTION: Studies selected were double-blind randomized control ed trials assessing the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder. Al participants were aged 18 years or older, and were diagnosed as having primary bipolar disorder. Antidepressants or antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers were used in experimental interventions. Placebos, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and other antide pressants were used in the control interventions. Studies that were quasi-randomized studies, or used antidepressants in combination with antipsy-chotics in the experimental group were excluded. Al analyses were conducted using Review Man-ager 5.1 provided by the Cochrane Col aboration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was the response and switching to mania. The secondary outcomes included remission, discontinuation rate, and suicidality. RESULTS: Among 5 001 treatment studies published, 14 double-blind randomized control ed trials involving 1 244 patients were included in the meta

  6. Order effects and vowel decay in short-term memory: the neutralization hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Karypidis, Charalampos

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Information stored in short-term memory decays extremely fast compared to the content of long-termmemory. The nature of this memory loss being littleknown (random or systematic), this paper examinesthe presentation order effect in the light of the neutralization hypothesis, according to which the firstvowel in a pair decays, while retained in short-termmemory, toward [er]. Twelve French listeners participated in three AX roving discrimination sessions.For each of the 1...

  7. PENGARUH KEDALAMAN AIR TERHADAP SHORT TERM MEMORY DAN KONSUMSI ENERGI PADA PENYELAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Dharmastiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini akan melihat pengaruh kedalaman air terhadap short term memory dan konsumsi energi penyelam. Penelitian ini mengambil sampel 10 mahasiswa pria dan 5 wanita. Pengukuran performansi short term memory dilakukan dengan cara setiap obyek diperlihatkan deretan 7 angka acak yang diberikan selama 5 detik dan setelah 15 detik kemudian dilakukan pemanggilan kembali informasi yang baru saja diberikan. Setiap obyek diuji sebangak 30 kali untuk setiap kedalaman (1 m; 2,5 m; dan 4 m. Pengukuran konsumsi energi dilakukan dengan menghitung denyut jantung menggunakan metode palpasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin meningkat kedalaman air, maka performasi short term memory penyelam tersebut semakin menurun.  Penurunan ini berlaku untuk pria dan wanita. Penambahan kedalaman ini juga meningkatkan konsumsi energi baik pada pria maupun wanita. Perbedaan jenis kelamin mempengaruhi performansi short term memory secara signifikan. Pria memiliki performansi rata-rata short term memory sebesar 91,67% pada kedalaman 1 m, 90,67% pada kedalaman 2,5 m, dan 86,33% pada kedalaman 4 m. Sedangkan wanita memiliki performansi rata-rata sebesar 86% pada kedalaman 1 m, 84% pada kedalaman 2,5 m, dan 80,67% pada kedalaman 4 m. Rata-rata konsumsi energi pria adalah 3,19 kkal, 3,34 kkal, dan 3,65 kkal pada kedalaman 1 m; 2,5 m; dan 4 m berturut-turut. Sedangkan rata-rata konsumsi energi wanita adalah 3,81 kkal, 4,07 kkal, dan 4,54 kkal pada kedalaman yang sama dengan pria.     Kata kunci : tekanan, kedalaman air, performansi short term memory, konsumsi energi.       This research is to observe water depth effects on short term memory and energy expenditure of diver. This research objects are 10 male and 5 female students. Short term memory performance measurement held by every object has been shown 7 random numerics (as information for 5 seconds and after 15 seconds later they write down the information on a paper. Every object got 30 tests for every

  8. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re-search...... of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in the dataset...

  9. [Impulsiveness Among Short-Term Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  11. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Mario; Abrahams, S.; Fabi, K.; Logie, R.; Luzzi, S.; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or ‘binding’ deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1 : 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants...

  12. Word-length effect in verbal short-term memory in individuals with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, K; Ikeda, Y

    2002-11-01

    Many studies have indicated that individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) show a specific deficit in short-term memory for verbal information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the length of words on verbal short-term memory in individuals with DS. Twenty-eight children with DS and 10 control participants matched for memory span were tested on verbal serial recall and speech rate, which are thought to involve rehearsal and output speed. Although a significant word-length effect was observed in both groups for the recall of a larger number of items with a shorter spoken duration than for those with a longer spoken duration, the number of correct recalls in the group with DS was reduced compared to the control subjects. The results demonstrating poor short-term memory in children with DS were irrelevant to speech rate. In addition, the proportion of repetition-gained errors in serial recall was higher in children with DS than in control subjects. The present findings suggest that poor access to long-term lexical knowledge, rather than overt articulation speed, constrains verbal short-term memory functions in individuals with DS.

  13. Integration and segregation of large-scale brain networks during short-term task automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Betzel, Richard F; Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; Richiardi, Jonas; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-11-03

    The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions. Practice-related efficiency gains are facilitated by enhanced coupling between the cingulo-opercular network and the dorsal attention network. Simultaneously, short-term task automatization is accompanied by decreasing activation of the fronto-parietal network, indicating a release of high-level cognitive control, and a segregation of the default mode network from task-related networks. These findings suggest that short-term task automatization is enabled by the brain's ability to rapidly reconfigure its large-scale network organization involving complementary integration and segregation processes.

  14. Risperidone Added to Psychostimulant in Children with Severe Aggression and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Lack of Effect on Attention and Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Findling, Robert L; Gadow, Kenneth D; Arnold, L Eugene; Kipp, Heidi; Kolko, David J; Butter, Eric; Schneider, Jayne; Bukstein, Oscar G; McNamara, Nora K; Molina, Brooke S G; Aman, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    Professionals have periodically expressed concern that atypical antipsychotics may cause cognitive blunting in treated patients. In this study, we report data from a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of stimulant plus placebo versus combined stimulant and risperidone to evaluate the effects of the atypical antipsychotic on attention and short-term memory. A total of 165 (n = 83 combined treatment; n = 82 stimulant plus placebo) children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and severe physical aggression, aged 6-12 years, were evaluated with Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC) Digit Span subscale at baseline, after 3 weeks of stimulant-only treatment, and after six additional weeks of randomized treatment (stimulant+placebo vs. stimulant+risperidone). At 3 weeks, improvement on CPT-II performance (Commissions and Reaction Time Standard Error; p memory performance (p attention and short-term memory associated with short-term use of risperidone. NCT00796302.

  15. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  16. Short-term wind power prediction based on LSSVM–GSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Yanbin; Huang, Yuehua; Tan, Qingxiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid model is developed for short-term wind power prediction. • The model is based on LSSVM and gravitational search algorithm. • Gravitational search algorithm is used to optimize parameters of LSSVM. • Effect of different kernel function of LSSVM on wind power prediction is discussed. • Comparative studies show that prediction accuracy of wind power is improved. - Abstract: Wind power forecasting can improve the economical and technical integration of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Due to its intermittency and randomness, it is hard to forecast wind power accurately. For the purpose of utilizing wind power to the utmost extent, it is very important to make an accurate prediction of the output power of a wind farm under the premise of guaranteeing the security and the stability of the operation of the power system. In this paper, a hybrid model (LSSVM–GSA) based on the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is proposed to forecast the short-term wind power. As the kernel function and the related parameters of the LSSVM have a great influence on the performance of the prediction model, the paper establishes LSSVM model based on different kernel functions for short-term wind power prediction. And then an optimal kernel function is determined and the parameters of the LSSVM model are optimized by using GSA. Compared with the Back Propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model, the simulation results show that the hybrid LSSVM–GSA model based on exponential radial basis kernel function and GSA has higher accuracy for short-term wind power prediction. Therefore, the proposed LSSVM–GSA is a better model for short-term wind power prediction

  17. A Preliminary Report of Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Inpatients With Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPRINGER, TAMAR; LOHR, NAOMI E.; BUCHTEL, HENRY A.; SILK, KENNETH R.

    1996-01-01

    A randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy group, based on Linehan’s dialectical behavior therapy, for inpatients with personality disorders. The treatment, a problem-solving skills group focused on parasuicidality, was compared with a discussion control group. Change was assessed by self-report measures and behavioral observations on the unit. Subjects in both groups improved significantly on most change measures, although no significant between-group differences were found. However, the treatment group patients viewed the intervention as more beneficial to them in their lives outside the hospital. The usefulness of this type of group on a short-term unit is discussed. PMID:22700265

  18. Prosodic Similarity Effects in Short-Term Memory in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Barnes, Lisa; Mead, Natasha; Power, Alan James; Leong, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory. We study participants with dyslexia and age-matched and younger reading-level-matched typically developing controls. We find that all participants, including dyslexic participants, show prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. All participants exhibited better retention of words that differed in prosodic structure, although participants with dyslexia recalled fewer words accurately overall compared to age-matched controls. Individual differences in prosodic memory were predicted by earlier vocabulary abilities, by earlier sensitivity to syllable stress and by earlier phonological awareness. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. The implications of a prosodic similarity effect for theories of lexical representation and of dyslexia are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The human hippocampal formation mediates short-term memory of colour-location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Carsten; Braun, Mischa; Ostendorf, Florian; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kopp, Ute; Ploner, Christoph J

    2008-01-31

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been considered essential for declarative long-term memory, whereas the fronto-parietal cortex is generally seen as the anatomical substrate of short-term memory. This traditional dichotomy is questioned by recent studies suggesting a possible role of the MTL for short-term memory. In addition, there is no consensus on a possible specialization of MTL sub-regions for memory of associative information. Here, we investigated short-term memory for single features and feature associations in three humans with post-surgical lesions affecting the right hippocampal formation and in 10 healthy controls. We used three delayed-match-to-sample tasks with two delays (900/5000 ms) and three set sizes (2/4/6 items). Subjects were instructed to remember either colours, locations or colour-location associations. In colour-only and location-only conditions, performance of patients did not differ from controls. By contrast, a significant group difference was found in the association condition at 5000 ms delay. This difference was largely independent of set size, thus suggesting that it cannot be explained by the increased complexity of the association condition. These findings show that the hippocampal formation plays a significant role for short-term memory of simple visuo-spatial associations, and suggest a specialization of MTL sub-regions for associative memory.

  20. Implementing a short-term loyalty program : case: Bosch Lawn & Garden and the Ventum short-term loyalty program

    OpenAIRE

    Logvinova, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, one of the Bosch Home and Garden divisions, Bosch Lawn and Garden, has made a strategic decision to adopt a points-based short-term loyalty program called Ventum LG in the German supermarkets and petrol stations. It was decided that the base of this program will be completed Ventum PT short-term loyalty program which was managed by another division, Bosch Power Tools, and proved to be successful. This thesis aims to evaluate the worthiness of the Ventum LG loyalty program for Bosch L...

  1. Real-time energy resources scheduling considering short-term and very short-term wind forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita [Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). GECAD - Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes an energy resources management methodology based on three distinct time horizons: day-ahead scheduling, hour-ahead scheduling, and real-time scheduling. In each scheduling process the update of generation and consumption operation and of the storage and electric vehicles storage status are used. Besides the new operation conditions, the most accurate forecast values of wind generation and of consumption using results of short-term and very short-term methods are used. A case study considering a distribution network with intensive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles is presented. (orig.)

  2. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  3. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  4. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  6. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific... programs, confer on common problems and projects, and promote professional relationships and communications...

  7. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  8. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a

  9. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  10. Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.

  11. Managing Transit Ridership with Short-Term Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    It is the purpose of this booklet to give the reader an overview of the variety, : type, and nature of short-term economic incentive programs that have been : introduced by transit properties over the past few years. 3054k, 55p.

  12. Stacking Ensemble Learning for Short-Term Electricity Consumption Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Divina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict short-term electric energy demand would provide several benefits, both at the economic and environmental level. For example, it would allow for an efficient use of resources in order to face the actual demand, reducing the costs associated to the production as well as the emission of CO 2 . To this aim, in this paper we propose a strategy based on ensemble learning in order to tackle the short-term load forecasting problem. In particular, our approach is based on a stacking ensemble learning scheme, where the predictions produced by three base learning methods are used by a top level method in order to produce final predictions. We tested the proposed scheme on a dataset reporting the energy consumption in Spain over more than nine years. The obtained experimental results show that an approach for short-term electricity consumption forecasting based on ensemble learning can help in combining predictions produced by weaker learning methods in order to obtain superior results. In particular, the system produces a lower error with respect to the existing state-of-the art techniques used on the same dataset. More importantly, this case study has shown that using an ensemble scheme can achieve very accurate predictions, and thus that it is a suitable approach for addressing the short-term load forecasting problem.

  13. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  14. Scalable data-driven short-term traffic prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friso, K.; Wismans, L. J.J.; Tijink, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Short-term traffic prediction has a lot of potential for traffic management. However, most research has traditionally focused on either traffic models-which do not scale very well to large networks, computationally-or on data-driven methods for freeways, leaving out urban arterials completely. Urban

  15. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  17. Short-term mechanisms influencing volumetric brain dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Nikki; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    With the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brain analysis tools, it has become possible to measure brain volume changes up to around 0.5%. Besides long-term brain changes caused by atrophy in aging or neurodegenerative disease, short-term mechanisms that influence brain volume may exist.

  18. Short-term variations of radiocarbon during the last century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchuladze, A.A.; Pagava, S.V.; Jurina, V.; Povinec, P.; Usacev, S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiocarbon variations related to the 11-year solar cycle during the last century are discussed. Previous investigations on short term 14 C variations in tree rings are compared with 14 C measurements in Georgian wine samples. The amplitude of 14 C variations as obtained by various authors ranges from 0.2 to about 1%. (author)

  19. Proactive Interference in Short-Term Recognition and Recall Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Richard F.; Petrusic, William M.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of study was to (a) compare the rate of increase of proactive interference over the first few trials under recall and recognition memory test conditions, (2) determine the effects of two types of distractors on short-term recognition, and (3) test memory after proactive interference had reached a stable level under each of three test…

  20. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  1. Short term clinical outcome of children with rotavirus infection at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a high morbidity and mortality in children in Kenya. Objectives: To determine the short term clinical outcome for children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with ...

  2. Short-term effects of radiation in gliolalstoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate the short-term effects of radiation of spheroids containing tumor-initiating stem-like cells. We used a patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell enriched culture (T76) and the standard glioblastoma cell line U87. Primary spheroids were irradiated with doses between 2 and 50 Gy and assessed after two...

  3. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2011-12-01

    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  4. Insulin Resistance Induced by Short term Fructose Feeding may not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fructose feeding causes insulin resistance and invariably Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in rats and genetically predisposed humans. The effect of insulin resistance induced by short term fructose feeding on fertility in female rats was investigated using the following parameters: oestrous phase and ...

  5. Histopathologic characteristics and short-term outcomes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is generally a disease of persons older than 40 years. Concerning younger patients, controversies still exist regarding features and prognosis of CRC. We performed this study to characterise CRC in young patients (≤40 years) as well as to evaluate short-term outcome in ...

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  7. Panorama 2013 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2012-10-01

    The outlook for gas industry development in the short term is clouded by uncertainties (impact of the economic slowdown, competition between energies, price fluctuations, etc.). However, as in 2012, many favorable factors in terms of natural gas supply and demand point to sustained and sustainable growth of this energy. (author)

  8. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide

  9. SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF DIESEL OIL ON PHYTOPLANKTON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EKWEME

    Short-term effect of Nigerian diesel oil was tested on the phytoplankton species in Great Kwa River ... aquatic environment. Plant life is the basis of all food web in nature and hence constitutes the makes this fundamental contribution by photosynthesis, utilizing radiant energy to .... (2 cells/ml) re-colonized the area. The three ...

  10. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps

  11. Short Term Group Counseling of Visually Impaired People by Telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguy, Beth M.; Evans, Ron L.

    1983-01-01

    Short term group counseling via the telephone resulted in marked increases in activities of daily living among 12 legally blind veterans. Many subjects' personal coping goals were met as well, and social involvement also increased. No significant changes in levels of depression or agitation were noted. (CL)

  12. Relationship between short-term sexual strategies and sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-02-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.

  13. Can Metabolic Factors be used Prognostically for Short.Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be promising short.term mortality markers in HIV patients apart from established factors like low CD4 counts, co.morbid conditions, and opportunistic infections like M. tuberculosis infection. This study warrants further studies with a larger sample size to establish HDL and triglyceride as markers of disease progression and ...

  14. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  15. Short-Term Structured Treatment for Avoidant Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Randomly assigned 42 men and 34 women classified as having avoidant personality disorder to one of three treatment conditions or to control group. Treatment subjects displayed significantly greater improvement on self-report and behavioral measures than did controls. Inclusion of skills-training procedures did not contribute to effects of…

  16. Effect of low dose, short-term creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Silva, Aquiles; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Piçarro, Ivan Da C; Januario, Renata S B; Ferreira, Luis H B; McAnulty, Steven R; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tacito P

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of a low dose, short-term Creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation (0.03 g.kg.d -1 during 14 d) on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players. Using a two-group matched, double blind, placebo-controlled design, nineteen male soccer players (mean age = 17.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to either Cr ( N  = 9) or placebo ( N  = 10) group. Before and after supplementation, participants performed a 30s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) to assess peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO), fatigue index (FI), and total work. There were significant increases in both PPO and MPO after the Cr supplementation period ( P  ≤ 0.05) but not the placebo period. There were also significant increases in total work, but not FI, after the Cr supplementation and placebo periods ( P  ≤ 0.05). Notably, there were differences in total work between the Cr and placebo groups after ( P  ≤ 0.05) but not before the 14 d supplementation period. There is substantial evidence to indicate that a low-dose, short-term oral Cr supplementation beneficially affected muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

  17. Verbal short-term memory in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: specific deficit in serial order retention capacities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Braissand, Vérane; Eliez, Stephan

    2007-03-01

    Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS group showed impaired performance on the serial order short-term memory tasks compared to both control groups. Relative to the vocabulary-matched control group, item short-term memory was preserved. The implication of serial order short-term memory deficits on other aspects of cognitive development in VCFS (e.g., language development, numerical cognition) is discussed.

  18. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  19. EFFECTS OF SHORT TERM PRACTICE OF BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA ON METABOLIC FITNESS (METF AND BONE INTEGRITY (BI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Bal Baljinder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was conducted with the objective to determine the short term practice of bhastrika pranayama on Metabolic Fitness and Bone Integrity. Material: 30 university level females between the age group of 21-26 years were selected. The subjects were randomly matched and assigned into two groups: Group-A: Experimental (n 1=15; Group-B: Control (n 2=15. The subjects from Group-A: Experimental were provided to a 4-weeks bhastrika pranayama. Statistical Analysis: Student t test for paired samples was utilized to compare the means of the pre-test and the post-test. Results & Conclusions: Based on the analysis of the results obtained, we conclude that the significant differences were found in Metabolic Fitness (i.e., Maximal Oxygen Consumption (V O2max and blood pressure of University Level Girls. Insignificant between-group differences were noted in Blood Lipid, Blood Sugar and Bone Integrity of University Level Girls.

  20. The Efficacy of Rehearsal Strategy on Auditory Short-Term Memory of Educable 5 to 8 Years Old Children with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Esmaieli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the problems of children with Down syndrome is their low performance on retention of information and its recall in the memory. The present study aimed to determine the efficacy of rehearsal strategy on auditory short-term memory of educable 5 to 8 years old children with Down syndrome. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 children (14 boys and 10 girls were selected in convenience from Iranian Down Syndrome Charity Association and evaluated by Raven’s Intelligence Progressive Matrices. Then, children were assigned into two experimental and control groups randomly (each contained 12 individuals. Experimental group participated in 8 group sessions (two sessions per week, each lasting 30 minutes and trained by rehearsal strategy. All subjects were evaluated by Expressive-Auditory Memory Sequence Test before and after intervention sessions. Data were analyzed by multiple analysis of covariance.  Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that rehearsal strategy have led to increase of digit span, word span and auditory short-term memory (P<0.01 in experimental group compared to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that rehearsal strategy training is an effective method on promotion of digit span, word span and auditory short-term memory of children with Down syndrome and implies important consequences for their education.

  1. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia van der Kam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period. Two trials, one in Nigeria and one in Uganda, were conducted; here, we report on the trial that took place in Kaabong, a poor agropastoral region of Karamoja, in east Uganda. While the region of Karamoja shows an acute malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58% of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure.We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF, two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP, or no supplement (control for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was

  2. Intact short-term memory and impaired executive functions in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály; Csigó, Katalin; Harsányi, András; Németh, Attila; Döme, László

    2013-01-30

    Previous neuropsychological studies produced inconsistent results with tasks tapping short-term verbal and visual-spatial memory and executive functions in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of deficits in these cognitive domains. A further goal was to describe the distribution of patients in different impairment ranges for all functions, and clarify the relationship between symptom severity and cognitive impairments. Thirty patients with OCD (DSM-IV) and 30 healthy volunteers were compared using well-known neuropsychological tasks. We assessed short-term verbal memory with the Digit Span Forward and Digit Span Backward Tasks, short-term visual-spatial memory with the Corsi Block Tapping Task, while we measured the level of executive functions with the StroopTask and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Compared with a matched healthy control group, the performance of OCD patients was in the impaired range only in the two executive tasks. We find a significant positive correlations between the Y-BOCS (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale) total scores and the number of perseverative responses (r(28) = 0.409, p short-term memory is intact in OCD. This is in line with neuropsychological model of OCD that the deficit of cognitive and behavioral inhibition are responsible for the main cognitive findings of this disorder, most prevalently the deficit in set shifting and prepotent response inhibition.

  3. Verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome: a problem of memory, audition, or speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Phillips, Caroline E

    2002-06-01

    The current study explored three possible explanations of poor verbal short-term memory performance among individuals with Down syndrome in an attempt to determine whether the condition is associated with a fundamental verbal short-term memory deficit. The short-term memory performance of a group of 19 children and young adults with Down syndrome was contrasted with that of two control groups matched for level of receptive vocabulary. The specificity of a deficit was assessed by comparing memory for verbal and visuo-spatial information. The effect of auditory problems on performance was examined by contrasting memory for auditorily presented material with that for material presented both auditorily and visually. The influence of speech-motor difficulties was investigated by employing both a traditional recall procedure and a serial recognition procedure that reduced spoken response demands. Results confirmed that individuals with Down syndrome do show impaired verbal short-term memory performance for their level of receptive vocabulary. The findings also indicated that this deficit is specific to memory for verbal information and is not primarily caused by auditory or speech-production difficulties.

  4. Short-term lending: Payday loans as risk factors for anxiety, inflammation and poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Kuzawa, Christopher W; McDade, Thomas W

    2018-08-01

    While research now consistently links consumer financial debt with adverse emotional health outcomes, specific forms of debt and their impact on measures of physical health are underexplored. This gap in knowledge is significant because different forms of loans and debt may have different experiential qualities. In this paper, we focus on a type of unsecured debt - short-term/payday loan borrowing - that has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States and is characterized by predatory, discriminatory, and poorly regulated lending practices. Using data from a study of debt and health among adults in Boston, MA (n=286), we test whether short-term borrowing is associated with a range of emotional and physical health indicators. We find that short-term loans are associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein levels, and self-reported symptoms of physical health, sexual health, and anxiety, after controlling for several socio-demographic covariates. We discuss these findings within the contexts of regulatory shortcomings, psychosocial stress, and racial and economic credit disparities. We suggest that within the broader context of financial debt and health, short-term loans should be considered a specific risk to population health.

  5. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Winston, Jenna; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1), or a minimal (Experiment 2) influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  6. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Golob

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1, or a minimal (Experiment 2 influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  7. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Edyegu-Otelu, Grace; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kasujja, Francis Xavier; Casademont, Cristian; Shanks, Leslie; Salse-Ubach, Nuria

    2016-02-01

    Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58%) of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure. We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP), or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was defined as weight-for-height z-score children who died in the RUTF, MNP, and control groups were 0%, 0.8%, and 0.4%. The findings apply to ill but not malnourished children and cannot be generalised to a general population including children who are not necessarily ill or who are already malnourished. A 2-wk nutrition supplementation programme with RUTF

  8. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Salse-Ubach, Nuria; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Gayton-Toyoshima, Sayaka; Jiya, Nma Mohammed; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shanks, Leslie

    2016-02-01

    Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rates. We investigated the effect of supplementation with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) and a micronutrient powder (MNP) on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at an outpatient clinic in Goronyo during February to September 2012. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed as having malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of RUTF; two sachets/d of micronutrients or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate occurrence of malnutrition; it was defined as low weight-for-height z-score (children), mid-upper arm circumference children who were moderately malnourished compared with non-malnourished at enrollment. The average number of study illnesses for the RUTF, MNP, and control groups were 4.2 (95% CI, 4.0-4.3), 3.4 (3.2-3.6), and 3.6 (3.4-3.7). The proportion of children who died in the RUTF, MNP, and control groups were 0.8% (95% CI, 0.3-1.8), 1.8% (1.0-3.3), and 1.4% (0.7-2.8). A 2-wk supplementation with RUTF or MNP to ill children as part of routine primary medical care did not reduce the incidence of malnutrition. The lack of effect in Goronyo may be due to a high frequency of morbidity

  9. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Edyegu-Otelu, Grace; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kasujja, Francis Xavier; Casademont, Cristian; Shanks, Leslie; Salse-Ubach, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58%) of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP), or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was defined as weight-for-height z-score malnutrition in eastern Uganda. The low incidence of malnutrition in this population may warrant a more targeted intervention to improve cost effectiveness. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01497236 PMID:26859481

  10. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  11. Comparison of short term mortality in ischemic stroke patients with or without stress hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, W; Zaidi, S.B.H.; Waheed, S.; Khan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare short term mortality in non-diabetic ischemic stroke patients with or without stress hyperglycemia. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Neurology Department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jul 2012 for a total duration of six months. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic ischemic stroke patients were included in the study and they were divided in two groups. Each group had 75 patients. Group 'I' (Normoglycemic or control group) had normal blood glucose level while group 'II' (Hyperglycaemic or cohort) had hyperglycaemia on presentation or over next 72 hours. Prognosis in terms of patient either being dead or alive was determined within or at 4 weeks of admission in both groups. Data were entered and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 10. Descriptive statistics were calculated for both qualitative and quantitative variables. For comparison of short term mortality in hyperglycaemic and normoglycemic stroke patients, chi-square test was applied. p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Short term mortality was higher in cohort (hyperglycemic) group as compared to control (normoglycemic) group (34.7 percent vs. 14.7 percent). Relative risk was 2.36. The groups had a statistically significant difference in the short term mortality within four weeks with a Chi-Square 'p' value of 0.004 (p=0.004). Conclusion: Short term mortality in non-diabetic ischemic stroke patients with stress hyperglycemia is higher than those patients who do not have stress hyperglycemia. (author)

  12. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  13. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Salse-Ubach, Nuria; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Gayton-Toyoshima, Sayaka; Jiya, Nma Mohammed; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shanks, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished childr