Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue
Full Text Available To investigate the influence of short-term vigorous endurance training on aortic blood pressure (BP, pulse wave analysis was performed in 36 highly trained elite collegiate endurance runners before and after a 7-day intense training camp. Subjects participated three training sessions per day, which mainly consisted of long distance running and sprint training to reach the daily target distance of 26 km. After the camp, they were divided into two groups based on whether the target training was achieved. Aortic systolic BP, pulse pressure, and tension-time index (TTI, a surrogate index of the myocardial oxygen demand were significantly elevated after the camp in the accomplished group but not in the unaccomplished group, whereas the brachial BP remained unchanged in both groups. The average daily training distance was significantly correlated with the changes in aortic systolic BP (r = 0.608, p = 0.0002, pulse pressure (r = 0.415, p = 0.016, and TTI (r = 0.438, p = 0.011. These results suggest that aortic BP is affected by a short-term vigorous training camp even in highly trained elite endurance athletes presumably due to a greater training volume compared to usual.
Skucas, Kestutis; Pokvytyte, Vaida
The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term period, moderate intensity and high volume endurance training on physiological variables in elite wheelchair basketball players. Eight wheelchair basketball players were examined. The subjects participated in a two-week intervention program of mainly two training types: wheelchair basketball and wheelchair driving endurance training. The subjects performed the continuously increasing cycling exercise (CCE) at the constant 60 rpm arm cranking speed at the beginning of the program and after two weeks of the program. The initial workload was 20 W, then the workload was increased by 2 W every 5 seconds until fatigue. The post training of the wheelchair basketball group in the study showed a significant improvement in the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and the peak power output (POpeak). VO2peak increased by 9% from 2.32±0.16 L/min to 2.53±0.2 L/min (Pbasketball squad had relatively high levels of aerobic fitness prior to participating in the endurance training program. Nevertheless, the high-volume, moderate-intensity, short-term training program, which evolved over the two-weeks period, resulted in the improvement of the athlete's aerobic endurance. The ventilatory threshold (VT) and the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) are good markers for aerobic capacity of wheelchair athletes.
Borowicz-Bieńkowska, Sławomira; Przywarska, Izabela; Dylewicz, Piotr; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Rychlewski, Tadeusz; Wilk, Małgorzata; Rózańska, Anna
It has been shown that short-term exercise training improves insulin resistance parameters in patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effects of such a rehabilitation programme in patients with hypertension have not been well established. To assess whether short-term endurance training after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may improve metabolic parameters and reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension. The study group consisted of 30 male patients (15 with hypertension and 15 normotensive) aged 55+/-2.1 years who underwent CABG 1 to 6 months before the initiation of a 3-week endurance training. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide blood levels as well as binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors were assessed before and after the training programme. The effects of training on blood pressure values were also evaluated. A significant improvement (phypertension. This was accompanied by a significant (phypertension, both the exercise systolic and diastolic pressures decreased significantly (pendurance training was especially effective in patients with hypertension in whom beneficial changes in some metabolic risk factors of ischaemic heart disease as well as the reduction in the blood pressure values were observed.
Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J
We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.
Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller; Thomassen, Martin
The effects of intensified training in combination with a reduced training volume on muscle ion kinetics, transporters and work capacity were examined. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (12x30-s sprints) 2-3 times per wk and aerobic high...
Jackson J Fyfe
-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.
blood flow to the active limbs during leg cycling exercise; (2 28% drop in cutaneous blood flow in nonactive limbs at peak work rate; (3 5%–10% reduction in heart rate (HR; (4 10% increase in maximal O2 pulse; and (5 6.6% increase in tmax.Conclusion: Heat acclimation can be achieved with five sessions of high-intensity cycling exercise in the heat in trained athletes, and redistribution of cutaneous blood flow in the skin and exercising muscle, and enhanced cardiovascular adaptations provide the heat-acclimated athletes with the capability to increase their endurance time in the hot environment.Keywords: VO2max, oxygen pulse, skin blood flow, cardiovascular adaptation, badminton and table tennis players, short-term heat acclimation
Pereira-Caro, Gema; Polyviou, Thelma; Ludwig, Iziar A; Nastase, Ana-Maria; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Garcia, Ada L; Malkova, Dalia; Crozier, Alan
Background: Physical exercise has been reported to increase the bioavailability of citrus flavanones. Objective: We investigated the bioavailability of orange juice (OJ) (poly)phenols in endurance-trained males before and after cessation of training for 7 d. Design: Ten fit, endurance-trained males, with a mean ± SD maximal oxygen consumption of 58.2 ± 5.3 mL · kg -1 · min -1 , followed a low (poly)phenol diet for 2 d before drinking 500 mL of OJ containing 398 μmol of (poly)phenols, of which 330 μmol was flavanones. After the volunteers stopped training for 7 d the feeding study was repeated. Urine samples were collected 12 h pre- and 24 h post-OJ consumption. Bioavailability was assessed by the quantitative analysis of urinary flavanone metabolites and (poly)phenol catabolites with the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Results: During training, 0-24-h urinary excretion of flavanone metabolites, mainly hesperetin-3'- O -glucuronide, hesperetin-3'-sulfate, naringenin-4'- O -glucuronide, naringenin-7- O -glucuronide, was equivalent to 4.2% of OJ flavanone intake. This increased significantly to 5.2% when OJ was consumed after the volunteers stopped training for 7 d. Overall, this trend, although not significant, was also observed with OJ-derived colonic catabolites, which, after supplementation in the trained state, were excreted in amounts equivalent to 51% of intake compared with 59% after cessation of training. However, urinary excretion of 3 colonic catabolites of bacterial origin, most notably, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, did increase significantly when OJ was consumed postcessation compared with precessation of training. Data were also obtained on interindividual variations in flavanone bioavailability. Conclusions: A 7-d cessation of endurance training enhanced, rather than reduced, the bioavailability of OJ flavanones. The biological significance of these differences and whether they
Full Text Available Pituitary hormones play an important role energy expenditure and body temperature regulation during exercise. The aim of the stu¬dy was to investigate the effect of two different endurance training in ambient temperature (30.76 ± 1.71oC and 57.92 ± 5.80% r.h. on plasma growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL levels in non-trained healthy subjects. Twenty-four untrained healthy men participated in an 8-wk progressive two different endurance-training program. Subjects were divided into two groups: an in¬ter¬val running group (IR, and continuous running group (CR. Both groups were performed 3 days/wk. Growth hormone, PRL and VO2max levels were assessed at the beginning and the end of the training period. Body temperature (TB was also measured at the be¬ginning and immediately after each training. The exercise type affected plasma PRL (8.52 vs. 6.50 ng/ml IR and CT groups, P 0.38. Plasma GH level at the end of training pro¬gram increased from 0.42 to 1.48 ng/ml and 0.58 to 0.67 ng/ml for IR and CR groups. Expectedly, both training types increased TB, at a greater rate for IR group than CR group. In conclusion, an 8-wk regular exercise result in an increase in plasma PRL level, with¬out altering plasma GH level, which accompanied by elevated body temperature, regardless of the individual’s sporting rou¬ti¬ne. These suggest that untrained individuals could benefit from a regular exercise program as much as those doing the routine sport.
Dylewicz, P; Przywarska, I; Szcześniak, L; Rychlewski, T; Bieńkowska, S; Długiewicz, I; Wilk, M
This study was directed toward establishing whether and to what extent, short-term endurance training influences the insulin blood level, and the binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in patients undergoing rehabilitation after myocardial infarction. The study was conducted in a group of 60 patients who had had myocardial infarction within the past 1.5 to 3 months and who did not have arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. All the patients took a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test. Before and after the test, venous blood was collected to determine lactic acid and insulin blood levels as well as the binding and degradation of 125I-insulin. The study group was randomized into two subgroups. One subgroup entered into a 3-week in-patient rehabilitation course. The control group was discharged from the hospital and was given no recommendations for physical exercise. The same investigation was repeated 3 weeks later. In the patients (50%) with hyperinsulinemia (insulin resistance index, > 10 microIU/mL), which was detected during the first investigation, insulin blood level decreased from 23.9 +/- 4.4 to 15.0 +/- 1.9 microIU/mL (P endurance training period during rehabilitation after myocardial infarction reduces insulin resistance in patients with hyperinsulinemia.
Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E
The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (altitude training period (training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.
Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H
Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.
Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Jesper L
The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...
James, Carl A; Richardson, Alan J; Watt, Peter W; Willmott, Ashley G B; Gibson, Oliver R; Maxwell, Neil S
This study investigated the effect of 5 days of controlled short-term heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W·kg -1 ), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXTs) in cool (13 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), pre-training) and hot conditions (32 °C, 60% RH, pre- and post-training), as well as 5-km time trials (TTs) in the heat, pre- and post-training. STHA reduced resting (p = 0.01) and exercising (p = 0.04) core temperature alongside a smaller change in thermal sensation (p = 0.04). Both groups improved the lactate threshold (LT, p = 0.021), lactate turnpoint (LTP, p = 0.005) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (vV̇O 2max ; p = 0.031) similarly. Statistical differences between training methods were observed in TT performance (STHA, -6.2(5.5)%; CON, -0.6(1.7)%, p = 0.029) and total running time during the GXT (STHA, +20.8(12.7)%; CON, +9.8(1.2)%, p = 0.006). There were large mean differences in change in maximal oxygen consumption between STHA +4.0(2.2) mL·kg -1 ·min -1 (7.3(4.0)%) and CON +1.9(3.7) mL·kg -1 ·min -1 (3.8(7.2)%). Running economy (RE) deteriorated following both training programmes (p = 0.008). Similarly, RE was impaired in the cool GXT, relative to the hot GXT (p = 0.004). STHA improved endurance running performance in comparison with work-matched normothermic training, despite equality of adaptation for typical determinants of performance (LT, LTP, vV̇O 2max ). Accordingly, these data highlight the ergogenic effect of STHA, potentially via greater improvements in maximal oxygen consumption and specific thermoregulatory and associated thermal perception adaptations absent in normothermic training.
Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J
Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training.
Arnold G. Nelson; Joke Kokkonen; Megan Mickenberg
Background: Since it has been shown that spending 18 h under dim light conditions can result in reduced handgrip endurance, it was questioned whether or not a shorter exposure to dim light (i.e., 1 h) would have similar influence upon muscular endurance. Therefore this study compared the number of weighted knee extension lifts that could be done after spending 1 h in either dim or bright light. Methods: Participants (5 women, 11 men, college students 19–26 years) performed knee extension l...
Vogel, T; Leprêtre, P-M; Brechat, P-H; Lonsdorfer, E; Benetos, A; Kaltenbach, G; Lonsdorfer, J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a short-term Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) among healthy elderly subjects. This longitudinal prospective study took place at the Strasbourg University Hospital geriatric department. One hundred and fifty older volunteers, previously determined as being free from cardiac and pulmonary disease, were separated into two age groups: the "young senior" (60.2 ± 3.1 yr) and the "older senior" groups (70.8 ± 5.2 yr). These groups were then subdivided by gender into the "young female senior", "young male senior" "older female senior" and "older male senior" groups. Before and after the IWEP, all subjects were asked to perform an incremental cycle exercise to obtain their first ventilatory threshold (VT1), maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal minute ventilation (MMV). The IWEP consisted of a 30-min cycling exercise which took place twice a week, and was divided into six 5-min stages consisting of 4 min at VT1 intensity and 1 min at 90% MTP. An assessment was made of the effects of the IWEP on maximal cardio-respiratory function (MTP, VO2peak, MMV) and endurance parameters (VT1, heart rate [HR] measured at pretraining VT1 and lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP). This short-term training program resulted in a significant increase of MTP (from 13.2% to 20.6%), VO2peak (from 8.9% to 16.6%) and MMV (from 11.1% to 21.8%) in all groups (pseniors" were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the "young seniors" pre-training values for the same parameters. The most striking finding in this study is that after only 9 weeks, our short-term "individually-tailored" IWEP significantly improved both maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters in healthy, previously untrained seniors.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training? 26.30 Section 26.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.30 Does the Job Training...
Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were rand...... and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.......PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...
Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Dileo, Tsavis D; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kang, Hyoung K; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun
Heat acclimation (HA) evokes numerous physiological adaptations, improves heat tolerance and has also been shown to enhance lactate (LA) responses during exercise, similar to that seen with endurance training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether HA improves the body's ability to remove LA during recovery following maximal exercise. Ten healthy men completed two trials of maximal treadmill exercise (pre- and post-HA) separated by 5 days of HA. Each day of HA consisted of two 45 minute periods of cycling at ~50% VO2max separated by a 15min rest period in an environmental chamber (T(db) 45° C, RH 20%). In pre-/post-HA trials, venous blood was collected during 60 minutes of recovery to determine LA concentrations and removal kinetics (A2: amplitude and y2: velocity constant) using bi-exponential curve fitting. Physiological adaptation to heat was significantly developed during HA, as evidenced by end-exercise T(re) (DAY1 vs. 5) (38.89±0.56 vs. 38.66±0.44° C), T(sk) (38.07±0.51 vs. 37.66±0.48° C), HR (175.0±9.9 vs. 165.0±18.5 beats·min(-1)), and sweat rate (1.24 ±.26 vs. 1.47 ±0.27 L·min(-1)) (PLA concentrations (LA(0min): 8.78±1.08 vs. 8.69±1.23; LA(peak): 10.97±1.77 vs. 10.95±1.46; and La(60min); 2.88±0.82 vs. 2.96±0.93 mmol·L(-1)) or removal kinetics (A2: -13.05±7.05 vs -15.59±7.90 mmol.L(-1) and y2: 0.02±0.01 vs. 0.03±.01 min(-1)). The present study concluded that, while effective in inducing thermo-physiological adaptations to heat stress, short-term HA does not improve the body's ability to remove LA following maximal exercise. Therefore, athletes and workers seeking faster LA recovery from intense physical activity may not benefit from short-term HA.
Houssa, Marine; Jacobs, Emilie; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
In two experimental and exploratory studies, we wanted to test the differentiated effects on preschoolers with externalizing behavior (EB) of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions, in comparison with typically developing (TD) preschoolers or with preschoolers with EB whom didn't receive…
Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie
Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…
Flannery, K. Brigid; Benz, Michael R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Kato, Mary McGrath; Lindstrom, Lauren
Postsecondary education has been linked to improved access to employment opportunities for individuals with and without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with increased employment outcomes for Vocational Rehabilitation consumers enrolled in community college short term occupational skill training programs.…
Kanaley, Jill A.; Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Fairchild, Timothy J.
Objective Short-term exercise training improves glycemic control, but the effect of short-term training on postprandial satiety peptide responses or perceived satiety remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that short-term aerobic exercise training (15 days) would alter postprandial pancreatic and gut peptide [pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY)] responses and perceived appetite and satiety in obese individuals. Subjects Thirteen healthy obese men and women (age: 42±2 y; BMI: 3...
Bogdanis, Gregory C; Ziagos, Vaghelis; Anastasiadis, Michalis; Maridaki, Maria
This study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two different off-season, short-term basketball training programs on physical and technical abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-seven adolescent basketball players (14.7+/-0.5 years; Tanner stage: 3.5+/-0.5) were randomly divided into a specialized basketball training group (SP, n=10), a mixed basketball plus conditioning training group (MX, n=10) and a control group (n=7). Training included five sessions per week (100-120 min each) and was performed for 4 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake was similarly improved after SP (4.9+/-1.8%) and MX (4.9+/-1.4%), but there was no effect on ventilatory threshold. Peak and mean power output measured during the Wingate test were also improved by a similar magnitude after SP (21+/-5%) and MX (15+/-6%). Trunk muscle endurance was equally increased (SP: 23+/-4%, MX: 25+/-5%), but arms endurance was improved significantly more after MX (50+/-11%) compared to SP (11+/-14%, pbasketball technical skills was similarly increased (by 17-27%) in both groups, with a tendency for greater improvement of the SP groups in the technical skills of shooting and passing. These results indicate that a SP basketball training program, performed exclusively on-court was as effective as a MX training program in terms of aerobic and anaerobic fitness improvement. Furthermore, the decrease of the total on-court training time in the MX group resulted in a tendency for a smaller improvement of basketball technical skills. In conclusion, both SP and MX training are equally effective in order to limit and/or reverse the detraining effects that occur during the off-season in basketball.
Leiberg, Susanne; Klimecki, Olga; Singer, Tania
Compassion has been suggested to be a strong motivator for prosocial behavior. While research has demonstrated that compassion training has positive effects on mood and health, we do not know whether it also leads to increases in prosocial behavior. We addressed this question in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we introduce a new prosocial game, the Zurich Prosocial Game (ZPG), which allows for repeated, ecologically valid assessment of prosocial behavior and is sensitive to the influence of reciprocity, helping cost, and distress cues on helping behavior. Experiment 2 shows that helping behavior in the ZPG increased in participants who had received short-term compassion training, but not in participants who had received short-term memory training. Interindividual differences in practice duration were specifically related to changes in the amount of helping under no-reciprocity conditions. Our results provide first evidence for the positive impact of short-term compassion training on prosocial behavior towards strangers in a training-unrelated task. PMID:21408020
Nakamura, Fabio Y; Flatt, Andrew A; Pereira, Lucas A; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Loturco, Irineu; Esco, Michael R
The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (measured in 1-min post-1-min stabilization period) to detect training induced adaptations in futsal players. Twenty-four elite futsal players underwent HRV assessments pre- and post-three or four weeks preseason training. From the 10-min HRV recording period, lnRMSSD was analyzed in the following time segments: 1) from 0-5 min (i.e., stabilization period); 2) from 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and; 3) from 5-10 min (i.e., criterion period). The lnRMSSD was almost certainly higher (100/00/00) using the magnitude-based inference in all periods at the post- moment. The correlation between changes in ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (i.e., 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min) and lnRMSSDCriterion ranged between 0.45-0.75, with the highest value (p = 0.75; 90% CI: 0.55 - 0.85) found between ultra-short-term lnRMDSSD at 1-2 min and lnRMSSDCriterion. In conclusion, lnRMSSD determined in a short period of 1-min is sensitive to training induced changes in futsal players (based on the very large correlation to the criterion measure), and can be used to track cardiac autonomic adaptations. Key pointsThe ultra-short-term (1 min) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD) is sensitive to training effects in futsal playersThe ultra-short-term lnRMSSD may simplify the assessment of the cardiac autonomic changes in the field compared to the traditional and lengthier (10 min duration) analysisCoaches are encouraged to implement the ultra-short-term heart rate variability in their routines to monitor team sports athletes.
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter
This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.
Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (P(peak) and P(mean)) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (Peffect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises.
Boyd, L Renee; Borawski, J; Lairet, J; Limkakeng, A T
Our understanding of the expertise and equipment required to air transport injured soldiers with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) continue to evolve. We conducted a retrospective chart review of characteristics, interventions required and short-term outcomes of patients with severe TBI managed by the US Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom between 1 June 2007 and 31 August 2010. Patients were cared for based on guidelines given by the Brain Trauma Foundation and the Joint Theater Trauma System by non-neurosurgeon physicians with dedicated neurocritical care training. We report basic characteristics, injuries, interventions required and complications during transport. Intracranial haemorrhage was the most common diagnosis in this cohort. Most injuries were weapon related. During this study, there were no reported in-flight deaths. The majority of patients were mechanically ventilated. There were 45 patients who required at least one vasopressor to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, including four patients who required three or more. Some patients required intracranial pressure (ICP) management, treatment of diabetes insipidus and/or seizure prophylaxis medications. Air transport personnel must be prepared to provide standard critical care but also care specific to TBIs, including ICP control and management of diabetes insipidus. Although these patients and their potential complications are traditionally managed by neurosurgeons, those providers without neurosurgical backgrounds can be provided this training to help fill a wartime need. This study provides data for the future development of air transport guidelines for validating and clearing flight surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Fabio Y. Nakamura, Andrew A. Flatt, Lucas A. Pereira, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Irineu Loturco, Michael R. Esco
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (measured in 1-min post-1-min stabilization period to detect training induced adaptations in futsal players. Twenty-four elite futsal players underwent HRV assessments pre- and post-three or four weeks preseason training. From the 10-min HRV recording period, lnRMSSD was analyzed in the following time segments: 1 from 0-5 min (i.e., stabilization period; 2 from 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and; 3 from 5-10 min (i.e., criterion period. The lnRMSSD was almost certainly higher (100/00/00 using the magnitude-based inference in all periods at the post- moment. The correlation between changes in ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (i.e., 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and lnRMSSDCriterion ranged between 0.45-0.75, with the highest value (p = 0.75; 90% CI: 0.55 – 0.85 found between ultra-short-term lnRMDSSD at 1-2 min and lnRMSSDCriterion. In conclusion, lnRMSSD determined in a short period of 1-min is sensitive to training induced changes in futsal players (based on the very large correlation to the criterion measure, and can be used to track cardiac autonomic adaptations.
Ingerslev, Lars R; Donkin, Ida; Fabre, Odile
related to neurological function at the trained state and, to a much lesser extent, at the detrained state. Our study reveal that short-term endurance training induces marked remodeling of the sperm epigenome, and identify genes related to the development of the central nervous system as potential hot...
Zapała, Dariusz; Zabielska-Mendyk, Emilia; Cudo, Andrzej; Krzysztofiak, Agnieszka; Augustynowicz, Paweł; Francuz, Piotr
The authors' aim was to examine whether short-term kinesthetic training affects the level of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) in different frequency band: alpha (8-12 Hz), lower beta (12.5-16 Hz) and beta (16.5-20 Hz) during the execution of a motor imagery task of closing and opening the right and the left hand by experts (jugglers, practicing similar exercises on an everyday basis) and amateurs (individuals not practicing any sports). It was found that the performance of short kinesthetic training increases the power of alpha rhythm when executing imagery tasks only in the group of amateurs. Therefore, kinesthetic training may be successfully used as a method increasing the vividness of motor imagery, for example, in tasks involving the control of brain-computer interfaces based on SMR.
Jeste, Dilip V; Avanzino, Julie; Depp, Colin A; Gawronska, Maja; Tu, Xin; Sewell, Daniel D; Huege, Steven F
Strategies to build a larger workforce of physicians dedicated to research on aging are needed. One method to address this shortage of physician scientists in geriatrics is short-term training in aging research for early-stage medical students. The authors examined the effects of two summer research training programs, funded by the National Institutes of Health, on medical students' attitudes toward aging, using the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA). The programs combined mentored research, didactics, and some clinical exposure. In a sample of 134 participants, COCOA scores improved significantly after completion of the research training program. There was a significant interaction of gender, such that female students had higher baseline scores than males, but this gender difference in COCOA scores was attenuated following the program. Four of the six COCOA subscales showed significant improvement from baseline: early interest in geriatrics, empathy/compassion, attitudes toward geriatrics careers, and ageism.
I have always had an interest in endurance sports and have been fortunate enough to work with endurance athletes while completing my PhD. Professor Mujika is a well-respected scientist who, apart from his research work, consults with many elite endurance athletes. I was surprised at how excited I was to review.
Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M
Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO(2max) ), cycling economy (CE) and long....../short-term endurance capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...
Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M
Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO2max), cycling economy (CE) and long/short-term endurance...... capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due
Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two...... individuals (63–95 years of age; mean, 83.2 years of age) were assessed in one intervention group without the use of a control group. The intervention group performed nine group sessions (1–1.5 hours each) of playful training with the modular interactive tiles over a 12-week period in two community activity...... community activity centers for the elderly. Three different tests from the Senior Fitness Test were used in order to test a variety of health parameters of the community-dwelling elderly, including those parameters related to fall prevention. Materials and Methods: Eighteen community-dwelling elderly...
Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.
This paper deliberates the endurance test outcomes obtained from a single cylinder, diesel engine fueled with an upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion. In this investigation a bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of woody biomass was upgraded with acid treatment. The resulted bio oil was emulsified with addition of biodiesel and suitable surfactant which is termed as ATJOE15. The main objective of the endurance test was to evaluate the wear characteristics of the engine components and lubrication oil properties, when the engine is fueled with the ATJOE15 emulsion. The photographic views taken before and after the end of 100 hrs endurance test, and visual inspection of the engine components, wear and carbon deposit results, are discussed in this paper.
Flueck, Martin; Eilers, Wouter
Endurance athletes demonstrate an exceptional resistance to fatigue when exercising at high intensity. Much research has been devoted to the contribution of aerobic capacity for the economy of endurance performance. Important aspects of the fine-tuning of metabolic processes and power output in the endurance athlete have been overlooked. This review addresses how training paradigms exploit bioenergetic pathways in recruited muscle groups to promote the endurance phenotype. A special focus is laid on the genome-mediated mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of fatigue resistance and aerobic performance by training macrocycles and complements. The available data on work-induced muscle plasticity implies that different biologic strategies are exploited in athletic and untrained populations to boost endurance capacity. Olympic champions are probably endowed with a unique constitution that renders the conditioning of endurance capacity for competition particularly efficient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Benjamin; McGill, Stuart
"Core" exercise is a basic part of many physical training regimens with goals ranging from rehabilitation of spine and knee injuries to improving athletic performance. Core stiffness has been proposed to perform several functions including reducing pain by minimising joint micro-movements, and enhancing strength and speed performance. This study probes the links between a training approach and immediate but temporary changes in stiffness. Passive and active stiffness was measured on 24 participants; 12 having little to no experience in core training (inexperienced), and the other 12 being athletes experienced to core training methods; before and after a 15 min bout of isometric core exercises. Passive stiffness was assessed on a "frictionless" bending apparatus and active stiffness assessed via a quick release mechanism. Short-term isometric core training increased passive and active stiffness in most directions for both inexperienced and experienced participants, passive left lateral bend among experienced participants being the exception (P core stiffness, in this case following a single session. This may influence performance and injury resilience for a brief period.
Full Text Available Performing music is a multimodal experience involving the visual, auditory, and somatosensory modalities as well as the motor system. Therefore, musical training is an excellent model to study multimodal brain plasticity. Indeed, we have previously shown that short-term piano practice increase the magnetoencephalographic (MEG response to melodic material in novice players. Here we investigate the impact of piano training using a rhythmic-focused exercise on responses to rhythmic musical material. Musical training with non musicians was conducted over a period of two weeks. One group (sensorimotor-auditory, SA learned to play a piano sequence with a distinct musical rhythm, another group (auditory, A listened to, and evaluated the rhythmic accuracy of the performances of the SA-group. Training-induced cortical plasticity was evaluated using MEG, comparing the mismatch negativity (MMN in response to occasional rhythmic deviants in a repeating rhythm pattern before and after training. The SA-group showed a significantly greater enlargement of MMN and P2 to deviants after training compared to the A- group. The training-induced increase of the rhythm MMN was bilaterally expressed in contrast to our previous finding where the MMN for deviants in the pitch domain showed a larger right than left increase. The results indicate that when auditory experience is strictly controlled during training, involvement of the sensorimotor system and perhaps increased attentional recources that are needed in producing rhythms lead to more robust plastic changes in the auditory cortex compared to when rhythms are simply attended to in the auditory domain in the absence of motor production.
Yousfi, Narimen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Rouissi, Mehdi; Hammami, Amri; Tabben, Montassar; Chaouachi, Anis; Haddad, Monoem; Chamari, Karim
Beliefs that lunar phases affect human physiology started in ancient times. Research has recently revealed that a physical fitness index increased in sedentary students at the new moon (NM) and full moon (FM) compared to other moon phases. However, the effect of lunar cycle (moon illumination and gravitational pull) on physical performance in athletes was not examined. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether short-term explosive performance can be influenced by the different phases of the lunar cycle. Fourteen young male Taekwondo athletes (age: 16.9 ± 0.7 years, height: 159.7 ± 50.6 cm, body mass: 62.85 ± 7.84 kg) performed the following tests to assess the explosive physical performance during the different phases of the lunar cycle (NM, FQ (first quarter), FM, and LQ (last quarter)): maximal isometric manual contraction (dominant hand (MIMCD) and non-dominant hand (MIMCND)), maximal back isometric contraction (MBIC), squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 10-m sprint (10 m). The testing sessions during the different moon phases were performed in a counterbalanced order. The order of tests remained the same (MIMCD, MIMCND, MBIC, SJ, CMJ, and 10 m), and all sessions were performed in the evening (6:00 to 8:00 p.m.) on the first day of each evaluated lunar phase. Each parameter was measured over two consecutive lunar months in the calendar. Analysis of variance tests showed that there was no significant effect of lunar cycle on all explosive test measures, p > 0.05. Our results failed to identify any effect of lunar phase on evening explosive performance (mainly involving phosphagen pathway-based efforts) among young trained athletes. Therefore, it appears that moon phase/illumination does not affect short-term physical performance in young trained adolescents.
Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Nowicka, Anna; Kozak, Anna; Szwed, Marcin; Kossut, Malgorzata
Neuroplastic changes induced by sensory learning have been recognized within the cortices of specific modalities as well as within higher ordered multimodal areas. The interplay between these areas is not fully understood, particularly in the case of somatosensory learning. Here we examined functional and structural changes induced by short-term tactile training based of Braille reading, a task that requires both significant tactile expertise and mapping of tactile input onto multimodal representations. Subjects with normal vision were trained for 3 weeks to read Braille exclusively by touch and scanned before and after training, while performing a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters and meaningless characters. Functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were used to assess resulting changes. The strongest training-induced effect was found in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), where we observed bilateral augmentation in activity accompanied by an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the contralateral SI. Increases of white matter fractional anisotropy were also observed in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the thalamus. Outside of somatosensory system, changes in both structure and function were found in i.e., the fusiform gyrus, the medial frontal gyri and the inferior parietal lobule. Our results provide evidence for functional remodeling of the somatosensory pathway and higher ordered multimodal brain areas occurring as a result of short-lasting tactile learning, and add to them a novel picture of extensive white matter plasticity.
Wakamiya, Eiji; Takeshita, Takashi; Nakanishi, Makoto; Mizuta, Mekumi; Kurimoto, Naoko; Okumura, Tomohito; Tamai, Hiroshi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi
The purpose of this study is to develop a computer training program of reading for the Japanese dyslexic children and to examine its short-term efficacy on their reading and writing abilities. Fifteen dyslexic children underwent two sets of training programs, one for single-hiragana and non-word reading, and the other for the reading of real words, in which each hiragana was followed by the correctly read sound. Subjects were required to use a given program for five minutes a day for three weeks, switching to the other program after a three-week interval. Four kinds of reading test and one writing test were done at the beginning and end of each program period. The averages reading speeds increased, and the single-hiragana reading error average was lower after the training. Hiragana-writing errors also decreased, even though no writing procedure was involved in the programs. The results indicate the usefulness of these training programs as an early intervention of reading and writing for the Japanese dyslexic children.
Boysen, Elena; Schiller, Birgitta; Mörtl, Kathrin; Gündel, Harald; Hölzer, Michael
Psychosocial working conditions attract more and more attention when it comes to mental health in the workplace. Trying to support managers to deal with their own as well as their employees' psychological risk factors, we conducted a specific manager training. Within this investigation, we wanted to learn about the training's effects and acceptance. A single-day manager training was provided in a large industrial company in Germany. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their own physical and mental health condition as well as their working situation. Questionnaires were distributed at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up. At this point of time the investigation is still ongoing. The current article focuses on short-term preliminary effects. Analyses only included participants that already completed baseline and three months follow-up. Preliminary results from three-month follow-up survey ( n = 33, nmale = 30, Mage = 47.5) indicated positive changes in the manager's mental health condition measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9: Mt1 = 3.82, Mt2 = 3.15). Training managers about common mental disorders and risk factors at the workplace within a single-day workshop seems to promote positive effects on their own mental health. Especially working with the managers on their own early stress symptoms might have been an important element.
Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Schroeder, Julia E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R
The visual system has developed to transform an undifferentiated and continuous flow of information into discrete and manageable representations, and this ability rests primarily on the uninterrupted nature of the input. Here we explore the impact of altering how visual information is accumulated over time by assessing how intermittent vision influences memory retention. Previous work has shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing snapshots of vision) can enhance visual-motor control and visual cognition, yet many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that are altered. In the present study, we used a partial-report memory paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions. In Experiment 1, the memory task was completed before and immediately after a training phase, wherein participants engaged in physical activities (e.g., playing catch) while wearing either specialized stroboscopic eyewear or transparent control eyewear. In Experiment 2, an additional group of participants underwent the same stroboscopic protocol but were delayed 24 h between training and assessment, so as to measure retention. In comparison to the control group, both stroboscopic groups (immediate and delayed retest) revealed enhanced retention of information in short-term memory, leading to better recall at longer stimulus-to-cue delays (640-2,560 ms). These results demonstrate that training under stroboscopic conditions has the capacity to enhance some aspects of visual memory, that these faculties generalize beyond the specific tasks that were trained, and that trained improvements can be maintained for at least a day.
Freitas, Tomás T; Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calleja-González, Julio; Alcaraz, Pedro E
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols ≥4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (training programs >12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45). CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.
Albert, Rachel R; Dolgin, Kim G
Can short-term training improve preschoolers' knowledge of road-crossing concepts as well as behavior in a real traffic situation? Forty children, aged four to five years, were assigned to one of four conditions (game, story, song, and control). Each condition participated in four 15-min classroom-based lessons over four weeks. Two assessments measuring knowledge of street-crossing concepts and one assessment measuring behavior on a real street were used to evaluate performance at baseline and one week and six months post-training. Children in all three experimental conditions showed a significant improvement over the control on the two conceptual assessments. Only children in the game condition significantly improved their behavior on the street-crossing assessment. Furthermore, children in all three experimental conditions retained the same levels of improvement at the six-month follow-up. These results demonstrate that one hour of training can create lasting improvements on preschool children's conceptual knowledge of traffic safety and road-crossing behavior on a real street. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blackwell, James E M; Doleman, Brett; Herrod, Philip J J; Ricketts, Samuel; Phillips, Bethan E; Lund, Jonathan N; Williams, John P
Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared to traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomised controlled trials of short-term (HIIT vs. either no exercise control (CON) or moderate continuous exercise training (MCT) within diseased cohorts. Literature searches of the following databases were performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PubMed (all from inception to 1st December 2017), with further searches of Clinicaltrials.gov and citations via Google Scholar. Primary outcomes were effect upon CRF variables; VO2peak and Anaerobic Threshold (AT). Thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. HIIT resulted in a clinically significant increase in VO2peak compared with CON (mean difference (MD) 3.32 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 2.56 to 2.08). Overall HIIT provided added benefit to VO2peak over MCT (MD 0.79 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.39). The benefit of HIIT was most marked in patients with cardiovascular disease when compared to MCT (VO2peak (MD 1.66 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.60 to 2.73); AT (MD 1.61 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.33 to 2.90)). HIIT elicits improvements in objective measures of CRF within 8 weeks in diseased cohorts compared to no intervention. When compared to MCT, HIIT imparts statistically significant additional improvements in measures of CRF, with clinically important additional improvements in VO2peak in cardiovascular patients. Comparative efficacy of HIIT vs MCT combined with an often reduced time commitment may warrant HIIT's promotion as a viable clinical
Grønli, Janne; Meerlo, Peter; Pedersen, Torhild T; Pallesen, Ståle; Skrede, Silje; Marti, Andrea R; Wisor, Jonathan P; Murison, Robert; Henriksen, Tone E G; Rempe, Michael J; Mrdalj, Jelena
Millions of people worldwide are working at times that overlap with the normal time for sleep. Sleep problems related to the work schedule may mediate the well-established relationship between shift work and increased risk for disease, occupational errors and accidents. Yet, our understanding of causality and the underlying mechanisms that explain this relationship is limited. We aimed to assess the consequences of night-shift work for sleep and to examine whether night-shift work-induced sleep disturbances may yield electrophysiological markers of impaired maintenance of the waking brain state. An experimental model developed in rats simulated a 4-day protocol of night-work in humans. Two groups of rats underwent 8-h sessions of enforced ambulation, either at the circadian time when the animal was physiologically primed for wakefulness (active-workers, mimicking day-shift) or for sleep (rest-workers, mimicking night-shift). The 4-day rest-work schedule induced a pronounced redistribution of sleep to the endogenous active phase. Rest-work also led to higher electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave (1-4 Hz) energy in quiet wakefulness during work-sessions, suggesting a degraded waking state. After the daily work-sessions, being in their endogenous active phase, rest-workers slept less and had higher gamma (80-90 Hz) activity during wake than active-workers. Finally, rest-work induced an enduring shift in the main sleep period and attenuated the accumulation of slow-wave energy during NREM sleep. A comparison of recovery data from 12:12 LD and constant dark conditions suggests that reduced time in NREM sleep throughout the recorded 7-day recovery phase induced by rest-work may be modulated by circadian factors. Our data in rats show that enforced night-work-like activity during the normal resting phase has pronounced acute and persistent effects on sleep and waking behavior. The study also underscores the potential importance of animal models for future studies on the
Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody
Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…
Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José
This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training.......001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players....
Jacob A. Sinex
Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.
Nyberg, Michael Permin; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders
PURPOSE: The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I...... and II muscle fibers. METHODS: During the last nine weeks of the season, thirteen semi-professional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of 2-3 sets of 8 - 10 repetitions of 30 m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects...... in type I and II fibers did not change. CONCLUSION: In highly trained soccer players, additional speed endurance training is associated with an improved ability to perform repeated high-intensity work. To what extent the training-induced changes in V˙O2 kinetics and mechanical efficiency in type I fibers...
Meerschman, Iris; Van Lierde, Kristiane; Van Puyvelde, Caro; Bostyn, Astrid; Claeys, Sofie; D'haeseleer, Evelien
Background: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy…
Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.
Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351
Sabitha Eunice Regima
Full Text Available Background: Recently the exercises and fitness professionals have adopted water as an alternative medium for delivering programs to improve fitness and health. When exercise on dry land our skeletal muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and other body systems are greatly affected by the forces of gravity. When exercise in water, the effects created by the gravitational pull on the body are attenuated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of land based endurance training and aquatic based endurance training for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Methods: An experimental study design with 30 subjects healthy individuals between 20-30 years of both sexes currently were divided equally into 2 groups. Group A underwent land based exercises while Group B underwent aquatic based exercises. The outcome measures consist of RPP (rate pressure product, REC HR (recovery heart rate, RHR (resting heart rate and 6MWD (6 minute walking distance was measured before (pre-training and after four weeks of endurance training. Results: In this study, the mean improvement between the 2 groups of land and aquatic based endurance exercises were tested for significance using a dependent t test. The calculated t value were 43.550, 4.583, 16, 5.870 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively. For group B 25.922, 12.762, 27.495,19.236 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively with p<0.05. This clearly indicated that both land based exercises and aquatic based exercises will improve cardiovascular endurance significantly and there is no significant difference between land based exercises and aquatic based exercises for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Conclusion: It is concluded that both land based and aquatic based endurance exercises methods produce equivalent, if not same effect on the enhancement of aerobic endurance. There was no significant difference between these two exercising mediums. Nonetheless
Argus, Christos K; Broatch, James R; Petersen, Aaron C; Polman, Remco; Bishop, David J; Halson, Shona
An athlete's ability to recover quickly is important when there is limited time between training and competition. As such, recovery strategies are commonly used to expedite the recovery process. To determine the effectiveness of both cold-water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) compared with control on short-term recovery (<4 h) after a single full-body resistance-training session. Thirteen men (age 26 ± 5 y, weight 79 ± 7 kg, height 177 ± 5 cm) were assessed for perceptual (fatigue and soreness) and performance measures (maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVC] of the knee extensors, weighted and unweighted countermovement jumps) before and immediately after the training session. Subjects then completed 1 of three 14-min recovery strategies (CWI, CWT, or passive sitting [CON]), with the perceptual and performance measures reassessed immediately, 2 h, and 4 h postrecovery. Peak torque during MVC and jump performance were significantly decreased (P < .05) after the resistance-training session and remained depressed for at least 4 h postrecovery in all conditions. Neither CWI nor CWT had any effect on perceptual or performance measures over the 4-h recovery period. CWI and CWT did not improve short-term (<4-h) recovery after a conventional resistance-training session.
Souders, Dustin J; Boot, Walter R; Blocker, Kenneth; Vitale, Thomas; Roque, Nelson A; Charness, Neil
The degree to which "brain training" can improve general cognition, resulting in improved performance on tasks dissimilar from the trained tasks (transfer of training), is a controversial topic. Here, we tested the degree to which cognitive training, in the form of gamified training activities that have demonstrated some degree of success in the past, might result in broad transfer. Sixty older adults were randomly assigned to a gamified cognitive training intervention or to an active control condition that involved playing word and number puzzle games. Participants were provided with tablet computers and asked to engage in their assigned training for 30 45-min training sessions over the course of 1 month. Although intervention adherence was acceptable, little evidence for transfer was observed except for the performance of one task that most resembled the gamified cognitive training: There was a trend for greater improvement on a version of the corsi block tapping task for the cognitive training group relative to the control group. This task was very similar to one of the training games. Results suggest that participants were learning specific skills and strategies from game training that influenced their performance on a similar task. However, even this near-transfer effect was weak. Although the results were not positive with respect to broad transfer of training, longer duration studies with larger samples and the addition of a retention period are necessary before the benefit of this specific intervention can be ruled out.
"This paper adopts an economic perspective for an investigation of the correlation between cost-benefit aspects and company decisions regarding training. A differentiation is drawn between the basic decision about whether a company should provide its own training and the stipulation of the number of trainees. The basis of the data used is information on the cost-benefit aspects of training from a survey conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training in 2001, the info...
Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen
Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…
Pace, R. Wayne; Regan, Les; Miller, Peter; Dunn, Lee
Undergraduates were divided into four groups: 76 received training and completed the Natural Growth Goals Inventory and Organizational Learning Survey as pre- and posttests; 76 completed the NGGI only; 30 the OLS only; and 75 were trained and completed posttests. Both pretesting and training had a negative or boomerang effect on perceptions of the…
Khanbabaie, Reza; Nesse, William H; Longtin, Andre; Maler, Leonard
Short-term depression (STD) is observed at many synapses of the CNS and is important for diverse computations. We have discovered a form of fast STD (FSTD) in the synaptic responses of pyramidal cells evoked by stimulation of their electrosensory afferent fibers (P-units). The dynamics of the FSTD are matched to the mean and variance of natural P-unit discharge. FSTD exhibits switch-like behavior in that it is immediately activated with stimulus intervals near the mean interspike interval (ISI) of P-units (approximately 5 ms) and recovers immediately after stimulation with the slightly longer intervals (>7.5 ms) that also occur during P-unit natural and evoked discharge patterns. Remarkably, the magnitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials appear to depend only on the duration of the previous ISI. Our theoretical analysis suggests that FSTD can serve as a mechanism for noise reduction. Because the kinetics of depression are as fast as the natural spike statistics, this role is distinct from previously ascribed functional roles of STD in gain modulation, synchrony detection or as a temporal filter.
David C. Archer
Full Text Available Background: The use of chains in resistance training is a way to accommodate the muscular strength curve. Short-term training and jump squats have been shown to increase back squat strength, but not in conjunction with each other or with chains. Jump squats have also been used to increase jump height and power. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term jump squat training with and without chains on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one resistance-trained men volunteered to participate (age = 23.87 ± 2.2 years, height=174.87 ± 6.94 cm, mass = 82.74 ± 14.95 kg and were randomly assigned to one of three groups [control (C = 10, no chains (NC =10, or chains (CH = 11]. Participants had their jump height (VJ and back squat strength (BS tested before and after a week of training. The NC and CH groups performed three training sessions consisting of five sets of three reps of jump squats at 30% 1RM with 30s rest between sets. The CH group had 20% of their load added by chains when standing erect. The C group did not train. Results: A 3 (group: CH, NC, C x 2 (time: pre, post mixed factor ANOVA revealed a significant (p = 0.006 interaction for back squat 1RM. Both the CH (pre 142.56 ± 20.40 kg; post 145.66 ± 19.59 kg and NC (pre 150.00 ± 15.23 kg; post 154.77 ± 15.09 kg groups significantly increased while the C (pre 157.27 ± 25.35 kg; post 156.36 ± 24.85 kg group showed no difference. There were no significant interactions (p =0.32 or main effects for VJ (C = pre 50.59 ± 9.39cm; post 51.29 ± 9.68cm; NC = pre 55.29 ± 5.23cm; post 57.39 ± 5.22cm; CH = pre 46.19 ± 5.02; post 47.45 ± 4.62. Conclusions: The CH group was able to increase strength while lifting less overall weight. Coaches may use short-term training with chains to yield a similar increase in back squat strength as without chains. Keywords: variable resistance, back squats, novel, vertical jump
Conclusion: Use of the virtual reality laparoscopic surgery simulator allowed us to objectively assess residents' acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills. We found that residents more readily acquired dominant-hand skills during their 2-month training. We conclude that our training system serves as an effective initial step towards the acquisition of the necessary laparoscopic surgery skills, even though residents do not actually perform surgeries during the training period.
Carpentier, Sarah M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R
Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudinal study of monolingual English-speaking 4- to 6-year-old children randomly selected to receive daily music or French language training, excluding weekends. Children completed passive EEG music note and French vowel auditory oddball detection tasks before and after training. Brain signal complexity was measured on source waveforms at multiple temporal scales as an index of neural information processing and network communication load. Comparing pretraining with posttraining, musical training was associated with increased EEG complexity at coarse temporal scales during the music and French vowel tasks in widely distributed cortical regions. Conversely, very minimal decreases in complexity at fine scales and trends toward coarse-scale increases were displayed after French training during the tasks. Spectral analysis failed to distinguish between training types and found overall theta (3.5-7.5 Hz) power increases after all training forms, with spatially fewer decreases in power at higher frequencies (>10 Hz). These findings demonstrate that musical training increased diversity of brain network states to support domain-specific music skill acquisition and music-to-language transfer effects.
Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen
Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen
Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and non-verbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a non-verbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. PMID:26709746
Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Cepeda, Nicholas J; Chau, Tom
Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.
Thunnissen, M.; Duivenvoorden, H.; Busschbach, J.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; van Tilburg, W.; Verheul, R.; Trijsburg, W.
Although several studies show symptomatic improvements in patients with personality disorders after short-term inpatient psychotherapy, reintegration remains difficult. In this study the effectiveness of a specifically designed reintegration training program is investigated. One hundred twenty-eight
M. Thunnissenl (Moniek); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); W. van Tilburg (Willem); R. Verheul (Roel); W. Trijsburg (Wim)
textabstractAlthough several studies show symptomatic improvements in patients with personality disorders after short-term inpatient psychotherapy, reintegration remains difficult. In this study the effectiveness of a specifically designed reintegration training program is investigated. One hundred
Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C
High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Sarabia Jose Manuel
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a 6-week non-failure strength training program in youth tennis players. Twenty tennis players (age: 15.0 ± 1 years, body height: 170.9 ± 5.1 cm, body mass: 63.3 ± 9.1 kg were divided into experimental and control groups. Pre and post-tests included half squats, bench press, squat jumps, countermovementjumps and side-ball throws. Salivary cortisol samples were collected, and the Profile of Mood States questionnaire was used weekly during an anatomical adaptation period, a main training period and after a tapering week. The results showed that, after the main training period, the experimental group significantly improved (p<0.05 in mean and peak power output and in the total number of repetitions during the half-squat endurance test; mean force, power and velocity in the half-squat power output test; Profile of Mood States (in total mood disturbance between the last week of the mean training period and the tapering week; and in squat-jump and countermovement-jump height. Moreover, significant differences were found between the groups at the post-tests in the total number of repetitions, mean and peak power during the half-squat endurance test, mean velocity in the half-squat power output test, salivary cortisol concentration (baselines, first and third week of the mean training period and in the Profile of Mood States (in fatigue subscale: first and third week of the mean training period. In conclusion, a non-failure strength training protocol improved lower-limb performance levels and produced a moderate psychophysiological impact in youth elite tennis players, suggesting that it is a suitable program to improve strength. Such training protocols do not increase the total training load of tennis players and may be recommended to improve strength.
Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V
With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kundu, Bornali; Sutterer, David W; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R
Although long considered a natively endowed and fixed trait, working memory (WM) ability has recently been shown to improve with intensive training. What remains controversial and poorly understood, however, are the neural bases of these training effects and the extent to which WM training gains transfer to other cognitive tasks. Here we present evidence from human electrophysiology (EEG) and simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and EEG that the transfer of WM training to other cognitive tasks is supported by changes in task-related effective connectivity in frontoparietal and parieto-occipital networks that are engaged by both the trained and transfer tasks. One consequence of this effect is greater efficiency of stimulus processing, as evidenced by changes in EEG indices of individual differences in short-term memory capacity and in visual search performance. Transfer to search-related activity provides evidence that something more fundamental than task-specific strategy or stimulus-specific representations has been learned. Furthermore, these patterns of training and transfer highlight the role of common neural systems in determining individual differences in aspects of visuospatial cognition.
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen
Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...
Leiberg, S.; Klimecki, O.; Singer, T.
Compassion has been suggested to be a strong motivator for prosocial behavior. While research has demonstrated that compassion training has positive effects on mood and health, we do not know whether it also leads to increases in prosocial behavior. We addressed this question in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we introduce a new prosocial game, the Zurich Prosocial Game (ZPG), which allows for repeated, ecologically valid assessment of prosocial behavior and is sensitive to the influence of...
Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen
Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (ma...
Barry, Julianne C; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Durrer, Cody; Jung, Mary E; Mui, Alice L; Little, Jonathan P
A key pathological component of obesity is chronic low-grade inflammation, which is propagated by infiltration of immune cells into tissues and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines that possess anti-inflammatory properties, such as interleukin (IL)-10 and IL6, may also play an important role. This study was designed to determine the impact of short-term exercise on the anti-inflammatory action of IL10 and IL6. Thirty-three inactive obese adults were randomized to two weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Fasting blood samples were collected before and after training. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was measured in whole blood cultures in the presence or absence of IL10 or IL6. IL10 and IL6 receptor expression were measured on circulating monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells. HIIT and MICT reduced the ability of IL10 to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production, with a greater effect with HIIT (Group × Time and IL10 × Time interactions, p's 0.05). HIIT and MICT differentially affected IL6 function (Group × Time and IL6 × Time interactions, p's < 0.05) with evidence of reductions in the anti-inflammatory ability of IL6 with HIIT. Neither HIIT nor MICT altered levels of circulating IL10, IL6, or TNFα. The impact of short-term HIIT and MICT resulted in differential effects on anti-inflammatory cytokine function. The clinical implications remain to be determined but these novel findings indicate that measuring anti-inflammatory cytokine action could reveal important immunomodulatory effects of exercise. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua
High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; paltitude training (paltitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.
Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Reichert, Thais; Coconcelli, Leandro; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Stein, Ricardo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins
Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HR rest ), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HR AT ), peak heart rate (HR peak ), percentage value of HR AT in relation to HR peak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training. Aerobic capacity parameters were evaluated through an aquatic incremental test. After training, there was an increase in TD (16%) and HR AT percentage in relation to HR peak (4.68%), and a reduction of HR rest (9%). It is concluded that a water-based aerobic interval training prescribed through HR AT of only five weeks is able to promote improvements in aerobic capacity of mature women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens
sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity......, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin and CamKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE...
Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo
This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.
Whitehead, Malcolm T; Scheett, Timothy P; McGuigan, Michael R; Auckland, N Z; Martin, Angel V
The purpose of this study was to compare effects of short-term plyometric and resistance training on lower body muscular performance. A convenience sample of thirty males aged 21.3 ± 1.8 years, height 177.3 ± 9.4 cm, mass 80.0 ± 2.6 kg, body fat 16.1 ± 1.2 % participated in this investigation. Participants were grouped and participated in progressive plyometric (PLT) or resistance training (SRT) twice per week for eight consecutive weeks or a control (CNT) group that did not participate in any training. Performance tests were administered prior to and following the training period and included measures of high-speed muscular strength (standing long jump, vertical jump), low-speed muscular strength (one-repetition maximal back squat), running speed (20-meter sprint) and running agility (505 agility test agility test-Test). Analysis of variance followed by post hoc analyses was performed to determine significant differences between the groups. Significance set at p ≤ 0.05 for all analyses. Significant improvements were observed in the PLT group for standing long jump, vertical jump, and one-repetition maximal back squat compared to the CNT group, and for vertical jump as compared to the SRT group. Significant improvements were observed in the SRT group one-repetition maximal back squat compared to the CNT group. There were no differences observed between any of the groups for the 20-meter sprint or the 505 agility test following the training. These data indicate eight weeks of progressive plyometric training results in improvements in parameters of high and low-speed muscular strength with no appreciable change in speed or agility. Additionally, the improvement in low-speed muscular strength observed from 8-weeks of progressive plyometric training was comparable to the results observed from 8-weeks of progressive strength training.
Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats
Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor...... movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with ten 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw...... task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights on into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation...
Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.
Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde
This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods . Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results . Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention ( p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT ( p = 0.042). Conclusion . Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.
Yanci, Javier; Castillo, Daniel; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Ayarra, Rubén; Nakamura, Fábio Y
Yanci, J, Castillo, D, Iturricastillo, A, Ayarra, R, and Nakamura, FY. Effects of two different volume-equated weekly distributed short-term plyometric training programs on futsal players' physical performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1787-1794, 2017-The aim was to analyze the effect of 2 different plyometric training programs (i.e., 1 vs. 2 sessions per week, same total weekly volume) on physical performance in futsal players. Forty-four futsal players were divided into 3 training groups differing in weekly plyometric training load: the 2 days per week plyometric training group (PT2D, n = 15), the 1 day per week plyometric training group (PT1D, n = 12), and the control group (CG, n = 12) which did not perform plyometric training. The results of this study showed that in-season futsal training per se was capable of improving repeat sprint ability (RSA) (effect size [ES] = -0.59 to -1.53). However, while change of direction ability (CODA) was maintained during the training period (ES = 0.00), 15-m sprint (ES = 0.73), and vertical jump (VJ) performance (ES = -0.30 to -1.37) were significantly impaired. By contrast, PT2D and PT1D plyometric training were effective in improving futsal players' 15-m sprint (ES = -0.64 to -1.00), CODA (ES = -1.83 to -5.50), and horizontal jump (ES = 0.33-0.64) performance. Nonetheless, all groups (i.e., PT2D, PT1D, and CG) presented a reduction in VJ performance (ES = -0.04 to -1.37). Regarding RSA performance, PT1D showed a similar improvement compared with CG (ES = -0.65 to -1.53) after the training intervention, whereas PT2D did not show significant change (ES = -0.04 to -0.38). These results may have considerable practical relevance for the optimal design of plyometric training programs for futsal players, given that a 1-day-per-week plyometric training program is more efficient than a 2-day-per-week plyometric training program to improve the futsal players' physical performance.
Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Hokka, L; Nummela, A
The aim of this study was to investigate whether nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to predict changes in endurance performance during 28 weeks of endurance training. The training was divided into 14 weeks of basic training (BTP) and 14 weeks of intensive training periods (ITP). Endurance performance characteristics, nocturnal HRV, and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after both training periods in 28 recreational endurance runners. During the study peak treadmill running speed (Vpeak ) improved by 7.5 ± 4.5%. No changes were observed in HRV indices after BTP, but after ITP, these indices increased significantly (HFP: 1.9%, P=0.026; TP: 1.7%, P=0.007). Significant correlations were observed between the change of Vpeak and HRV indices (TP: r=0.75, PHRV among recreational endurance runners, it seems that moderate- and high-intensity training are needed. This study showed that recreational endurance runners with a high HRV at baseline improved their endurance running performance after ITP more than runners with low baseline HRV. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Sarabia, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Juan-Recio, Casto; Hernández-Davó, Hector; Urbán, Tomás; Moya, Manuel
This study examined the effects of a 6-week non-failure strength training program in youth tennis players. Twenty tennis players (age: 15.0 ± 1 years, body height: 170.9 ± 5.1 cm, body mass: 63.3 ± 9.1 kg) were divided into experimental and control groups. Pre and post-tests included half squats, bench press, squat jumps, countermovement-jumps and side-ball throws. Salivary cortisol samples were collected, and the Profile of Mood States questionnaire was used weekly during an anatomical adaptation period, a main training period and after a tapering week. The results showed that, after the main training period, the experimental group significantly improved (pvelocity in the half-squat power output test; Profile of Mood States (in total mood disturbance between the last week of the mean training period and the tapering week); and in squat-jump and countermovement-jump height. Moreover, significant differences were found between the groups at the post-tests in the total number of repetitions, mean and peak power during the half-squat endurance test, mean velocity in the half-squat power output test, salivary cortisol concentration (baselines, first and third week of the mean training period) and in the Profile of Mood States (in fatigue subscale: first and third week of the mean training period). In conclusion, a non-failure strength training protocol improved lower-limb performance levels and produced a moderate psychophysiological impact in youth elite tennis players, suggesting that it is a suitable program to improve strength. Such training protocols do not increase the total training load of tennis players and may be recommended to improve strength. PMID:25964812
Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa
Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures.
Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Kulpa, J; Zoladz, J A
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training on gonadal hormone profile in untrained men. Fifteen young, healthy men performed an endurance training of 5-week duration on a cycle ergometer. Before and after the exercise program all participants completed a maximal incremental test. Concentration of testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cortisol (C) as well as blood morphology were determined in venous blood samples at rest both before and after the training. The training program resulted in 3.7% improvement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and 8.2% improvement of power output reached at VO(2max) (PO (max)). This was accompanied by significant increase in T (from 18.84+/-5.73 nmol.l(-1) to 22.03+/-6.61 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.0004) and calculated fT concentration (from 374+/-116 pmol.l(-1) to 470+/-153 pmol.l(-1), p = 0.00005). Moreover, the training caused a significant decrease in SHBG concentration (from 34.45+/-11.26 nmol.l(-1) to 31.95+/-10.40 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.01), whereas no significant changes were found in the cortisol concentration (334+/-138 nmol.l(-1) vs. 367+/-135 nmol.l(-1) for pre- and post-training measures, respectively, p = 0.50) and T/C and fT/C ratios. We have concluded that short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training can significantly increase testosterone concentration in previously untrained men.
Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F
and after completion of the training program. Similarly, no effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was observed when combining endurance training with rhGH administration. However, in both the placebo and the GH groups, fat oxidation was significantly increased during exercise performed......In the present study, the effect of endurance training alone and endurance training combined with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was investigated. Sixteen healthy women [age 75 +/- 2 yr (mean +/- SE)] underwent a 12-wk...... endurance training program on a cycle ergometer. rhGH was administered in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was estimated by means of microdialysis combined with measurements of subcutaneous abdominal...
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.
Full Text Available Background: The loss of muscle mass is associated with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle mass in elderly women. Methods: Twenty post-menopausal women aged ≥50 years old were enrolled. Matching for age, they were randomly assigned into control and resistance training group (RT. The intervention consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for 10 movements with Thera-Band tubing (based on 80-100% 10-RM, three times a week, for 12 weeks and thereafter, four weeks detraining. Skinfold thickness was determined by caliper. Percentage of body fat was estimated from skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular by McArdle method. Fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM were calculated. Range of motion for trunk flexion and extension was determined. Results: During 12 weeks of intervention, significant increases were observed in 1-RM of biceps curl, FFM, trunk flexion and extension and significant decreases during four weeks detraining in RT group. The RT group demonstrated significant decreases during resistance training and increases during detraining in skinfold thickness. FFM, trunk flexion, and extension decreased and skinfold thickness, %FM, and weight of body fat increased in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Resistance training with Thera-Band enhanced strength and muscle endurance in elderly women and a 4-week detraining period had an adverse effect on muscle power. This suggests that a strength training program is an effective intervention to prevent functional reductions, and can contribute to improve neuromuscular function in older adults.
Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter
, 2) lower citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity and glycogen content in skeletal muscle, and 3) attenuated endurance performance enhancement in the trained state. To investigate this we studied nine male subjects who performed 10 wk of one-legged knee...... extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...
Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M
Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O 2max : 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p Sleep efficiency decreased during intensified training (83.1 ± 5.3 to 77.8 ± 8.6%; p sleep time was significantly higher in CON than HCHO throughout intensified training. Mood disturbance increased during intensified training and was higher in CON than HCHO (p sleep quality, mood state and maximal exercise performance.
Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M
Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate.
Staiano, Amanda E.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.
Exergames are videogames that require gross motor activity, thereby combining gaming with physical activity. This study examined the role of competitive versus cooperative exergame play on short-term changes in executive function skills, following a 10-week exergame training intervention. Fifty-four low-income overweight and obese African American…
Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo
Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.
Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads
The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...
Tønnessen, Espen; Sylta, Øystein; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S; Seiler, Stephen
To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) VO2max, 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) VO2max) reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms. Athletes trained ∼800 h/500 sessions x year(-1), including ∼500 h x year(-1) of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ∼90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold) and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold) by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (Pphase. The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to their most successful competition.
Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A
There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.
Stepto, Nigel K.; Benziane, Boubacar; Wadley, Glenn D.; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Canny, Benedict J.; Eynon, Nir; McConell, Glenn K.
Reduced activation of exercise responsive signalling pathways have been reported in response to acute exercise after training; however little is known about the adaptive responses of the mitochondria. Accordingly, we investigated changes in mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance in response to the same acute exercise before and after 10-d of intensive cycle training. Nine untrained, healthy participants (mean±SD; VO2peak 44.1±17.6 ml/kg/min) performed a 60 min bout of cycling exercise at 164±18 W (72% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, immediately and 3 h after exercise. The participants then underwent 10-d of cycle training which included four high-intensity interval training sessions (6×5 min; 90–100% VO2peak) and six prolonged moderate-intensity sessions (45–90 min; 75% VO2peak). Participants repeated the pre-training exercise trial at the same absolute work load (64% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle PGC1-α mRNA expression was attenuated as it increased by 11- and 4- fold (Pexercise pre- and post-training, respectively. PGC1-α protein expression increased 1.5 fold (Pexercise pre-training with no further increases after the post-training exercise bout. RIP140 protein abundance was responsive to acute exercise only (Pexercise pre- and post-training. These findings demonstrate that short-term intensified training promotes increased mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance. Furthermore, acute indicators of exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptation appear to be blunted in response to exercise at the same absolute intensity following short-term training. PMID:23285255
Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Heikura, Ida; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Botella, Javier; Häkkinen, Keijo
Measures of HR variability (HRV) have shown potential to be of use in training prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using HRV in endurance training prescription. Forty recreational endurance runners were divided into the HRV-guided experimental training group (EXP) and traditional predefined training group (TRAD). After a 4-wk preparation training period, TRAD trained according to a predefined training program including two to three moderate- (MOD) and high-intensity training (HIT) sessions per week during an 8-wk intensive training period. The timing of MOD and HIT sessions in EXP was based on HRV, measured every morning. The MOD/HIT session was programmed if HRV was within an individually determined smallest worthwhile change. Otherwise, low-intensity training was performed. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) and 3000-m running performance (RS3000m) were measured before and after both training periods. The number of MOD and HIT sessions was significantly lower (P = 0.021, effect size = 0.98) in EXP (13.2 ± 6.0 sessions) compared with TRAD (17.7 ± 2.5 sessions). No other differences in training were found between the groups. RS3000m improved in EXP (2.1% ± 2.0%, P = 0.004) but not in TRAD (1.1% ± 2.7%, P = 0.118) during the intensive training period. A small between-group difference (effect size = 0.42) was found in the change in RS3000m. V˙O2max improved in both groups (EXP: 3.7% ± 4.6%, P = 0.027; TRAD: 5.0% ± 5.2%, P = 0.002). The results of the present study suggest the potential of resting HRV to prescribe endurance training by individualizing the timing of vigorous training sessions.
Baykara, Murat; Demirel, Adnan; Yavuzatmaca, İhsan; Bilgen, Mehmet
The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of arterial stiffness in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle at 4 weeks after terminating a 2-week aerobic exercise session. Arterial stiffness was evaluated in 38 participants before starting and after completing a prescribed aerobic exercise program and also at 4 weeks after returning back to their sedentary lifestyle. Parameters regarding arterial compliance, distensibility, wall stress, and the elastic modulus were estimated from the information gained from sonography on the dimensions of carotid and femoral arteries and a sphygmomanometer on the pulse pressure. Primary outcomes included whether short-term aerobic exercise reduced the heart rate, arterial pressure, and intima-media thickness and improved vascular biomechanics in physically inactive but otherwise healthy individuals. The benefits gained in arterial compliance and distensibility deteriorated with termination of exercise, but diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus improved further. In individuals with sedentary lifestyles, short-term aerobic exercise has strong four-week residual benefits on diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus, but the effects appear to be negligible on arterial stiffness and distensibility. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki
High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80％ of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease （COPD...
Stisen, A.B.; Stougaard, O.; Langfort, J.
The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in fat oxidation between endurance trained (ET) and untrained (UT) women. Eight ET and nine UT women performed a progressive cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. The rate of fat oxidation was similar at low work rates (...
Yfanti, Christina; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren
) production, which may cause cell damage. However, RONS production may also activate redox sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors, which subsequently may promote training adaptation. PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of combined vitamin C and E supplementation to healthy...... measured. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that administration of vitamins C and E to individuals with no prior vitamin deficiencies has no effect on physical adaptations to strenuous endurance training....
Katayama, K; Shimoda, M; Maeda, J; Takemiya, T
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure is changed by endurance exercise training. The healthy male subjects (training group; n = 6) performed endurance exercise training that consisted of cycle ergometer exercise 5 d.week-1 and 30 min.d-1 for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in the peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger were measured by a differential digital photoplethysmogram (DeltaDPG) and blood pressure during passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level. Following 8 weeks of endurance training, percent changes in DeltaDPG from heart level in the training group increased significantly (mean +/- SD, -48.1 +/- 7. 3 to -58.7 +/- 9.3% at the lowered position, 46.1 +/- 13.4 to 84.6 +/- 8.8% at the elevated position, ppressure, also significantly changed in the training group over the 8 weeks (5.6 +/- 1.3 to 2.7 +/- 1.6 mV. V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the lowered position, 30.0 +/- 12.4 to 54.4 +/- 18. 9 mV.V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the elevated position ). Maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2 max) was significantly increased in the training group. On the other hand, the control group (n = 6) showed no significant changes in all parameters for 8 weeks. Therefore these results suggest that endurance exercise training induces an increase in peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger.
Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan
A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 9) from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers. Key pointsTwo weekly sessions of dry land strength training improves the
Geertsen, S S; Kjær, M; Pedersen, K K; Petersen, T H; Perez, M A; Nielsen, J B
Optimization of cocontraction of antagonistic muscles around the ankle joint has been shown to involve plastic changes in spinal and cortical neural circuitries. Such changes may explain the ability of elite ballet dancers to maintain a steady balance during various ballet postures. Here we investigated whether short-term cocontraction training in ballet dancers and nondancers leads to changes in the coupling between antagonistic ankle motor units. Eleven ballet dancers and 10 nondancers were recruited for the study. Prior to training, ballet dancers and nondancers showed an equal amount of coherence in the 15- to 35-Hz frequency band and short-term synchronization between antagonistic tibialis anterior and soleus motor units. The ballet dancers tended to be better at maintaining a stable cocontraction of the antagonistic muscles, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.09). Following 27 min of cocontraction training, the nondancers improved their performance significantly, whereas no significant improvement was observed for the ballet dancers. The nondancers showed a significant increase in 15- to 35-Hz coherence following the training, whereas the ballet dancers did not show a significant change. A group of control subjects (n = 4), who performed cocontraction of the antagonistic muscles for an equal amount of time, but without any requirement to improve their performance, showed no change in coherence. We suggest that improved ability to maintain a stable cocontraction around the ankle joint is accompanied by short-term plastic changes in the neural drive to the involved muscles, but that such changes are not necessary for maintained high-level performance.
Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman
For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training a...
Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory or aerobic endurance is the ability of the whole body to sustain physical activity for an extended period of time, involving relatively large groups of muscles. The attitudes on the possible impact of training on cardiorespiratory endurance in preadolescents are contradictory. Our study enrolled 195 boys aged 11 to 12 years. Experimental group (n=92 consisted of the children who had been involved with planned and programmed water polo training for at least two years. Control group (n=103 consisted of schoolchildren who only had had regular physical education in schools. Our investigation protocol included standardized anthropometric measurements and tests, performed respecting the appropriate protocols. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in age and relative values of oxygen consumption (VO2peak. Body height and mass, as well as the skinfold thickness, were significantly higher in experimental group subjects. The values of absolute VO2peak, FVC and FEV1.0 were also significantly higher in the examinees involved with water polo training. These findings stress the importance of a systematic training process even in this early period of growth and development in order for the trainees to acquire important functional advantages. We believe that a properly planned and programmed physical training can significantly contribute to the development of cardiorespiratory endurance even as early as preadolescent age.
Full Text Available A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11 or a control group (n = 9 from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers
Bennett, Stephanie J.; Holmes, Joni; Buckley, Sue
This study evaluated the impact of a computerized visuospatial memory training intervention on the memory and behavioral skills of children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants were trained to support the delivery of a computerized intervention program to individual children over a 10-16 week period in school. Twenty-one children aged 7-12…
Skovgaard, C; Almquist, N W; Bangsbo, J
The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake [VO 2 -max]: 59.3±3.2 mL/kg/min, mean±SD) who performed 10 speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-seconds "all-out" bouts) and 10 aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO 2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity. In addition, running economy (RE) was measured at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.9±0.5 km/h) and v10-km (14.3±0.9 km/h), a 10-km track-running test was performed, and a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was collected. 10-km performance and VO 2 -max (mL/min) were the same prior to P1 and P2, whereas RE was better (P<.05) before P2 than before P1. During P1 and P2, 10-km performance (2.9% and 2.3%), VO 2 -max (2.1% and 2.6%), and RE (1.9% and 1.8% at 60% vVO 2 -max; 1.6% and 2.0% at v10-km) improved (P<.05) to the same extent, respectively. Performance in RRT was 20% better (P<.05) after compared to before P2, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na + ,K + -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin, and CaMKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE, whereas 10-km performance and VO 2 -max improve to the same extent as during the first period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fabio Santos Lira
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the acute and chronic effects of high intensity intermittent training (HIIT and steady state training (SST on the metabolic profile and inflammatory response in physically active men.Methods: Thirty recreationally active men were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 10, HIIT group (n = 10, or SST group (n = 10. For 5 weeks, three times per week, subjects performed HIIT (5 km 1-min at 100% of maximal aerobic speed interspersed by 1-min passive recovery or SST (5 km at 70% of maximal aerobic speed while the control group did not perform training. Blood samples were collected at fasting (~12 h, pre-exercise, immediately post, and 60 min post-acute exercise session (pre- and post-5 weeks training. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, and cytokine (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α levels through a three-way analysis (group, period, and moment of measurement with repeated measures in the second and third factors.Results: The results showed an effect of moment of measurement (acute session with greater values to TNF-α and glucose immediately post the exercise when compared to pre exercise session, independently of group or training period. For IL-6 there was an interaction effect for group and moment of measurement (acute session the increase occurred immediately post-exercise session and post-60 min in the HIIT group while in the SST the increase was observed only 60 min post, independently of training period. For IL-10, there was an interaction for training period (pre- and post-training and moment of measurement (acute session, in which in pre-training, pre-exercise values were lower than immediately and 60 min post-exercise, in post-training period pre-exercise values were lower than immediately post-exercise and immediately post-exercise lower than 60 min post, it was also observed that values immediately post-exercise were lower pre- than post-training, being all results independently of intensity
Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W
Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.
Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Morton, Susanne M.; Perez, Monica A.; Cohen, Leonardo G.
Background The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying improved upper-extremity motor skills have been partially investigated in patients with good motor recovery but are poorly understood in more impaired individuals, the majority of stroke survivors. Objective The authors studied changes in primary motor cortex (M1) excitability (motor evoked potentials [MEPs], contralateral and ipsilateral silent periods [CSPs and ISPs] using transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) associated with training-induced reaching improvement in stroke patients with severe arm paresis (n = 11; Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer score (F-M) = 27 ± 6). Methods All patients underwent a single session of reaching training focused on moving the affected hand from a resting site to a target placed at 80% of maximum forward reaching amplitude in response to a visual “GO” cue. Triceps contribute primarily as agonist and biceps primarily as antagonist to the trained forward reaching movement. Response times were recorded for each reaching movement. Results Preceding training (baseline), greater interhemispheric inhibition (measured by ISP) in the affected triceps muscle, reflecting inhibition from the nonlesioned to the lesioned M1, was observed in patients with lower F-M scores (more severe motor impairment). Training-induced improvements in reaching were greater in patients with slower response times at baseline. Increased MEP amplitudes and decreased ISPs and CSPs were observed in the affected triceps but not in the biceps muscle after training. Conclusion These results indicate that along with training-induced motor improvements, training-specific modulation of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric mechanisms occurs after reaching practice in chronic stroke patients with substantial arm impairment. PMID:21343522
Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde
This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 ? 8?s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ( V ? O 2 p e a k ) interspersed with 12?s recovery, whereas MI...
Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R
Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.
Prommer, Nicole; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Thieme, Ina; Wachsmuth, Christian; Mancera-Soto, Erica M; Hohmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Walter F J
Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3.5 ± 1.6 h) twice a year for up to 3.5 years. The same parameters were measured once in a control group of 18 age-matched untrained children. Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were measured using the optimized CO-rebreathing technique, VO2max by an incremental test on a treadmill, and LBM by skin-fold measurements. In the second pilot study, the same parameters were measured in 9 young soccer athletes (aged 7.8 ± 0.2 years), and results were assessed in relation to soccer performance 2.5 years later. The increase in mean Hbmass during the period of study was 50% which was closely related to changes in LBM ( r = 0.959). A significant impact of endurance training on Hbmass was observed in athletes exercising more than 4 h/week [+25.4 g compared to the group with low training volume (LBM (11.4 g·kg -1 LBM) and overlapped with the effects of age. A strong relationship was present between absolute Hbmass and VO2max ( r = 0.939), showing that an increase of 1 g hemoglobin increases VO2max by 3.6 ml·min -1 . Study 2 showed a positive correlation between Hbmass and soccer performance 2.5 years later at age 10.3 ± 0.3 years ( r = 0.627, p = 0.035). In conclusion, children with a weekly training volume of more than 4 h show a 7% higher Hbmass than untrained children. Although this training effect is significant and independent of changes in LBM, the major factor driving the increase in Hbmass is still LBM.
Strzała, Marek; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Szyguła, Zbigniew
It is possible to plan an altitude training (AT) period in such a way that the enhanced physical endurance obtained as a result of adaptation to hypoxia will appear and can be used to improve performance in competition. Yet finding rationales for usage of AT in highly trained swimmers is problematic. In practice AT, in its various forms, is still controversial, and an objective review of research concentrating on the advantages and disadvantages of AT has been presented in several scientific publications, including in no small part the observations of swimmers. The aim of this article is to review the various methods and present both the advantageous and unfavourable physiological changes that occur in athletes as a result of AT. Moreover, AT results in the sport of swimming have been collected. They include an approach towards primary models of altitude/hypoxic training: live high + train high, live high + train low, live low + train high, as well as subsequent methods: Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure (IHE) and Intermittent Hypoxic Training (IHT). Apnoea training, which is descended from freediving, is also mentioned, and which can be used with, or as a substitute for, the well-known IHE or IHT methods. In conclusion, swimmers who train using hypoxia may be among the best-trained athletes, and that even a slight improvement in physical endurance might result in the shortening of a swimming time in a given competition, and the achievement of a personal best, which is hard to obtain by normal training methods, when the personal results of the swimmer have reached a plateau. PMID:23486564
Moradi, Shahram; Wahlin, Anna; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lidestam, Björn
This study aimed to examine the efficacy and maintenance of short-term (one-session) gated audiovisual speech training for improving auditory sentence identification in noise in experienced elderly hearing-aid users. Twenty-five hearing aid users (16 men and 9 women), with an average age of 70.8 years, were randomly divided into an experimental (audiovisual training, n = 14) and a control (auditory training, n = 11) group. Participants underwent gated speech identification tasks comprising Swedish consonants and words presented at 65 dB sound pressure level with a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (steady-state broadband noise), in audiovisual or auditory-only training conditions. The Hearing-in-Noise Test was employed to measure participants’ auditory sentence identification in noise before the training (pre-test), promptly after training (post-test), and 1 month after training (one-month follow-up). The results showed that audiovisual training improved auditory sentence identification in noise promptly after the training (post-test vs. pre-test scores); furthermore, this improvement was maintained 1 month after the training (one-month follow-up vs. pre-test scores). Such improvement was not observed in the control group, neither promptly after the training nor at the one-month follow-up. However, no significant between-groups difference nor an interaction between groups and session was observed. Conclusion: Audiovisual training may be considered in aural rehabilitation of hearing aid users to improve listening capabilities in noisy conditions. However, the lack of a significant between-groups effect (audiovisual vs. auditory) or an interaction between group and session calls for further research. PMID:28348542
Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Schjerling, P
In skeletal muscle, an increased expression of insulin like growth factor-I isoforms IGF-IEa and mechano-growth factor (MGF) combined with downregulation of myostatin is thought to be essential for training-induced hypertrophy. However, the specific effects of different contraction types on regul......In skeletal muscle, an increased expression of insulin like growth factor-I isoforms IGF-IEa and mechano-growth factor (MGF) combined with downregulation of myostatin is thought to be essential for training-induced hypertrophy. However, the specific effects of different contraction types...... on regulation of these factors in muscle are still unclear, and in tendon the functions of myostatin, IGF-IEa, and MGF in relation to training are unknown. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric, or isometric training (n = 7-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius......, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve during general anesthesia. mRNA levels for myostatin, IGF-IEa, and MGF in muscle and Achilles' tendon were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Muscle myostatin mRNA decreased in response to all types of training (2- to 8-fold) (P
Hong, Zhang; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit
The aim was to test the hypothesis that short-term oral sensorimotor training of the jaw muscles would increase the precision of task performance and induce neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, related to the masseter muscle. Fifteen healthy volunteers performed six series with ten...... trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold......-and-split" tasks was also performed before and after the training. The hold force and split force along with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of jaw muscles were recorded. Motor-evoked potentials and cortical motor maps of the right masseter muscle were evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation...
Wojewoda, M; Kmiecik, K; Majerczak, J; Ventura-Clapier, R; Fortin, D; Onopiuk, M; Rog, J; Kaminski, K; Chlopicki, S; Zoladz, J A
We examined effects of moderate-intensity endurance training on muscle COX/CS activities and V'O2max in control WT and IL-6(-/-) mice. Animals were exercised for 10 weeks on treadmill for 1 h, 5 days a week at velocity of 6 m·min(-1) which was increased by 0.5 m·min(-1) every 2 weeks up to 8 m·min(-1) . Training triggered an increase of enzyme activities in soleus muscle of WT mice (COX: 480.3±8.9 U·g(-1) in sedentary group vs. 773.3±62.6 U·g(-1) in trained group, P<0.05 and CS: 374.0±6.0 U·g(-1) in sedentary group vs. 534.2±20.5 U·g(-1) in trained group, P<0.01, respectively) whereas no changes were observed in soleus of IL6(-/-) mice. Moreover, in mixed gastrocnemius muscle of trained IL-6(-/-) mice enzyme activities tended to be lower (COX: 410.7±48.4 U·g(-1) for sedentary vs. 277.0±36.5 U·g(-1) for trained group and CS: 343.8±24.6 U·g(-1) for sedentary vs. 251.7±27.1 U·g(-1) for trained group). No changes in V'O2max were observed in WT and IL-6(-/-) mice after training. Concluding, moderate-velocity endurance training-induced increase in COX and CS activities in muscles of WT mice only which suggests that IL-6 regulates training-induced skeletal muscle responses to exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Camliguney, Asiye Filiz
Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…
Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.
Hypothesis/aims of study Two percent of adolescents and adults suffers from enuresis. In this age group, social problems can arise. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapy-resistant group of adolescents and adults with enuresis, provided by a
Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.
INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Two percent of adolescents and young adults suffer from therapy-resistant enuresis, with considerable negative impact on self-esteem and relationships. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapyresistant group of adolescents with
Green, Howard J; Burnett, Margaret; Kollias, Helen; Ouyang, Jing; Smith, Ian; Tupling, Susan
To investigate the hypothesis that increases in fibre capillary density would precede increases in oxidative potential following training onset, tissue was extracted from the vastus lateralis prior to (0 days) and following 3 and 6 consecutive days of submaximal cycle exercise (2 h·day(-1)). Participants were untrained males (age = 21.4 ± 0.58 years; peak oxygen consumption = 46.2 ± 1.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); mean ± standard error (SE)). Tissue was assessed for succinic dehydrogenase activity (SDH) by microphotometry and indices of capillarization based on histochemically assessed area and capillary counts (CC) in specific fibre types. Three days of training (n = 13) resulted in a generalized decrease (p metabolic alterations that also result.
Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Mądry, Edyta; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Ratajczak, Marzena; Kryściak, Jakub; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław
Aims To compare the effects of endurance training with endurance strength training on the anthropometric, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory parameters in obese women. Methods 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into groups A and B, and asked to perform endurance (A) and endurance strength training (B) for 3 months, 3 times/week, for 60 min. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Graded Exercise Test were performed before and after training. Results Significant decreases in body mass, BMI, total body fat, total body fat mass, and waist and hip circumference were observed after both types of intervention. Marked increases in total body lean and total body fat-free mass were documented in group B. In both groups, significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, maximal work rate, and work rate at ventilatory threshold were accompanied by noticeably decreased resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were noticed between groups for the investigated parameters. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate evidence for a favorable and comparable effect of 3-month endurance and endurance strength training on anthropometric parameters, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory system function in women with abdominal obesity. PMID:25968470
Charles Ricardo L OPES
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily undulating training periodization designed for maximal lower limb muscle strength and sprint performance in under - 20 soccer players. Twenty - four male athletes (age = 19.1 ± 1.2 yr; mass = 71.1 ± 6. 8 kg; height = 178.0 ± 0.1 cm participated in four weeks of a daily undulating periodized (DUP training soccer program. During the pre - and post - training periods the subjects performed a one repetition maximum (1 RM half back squat test and a 15 - meter s print. Significant training - induced changes were observed in sprint times (pre = 2.38 ± 0.01 s; post = 2.31 ± 0.02 s and 1 RM tests (pre = 107.0 ± 2.0 kg; post = 128.0 ± 2.2 kg. These results indicate that a DUP program is efficient in promoting positive neuromuscular adaptations in soccer players, even with a short - term preseason training period.
Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens
the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...... performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...
Yoo, Kwang Ha; Chung, Wou Young; Park, Joo Hun; Hwang, Sung Chul; Kim, Tae Eun; Oh, Min Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Sang Ha; Yum, Ho Kee
Proper education regarding inhaler usage and optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is essential for effectively treating patients with COPD. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management. We enlisted 127 patients with COPD on an outpatient basis at 43 private clinics in Korea. The patients were educated on inhaler usage and disease management for three visits across 2 weeks. Physicians and patients were administered a COPD assessment test (CAT) and questionnaires about the correct usage of inhalers and management of COPD before commencement of this program and after their third visit. The outcomes of 127 COPD patients were analyzed. CAT scores (19.6±12.5 vs. 15.1±12.3) improved significantly after this program (pmanagement and the correct technique for using inhalers than those who did not have improved CAT scores (peducation program including inhaler training and COPD management at a primary care setting improved CAT scores and led to patients' better understanding of COPD management. Copyright©2017. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.
Full Text Available To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature.Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL x min(-1 x kg(-1 VO2max, 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL x min(-1 x kg(-1 VO2max reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms.Athletes trained ∼800 h/500 sessions x year(-1, including ∼500 h x year(-1 of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ∼90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (P<.01 volume reduction from the preparation period to peaking phase.The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to
Yildirim, Adem; Sürücü, Gülseren Dost; Karamercan, Ayşe; Gedik, Dilay Eken; Atci, Nermin; Dülgeroǧlu, Deniz; Özgirgin, Neşe
A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT
Full Text Available Purpose: This study was to investigate whether a systematized bladder training (BT program is effective for patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 105 patients with OAB from March 2009 to November 2011. We developed a 30 minutes BT program, which consisted of first, refraining from going to the bathroom after feeling an urge to void, second, in order to stop thinking about voiding, ceasing action and thought temporarily, and third, performing pelvic floor exercises 5 to 6 times. Before and after BT, the patients filled out voiding diaries as well as the following questionnaires; International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for overactive bladder (ICIQ-OAB, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q, the short form 36-item health survey (SF-36 questionnaire, the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, and a patients’ perception of treatment benefit (PPTB. Results: A final analysis was performed from on 85 patients (38 male, 47 female with idiopathic OAB. After the first BT, the results of the ICIQ-OAB showed improvement in frequency, nocturia, and urgency (P<0.05, and all domains of IPSS questionnaires showed significant improvement (P<0.05. Among the SF-36 domains, the role-physical domain showed significant improvement after the first BT, and the general health domain showed significant improvement after the second. The voiding diaries showed statistically significant changes in maximal voided volume after the first BT, and nocturia index and nocturnal polyuria index after the second BT. According to the PPTB questionnaire, the perceived usefulness of BT increased after each session, and almost all of the patients replied that BT improved their symptoms. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that BT was effective in improving many OAB related symptoms and quality of life in patients with idiopathic OAB. More clinical
Claudia M. Meirelles, Paulo S.C. Gomes
Full Text Available Hypoenergetic diets and resistance training (RT have been suggested to be important components of weight loss strategy programs; however, there is little evidence as to the chronic effects of different macronutrient compositions on strength performance and muscle mass with RT. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of carbohydrate restrictive (CRD and conventional (CONV diets combined with RT on strength performance and muscle thicknesses in overweight and obese participants already involved in RT programs. Twenty-one volunteers engaged in an eight-week progressive RT program three times per week were assigned to a CRD (< 30 g carbohydrate; n = 12; 30.7 ± 3.9 km·m-2 or a CONV (30% energy deficit; 55%, 15% and 30% energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat, respectively; n=9; 27.7±2.5 km·m-2. Method: At baseline and week 8, the participants underwent body composition assessment by anthropometry, measurement of muscle thickness by ultrasound, and three strength tests using isotonic equipment. Both groups had similar reductions in body mass and fat mass as well as maintenance of fat-free mass. Muscle strength increased 14 ± 6% in the CRD group (p = 0.005 and 19 ± 9% in the CONV group (p = 0.028, with no significant differences between the groups. No significant differences were detected in muscle thicknesses within or between the groups. In conclusion, hypoenergetic diets combined with RT led to significant increases in muscle strength and were capable of maintaining muscle thicknesses in the upper and lower limbs of overweight and obese participants, regardless of the carbohydrate content of the diets.
Full Text Available Urpose: to test experimentally influence of aerobic trainings (cross country training and basic aerobic on students’ special endurance in sport oriented groups (sport circles, ping pong. Material: 106 first year students (n=53 - control group and n=53 - experimental participated in experiment. For determination of temporal series’ trends R-S analysis was used. Prognostication of mistakes’ quantity per one set was fulfilled with the help of exponential smoothing method. Results: it was shown that exponential smoothing method permits to prognosticate by one set ahead with rather high accuracy. As initial predictor we found mean quantity of mistakes in all sets. It permits to average all internal and external factors, which influence on the next predicting indicators. Such approach increases confidence of mistakes’ calculation in prognostication. Criteria of prognostication methodic for possible indicators’ values were also determined. Conclusions: the recommended time distribution in program is as follows: ping pong - 75%; cross country training and basic aerobic - 25%.
Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Voth, Elizabeth; Little, Jonathan P
Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P fasting plasma glucose (P fasting glucose. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Voth, Elizabeth
Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217
C.C.Chandra Obul Reddy; Dr. K. Rama Subba Reddy
The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of weight training parallel with plyometric and cross training on speed endurance. To achieve this purpose of the study, forty-five men students studying CSSR & SRRM Degree College, Kamalapuram, YSR (D), Andhra Pradesh, India were randomly selected as subjects during the year 2015-2016. They were divided into three equal groups of fifteen subjects each. Group I underwent weight training parallel with plyometric training for three sessions...
Fissler, Patrick; Müller, Hans-Peter; Küster, Olivia C; Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Woll, Alexander; Elbert, Thomas; Kassubek, Jan; von Arnim, Christine A F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana
related to FA scores at baseline (cognitive training skills and FA composite score, r s = 0.68, p = 0.05; functional physical fitness and fornix FA, r = 0.35, p = 0.03). Overall, we found no evidence of a link between short-term physical or cognitive activities and WMI changes, despite activity-related cognitive changes in older adults at risk of dementia. However, we found positive associations between the two targeted training outcomes and WMI, hinting at a potential of long-term activities to affect WMI.
Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren
Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...... endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p...
Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Zory, Raphael; Bensmail, Djamel; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Roche, Nicolas
Gait training for patients with hemiparesis is carried out independently overground or on a treadmill. Several studies have shown differences in hemiparetic gait parameters during overground versus treadmill walking. However, few studies have compared the effects of these 2 gait training conditions on gait parameters, and no study has compared the short-term effects of these techniques on all biomechanical gait parameters. To determine whether a gait training session performed overground or on a treadmill induces specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis. Twenty-six subjects with hemiparesis were randomly assigned to a single session of either overground or treadmill gait training. The short-term effects on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameters were assessed using gait analysis before and immediately after the training and after a 20-minute rest. Speed, cadence, percentage of single support phase, peak knee extension, peak propulsion, and braking on the paretic side were significantly increased after the gait training session. However, there were no specific changes dependent on the type of gait training performed (overground or on a treadmill). A gait training session performed by subjects with hemiparesis overground or on a treadmill did not induce specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters. The increase in gait velocity that followed a gait training session seemed to reflect specific modifications of the paretic lower limb and adaptation of the nonparetic lower limb.
Elisângela Valevein Rodrigues
Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Physical exercise is indicated to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms in teachers.Objective To evaluate the effects of muscular endurance training on muscle strength and musculoskeletal symptoms related to the lower limbs of public elementary school teachers.Materials and methods Thirty-one female teachers were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 15 and muscular endurance training (TG, n = 16. The training consisted of two sets of 15 repetitions of exercises for quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups, twice a week, for 7 weeks, which were conducted with 50% of 10 repetition maximum(10RM (first to fourth week and 60% of 10 RM (fifth to seventh week. Musculoskeletal symptoms (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, isometric peak torque (Load cell and muscle strength (10RM were assessed before and after intervention. ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey post hoc were used to analyse strength and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstrings and Chi-square goodness-of-fit test were used to analyse the frequency of occurrence of osteomuscular symptoms.Results The highest incidence of symptoms was found in the lumbar region in both groups. Training caused increased muscle strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings, but there were no significant differences in either the peak torque in the quadriceps and hamstrings or in the reduction of musculoskeletal symptoms.Conclusion The exercise program performed in this study increased the dynamic strength in the TG in relation to the CG, but did not alter the incidence of symptoms in the lumbar region and lower limbs in neither of the groups. Thus, results suggest that the duration of intervention may not have been enough to increase peak torque and decrease musculoskeletal symptoms.
Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica
Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.
Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional...... during training were higher (psoccer players with superior...... speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and postintervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance...
John W. Farrell III
Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.
Background Globally, dental caries is categorized in the list of public health problems in preschool children. In India, lack of availability and affordability of oral health enhances the cost of treatment and care. Empowering community workers like anganwadi workers (AWWs) in oral health, and providing basic oral health awareness to the mothers through them can be feasible model. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the short-term impact of Oral Hygiene Training Package (OHTP) to AWWs on improving oral hygiene of preschool children. Methods This before and after comparison field trial was done in Anganwadi centres (AWCs) of Chandigarh city, India. 534 children aged 36-72 months attending 21 AWCs were examined before and after imparting trainings to AWWs. OHTP was administered to AWWs, which consisted of power-point presentation and demonstrated the skills like proper brushing technique, plaque disclosure, flossing technique, gum massaging etc. The AWWs later imparted training to mothers in their respective AWCs. Post intervention data was collected after three months. Outcome measures were improvement in oral health status (plaque, debris, gingival health), oral habits (brushing, rinsing) and decrease in caries activity (Snyder test). Results Prevalence of dental caries was found to be 48.3%. Only 4.1% of the population reported brushing twice which increased significantly to 9.9% post-intervention (p = 0.000). There was a significant decrease in debris (78.3% to 54.1%), and stage-1 plaque (75.5 to 66.5%) in the oral cavity. Caries activity by Snyder’s test decreased from 48.2% to 31.2% (p = 0.01) post-intervention. Conclusions Controlled trials of using AWWs to improve oral hygiene appear to be justified. Trial registration CTRI/2012/07/002786 PMID:24279468
Górecka, M; Synak, M; Brzezińska, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Żernicka, E
We studied whether short-term administration of triiodothyronine (T3) for the last 3 days of endurance training would influence the rate of uptake of palmitic acid (PA) as well as metabolism in rat soleus muscle, in vitro. Training per se did not affect the rate of PA uptake by the soleus; however, an excess of T3 increased the rate of this process at 1.5 mmol/L PA, as well as the rate that at which PA was incorporated into intramuscular triacylglycerols (TG). The rate of TG synthesis in trained euthyroid rats was reduced after exercise (1.5 mmol/L PA). The rate of PA oxidation in all of the trained rats immediately after exercise was enhanced by comparison with the sedentary values. Hyperthyroidism additionally increased the rate of this process at 1.5 mmol/L PA. After a recovery period, the rate of PA oxidation returned to the control values in both the euthyroid and the hyperthyroid groups. Examination of the high-energy phosphate levels indicated that elevated PA oxidation after exercise-training in euthyroid rats was associated with stable ATP levels and increased ADP and AMP levels, thus reducing energy cellular potential (ECP). In the hyperthyroid rats, levels of ADP and AMP were increased in the sedentary as well as the exercise-trained rats. ECP levels were high as a result of high levels of ATP and decreased levels of ADP and AMP in hyperthyroid rats after the recovery period. In conclusion, short-term hyperthyroidism accelerates PA utilization in well-trained soleus muscle.
This review examines the effects of a single bout of exercise and of endurance training on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Possible autonomic mechanisms that mediate these changes in blood pressure are reviewed briefly. Blood pressure rises during exercise. During the second half hour after exercise blood pressure is lower. This p;ost-exercise reduction in blood pressure is associated with a decrease in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, an increase in baroreflex gain and a reduction in the level of blood pressure (set point) at which baroreflex activation occurs. The post-exercise fall in blood pressure appears to be limited to several hours and is not likely to explain any chronic reduction in blood pressure from endurance training. Endurance training elicits modest (approximately 4-5 mmHg) reductions in blood pressure. Because of the intrinsic variability of blood pressure, the decreases in blood pressure after endurance training is evident, especially when multiple measurements of blood pressure are obtained. Studies using 24 h blood pressure measurements suggest that, although endurance training lowers daytime blood pressure, blood pressure during sleep remains unchanged. The mechanism underlying the reduction in blood pressure in endurance training is not known. Although physical fitness is known to attenuate the sympathetic response to acute exercise, whether resting sympathetic drive is decreased with endurance training remains controversial. The slowing of heart rate that accompanies endurance training is also associated with an increase in variability of heart rate. The slower heart rate, increased variability of heart rate and lower blood pressure after endurance training are accompanied by an increase in baroreflex sensitivity. Even though the antihypertensive effect of endurance training is modest, the favourable effects of physical fitness on other risk factors for cardiovascular disease make exercise training an important approach in
Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung
We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....
Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Burgos, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Zapata, Daniel; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Baez, Eduardo I; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Peñailillo, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel
The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of progressive volume-based overload with constant volume-based overload on muscle explosive and endurance performance adaptations during a biweekly short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) plyometric training intervention in young soccer players. Three groups of young soccer players (age 13.0 ± 2.3 years) were divided into: control (CG; n = 8) and plyometric training with (PPT; n = 8) and without (NPPT; n = 8) a progressive increase in volume (i.e., 16 jumps per leg per week, with an initial volume of 80 jumps per leg each session). Bilateral and unilateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), 10-m sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) were measured. Although both experimental groups significantly increased CMJA, RSI20, CODS, and endurance performance, only PPT showed a significant improvement in MKV and 10-m sprint time. In addition, only PPT showed a significantly higher performance improvement in jumping, MKV, and Yo-Yo IR1 compared with CG. Also, PPT showed higher meaningful improvement compared with NPPT in all (except 1) jump performance measures. Furthermore, although PPT involved a higher total volume compared with NPPT, training efficiency (i.e., percentage change in performance/total jump volume) was similar between groups. Our results show that PPT and NPPT ensured significant improvement in muscle explosive and endurance performance measures. However, a progressive increase in plyometric training volume seems more advantageous to induce soccer-specific performance improvements.
Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.
Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick
Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989
Loveridge, B; Badour, M; Dubo, H
We examined the effects of ventilatory muscle endurance training on resting breathing pattern in 12 C6-C7 traumatic quadriplegics at least 1 year post-injury. All subjects had complete motor loss below the lesion level. Subjects were randomly assigned to a training (N = 6), or a control group (N = 6). Baseline tests included measurement of resting ventilation and breathing pattern using mercury in rubber strain gauges for 20 minutes in a seated position; maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) at FRC, and sustainable inspiratory mouth pressure for 10 minutes (SIP); lung volumes, and arterial blood gases (ABG's). The training protocol consisted of breathing through an inspiratory resistor equivalent to 85% SIP for 15 minutes twice daily, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Both trainers and controls attended the lab every 2 weeks for reassessment of MIP and SIP and the inspiratory resistance was increased in the training group as SIP increased. At the end of 8 weeks, baseline tests were repeated. All subjects had normal ABG's. There was a significant increase in mean MIP and SIP in both the control group (30% +/- 19% and 31% +/- 18% respectively), and in the training group (42% +/- 24% and 78% +/- 49% respectively). Although the absolute values for both MIP and SIP were greater in the training group than in the control group, the differences were not significant. The alterations in resting breathing pattern were also the same in both groups. Mean frequency decreased significantly in the control group (20.2/minute to 16.9/minute) and, while insignificant, the change in frequency in the training group was the same, 19.4/minute to 16.4/minute. Mean tidal volume (Vt) increased 18.2% of baseline Vt in the control group and 17.0% baseline in the trainers, resulting in no change in minute ventilation. As MIP and SIP increased similarly in both groups, the data from the control and trainers was pooled and timing changes re-evaluated pre- and post-study. A significant decrease in
Karavirta, Laura; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kauhanen, Antti; Arija-Blázquez, Alfredo; Sillanpää, Elina; Rinkinen, Niina; Häkkinen, Arja
A combination of endurance and strength training is generally used to seek further health benefits or enhanced physical performance in older adults compared with either of the training modes alone. The mean change within a training group, however, may conceal a wide range of individual differences in the responses. The purpose, therefore, was to examine the individual trainability of aerobic capacity and maximal strength, when endurance and strength training are performed separately or concurrently. For this study, 175 previously untrained volunteers, 89 men and 86 women between the ages of 40 and 67 yr, completed a 21-wk period of either strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (ES) four times per week, or served as controls. Training adaptations were quantified as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and maximal isometric bilateral leg extension force (MVC) in a dynamometer. A large range in training responses, similar to endurance or strength training alone, was also observed with combined endurance and strength training in both ΔVO2peak (from -8% to 42%) and ΔMVC (from -12% to 87%). There were no significant correlations between the training responses in VO2peak and MVC in the E, S, or especially in the ES group, suggesting that the same subjects did not systematically increase both aerobic capacity and maximal strength. The goal of combined endurance and strength training--increasing both aerobic capacity and maximal strength simultaneously--was only achieved by some of the older subjects. New means are needed to personalize endurance, strength, and especially combined endurance and strength training programs for optimal individual adaptations.
Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy
Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968
Fagard, R H
1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.
Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D
The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Zainol, Nurul Ain
This study compared the effects of 6 and 12 sessions of relaxation training on emotional distress, short-term memory, and sustained attention in primary school children. Participants (N = 132) aged 10 and 11 years old participated in this study. All participants and their parents provided written informed consent. Participants completed the measurement instruments before and after the completion of relaxation training. Nearly half (49%) of all respondents reported moderate to extremely severe stress, and 80 and 61% reported moderate to extremely severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The results of a one-way analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among the groups in mean changes in short-term memory. A greater memory increase was observed in the 12-session than in the six-session and no-training group. It can be conceived that 12-session of training should be considered when prescribing relaxation regimens as a nonspecific clinical treatment (i.e. for healthy students).
Ramachandran, Selvam; Pradhan, Binita
Sport specific training in basketball players should focus on vertical jump height and agility in consistent with demands of the sport. Since plyometrics training improves vertical jump height and agility, it can be useful training strategy to improve the performance of basketball players. A convenience sample of thirty professional basketball players were recruited. Following pre-intervention assessment, interventions using plyometrics training and dynamic stretching protocol was administered on the basketball players. The outcome measures were assessed before the intervention and at the end of first and second week. Statistically significant improvements in vertical jump height (31.68 ± 11.64 to 37.57 ± 16.74; P basketball players.
Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance runners should include heavy resistance training in their training programmes to enhance endurance performance, such as
Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others
A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…
Caminiti, Giuseppe; Volterrani, Maurizio; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Cerrito, Anna; Massaro, Rosalba; Sposato, Barbara; Arisi, Arianna; Rosano, Giuseppe
To assess if Hydrotherapy (HT) added to endurance training (ET) is more effective than ET alone in order to improve exercise tolerance of elderly male patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty-one male CHF patients, age 68+/-7 (mean+/-DS) years; ejection fraction 32+/-9. NYHA II-III were enrolled. Eleven pts were randomized to combined training (CT) group performing HT+ET and 10 patients to ET group (ET only). At baseline and after 24 weeks all patients underwent: 6-minute walking test (6MWT), assessment of quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and peak torque (PT), blood pressure and heart rate (HR), echocardiography and non-invasive hemodynamic evaluation. HT was performed 3 times/week in upright position at up to the xyphoid process at a temperature of 31°C. ET was performed 3 times/week. Exercise was well tolerated. No patients had adverse events. Distance at 6MWT improved in both groups (CT group: 150+/-32 m; ET group:105+/-28 m) with significant intergroup differences (p 0.001). On land diastolic BP and HR significantly decreased in the CT group while remained unchanged in the ET group (-11 mmHg+/-2, p 0.04; e - 12 bpm, p 0.03; respectively) CO and SV had a relative despite no significant increase in CT group TPR on land significantly decreased in CT group (-23+/-3 mmHg/l/m; p 0.01) while remained unchanged in ET group. Patients of CT group had no significant higher increase of both MVC and PT than ET group. CT training, significantly improves exercise tolerance and hemodynamic profile of patients with CHF. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cunha, Rafael; Carregaro, Rodrigo L.; Martorelli, André; Vieira, Amilton; Oliveira, Ana B.; Bottaro, Martim
Background: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE) programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance.
Carol, A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Mensink, M.R.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of bovine colostrum to attenuate postexercise decline in immune function. The authors evaluated the time course of a number of immune variables after short-term intense exercise in 9 male athletes after 10 d of supplementation with either
Asieh Abbassi Daloii
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regardless of how many periods and how long the androgenic-anabolic steroids have been used, they can cause side effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect a 6-week endurance training and using different doses of anabolic steroid boldenone on hematological factors and changes in spleen structure in male Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 47 male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks, were randomly divided into 7 groups (control, sham, boldenone-1, boldenone-2, endurance training, endurance training+boldenone-1, endurance training+boldenone-2. Increasing endurance training program was performed at the speed of 10-30m/min (Vo2max, 75-80% for 6 weeks and 5 days/week. The drug was injected deeply into the quadriceps and hamstring muscles once a week, on an appointed day. After anesthesia and dissection, the spleen was removed. Finally, the selected microscopic sections, were studied using a light microscope after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Data were analyzed by dependent t-, one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc LSD tests at α<0.05 level. Results: In this study, boldenone supplementation at different doses led to weight gain, non-significant decrease in spleen weight (p=0.297, increase in white blood cells (p=0.041, and increase in hematocrit level (p=0.017. Also, there was a significant difference between the effect of exercise and boldenone consumption on the extent of damage to white pulp, red pulp, and the spleen sinusoidal space (p=0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed it is likely that short-term consumption of boldenone have negative effects on the spleen structure, followed by negative changes in hematological factors.
S. Jalal Taherabadi
Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of high intensity-strength training (S in two consecutive days in different athletes. 20 subjects divided in two groups: 11 futsal players of semiprofessional level (FG (22,5±1,4 yr and 9 endurance trained athletes of national level (EG (21±1,3 yr. The intervention was composed by two training sessions (4 sets of 3 repetitions at 8590% of their 1RM in the squat exercise separated by 24h. Two days before the first workout and 9 days after the second workout subjects were measured for 1RM in squat (90 knee angle. Tests: 1 Maximum Repetition in half-squat exercise. Variables: weight in one maximum repetititum (kg; Force (N; and power (w. Instrument: MicromuscleLab Power (ergotest technology as-Norway. The results showed increasing in 1MR in weight (p<0.05, force production ((p<0.05 but didn’t showed significant differences in power output in 1MR It was concluded that acute effects of high intensity strength training using this protocol is advantageous for increasing force production in futsal players and cyclists.
Key Words:short term effect, strength, power, training program
El objetivo del estudio es conocer los efectos sobre la fuerza máxima y la potencia en 1 repetición máxima (RM de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza usando cargas máximas en jugadores de fútbol-sala y ciclistas. 20 hombres divididos en 2 grupos: 11 jugadores de fútbol-sala semiprofesionales (21±1,3 años, y 9 ciclistas de ruta de categoría nacional (22,5±1,4 años participaron en la investigación. El programa de entrenamiento fue 2 sesiones (4 series de 3 repeticiones al 85-90% de 1RM, con 3-5 min de descanso entre series, con la máxima velocidad de ejecución posible, posteriormente descansaban 9 días repitiéndose de nuevo este trabajo. Se determinó a través del test 1RM en
Gröpel, Peter; Urner, Maren; Pruessner, Jens C; Quirin, Markus
Evidence shows that regular physical exercise reduces physiological reactivity to psychosocial stress. However, previous research mainly focused on the effect of endurance exercise, with only a few studies looking at the effect of resistance exercise. The current study tested whether individuals who regularly participate in either endurance or resistance training differ from untrained individuals in adrenal and cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress. Twelve endurance-trained men, 10 resistance-trained men, and 12 healthy but untrained men were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Measurements of heart rate, free salivary cortisol levels, and mood were obtained throughout the test and compared among the three groups. Overall, both endurance- and resistance-trained men had lower heart rate levels than untrained men, indicating higher cardiac performance of the trained groups. Trained men also exhibited lower heart rate responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men. There were no significant group differences in either cortisol responses or mood responses to the stressor. The heart rate results are consistent with previous studies indicating reduced cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress in trained individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance and resistance trainings may be related to the same cardiovascular benefits, without exhibiting strong effects on the cortisol reactivity to stress.
Full Text Available Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus
Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller
The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -m.......3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers....
Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S
This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.
Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil
Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test...
Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Kolodziejski, Leszek; Szymoniak-Chochol, Dorota; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy A
What is the central question of this study? The main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in humans. What is the main finding and its importance? We have shown, for the first time, a protective effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity, as judged by significantly lower basal and end-exercise serum concentrations of glycocalyx damage markers, i.e. syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate, accompanied by attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of antioxidant defence after training in previously untrained healthy young men. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 20 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise bout until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40 min sessions, mainly of moderate intensity (∼50% of maximal oxygen uptake), performed four times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were taken before and after the training. Endurance training resulted in a significant increase in physical capacity (P 0.05). Moderate-intensity ET exerts a pronounced protective effect on endothelial glycocalyx integrity at rest and during exercise, probably through an improvement of antioxidant defence that may represent the vasoprotective mechanisms highly responsive to moderate-intensity endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.
Gunnarsson, Thomas; Christensen, Peter Møller; Holse, Kris
PURPOSE: The present study examined the effect of additional speed-endurance training during the season on muscle adaptations and performance of trained soccer players. METHODS: Eighteen sub-elite soccer players performed one session with 6-9 30-s intervals at an intensity of 90-95 % ofmaximal...... intensity (speed endurance training; SET) a week for 5 weeks (SET-intervention). Before and after the SET-intervention the players carried out the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo- Yo IR2) test, a sprint test (10- and 30-m) and an agility test. In addition, seven of the players had a resting muscle...
Constantini, Keren; Wilhite, Daniel P; Chapman, Robert F
Constantini, Keren, Daniel P. Wilhite, and Robert F. Chapman. A clinician guide to altitude training for optimal endurance exercise performance at sea level. High Alt Med Biol. 18:93-101, 2017.-For well over 50 years, endurance athletes have been utilizing altitude training in an effort to enhance performance in sea level competition. This brief review will offer the clinician a series of evidence-based best-practice guidelines on prealtitude and altitude training considerations, which can ultimately maximize performance improvement outcomes.
The purpose of this research work is to track down the level of relation between strength and endurance in training exercises of handball athletes. The most successful ratio has been established during work with two groups of 10 players each, all of whom are university students. They were trained, respectively, according to the general training…
Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Anne Marie Winther
-leg) while ingesting a glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a placebo (Plc) while training the other leg (Plc-leg). Endurance training increased peak power by 14% and reduced the exercise-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-6Ralpha in skeletal muscle and IL-6 plasma concentration. The IL-6Ralpha density...
Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the ﬁrst 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.
Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.
The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient
Tønnessen, Espen; Rasdal, Vegard; Svendsen, Ida S; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Sandbakk, Øyvind
Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing. To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes' training and determine how endurance and non-endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized. Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non-endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes. Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non-endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.
Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbaek, Thomas
PURPOSE:: Endurance training (ET) as part of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, but dyspnea limits the exercise intensity. Therefore, resistance training (RT), which...... may cause less dyspnea, could be an alternative. The purpose of this review was to formulate evidence-based recommendations on the use of RT in pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with COPD. Our primary outcomes were health-related quality of life, activities of daily living, dyspnea, possible harm......, and total mortality. Our secondary outcomes were walking distance, lean body mass, muscle strength, and exercise capacity. METHODS:: We identified randomized controlled trials through a systematic multidatabase search. One author checked titles and abstracts for relevance using broad inclusion criteria...
Shah, Peter Jivan
A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...
Christou, Demetra D; Jones, Pamela Parker; Seals, Douglas R
Baroreflex buffering plays an important role in arterial blood pressure control. Previous reports suggest that baroreflex sensitivity may be altered in endurance exercise-trained compared with untrained subjects. It is unknown, however, if in vivo baroreflex buffering is altered in the endurance exercise-trained state in humans. Baroreflex buffering was determined in 36 healthy normotensive men (18 endurance exercise-trained, 41+/-5 [SEM] years; 18 untrained, 41+/-4 years) by measuring the potentiation of the systolic blood pressure responses to a phenylephrine bolus and to incremental phenylephrine infusion during compared with before ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan. The exercise-trained men had a lower resting heart rate and higher maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate variability than the sedentary control subjects (all P=0.01). Mean levels and variability of blood pressure, cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (change in heart rate/change in systolic blood pressure), and basal muscle sympathetic nerve activity were not different in the two groups. The systolic blood pressure responses to phenylephrine were not different in the endurance-trained and untrained men before or during ganglionic blockade (P>0.6). Measures of baroreflex buffering with the use of a phenylephrine bolus (3.9+/-0.8 versus 4.0+/-0.7, trained versus untrained, P=0.85) and incremental infusion (2.8+/-0.4 versus 2.5+/-0.6, P=0.67) were similar in the two groups. Baroreflex buffering does not differ in endurance exercise-trained compared with untrained healthy men. These results support the concept that habitual vigorous endurance exercise does not modulate in vivo baroreflex buffering in healthy humans.
Moe, Ingvild T; Hoven, Heidi; Hetland, Eva V; Rognmo, Oivind; Slørdahl, Stig A
Endothelial function is reduced by age, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it is shown that aerobic exercise may reverse this trend. The effect of a high aerobic training status on endothelial function in young, healthy subjects is however less clear. The present study was designed to determine whether endothelial function is improved in highly endurance-trained young women compared to sedentary, healthy controls. Brachial artery diameter was measured in 16 endurance-trained (age: 23.7 +/- 2.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 60.6 +/- 4.5 ml/kg per min) and 14 sedentary females (age: 23.7 +/- 2.1 years, VO2max: 40.5 +/- 5.6 ml/kg per min) at rest, during flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and after sublingual glycerol trinitrate administration, using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD did not differ between the endurance-trained and the sedentary females (14.8% vs 16.4%, p = NS), despite a substantial difference in VO2max of 50% (p endurance-trained group possessed however, a 9% larger resting brachial artery diameter when adjusted for body surface area. The results of the present study suggest that endothelial function is well preserved in young, healthy women, and that a high aerobic training status due to long term aerobic training does not improve the dilating capacity any further.
Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte
KEY POINT: Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models. Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we......-receptor interaction. Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD(+) SCs. Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long......-term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed...
Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Anders R; Åkerström, Thorbjörn
While production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is associated with some of the beneficial adaptations to regular physical exercise, it is not established whether RONS play a role in the improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle obtained by endurance training....... To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation during endurance training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, twenty-one young healthy (age 29±1 y; BMI 25±3 Kg m(-2)) men were randomly assigned into either an antioxidant (AO; 500 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (a-tocopherol) daily) or a placebo (PL......) group that both underwent a supervised intense endurance-training program, 5 times per week for 12 weeks. A 3-hour euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and maximal power output (P(max)) test, and body composition measurements (fat mass, fat-free mass) were performed...
Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi
At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mVO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mVO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the VmO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mVO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster VO2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle.
Avery D. Faigenbaum
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13 or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14 on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr. The RT group performed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises followed by the same resistance training program. The training duration per session for both groups was 90 min. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on the vertical jump, long jump, medicine ball toss, 9.1 m sprint, pro agility shuttle run and flexibility. The PRT group made significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvements than RT in long jump (10.8 cm vs. 2.2 cm, medicine ball toss (39.1 cm vs. 17.7 cm and pro agility shuttle run time (-0.23 sec vs. -0.02 sec following training. These findings suggest that the addition of plyometric training to a resistance training program may be more beneficial than resistance training and static stretching for enhancing selected measures of upper and lower body power in boys
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP or speed endurance maintenance (SEM training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2 and a repeated sprint test (RST pre- and post-intervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance increased (p<0.001 by 50 ± 8% and 26 ± 5% in SEP and SEM, respectively, with greater (p=0.03 improvement in SEP. RST performance improved by 2.1 ± 0.3% and 1.3 ± 0.4% in SEP and SEM, respectively, while the RST fatigue index decreased (4.4 ± 0.8 to 3.4 ± 0.5%; p<0.04 in SEP only. Peak and average speed during training were higher (p<0.001 in SEP than in SEM (24.5 ± 0.3 vs 19.2 ± 0.3 and 15.5 ± 0.1 km·h-1 vs 9.4 ± 0.1 km·h-1. Additional in-season anaerobic speed endurance production and maintenance training improves high-intensity exercise performance in competitive soccer players with superior effects of speed endurance production training.
Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.
Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893
Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel
Integrating specific training methods to improve explosive actions and endurance in youth soccer is an essential part of players' development. This study investigated the efficiency of short-term vertical plyometric training program within soccer practice to improve both explosive actions and endurance in young soccer players. Seventy-six players were recruited and assigned either to a training group (TG; n = 38; 13.2 ± 1.8 years) or a control group (CG; n = 38; 13.2 ± 1.8 years) group. All players trained twice per week, but the TG followed a 7-week plyometric program implemented within soccer practice, whereas the CG followed regular practice. Twenty-meter sprint time (20-m), Illinois agility test time, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, 20- (RSI20) and 40- (RSI40) cm drop jump reactive strength index, multiple 5 bounds distance (MB5), maximal kicking test for distance (MKD), and 2.4-km time trial were measured before and after the 7-week period. Plyometric training induced significant (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate standardized effect (SE) improvement in the CMJ (4.3%; SE = 0.20), RSI20 (22%; SE = 0.57), RSI40 (16%; SE = 0.37), MB5 (4.1%; SE = 0.28), Illinois agility test time (-3.5%, SE = -0.26), MKD (14%; SE = 0.53), 2.4-km time trial (-1.9%; SE = -0.27) performances but had a trivial and nonsignificant effect on 20-m sprint time (-0.4%; SE = -0.03). No significant improvements were found in the CG. An integrated vertical plyometric program within the regular soccer practice can substitute soccer drills to improve most explosive actions and endurance, but horizontal exercises should also be included to enhance sprinting performance.
van der Beek, E J
The inter-relationship of food and physical performance, food is considered as a conglomerate of nutrients and man is depicted as a kind of organic pudding. This 'machine' concept of human performance in combination with the mysticism surrounding vitamins, has led to the faddish belief that additional vitamins are necessary to improve physical performance by means of supercharging the metabolic processes in the body. Various vitamins and their dietary recommendations as well as the indicators for vitamin status are discussed. It is concluded that a marginal or subclinical deficiency state can be defined as an intermediate between optimal vitamin status and frank clinical deficiency. Marginal deficiency is characterised by biochemical values deviating from statistically derived reference limits as well as the absence of clinical signs and symptoms of vitamin deficiency. Besides the static, mostly biochemical, indicators of vitamin status, more functional indicators are considered, among them work capacity. An extensive historical review on depletion studies, epidemiological surveys and supplementation studies is presented. It is concluded that a restricted intake of some B-complex vitamins-individually and in combination-of approximately less than 35 to 45% of the recommended dietary allowance may lead to decreased endurance capacity within a few weeks. Studies on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) depletion and fat-soluble vitamin A deficiency have noted no decrease of endurance capacity. However, in a few recent epidemiological surveys, biochemical vitamin C deficiency was actually shown to decrease aerobic power. Although the general conclusion is that a reduced water-soluble vitamin intake decreases endurance capacity, it is believed that further controlled experimentation is needed with B-complex vitamins and vitamin C individually. Furthermore, usually employed reference limits for vitamins need reappraisal translating them into impairment limits. With respect to the
Full Text Available Background & aim: Changes in the metabolism of cancer cells plays a major role in the survival and their expansion. The aim of this study was to determine expression of lactate transmitters in Balb/c mice with breast cancer after endurance training. Methods: In this experimental study twenty-five Balb C mice were randomly divided into two groups of breast cancer control (N=13 and breast cancer training (N=12. Breast cancer was induced in mammary fat pad by injection of cancer cells (MC4L2 in mice and endurance training protocol was applied for 7 weeks in the experimental group. Tumor volume and MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 expression were measured by micro digital caliper and western blotting technique respectively. Data were analyzed statistically using Student t and Pearson. Results: Significant decreases was found in weight and CD147 expression of tumor after 7 weeks of endurance training in the exercise group compared to the control group. No significant differences were seen in MCT4 expression and tumor volume between the groups (05 / 0p>0.05. Significant correlation was found between tumor MCT1 and CD147 expression (P < 0.05, while the relationship between MCT4 and CD147 expression in tumors was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Endurance training can reduce lactate metabolism in cancer cells through suppression of lactate transporters expression and provides a useful tool in breast cancer treatment or prevention.
DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy
Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...
Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Schjerling, P; Haddad, F; Langberg, H; Baldwin, K M; Kjaer, M
In skeletal muscle, an increased expression of insulin like growth factor-I isoforms IGF-IEa and mechano-growth factor (MGF) combined with downregulation of myostatin is thought to be essential for training-induced hypertrophy. However, the specific effects of different contraction types on regulation of these factors in muscle are still unclear, and in tendon the functions of myostatin, IGF-IEa, and MGF in relation to training are unknown. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric, or isometric training (n = 7-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve during general anesthesia. mRNA levels for myostatin, IGF-IEa, and MGF in muscle and Achilles' tendon were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Muscle myostatin mRNA decreased in response to all types of training (2- to 8-fold) (P effect of eccentric training was greater than concentric and isometric training (P tendon, myostatin mRNA was detected, but no changes were seen after exercise. IGF-IEa and MGF increased in muscle (up to 15-fold) and tendon (up to 4-fold) in response to training (P tendon no difference was seen between training types, but in muscle the effect of eccentric training was greater than concentric training for both IGF-IEa and MGF (P effect than concentric (P tendon to training, and the combined changes in myostatin and IGF-IEa/MGF expression could explain the important effect of eccentric actions for muscle hypertrophy.
Conclusion: HIIT-based running plans (2 to 3 HIIT sessions per week, combining HIIT and CR runs show athletic performance improvements in endurance runners by improving maximal oxygen uptake and running economy along with muscular and metabolic adaptations. To maximize the adaptations to training, both HIIT and CR must be part of training programs for endurance runners.
Mackey, Abigail; Donnelly, A E; Roper, H P
Although it is known that exercise exerts a positive regulatory effect on collagen synthesis, the effects of endurance training on muscle endomysial connective tissue in man are not so well documented. To investigate this, a single muscle biopsy was collected from two groups of volunteers...
Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders
MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establis...
Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987
In a roundtable format, five doctors explore the reasons why regular physical activity should continue to play a significant role in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Endurance exercise training improves aerobic capacity, reduces blood pressure, and decreases risk. (Author/MT)
Gorter, H.; Holty, L.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Elvers, J.W.H.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and effect of a functional physical training program on aerobic endurance and walking ability of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Thirteen children (8-13 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II, with normal intelligence or mild
Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...
Timmons, James A; Knudsen, Steen; Rankinen, Tuomo
A low maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases VO2max with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial s...
Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Shephard, Roy J
We studied the effect of supplementing normal in-season training by a 10-week lower limb plyometric training program (hurdle and depth jumping), examining measures of competitive potential (peak power output [PP], sprint running velocity, squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], drop jump [DJ], and lower limb muscle volume). The subjects (27 male track athletes, aged 11.9 ± 1.0 years; body mass: 39.1 ± 6.1 kg; height: 1.56 ± 0.02 m; body fat: 12.8 ± 4.4%) were randomly assigned between a control (normal training) group (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (E; n = 14) who also performed plyometric training 3 times per week. A force-velocity ergometer test determined PP and SJ, and an Optojump apparatus evaluated CMJ height and DJ (height and power). A multiple-5-bound test assessed horizontal jumping, and video-camera analyses over a 40-m sprint yielded velocities for the first step (VS), the first 5 m (V5m), and between 35 and 40 m (Vmax). Leg muscle volume was estimated anthropometrically. Experimental group showed gains relative to C in SJ height (p plyometric training improved important components of athletic performance relative to standard in-season training in young runners.
Mostert, S; Kesselring, J
Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%).
Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel
This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0±1.2 years, body mass 81.1±3.4 kg, height 1.82±0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a Countermovement Jump Test (CMJ), as well as a repeated Sprint Ability Test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; N.=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 minutes of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; N.=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. A significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period was demonstrated. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (η2=0.811) and CMJ (η2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed-controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of carvedilol treatment and a regimen of supervised aerobic exercise training on quality of life and other clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical variables in a group of client-owned dogs with chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD. Ten healthy dogs (control and 36 CMVD dogs were studied, with the latter group divided into 3 subgroups. In addition to conventional treatment (benazepril, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg once a day, and digoxin, 0.0055 mg/kg twice daily, 13 dogs received exercise training (subgroup I; 10.3±2.1 years, 10 dogs received carvedilol (0.3 mg/kg twice daily and exercise training (subgroup II; 10.8±1.7 years, and 13 dogs received only carvedilol (subgroup III; 10.9±2.1 years. All drugs were administered orally. Clinical, laboratory, and Doppler echocardiographic variables were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Exercise training was conducted from months 3-6. The mean speed rate during training increased for both subgroups I and II (ANOVA, P>0.001, indicating improvement in physical conditioning at the end of the exercise period. Quality of life and functional class was improved for all subgroups at the end of the study. The N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP level increased in subgroup I from baseline to 3 months, but remained stable after training introduction (from 3 to 6 months. For subgroups II and III, NT-proBNP levels remained stable during the entire study. No difference was observed for the other variables between the three evaluation periods. The combination of carvedilol or exercise training with conventional treatment in CMVD dogs led to improvements in quality of life and functional class. Therefore, light walking in CMVD dogs must be encouraged.
Full Text Available Ana Alves-Pinto,1 Stefan Ehrlich,2 Gordon Cheng,2 Varvara Turova,1 Tobias Blumenstein,1 Renée Lampe1 1Research Unit of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation for Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics and Cerebral Palsy, Department of Orthopaedics, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Chair for Cognitive Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Abstract: Playing a musical instrument demands the integration of sensory and perceptual information with motor processes in order to produce a harmonic musical piece. The diversity of brain mechanisms involved and the joyful character of playing an instrument make musical instrument training a potential vehicle for neurorehabilitation of motor skills in patients with cerebral palsy (CP. This clinical condition is characterized by motor impairments that can affect, among others, manual function, and limit severely the execution of basic daily activities. In this study, adolescents and adult patients with CP, as well as a group of typically developing children learned to play piano for 4 consecutive weeks, having completed a total of 8 hours of training. For ten of the participants, learning was supported by a special technical system aimed at helping people with sensorimotor deficits to better discriminate fingers and orient themselves along the piano keyboard. Potential effects of piano training were assessed with tests of finger tapping at the piano and tests of perception of vibratory stimulation of fingers, and by measuring neuronal correlates of motor learning in the absence of and after piano training. Results were highly variable especially among participants with CP. Nevertheless, a significant effect of training on the ability to perceive the localization of vibrations over fingers was found. No effects of training on the performance of simple finger tapping sequences at the piano or on motor
Full Text Available Michael TC Liang,1 Lorena Quezada,1 WY Jamie Lau,1 Bulent Sokmen,2 Thomas W Spalding11Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USAAbstract: To examine the effect of a 10-week upper-body resistance training program on bone turnover markers and site-specific bone mineral density (BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius in untrained and healthy young premenopausal women.Methods: Twenty-two subjects (aged 22.1 ± 1.8 years were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n = 12 or no training control (n = 10 group. The following outcome variables were measured before and after 10 weeks of resistance training: (1 bone formation biomarker osteocalcin, and bone resorption biomarker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b; (2 BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius; (3 isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors; (4 dynamic strength of the arm extensors and flexors; and (5 maximum number of push-ups.Results: The 10-week upper body resistance training intervention resulted in improved strength performance in push-ups (resistance training versus control: P < 0.05, chest presses (P < 0.05, and pulldowns (P < 0.05. However, there was no improvement in the BMD of the wrist (P > 0.05, BMD of the distal half of the ulna and radius (P > 0.05, and metabolic biomarkers osteocalcin (P > 0.05 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (P > 0.05, except for the osteocalcin/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b ratio. Also, no improvement in the resistance training group was observed for isokinetic strength of the knee and elbow flexion/extension.Conclusion: Upper-body muscular strength performance, but not bone metabolic markers and BMD of the wrist, can be improved with a 10-week upper body resistance training program of the nonweight-bearing limbs in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by
Argus, Christos K; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin; Hopkins, Will G; Beaven, C Martyn
Pre-season rugby training develops the physical requisites for competition and consists of a high volume of resistance training and anaerobic and aerobic conditioning. However, the effects of a rugby union pre-season in professional athletes are currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a 4-week pre-season on 33 professional rugby union players. Bench press and box squat increased moderately (13.6 kg, 90% confidence limits +/-2.9 kg and 17.6 +/- 8.0 kg, respectively) over the training phase. Small decreases in bench throw (70.6 +/- 53.5 W), jump squat (280.1 +/- 232.4 W), and fat mass (1.4 +/- 0.4 kg) were observed. In addition, small increases were seen in fat-free mass (2.0 +/- 0.6 kg) and flexed upper-arm girth (0.6 +/- 0.2 cm), while moderate increases were observed in mid-thigh girth (1.9 +/- 0.5 cm) and perception of fatigue (0.6 +/- 0.4 units). Increases in strength and body composition were observed in elite rugby union players after 4 weeks of intensive pre-season training, but this may have been the result of a return to fitness levels prior to the off-season. Decreases in power may reflect high training volumes and increases in perceived of fatigue.
Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide
To compare the effects of two different 2-week-long training modalities [continuous at the intensity eliciting the maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) versus high-intensity interval training (HIIT)] in men with class II and III obesity. Nineteen men with obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg · m(-2)) were assigned to Fatmax group (GFatmax) or to HIIT group (GHIIT). Both groups performed eight cycling sessions matched for mechanical work. Aerobic fitness and fat oxidation rates (FORs) during exercise were assessed prior and following the training. Blood samples were drawn to determine hormones and plasma metabolites levels. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Aerobic fitness and FORs during exercise were significantly increased in both groups after training (P ≤ 0.001). HOMA2-IR was significantly reduced only for GFatmax (P ≤ 0.001). Resting non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin decreased significantly only in GFatmax (P ≤ 0.002). Two weeks of HIIT and Fatmax training are effective for the improvement of aerobic fitness and FORs during exercise in these classes of obesity. The decreased levels of resting NEFA only in GFatmax may be involved in the decreased insulin resistance only in this group. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard
Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with ageing, musical experts are less affected. This study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement. Behavioural performance of internal timing stability was assessed with synchronization-continuation finger-tapping paradigms. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded from older adults before and after one month of one-on-one training. For neural measures of automatic timing processing, we focused on beta oscillations (13-30 Hz) during passive listening to metronome beats. Periodic beta-band modulations in older adults before training were similar to previous findings in young listeners at a beat interval of 800 ms. After training, behavioural performance for continuation tapping was improved and accompanied by an increased range of beat-induced beta modulation, compared to participants who did not receive training. Beta changes were observed in the caudate, auditory, sensorimotor and premotor cortices, parietal lobe, cerebellum and medial prefrontal cortex, suggesting that increased resources are involved in timing processing and goal-oriented monitoring as well as reward-based sensorimotor learning. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens
The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette
The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen...... trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S...... and S + E) and at rest, 0, 1, and 2 h after exercise in E In S and S + E, muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) mRNA were higher (P endurance exercise than at rest. Muscle PGC-1α and PDK4 m...
Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a strong central controller of appetite that secretes different neuropeptides including AGRP. Plasma levels of AGRP are effective in controlling obesity and hunger. Therefore, the current study was performed with the aim of investigating the effect of endurance training on plasma levels of AGRP and HOMA-IR in diabetic rats. The Current study was experimental by posttest and control group. Eighteen male Wistar rats (200-220 grams with 8-10 weeks were randomly divided into the control group and diabetic training. Eight weeks endurance training program included in the group of animal diabetic training for 5 days per week (15-40 minutes at 50 to 65 percent of vo2max. To determine the serum concentrations of AGRP was used by ELISA. A comparison of two groups showed significantly increased plasma concentrations of AGRP (p=0.006 and insulin resistance index, decreased significantly (p=0.002 compared to the control group after eight weeks, endurance training. According to the results, increased plasma concentrations of AGRP can be attributed to the negative balance caused by training. This agent destroys the body's energy balance and hypothalamus for balancing increases the secretion of AGRP. This neuropeptide is likely will cause higher fat metabolism.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group. METHOD: Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise; 2 traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise; and 3 control (CON; no exercise. The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3x2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT, rating of acceleration development (RAD and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque. RESULTS: A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstraram que a pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas pode aumentar o desempenho neuromuscular agonista. Além disso, estudos sugerem que programas de exercício resistido (ER de curta duração podem ser úteis para aumentar a força muscular e o desempenho. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de três sessões de ER por meio do método de ações recíprocas no desempenho muscular de homens sadios e comparar com um grupo de ER tradicional. MÉTODO: Trinta e três homens (21,1 ± 2,3 anos foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: Recíproco (REC: uma repetição de flexão do joelho imediatamente seguida por uma de extensão do joelho; Tradicional (TRA: exercício concêntrico de extensão do joelho e Controle (CON: não realizaram
Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.
Yilmaz, Yavuz; Yetkin, Yalçin
The relationship between mean intelligence quotient (IQ), hand preferences and visual memory (VM) were investigated on (N = 612) males and females students trained in different educational programs in viewpoint of laterality. IQ was assessed by cattle's culture Fair intelligence test-A (CCFIT-A). The laterality of the one side of the body was…
Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks
Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.
Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800
Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhail; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shepard, Roy J; Schwesig, René
Muscular strength and speed are critical physical factors in determining the technical and tactical skills of elite team handball players. This study thus investigated the effect of high-intensity muscular strength and sprint interval training (SIT) on lower limb explosive performance and anthropometric characteristics in 22 male handball athletes aged 20.2 ± 0.1 years. A training group (TG, n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 10) were followed over 8 weeks parallel to regular handball training. The TG received combined additional high-intensity muscular strength and interval training twice per week during this period. The muscular training was comprised of 3 - 4 sets of 70 - 85 % of 1-RM (repetition maximum) of dynamic back half squat exercise; followed immediately by a short sprint program with 4, 5, and 6 maximal intensity repetitions of 30 m runs. Strength (1-RM of the half back-squat and bench press), first step (V1S), first 5 m (V5 m), squat jumps (SJ), counter movement jumps (CMJ) and the Modified Agility Test (MAT) were tested at the beginning and end of the study. Significant interaction effects (group × time) were observed for all parameters (η² range: 0.531 (MAT) to 0.829 (First 5 m)). All 10 parameters showed relevant intervention effects (d> 0.5) in the TG (highest intervention effect: CMJ: d = 4.05), the mean effect size being d = 1.85. In contrast, scores for the CG either remained unchanged or decreased (d = -0.24). We conclude that combined high-intensity strength and sprint interval training during the competitive season should be recommended to elite male handball players as a means of improving handball-related performance characteristics without compromising other critical aspects of the individual's performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.
For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the
Conclusion: PR is an effective intervention for the post-exacerbation management of COPD patients. It leads to significant improvements of dyspnea, HRQL and functional exercise capacity. When added to a program of ET, strength training confers additional benefits in muscle force, but not in overall exercise capacity or health status.
Ana R. Alves
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years, were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R, Endurance-only (E, Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER, Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER, Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE, and a Control group (C. In R and E, the subjects performed single sessions of resistance or endurance exercises, respectively (two days per week. In CDER, resistance-endurance training was performed on different days each week (four days per week. CPER and CPRE performed single-session combined endurance-resistance training or combined resistance-endurance training, respectively, each week (two days per week. After an 8-week training period, BFP decreased in all experimental groups (CPER: 13.3%, p0.05; and CDER: 5.6%, p>0.05. However, a significant difference was found in CPER and CPRE when compared to CDER, E, and R, indicating that training sequence may influence BFP. All programmes were effective, but CPER and CPRE obtained better results for BFP than CDER, E, or R. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage can be mediated by order and sequence of exercise. These results provide insight into optimization of school-based fat loss exercise programmes in childhood.
Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente
-FAT. After 8 weeks, RER in both T-CHO and T-FAT/CHO was approximately 0.87. 5. During exercise, plasma noradrenaline concentration and heart rate were higher in T-FAT than in T-CHO both at 7 and at 8 weeks. 6. It is concluded that ingesting a fat-rich diet during an endurance training programme......1. Ten untrained young men ingested a carbohydrate-rich diet (65 energy percent (E%) carbohydrate, T-CHO) and ten similar subjects a fat-rich diet (62 E% fat, T-FAT) while endurance training was performed 3-4 times a week for 7 weeks. For another 8th week of training both groups ingested...... the carbohydrate-rich diet (T-CHO and T-FAT/CHO). 2. Maximal oxygen uptake increased by 11% (P
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the problem of the influence of training in conditions of middle mountains and highlands on a functional state and preparedness of sportsmen who are specialized in types of endurance on the basis of the analysis of references. Materials and methods: analysis and synthesis of references. Results: the processing of information allowed to define the extent of influence of training in mountain conditions and in the conditions of an artificial hypoxia on a functional state and sports result of the highly skilled sportsmen who are specialized in types of endurance. Conclusions: it is defined that the correct organization of the training process in middle mountains and highlands allows not only to expand the functionality of organism of runners, but also to improve the technique of run.
Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A
by approximately 18% in both groups, whereas the marked increase in muscle citrate synthase activity was 50% larger in the GH group compared with the placebo group. In addition, only the GH group revealed an increase in muscle L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Body weight remained unchanged in both...... groups, but the GH group showed significant changes in body composition with a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean body mass. Twenty-four-hour indirect calorimetry performed in four subjects showed a marked increase in energy expenditure with increased relative and absolute fat combustion...... endurance training on a cycle ergometer over 12 wk. rhGH was given in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. GH administration resulted in a doubling of serum insulin-like growth factor I levels. With endurance training, peak oxygen uptake increased...
Lane, A D; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Kappus, R M; Sun, P; Cook, M D; Harvey, I; Woods, J; Wilund, K; Fernhall, B
Ventricular and vascular coupling is defined as the ratio of arterial elastance (Ea) to ventricular elastance (Elv) and describes the interaction between the heart and arterial system. There are sex differences in both arterial and ventricular function in response to both acute exercise and aerobic exercise training. To examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on elastances and the coupling ratio in young adult men and women. We hypothesized a reduction in the coupling ratio in both sexes due to a decrease in Ea that would be more pronounced in men and an increase in Elv that would be larger in women. Fifty-three healthy, young adults completed the study. Central pulse wave velocity and heart volumes were measured before and after an 8-week aerobic training intervention. Elastances were calculated as Ea = end-systolic pressure/stroke volume and Elv = end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume and indexed to body surface area. After the intervention, women augmented indexed and un-indexed Elv from 2.09 ± 0.61 to 2.52 ± 0.80 mmHg/ml, p 0.05). Women also reduced end-systolic pressure (from 91 ± 10 to 87 ± 10 mmHg), and both groups reduced central pulse wave velocity (from 6.0 ± 1.0 to 5.6 ± 0.6 m/s, p < 0.05). We conclude that after 8 weeks of aerobic training, only women reduced their coupling ratio due to an increase in Elv. This suggests that aerobic exercise training elicits sex-dependent changes in the coupling ratio in young, healthy individuals.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Many nervous system tissues and cells suffers positive changes when faced to exercise training. However, data on vagus nerve adaptation from exercise-induced study is absent.Objective:To analyze the effect of an endurance training on the vagus nerve morphology of rats.Methods:Wistar rats (6 months of age were divided into two groups: control group (CG, n=8, and aerobic trained group (AT, n=8. AT was submitted to a treadmill training program of five times per week during 12 weeks. The maximum speed stipulated in the training protocol corresponded to 60% of the mean maximum intensity achieved by the group in the test of maximum effort.Results:Twelve weeks of treadmill training resulted in left ventricular hypertrophy in the AT group com-pared to CG. There was a significant increase in the area of both the myelinated and unmyelinated axons, and in the area of myelin sheath with training. The number of neurotubules and neurofilaments in myelinated fibers of aerobic trained group was significantly greater than CG (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Endurance training promoted significant increase in morphometric parameters of the vagus nerve in the same way it affect somatic nerves.
Carolin Stangier, Thomas Abel, Julia Mierau, Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K. Strüder
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa and glucose (BGL 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01 in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71. BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02 after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04 in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group.
Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish a half-marathonHigh intensity training is favorable to improve VO2 peak.
Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair
The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (Δ%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.
Full Text Available Complex training (CXT is the result of a combination of strength and plyometric exercises in the same session. This method has recently been used in the preparation of athletes of different sports. The aim of the present study was to observe the acute effects of a CXT program of 6 weeks: i on agility with the ball, sprinting and the efficiency of crossing and shooting in youth soccer players; ii and the influence of the number of CXT sessions per week (one vs. two. Sixteen youth male soccer players were randomly divided into three groups: a group that performed one weekly CXT session (GCT1, n = 5, age: 13.80 ± 0.45 years; or a group that performed two weekly CXT sessions (GCT2, n = 5, age: 14.20 ± 0.45 years; or a control group that did not perform the CTX (n = 6, age: 14.20 ± 0.84 years. All groups maintained their regular soccer training sessions. No significant interactions were found between GCT1 and GCT2 in all variables. Significant statistical differences were identified (F = 1139, p = 0.02, μp2 = 0531 in the pre-test versus post-test, for both experimental groups, in shot effectiveness. In conclusion, the CXT program proved to be an effective method in boosting abilities and motor skills associated with soccer among young athletes, particularly in increasing shot effectiveness.
Karstoft, Kristian; Clark, Margaret A; Jakobsen, Ida
in S G, but not in S I, were associated with changes in mean (β = -0.62 ± 0.23, r 2 = 0.17, p 1.18 ± 0.52, r 2 = 0.12, p levels during 24 h continuous glucose monitoring. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Two weeks of IWT, but not CWT, improves S G but not S I......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The role of glucose effectiveness (S G) in training-induced improvements in glucose metabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes is unknown. The objectives and primary outcomes of this study were: (1) to assess the efficacy of interval walking training (IWT) and continuous...... interventions. RESULTS: Thirteen individuals completed all procedures and were included in the analyses. IWT improved S G (mean ± SEM: 0.6 ± 0.1 mg kg-1 min-1, p 0.05), whereas CWT matched for energy expenditure and time duration improved neither S G nor S I (both p > 0.05). Changes...
Guimarães, Guilherme V; Cruz, Lais G B; Tavares, Aline C; Dorea, Egidio L; Fernandes-Silva, Miguel M; Bocchi, Edimar A
High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and its control is a clinical challenge. Regular exercise lowers BP in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. No data are available on the effects of heated water-based exercise in hypertensive patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in patients with resistant hypertension. We tested the effects of 60-min heated water-based exercise training three times per week in 16 patients with resistant hypertension (age 55±6 years). The protocol included walking and callisthenic exercises. All patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) before and after a 2-week exercise program in a heated pool. Systolic office BP was reduced from 162 to 144 mmHg (Pexercise training during 24-h ABPM, systolic BP decreased from 135 to 123 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 83 to 74 mmHg (P=0.001), daytime systolic BP decreased from 141 to 125 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 87 to 77 mmHg (P=0.009), night-time systolic BP decreased from 128 to 118 mmHg (P=0.06), and diastolic BP decreased from 77 to 69 mmHg (P=0.01). In addition, BP cardiovascular load was reduced significantly during the 24-h daytime and night-time period after the heated water-based exercise. Heated water-based exercise reduced office BP and 24-h daytime and night-time ABPM levels. These effects suggest that heated water-based exercise may have a potential as a new therapeutic approach to resistant hypertensive patients.
Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D
Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64  years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62  years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated ( r = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Bangsbo, Jens
In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6–8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6–8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (pstrategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles’ ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players. PMID:26394225
Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor training. 240 PD-patients were included in the study and randomly allocated to three treatment arms, group A cognitive training, group B cognitive training and transfer training and group C cognitive training, transfer training and psychomotor and endurance training. The primary outcome measure was the ADAS-Cog. The secondary outcome measure was the SCOPA-Cog. Training was conducted for 4 weeks on a rehabilitation unit, followed by 6 months training at home. Caregivers received an education programme. The combination of cognitive training using paper and pencil and the computer, transfer training and physical training seems to have the greatest effect on cognitive function. Thus, patients of group C showed the greatest improvement on the ADAS-Cog and SCOPA-COG and were more likely to continue with the training programme after the study.
Nybo, Lars; Pedersen, K.; Christensen, B.
Abstract Aim: Glucose ingestion may improve exercise endurance, but it apparently also influences the transcription rate of several metabolic genes and it alters muscle metabolism during an acute exercise bout. Therefore, we investigated how chronic training responses are affected by glucose...... improvements in maximal oxygen uptake and peak power output during incremental cycling (both parameters elevated by 17% on average) and both groups lost approximately 3 kg of fat mass during the 8 weeks of training. An equal reduction in respiratory exchange ratio (0.02 units) during submaximal exercise.......05), while resting muscle glycogen increased (P influences various muscular training adaptations, but improvements...
Laaksonen, Marko S; Heinonen, Ilkka; Luotolahti, Matti; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K
Endurance training induces cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, leading to enhanced endurance capacity and exercise performance. Previous human studies have shown contradictory results in functional myocardial vascular adaptations to exercise training, and we hypothesized that this may be related to different degrees of hypertrophy in the trained heart. We studied the interrelationships between peak aerobic power (V˙O2peak), myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during adenosine-induced vasodilation, and parameters of myocardial hypertrophy in endurance-trained (ET, n = 31) and untrained (n = 17) subjects. MBF and myocardial hypertrophy were studied using positron emission tomography and echocardiography, respectively. Both V˙O2peak (P negatively with adenosine-stimulated MBF, but when LV mass was taken into account as a partial correlate, this correlation disappeared. The present results show that increased LV mass in ET subjects explains the reduced hyperemic myocardial perfusion in this subject population and suggests that excessive LV hypertrophy has negative effect on cardiac blood flow capacity.
Iaia, F. Marcello; Thomassen, Martin; Kolding, Helle
by 30-s sprint runs three to four times a week, whereas CON continued the endurance training ( approximately 45 km/wk). After the 4-wk sprint period, the expression of the muscle Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(1)-subunit and Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger isoform 1 was 29 and 30% higher (P ... pulmonary maximum oxygen uptake and 10-k time were unchanged. No changes in CON were observed. The present data suggest a role of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in the control of K(+) homeostasis and in the development of fatigue during repeated high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, performance during intense exercise....... Furthermore, plasma K(+) concentration was reduced (P
Muller, G.; Perret, C.; Hopman, M.T.E.
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) has been shown to improve both respiratory muscle and cycling exercise endurance in able-bodied subjects. Since effects of RMET on upper extremity exercise performance have not yet been investigated, we evaluated the effects of RMET on 10-km
Sun, X; Shang, W; Wang, Z; Liu, X; Fang, X; Ke, M
This study investigated the effectiveness of diaphragm biofeedback training (DBT) for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 40 patients with GERD treated at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between September 2004 and July 2006 were randomized to receive DBT and rabeprazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or rabeprazole alone. The DBT + rabeprazole group received DBT during the 8-week initial treatment; the rabeprazole group did not. During the 6-month follow up, all patients took acid suppression according to their reflux symptoms, and the patients in the DBT + rabeprazole group were required to continue DBT. The primary outcome (used for power analysis) was the amount of acid suppression used at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were reflux symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and esophageal motility differences after the 8-week treatment compared with baseline. Acid suppression usage significantly decreased in the DBT + rabeprazole group compared with the rabeprazole group at 6 months (P reflux symptoms and GERD-HRQL were significantly improved in both groups (P gastroesophageal junction pressure (GEJP) significantly increased in the DBT + rabeprazole group (P reflux barrier, providing a non-pharmacological maintenance therapy and reducing medical costs for patients with GERD. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
Miller, Matthew B; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Cahill, Farrell; McCarthy, Heather; Stratton, Shane B D; Noftall, Jennifer C; Buckle, Steven; Basset, Fabien A; Sun, Guang; Button, Duane C
The objective of this study was to determine how a high-intensity circuit-training (HICT) program affects key physiological health markers in sedentary obese men. Eight obese (body fat percentage >26%) males completed a four-week HICT program, consisting of three 30-minute exercise sessions per week, for a total of 6 hours of exercise. Participants' heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rating of perceived exertion, total work (TW), and time to completion were measured each exercise session, body composition was measured before and after HICT, and fasting blood samples were measured before throughout, and after HICT program. Blood sample measurements included total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Statistical significance was set to P < 0.05. Data analyses revealed significant (P < 0.05) improvements in resting HR (16% decrease), systolic BP (5.5% decrease), TW (50.7%), fat tissue percentage (3.6%), lean muscle tissue percentage (2%), cholesterol (13%), triacylglycerol (37%), and insulin (18%) levels from before to after HICT program. Overall, sedentary obese males experienced a significant improvement in biochemical, physical, and body composition characteristics from a HICT program that was only 6 hours of the total exercise.
Maléne E Lindholm
Full Text Available Regularly performed endurance training has many beneficial effects on health and skeletal muscle function, and can be used to prevent and treat common diseases e.g. cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and obesity. The molecular adaptation mechanisms regulating these effects are incompletely understood. To date, global transcriptome changes in skeletal muscles have been studied at the gene level only. Therefore, global isoform expression changes following exercise training in humans are unknown. Also, the effects of repeated interventions on transcriptional memory or training response have not been studied before. In this study, 23 individuals trained one leg for three months. Nine months later, 12 of the same subjects trained both legs in a second training period. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs before and after both training periods. RNA sequencing analysis of all 119 skeletal muscle biopsies showed that training altered the expression of 3,404 gene isoforms, mainly associated with oxidative ATP production. Fifty-four genes had isoforms that changed in opposite directions. Training altered expression of 34 novel transcripts, all with protein-coding potential. After nine months of detraining, no training-induced transcriptome differences were detected between the previously trained and untrained legs. Although there were several differences in the physiological and transcriptional responses to repeated training, no coherent evidence of an endurance training induced transcriptional skeletal muscle memory was found. This human lifestyle intervention induced differential expression of thousands of isoforms and several transcripts from unannotated regions of the genome. It is likely that the observed isoform expression changes reflect adaptational mechanisms and processes that provide the functional and health benefits of regular physical activity.
Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B M; Pedersen, O
exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training...... session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold......The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers...
Conclusion: In sum, expression of ERRα is a trainable factor and its changes are parallel with the increase in expression of lipid metabolism indexes; so, it could have a direct role in endurance training-induced adaptation in fat metabolism.
Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason
Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.
Full Text Available Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7 or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7. They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1–3. The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day, and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise (p < 0.05. In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.
Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Kamei, Akiko; Goto, Kazushige
Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1-3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise ( p < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.
Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette
INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests), and vascular function were also assessed. RESULTS: Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity...... with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], Ptraining modality on muscle...
Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall
High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H
Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.
Bjarnegård, N; Länne, T; Cinthio, M; Ekstrand, J; Hedman, K; Nylander, E; Henriksson, J
To explore whether high-level endurance training in early age has an influence on the arterial wall properties in young women. Forty-seven athletes (ATH) and 52 controls (CTR), all 17-25 years of age, were further divided into runners (RUN), whole-body endurance athletes (WBA), sedentary controls (SC) and normally active controls (AC). Two-dimensional ultrasound scanning of the carotid arteries was conducted to determine local common carotid artery (CCA) geometry and wall distensibility. Pulse waves were recorded with a tonometer to determine regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure waveform. Carotid-radial PWV was lower in WBA than in RUN (P sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, our data suggest that long-term endurance training is associated with potentially favourable peripheral artery adaptation, especially in sports where upper body work is added. This adaptation, if persisting later in life, could contribute to lower cardiovascular risk. © 2018 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wirth, B; Ferreira, T Duarte; Mittelholzer, M; Humphreys, B K; Boutellier, U
Patients with chronic neck pain show also respiratory dysfunctions. To investigate the effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on chronic neck pain. In this pilot study (single-subject design: 3 baseline measurements, 4 measurements during RMET), 15 neck patients (49.3 ± 13.7 years; 13 females) conducted 20 sessions of home-based RMET using a SpiroTiger® (normocapnic hyperpnoea). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory (Pemax) pressure were measured before and after RMET. Neck flexor endurance, cervical and thoracic mobility, forward head posture, chest wall expansion and self-assessed neck disability [Neck Disability Index (NDI), Bournemouth questionnaire] were weekly assessed. Repeated measure ANOVA (Bonferroni correction) compared the first and last baseline and the last measurement after RMET. RMET significantly increased MVV (p= 0.025), Pimax (p= 0.001) and Pemax (pneck pain. The underlying mechanisms, including blood gas analyses, need further investigation in a randomized controlled study.
Mohammad Ali Gharaat
Conclusion: In the situation of the present study, both of Endurance and Interval training regimens increase Hand2 gene expression, heart weight and left ventricle weight. Because of the shorter training time, high intensity interval training can be more beneficial to be executed.
McSwiney, Fionn T; Wardrop, Bruce; Hyde, Parker N; Lafountain, Richard A; Volek, Jeff S; Doyle, Lorna
Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33±11y, body mass 80±11kg; BMI 24.7±3.1kg/m 2 ) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n=11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n=9, 6:17:77). Both groups performed the same training intervention (endurance, strength and high intensity interval training (HIIT)). Prior to and following successful completion of 12-weeks of diet and training, participants had their body composition assessed, and completed a 100km time trial (TT), six second (SS) sprint, and a critical power test (CPT). During post-intervention testing the HC group consumed 30-60g/h carbohydrate, whereas the LCKD group consumed water, and electrolytes. The LCKD group experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass (HC -0.8kg, LCKD -5.9kg; P=0.006, effect size (ES): 0.338) and percentage body fat percentage (HC -0.7%, LCKD -5.2%; P=0.008, ES: 0.346). Fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) significantly increased from 0.1 at baseline to 0.5mmol/L in the LCKD group (P=0.011, ES: 0.403) in week 12. There was no significant change in performance of the 100km TT between groups (HC -1.13min·s, LCKD -4.07min·s, P=0.057, ES: 0.196). SS sprint peak power increased by 0.8 watts per kilogram bodyweight (w/kg) in the LCKD group, versus a -0.1w/kg reduction in the HC group (P=0.025, ES: 0.263). CPT peak power decreased by -0.7w/kg in the HC group, and increased by 1.4w/kg in the LCKD group (P=0.047, ES: 0.212). Fat oxidation in the LCKD group was significantly greater throughout the 100km TT. Compared to a HC comparison group, a 12-week period of keto-adaptation and exercise training, enhanced body composition, fat oxidation during
Fürholz, Monika; Radtke, Thomas; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Wilhelm, Ilca; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias
The risk of sudden death is increased in athletes with a male predominance. Regular physical activity increases vagal tone, and may protect against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in female and male endurance athletes. Runners of a 10-mile race were invited. Of 873 applicants, 68 female and 70 male athletes were randomly selected and stratified according to their average weekly training hours in a low (≤4 h) and high (>4 h) volume training group. Analysis of heart rate variability was performed over 24 h. Spectral components (high frequency [HF] and low frequency [LF] power in normalized units) were analyzed for hourly 5 min segments and averaged for day- and nighttime. One hundred and fourteen athletes (50 % female, mean age 42 ± 7 years) were included. No significant gender difference was observed for training volume and 10-mile race time. Over the 24-h period, female athletes exhibited a higher HF and lower LF power for each hourly time-point. Female gender and endurance training hours were independent predictors of a higher HF and lower LF power. In female athletes, higher training hours were associated with a higher HF and lower LF power during nighttime. In male athletes, the same was true during daytime. In conclusion, female and male athletes showed a different circadian pattern of the training-related increase in markers of vagal tone. For a comparable amount of training volume, female athletes maintained their higher markers of vagal tone, possibly indicating a superior protection against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17 or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17 for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01. Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36. Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63. Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners
Hedlund, Eva R; Lundell, Bo; Söderström, Liselott; Sjöberg, Gunnar
Children after Fontan palliation have reduced exercise capacity and quality of life. Our aim was to study whether endurance training could improve physical capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients. Fontan patients (n=30) and healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects (n=25) performed a 6-minute walk test at submaximal capacity and a maximal cycle ergometer test. Quality of life was assessed with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 questionnaires for children and parents. All tests were repeated after a 12-week endurance training programme and after 1 year. Patients had decreased submaximal and maximal exercise capacity (maximal oxygen uptake 35.0±5.1 ml/minute per·kg versus 43.7±8.4 ml/minute·per·kg, pquality of life score (70.9±9.9 versus 85.7±8.0, pimproved their submaximal exercise capacity in a 6-minute walk test (from 590.7±65.5 m to 611.8±70.9 m, pquality of life (pimprove maximal exercise capacity. At follow-up, submaximal exercise capacity had increased further and improved quality of life was sustained. The controls improved their maximal exercise capacity (pquality of life after training. At follow-up, improvement of maximal exercise capacity was sustained. We believe that an individualised endurance training programme for Fontan patients improves submaximal exercise capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients and the effect on quality of life appears to be long-lasting.
Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.
In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869
Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M
In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.
J. C. Redondo
Full Text Available
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether a strength endurance training program of lower limbs isolate can increase endurance levels, both aerobic capacity and aerobic power, in order to adapt the strength training for endurance races. 20 phisically active men participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: control group (GC (n=10 and experimental group (GE (n=10. GE carried out a strength endurance training program for ten weeks. Results obtained showed that this type of training regime was useful to improve the performance in an aerobic endurance test. This could be due to an improvement in aerobic capacity, maximal dynamic strength, explosive strength and reactive strength. Moreover, there was a decrease in fat mass without increase in muscle mass.
Key Words: Training, strength endurance, aerobic capacity, anthropometry.
El presente estudio pretende comprobar que el trabajo aislado de la fuerza resistencia en miembros inferiores produce una mejora de los niveles de resistencia, en términos tanto de potencia como de capacidad aeróbica, optimizando así el entrenamiento de la fuerza para pruebas de resistencia de media y larga duración. Para ello, veinte sujetos participaron en el estudio, dividiéndose de forma aleatoria en dos grupos: grupo control (GC (n=10 y grupo experimental (GE (n=10 el cual llevó a cabo un entrenamiento de fuerza resistencia extensivo por intervalos, de diez semanas de duración. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que este tipo de entrenamiento es efectivo para mejorar el rendimiento en una prueba de resistencia aeróbica para sujetos físicamente activos, gracias a la mejora de la capacidad aeróbica, de la fuerza máxima dinámica, elástico explosiva y elástico explosivo reactiva y a la disminución de los niveles de grasa
Ploug, T.; Stallknecht, B.M.; Pedersen, O.; Kahn, B.B.; Ohkuwa, T.; Vinten, J.; Galbo, H.
The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters
Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.
Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.
Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin
The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how
Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao
This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GM AT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GM AT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GM AT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, Prunning performance. These findings suggest that longer AT, especially GM AT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Exercise promotes numerous phenotypic adaptations in skeletal muscle that contribute to improved function and metabolic capacity. An emerging body of evidence suggests that skeletal muscle also releases a myriad of factors during exercise, termed “myokines”. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the acute regulation of the mRNA expression of several myokines, including the prototypical myokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, and recently identified myokines fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5 (irisin and meteorin-like protein (METRNL. Methods: Both before and after a 20-day period of twice-daily high-volume HIIT, 9 healthy males (20.5 ± 1.5 years performed a standardized bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 5 × 4 min at ~80% pretraining peak power output with skeletal muscle biopsy samples (vastus lateralis obtained at rest, immediately following exercise, and at 3 h recovery. Results: Before training, a single bout of HIIE increased IL-6 (p < 0.05 and METRNL (p < 0.05 mRNA expression measured at 3 h recovery when compared to rest. Following 20 days of HIIT, IL-6 and FNDC5 mRNA were increased at 3 h recovery from the standardized HIIE bout when compared to rest (both p < 0.05. Resting METRNL and FNDC5 mRNA expression were higher following training (p < 0.05, and there was an overall increase in FNDC5 mRNA post-training (main effect of training, p < 0.05. Conclusion: In human skeletal muscle (1 an acute bout of HIIE can induce upregulation of skeletal muscle IL-6 mRNA both before and after a period of intensified HIIT; (2 Resting and overall FNDC5 mRNA expression is increased by 20 days of HIIT; and (3 METRNL mRNA expression is responsive to both acute HIIE and short-term intense HIIT. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings at the protein and secretion level in humans. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue
Turner, M J; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Ehsani, A A
It is not known whether exercise training can induce a reduction of blood pressure (BP) and a regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in older hypertensive subjects. This study was designed to determine whether endurance exercise training, by lowering BP, can induce regression of LVH and left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling in older hypertensive adults. We studied 11 older adults with mild to moderate hypertension (BP 152.0 +/- 2.5/91.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg, mean +/- SE), 65.5 +/- 1.2 years old, who exercised for 6.8 +/- 3.8 months. Seven sedentary hypertensive (BP 153 +/- 3/89 +/- 2 mm Hg) subjects, 68.5 +/- 1 years old, served as controls. LV size and geometry and function were assessed with the use of two-dimensional echocardiography. Exercise training increased aerobic power by 16% (p hypertension.
Werle, E.O.; Strobel, G.; Weicker, H.
The cardiac β-adrenoceptor adaptation to physical activity was investigated in rats which were subjected to a six-week endurance swimming training (ET; n=7) and a training of high intensity (MT; n=7). In addition, the effect of a single bout of endurance exercise without preceding training (EE; n=7) was evaluated. These groups were compared with a sedentary control group (C; n=9). Beta-adrenergic receptors in rat myocardial membranes were labelled using the high affinity antagonist radioligand (-) 125 iodocyanopindolol (ICYP). Computer modelling techniques provided estimates of the maximal binding capacity (B max ) and the dissociation constants (K D ). Tissue was constantly kept at temperatures of ≤4 degrees C and incubated at 4 degrees C for 18 h in buffer containing 100 μM GTP so as to prevent masking of β-adrenoceptors by endogenous norepinephrine. In comparison with the C group computerized coanalyses of saturation binding data of ET, MT, and EE revealed a 13.0%, 25.5%, and 16.6% decrease in B max , respectively, without significantly differing K D values. We provide the first evidence that acute exercise lowers the sarcolemmal β-adrenoceptor number in the rat heart. In the competition radioligand binding, CGP20712A and ICI118.551 were employed as subtype-selective antagonists of β 1 - and β 2 -adrenoceptors, respectively, to determine the relative proportions of the receptor subtypes
Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto
Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)
Seeley, Karen M.
This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…
Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...
F Marcello Iaia
Full Text Available In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6 or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7 training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6-8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6-8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01 the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p<0.01 and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.07±1.28 to 3.55±1.01% but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.81±2.37 to 84.65±2.27 s. The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001 and 3.8% (p<0.05 higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in
Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A; Majerczak, J; Grandys, M; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Duda, K
It is believed that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal growth, transmission, modulation and plasticity. Single bout of exercise can increase plasma BDNF concentration [BDNF](p) in humans. It was recently reported however, that elevated [BDNF](p) positively correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group of subjects. On the other hand it is well established that endurance training decreases the risk of diabetes and development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have examined the effect of 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training on the basal and the exercise induced changes in [BDNF](p) in humans. Thirteen young, healthy and physically active men (mean +/- S.E: age 22.7 +/- 0.5 yr, body height 180.2 +/- 1.7 cm, body weight 77.0 +/- 2.5 kg, V(O2max) 45.29 +/- 0.93 ml x kg-1 x min(-1)) performed a five week endurance cycling training program, composed mainly of moderate intensity bouts. Before training [BDNF]p at rest have amounted to 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1). No effect of a single maximal incremental cycling up to V(O2max) on its concentration was found (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1), P=0.74). The training resulted in a significant (P=0.01) increase in [BDNF]p at rest to 16.8 +/- 2.1 pg x ml(-1), as well as in significant (P=0.0002) exercise induced increase in the [BDNF](p) (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1) before training vs. 68.4 +/- 16.0 pg x ml(-1) after training). The training induced increase in resting [BDNF](p) was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance (P=0.25), calculated using the homeostatic model assessment version 2 (HOMA2-IR), amounting to 1.40 +/- 0.13 before and 1.15 +/- 0.13 after the training. Moreover, we have found that the basal [BDNF](p) in athletes (n=16) was significantly higher than in untrained subjects (n=13) (29.5 +/- 9.5 pg x ml(-1) vs. 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1), P=0.013). We have concluded that endurance training of
Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Hesse, Clemens; Claen, Stephanie; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K
Winter weather conditions restrict regular sport-specific endurance training in inline speed skating. As a result, this study was designed to compare the effects of cycling and running training programs on inline speed skaters' endurance performance. Sixteen (8 men, 8 women) high-level athletes (mean ± SD 24 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (running and cycling). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, one group on a treadmill and the other on a cycle ergometer. Training intensity and duration was individually calculated (maximal fat oxidation: ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 500 kcal per session). Before and after the training intervention, all athletes performed an incremental specific (inline speed skating) and 1 nonspecific (cycling or running) step test according to the group affiliation. In addition to blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), ventilatory equivalent (VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were measured. The specific posttest revealed significantly increased absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values (2.9 ± 0.4, 3.4 ± 0.7, p = 0.01) and submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values (p ≤ 0.01). VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER significantly decreased at maximal (46.6 ± 6.6, 38.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.005; 1.1 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) and submaximal intensities (p ≤ 0.04). None of the analysis revealed a significant group effect (p ≥ 0.15). The results indicate that both cycling vs. running exercise at ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak had a positive effect on the athletes' endurance performance. The increased submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values indicate a reduction in athletes' inline speed skating technique. Therefore, athletes would benefit from a focus on technique training in the subsequent period.
A Mohammadi Domiyeh
Resistance training performed 3 three d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65–80% of one-repetition maximum, 8-12 repetitions and 2-4 sets for 8 weeks. Endurance training group, underwent an 8-week intervention with a frequency of 3 d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65, – 80% maximum heart rate for 20- – 38 minutes. Expressing lipocalin-2 plasma levels in samples were measured before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Plasma expressing level of lipocalin 2 in the control group before and after intervention, were respectively 11./1 ± 4./5 & 13./05 ± 2/.04, µg/L, respectively. The plasma level of lipocalin 2 and in the endurance training group, were 22./7 ± 8/.3 & and 17/.7 ± 6/.8 , and while these level werein the resistance training group 22/.2 ± 6/.2 & 19/.9 ± 6/.5 in the resistance training group. micrograms per liter, which was not statistically different.The differences between three groups were not statistically significant (p>0/.05. Conclusion: This study showed that 8 eight weeks of endurance & and resistance exercise training has no effect on lipocalin-2 plasma levels. Key words: Resistance training, Endurance training, Lipocalin-2, Insulin Resistance
Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Monika; Kusy, Krzysztof; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Jacek
An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RBC, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and RBC distribution width (RDW) were determined in four characteristic training phases (transition, general subphase of the preparation phase, specific subphase of the preparation phase and competition phase). Our main findings are that (1) Hb, MCH and MCHC in triathletes and MCV in both triathletes and sprinters changed significantly over the annual training cycle, (2) triathletes had significantly higher values than sprinters only in case of MCH and MCHC after the transition and general preparation phases but not after the competition phase when MCH and MCHC were higher in sprinters and (3) in triathletes, Hb, MCH and MCHC substantially decreased after the competition phase, which was not observed in sprinters. The athletes maintained normal ranges of all haematological parameters in four characteristic training phases. Although highly-trained sprinters and triathletes do not significantly differ in their levels of most haematological parameters, these groups are characterized by different patterns of changes during the annual training cycle. Our results suggest that when interpreting the values of haematological parameters in speed-power and endurance
Iwasaki, Ken-Ichi; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H; Levine, Benjamin D
Occupational or recreational exercise reduces mortality from cardiovascular disease. The potential mechanisms for this reduction may include changes in blood pressure (BP) and autonomic control of the circulation. Therefore, we conducted the present long-term longitudinal study to quantify the dose-response relationship between the volume and intensity of exercise training, and regulation of heart rate (HR) and BP. We measured steady-state hemodynamics and analyzed dynamic cardiovascular regulation by spectral and transfer function analysis of cardiovascular variability in 11 initially sedentary subjects during 1 yr of progressive endurance training sufficient to allow them to complete a marathon. From this, we found that 1) moderate exercise training for 3 mo decreased BP, HR, and total peripheral resistance, and increased cardiovascular variability and arterial baroreflex sensitivity; 2) more prolonged and intense training did not augment these changes further; and 3) most of these changes returned to control values at 12 mo despite markedly increased training duration and intensity equivalent to that routinely observed in competitive athletes. In conclusion, increases in R-wave-R-wave interval and cardiovascular variability indexes are consistent with an augmentation of vagal modulation of HR after exercise training. It appears that moderate doses of training for 3 mo are sufficient to achieve this response as well as a modest hypotensive effect from decreasing vascular resistance. However, more prolonged and intense training does not necessarily lead to greater enhancement of circulatory control and, therefore, may not provide an added protective benefit via autonomic mechanisms against death by cardiovascular disease.
Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin
Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Boudreau, Anik; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, Claude
A genome-wide linkage scan for endurance training-induced changes in submaximal exercise stroke volume (DeltaSV50) in the HERITAGE Family Study revealed two chromosomal regions (2q31-q32 and 10p11.2) with at least suggestive evidence of linkage among white families. Here we report a further characterization of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in chromosome 2q31 and provide evidence that titin (TTN) is likely a candidate gene involved. The original linkage was detected with two markers (D2S335 and D2S1391), and the QTL covered approximately 25 million base pairs (Mb). We added 12 microsatellite markers resulting in an average marker density of one marker per 2.3 Mb. The evidence of linkage increased from P = 0.006 to P = 0.0002 and 0.00002 in the multi- and single-point analyses, respectively. The strongest evidence of linkage was seen with two markers in and near the TTN gene. Transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) with the same marker set provided evidence for association with one of the TTN markers (D2S385; P = 0.004). TTN is a major contributor to the elasticity of cardiomyocytes and a key regulator of the Frank-Starling mechanism. Since TTN is the largest gene in the human genome, the challenge is to identify the DNA sequence variants contributing to the interindividual differences in cardiac adaptation to endurance training.
Mohammad Reza Nikou
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to measure of cardiac rehabilitation program (Endurance & Resistance training effect on physical functioning as well as its exact effect on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar of cardiovascular patients. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental and interventional study 20 patients who arrived to phase II cardiac rehabilitation after their first cardiovascular accident were selected conveniently and participated in this prospective study. Anthropometrics' measurements, FBS and blood lipid, 6–MWT were performed at the beginning and at the end of 8 weeks program (3 days per week for 24 sessions. Data were analyzed by Paired T test. Results: Except for low–density lipoprotein (LDL (P=0.087 and FBS (P=0.072, all other biochemical indices [total cholesterol (TC (P=0.019, high–density lipoprotein (HDL (P=0.019, and triglyceride (TG (P=0.009], functional capacity (6MWT (P<0.001 and measurment of rate pressure product with Borg scale (P=0.008, and also obesity indices including weight (P=0.031 and subcutaneus fat (P=0.017 had significant response to cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP. Conclusion: These results support the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation program such as endurance and resistance training to reduce overall risk in obese patients with coronary heart disease, and increase physical capacity.
Pedro B. Junior, Vitor L. de Andrade, Eduardo Z. Campos, Carlos A. Kalva-Filho, Alessandro M. Zagatto, Gustavo G. de Araújo, Marcelo Papoti
Full Text Available Due to the controversy about the sensitive of lactate minimum intensity (LMI to training and the need to develop other tool for aerobic fitness evaluation, the purpose of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of glucose minimum intensity (GMI and LMI to endurance training. Eight trained male cyclists (21.4 ± 1.9 years, 67.6 ± 7.5 kg and 1.72 ± 0.10 m were evaluated twice, before and after 12 weeks of training. GMI and LMI were calculated, respectively, by the lowest blood glucose and lactate values attained during an incremental test performed after a hyperlactemia induction, and VO2max was determined during standard incremental effort. The training was prescribed in three different zones and controlled by heart rate (HR. The training distribution was equivalent to 59.7%, 25.0% and 15.3% below, at and above anaerobic threshold HR respectively. The anaerobic threshold evaluated by GMI and LMI improvement 9.89 ± 4.35% and 10.28 ± 9.89 respectively, after training, but the VO2max 2.52 ± 1.81%. No differences were found between GMI and LMI in pre (218.2 ± 22.1 vs 215.0 ± 18.6 W and post (240.6 ± 22.9 vs 237.5 ± 18.8 W training situations. LMI and GMI were sensitive to 12-week aerobic training in cyclist; thus, both protocols can be used to assess aerobic adaptation, athletes diagnostic and prescribe training.
Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbæk, Thomas
Resistance training (RT) is thought to be effective in preventing muscle depletion, whereas endurance training (ET) is known to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objectives were to assess the efficiency...... improvements in HRQoL, walking distance and exercise capacity. However, we found moderate quality evidence of a significant increase in leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT and ET (standardized mean difference of 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.98). In conclusion, we found significantly...... increased leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT with ET compared with ET alone. Therefore, we recommend that RT should be incorporated in rehabilitation of COPD together with ET....
Kurt J Sollanek
Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention for many critically ill patients. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. Importantly, endurance exercise training results in a diaphragmatic phenotype that is protected against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. The mechanisms responsible for this exercise-induced protection against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy remain unknown. Therefore, to investigate exercise-induced changes in diaphragm muscle proteins, we compared the diaphragmatic proteome from sedentary and exercise-trained rats. Specifically, using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed a proteomics analysis of both soluble proteins and mitochondrial proteins isolated from diaphragm muscle. The total number of diaphragm proteins profiled in the soluble protein fraction and mitochondrial protein fraction were 813 and 732, respectively. Endurance exercise training significantly (P<0.05, FDR <10% altered the abundance of 70 proteins in the soluble diaphragm proteome and 25 proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, key cytoprotective proteins that increased in relative abundance following exercise training included mitochondrial fission process 1 (Mtfp1; MTP18, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MPST, microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (Mgst3; GST-III, and heat shock protein 70 kDa protein 1A/1B (HSP70. While these proteins are known to be cytoprotective in several cell types, the cyto-protective roles of these proteins have yet to be fully elucidated in diaphragm muscle fibers. Based upon these important findings, future experiments can now determine which of these diaphragmatic proteins are sufficient and/or required to promote exercise-induced protection against inactivity-induced muscle atrophy.
Berger, N J A; Rittweger, J; Kwiet, A; Michaelis, I; Williams, A G; Tolfrey, K; Jones, A M
The purpose of this study was to characterise the VO2 kinetic response to moderate intensity cycle exercise in endurance-trained (END) and sprint or power-trained (SPR) track and field master athletes ranging in age from 45 to 85 years. We hypothesised that the time constant (tau) describing the Phase II VO2 on-response would be smaller in the END compared to the SPR athletes, and that the tau would become greater with increasing age in both groups. Eighty-four master athletes who were competing at either the British or European Veteran Athletics Championships acted as subjects, and were classified as either END (800 m - marathon; n = 41), or SPR (100 - 400 m and field events; n = 43) specialists. Subjects completed two 6 minute "step" transitions to a work rate of moderate intensity on a cycle ergometer and pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath. Analysis of variance revealed that SPR athletes had slower VO2 on-kinetics (i.e., greater tau) compared to END athletes at each of the age groups studied: 46 - 55 yrs (END: 25 +/- 6 vs. SPR: 36 +/- 9 s; p kinetics became slower with advancing age in the SPR athletes (p kinetics in SPR compared to END master athletes is consistent both with differences in physiology (e.g., muscle fibre type, oxidative/glycolytic capacity) and training between these specialist athletes. Master END athletes have similar tau values to their younger counterparts (approximately 25 s) suggesting that participation in endurance exercise training limits the slowing of VO2 on-kinetics with age in this population.
The report investigates the short-term memory capacity of echo state recurrent neural networks. A quantitative measure MC of short-term memory capacity is introduced. The main result is that MC 5 N for networks with linear Output units and i.i.d. input, where N is network size. Conditions under which these maximal memory capacities are realized are described. Several theoretical and practical examples demonstrate how the short-term memory capacities of echo state networks can be exploited for...
Westhoff, T H; Franke, N; Schmidt, S; Vallbracht-Israng, K; Zidek, W; Dimeo, F; van der Giet, M
Aerobic physical exercise is broadly recommended as a helpful adjunct to obtain blood pressure control in hypertension. Beta-blockade interacts with heart rate, sympathetic tone, maximal workload and local lactate production. In the present randomized-controlled study, we compared the cardiovascular effects of an endurance training programme in elderly hypertensives with or without beta-blockers and developed a first approach to determine a lactate-based training heart rate in presence of beta-blockade. Fifty-two patients (23 with beta-blocker, 29 without beta-blocker) > or =60 years with systolic 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) > or =140 mm Hg and/or antihypertensive treatment were randomly assigned to sedentary activity or a heart-rate controlled 12-week treadmill exercise programme (lactate 2.0 mmol/l). In the exercise group, the training significantly decreased systolic and diastolic 24-h ABP, blood pressure on exertion (100 W) and increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation (flow-mediated vasodilation, FMD) and physical performance both in the presence and absence of beta-blockade (Pendurance training evokes comparable cardiovascular benefits in the presence and absence of beta-blockade including a marked improvement of endothelial function. In the present study, target training heart rate with beta-blockers is about 18% lower than without.
Full Text Available Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control, peak power training (PT, or both peak power and endurance training (PET, which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training.
Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina
Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was
Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871
Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders
Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine me...... and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (P...
Full Text Available Regular endurance training improves muscle oxidative capacity and reduces the risk of age-related disorders. Understanding the molecular networks underlying this phenomenon is crucial. Here, by exploiting the power of computational modeling, we show that endurance training induces profound changes in gene regulatory networks linking signaling and selective control of translation to energy metabolism and tissue remodeling. We discovered that knockdown of the mTOR-independent factor Eif6, which we predicted to be a key regulator of this process, affects mitochondrial respiration efficiency, ROS production, and exercise performance. Our work demonstrates the validity of a data-driven approach to understanding muscle homeostasis.
Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin
Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...
Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V
Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects
Full Text Available Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8, a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8, or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9. Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0, sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78, repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91, 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45, endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37, and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58, whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.
Rosas, Fabián; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martínez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; McCrudden, Emma; Meylan, Cesar; Moran, Jason; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu; Diaz, Daniela; Izquierdo, Mikel
Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years) were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8), a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8), or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9). Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0), sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78), repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91), 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45), endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37), and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58), whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.
Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Sztefko, K; Zoladz, J A
The objective of this study was to establish the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on muscle strength in relation to hormonal changes in the body. Fifteen young, healthy men took part in 5 week endurance training performed on a cycloergometer. Before and after training program, exercise testing sessions were performed involving all participants. Training program significantly increased V(O2 max) (P<0.05) and time to fatigue at 50% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (TTF 50% MVC), P<0.03, but it did not affect maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). This was accompanied by an increase (P<0.001) in total plasma testosterone (T) and free testosterone (fT) concentrations, whereas a decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P<0.02), growth hormone (P<0.05), free triiodothyronine (P<0.001) and free thyroxine (P<0.02) concentrations was observed. No changes were found in plasma cortisol (C) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. Additionally, MVC was positively correlated to T/C, fT/C and IGF-I/C ratios after the training, whereas time to fatigue at 50% of MVC was closely positively correlated to the SHBG concentration, both before and after endurance training. We have concluded that moderate intensity endurance training resulting in a significant increase in V(O2 max), did not affect the MVC, but it significantly increased time to fatigue at 50% of MVC. This index of local muscular endurance was greater in subjects with higher concentration of SHBG, both before and after the training.
Heinicke, Ilmar; Boehler, Annette; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Bogdanova, Anna; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Hofer, Markus; Rawlings, Pablo; Araneda, Oscar F; Behn, Claus; Gassmann, Max; Heinicke, Katja
Oxidative stress occurs at altitude, and physical exertion might enhance this stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and moderate altitude on redox balance in ten endurance exercising biathletes, and five sedentary volunteers during a 6-week-stay at 2,800 m. As a marker for oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was analyzed by the biosensor measuring system Ecocheck, and 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso PGF2alpha) was determined by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). To determine the whole blood antioxidative capacity, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymatically using Ellman's reagent. Exercising athletes and sedentary volunteers showed increased levels of oxidative markers at moderate altitude, contrary to our expectations; there was no difference between both groups. Therefore, all subjects' data were pooled to examine the oxidative stress response exclusively due to altitude exposure. H(2)O(2) levels increased at altitude and remained elevated for 3 days after returning to sea level (p altitude, but declined immediately after returning to sea level (p altitude resulted in elevated GSH levels (p altitude (p altitude for up to 6 weeks increases markers of oxidative stress in EBC independent of additional endurance training. Notably, this oxidative stress is still detectable 3 days upon return to sea level.
Brinkmann, Christian; Przyklenk, Axel; Metten, Alexander; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara; Gehlert, Sebastian
Mitophagy is a form of autophagy for the elimination of mitochondria. Mitochondrial content and function are reduced in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Physical training has been shown to restore mitochondrial capacity in T2DM patients, but the role of mitophagy has not been examined in this context. This study analyzes the impact of a 3-month endurance training on important skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in T2DM patients. Muscle biopsies were obtained from eight overweight/obese T2DM men (61±10 years) at T1 (6 weeks pre-training), T2 (1 week pre-training), and T3 (3 to 4 days post-training). Protein contents were determined by Western blotting. The training increased mitochondrial complex II significantly (T2-T3: +29%, p = 0.037). The protein contents of mitophagy regulatory proteins (phosphorylated form of forkhead box O3A (pFOXO3A), mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase-1 (MUL1), Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kD interacting protein-3 (BNIP3), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (the ratio LC3B-II/LC3B-I was determined)) did not differ significantly between T1, T2, and T3. The results imply that training-induced changes in OXPHOS subunits (significant increase in complex II) are not accompanied by changes in mitophagy regulatory proteins in T2DM men. Future studies should elucidate whether acute exercise might affect mitophagic processes in T2DM patients (and whether a transient regulation of mitophagy regulatory proteins is evident) to fully clarify the role of physical activity and mitophagy for mitochondrial health in this particular patient group.
Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ball, Samuel A.; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.
Objectives To evaluate the durability of effects of a computer assisted version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as treatment for substance dependence through a 6 month follow-up. Methods Following a randomized clinical trial in which 73 individuals seeking outpatient treatment for substance dependence in an outpatient community setting were randomized to either standard treatment-as-usual (TAU) or TAU with 8 weeks of biweekly access to computer-based training for CBT (CBT4CBT), participants were interviewed one, three, and six months after the termination of study treatments. Results Sixty of the 73 participants were reached for follow-up (82%); follow up rates and availability of data were comparable across treatment conditions. Random regression analyses of use across time indicated significant differences between groups, such that those assigned to TAU increased their drug use across time while those assigned to CBT4CBT tended to improve slightly. The durability of the CBT4CBT effect remained even after controlling for treatment retention, treatment substance use outcomes, and exposure to other treatment during the follow-up period. Conclusions Computerized CBT4CBT appears to have both short-term and enduring effects on drug use. PMID:19041197
Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes. Key points The manner in which each training background (endurance vs. sprint) influences the response to HIIT is not well known. Despite the identical exercise intensity in relative terms, endurance
Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Reichkendler, M H; Auerbach, P
enzymes determined by Western blotting. PFO increased in both MOD [1.2 mg/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/min, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08:2.3, P = 0.03] and HIGH (1.8 mg/kg FFM/min, CI: 0.6:2.9, P ..., and mitochondrial oxphos complexes II-V increased similarly in MOD and HIGH. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with backward elimination of individual variables correlated with changes in PFO revealed increases in cycling efficiency, FFM, and VO2 peak as the remaining associated variables. In conclusion......, PFO during exercise increased with both moderate- and high-dose endurance training. Increases in PFO were mainly predicted by changes in VO2 peak, FFM, and cycling efficiency, and less with skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzymes....
Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; González-Jurado, José Antonio; Martínez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Peñailillo, Luis; Meylan, Cesar M P; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; Moran, Jason; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel
To investigate the effects of a six-week plyometric training and creatine supplementation intervention on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during in-season training. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Young (age 22.9±2.5y) female players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to a plyometric training group receiving placebo (PLACEBO, n=10), a plyometric training group receiving creatine supplementation (CREATINE, n=10) or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric program (CONTROL, n=10). Athletes were evaluated for jumping, maximal and repeated sprinting, endurance and change-of-direction speed performance before and after six weeks of training. After intervention the CONTROL group did not change, whereas both plyometric training groups improved jumps (ES=0.25-0.49), sprint (ES=0.35-0.41), repeated sprinting (ES=0.48-0.55), endurance (ES=0.32-0.34) and change-of-direction speed performance (ES=0.46-0.55). However, the CREATINE group improved more in the jumps and repeated sprinting performance tests than the CONTROL and the PLACEBO groups. Adaptations to plyometric training may be enhanced with creatine supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Etindele Sosso, Faustin Armel
Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning. The findings also suggested the interplay between primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. The properties inside a visual target shape the perception and affect the basic encoding. Using visual cortex, it may be possible to train the memory and improve the recovery of people with cognitive disabilities or memory deficit.
Irwin, David E
The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.
Full Text Available Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p=0.047 and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p=0.03. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.
Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene
Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809
Marcos L M Gomes
Full Text Available The species Heteropterys aphrodisiaca is commonly used as a stimulant by popular medicine in the Cerrado, a savanna-like biome, Brazil. Recent studies have proved its protective effects on testes of animals submitted to treatment using Cyclosporine A, as well as its stimulus effect in increasing testosterone secretion. Therefore, the present study was designed to analyze whether the association of the plant infusion and endurance exercise could potentiate the stimulating effect. The animals were separated into 4 groups: two control (sedentary and trained receiving water and two treated (sedentary and trained receiving the plant infusion daily (104mg/day. The proportion of the seminiferous tubule compartment and interstitium was analyzed. Within the seminiferous epithelium, the number of Sertoli and germ cells were counted in order to evaluate whether the treatment would alter the spermatogenic dynamics, analyzing: the spermatogenic yield, the mitotic and meiotic indexes, the total number of germ cells and the Sertoli cell support capacity. Trained and treated animals showed increased spermatogenic yield and spermatogonia mitosis, and no significant differences in apoptotic indexes. Despite the results showing the same pattern regarding yield and mitotic index, the meiotic index was higher in the sedentary/treated group. Therefore, the H. aphrodisiaca infusion increased both the testosterone production and the spermatogonia mitosis, thus increasing the spermatogenic yield.
Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene
This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (-20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (-17.9%; p = 0.03). This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.
Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens
The aim of the study was, in runners accustomed to speed endurance training (SET), to examine the effect of increased and maintained frequency of SET on performance and muscular adaptations. After familiarization (FAM) to SET, eighteen male (n=14) and female (n=4) runners (VO2-max: 57.3±3.4 ml·mi...
Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs
following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that mTOR is preferentially activated in response to resistance exercise compared to endurance exercise in trained individuals without concomitant activation of Akt. In the present study, we extended this investigation by examining IκB kinase complex (IKK...
Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel
In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.
Ida Beate Ø Østhus
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO(2max are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO(2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise training and VO(2max in younger and older people. METHODS: Twenty men; 10 young (22-27 years and 10 old (66-77 years, were studied in this cross-sectional study. Five out of 10 young adults and 5 out of 10 older were endurance athletes, while other halves were exercising at a medium level of activity. Mean telomere length was measured as telomere/single copy gene-ratio (T/S-ratio using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. VO(2max was measured directly running on a treadmill. RESULTS: Older endurance trained athletes had longer telomere length compared with older people with medium activity levels (T/S ratio 1.12±0.1 vs. 0.92±0.2, p = 0.04. Telomere length of young endurance trained athletes was not different than young non-athletes (1.47±0.2 vs. 1.33±0.1, p = 0.12. Overall, there was a positive association between T/S ratio and VO(2max (r = 0.70, p = 0.001. Among endurance trained athletes, we found a strong correlation between VO(2max and T/S ratio (r = 0.78, p = 0.02. However, corresponding association among non-athlete participants was relatively weak (r = 0.58, p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that VO(2max is positively associated with telomere length, and we found that long-term endurance exercise training may provide a protective effect on muscle telomere length in older people.
Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Broniarek, Izabela; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Ogrodna, Karolina; Majerczak, Joanna; Celichowski, Jan; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa
We studied the effects of various assay temperatures, representing hypothermia (25°C), normothermia (35°C), and hyperthermia (42°C), on the oxidation of lipid-derived fuels in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria of untrained and endurance-trained rats. Adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a training group (rats trained on a treadmill for 8 weeks) or a sedentary control group. In skeletal muscle mitochondria of both control and trained rats, an increase in the assay temperature from 25°C to 42°C was accompanied by a consistent increase in the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine and glycerol-3-phosphate. Moreover, endurance training increased mitochondrial capacity to oxidize the lipid-derived fuels at all studied temperatures. The endurance training-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity to oxidize fatty acids was accompanied by an enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, as shown by the elevated expression levels of Nrf2, PGC1α, and mitochondrial marker and by the elevated expression levels of mitochondrial proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as fatty acid transporter CD36, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADS). We conclude that hyperthermia enhances but hypothermia attenuates the rate of the oxidation of fatty acids and glycerol-3-phosphate in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from both untrained and trained rats. Moreover, our results indicate that endurance training up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis markers, lipid-sustained oxidative capacity, and CD36 and CPT1A proteins involved in fatty acid transport, possibly via PGC1α and Nrf2 signaling pathways.
Jerzy A Zoladz
Full Text Available We studied the effects of various assay temperatures, representing hypothermia (25°C, normothermia (35°C, and hyperthermia (42°C, on the oxidation of lipid-derived fuels in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria of untrained and endurance-trained rats. Adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a training group (rats trained on a treadmill for 8 weeks or a sedentary control group. In skeletal muscle mitochondria of both control and trained rats, an increase in the assay temperature from 25°C to 42°C was accompanied by a consistent increase in the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine and glycerol-3-phosphate. Moreover, endurance training increased mitochondrial capacity to oxidize the lipid-derived fuels at all studied temperatures. The endurance training-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity to oxidize fatty acids was accompanied by an enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, as shown by the elevated expression levels of Nrf2, PGC1α, and mitochondrial marker and by the elevated expression levels of mitochondrial proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as fatty acid transporter CD36, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A, and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADS. We conclude that hyperthermia enhances but hypothermia attenuates the rate of the oxidation of fatty acids and glycerol-3-phosphate in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from both untrained and trained rats. Moreover, our results indicate that endurance training up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis markers, lipid-sustained oxidative capacity, and CD36 and CPT1A proteins involved in fatty acid transport, possibly via PGC1α and Nrf2 signaling pathways.
The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.
Elizabeth L. Earhart, Edward P. Weiss, Rabia Rahman, Patrick V. Kelly
Full Text Available Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS during one trial and placebo (PL during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials. Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr-1 during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459. Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress (“warm/hot” ratings but were not different between trials (p = 0.825. Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919. Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05. High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse
Verstappen, F T; Janssen, G M; Does, R J
One hundred fourteen subjects (34 +/- 8 years) without any competition background took part in an endurance training study to be completed after 1.5 years with running a marathon. Ultimately, 60 males and 18 females achieved that goal. The training program, carefully supervised, was divided into three phases with a maximum of 45, 70, and 110 km/week training volume and concluded with a performance race of 15, 25, and 42.195 km, respectively. Three days before and 3 and 5 days after each race, 35 subjects were selected to perform a progressive treadmill test and the remaining subjects participated in performing field tests of running 400 and 1000 m. The maximal velocity achieved in the treadmill test was 4.75 +/- 0.36 m.s-1 for males and 4.18 +/- 0.28 m.s-1 for females; it remained constant throughout the study. However, the running velocity at 4 mmol.1(-1) plasma lactate concentration increased about 10% from phase 1 to 3. In the females this rise already appeared to be completed in phase 2. Heart rate showed a tendency to increase at both submaximal and maximal exercise from training phase 1 to 2 and 3, whereas plasma lactate concentration showed a decreasing tendency. Three days after the 25 km and the marathon race the maximal running velocity in the exercise test was 2%-4% lower compared with the pre-race test (P less than 0.05). Five days after the race this difference again faded away. This small decline in running performance was not reflected in changes of physiologic responses such as heart rate or plasma lactate concentration.
Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Falla, Deborah; Negro, Francesco; Mayer, Frank; Farina, Dario
Using a novel technique of high-density surface EMG decomposition and motor unit (MU) tracking, we compared changes in the properties of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis MU after endurance (END) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen men were assigned to the END or the HIIT group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions for 14 d. Each session consisted of 8-12 × 60-s intervals at 100% peak power output separated by 75 s of recovery (HIIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at ~65% V˙O2peak (END). Pre- and postintervention, participants performed 1) incremental cycling to determine V˙O2peak and peak power output and 2) maximal, submaximal (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximum voluntary contraction [MVC]), and sustained (until task failure at 30% MVC) isometric knee extensions while high-density surface EMG signals were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. EMG signals were decomposed (submaximal contractions) into individual MU by convolutive blind source separation. Finally, MU were tracked across sessions by semiblind source separation. After training, END and HIIT improved V˙O2peak similarly (by 5.0% and 6.7%, respectively). The HIIT group showed enhanced maximal knee extension torque by ~7% (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by an increase in discharge rate for high-threshold MU (≥50% knee extension MVC) (P 0.05). HIIT and END induce different adjustments in MU discharge rate despite similar improvements in cardiopulmonary fitness. Moreover, the changes induced by HIIT are specific for high-threshold MU. For the first time, we show that HIIT and END induce specific neuromuscular adaptations, possibly related to differences in exercise load intensity and training volume.
Garciarena, Carolina D; Pinilla, Oscar A; Nolly, Mariela B; Laguens, Ruben P; Escudero, Eduardo M; Cingolani, Horacio E; Ennis, Irene L
The effect of endurance training (swimming 90 min/d for 5 days a week for 60 days) on cardiac hypertrophy was investigated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Sedentary SHRs (SHR-Cs) and normotensive Wistar rats were used as controls. Exercise training enhanced myocardial hypertrophy assessed by left ventricular weight/tibial length (228+/-7 versus 251+/-5 mg/cm in SHR-Cs and exercised SHRs [SHR-Es], respectively). Myocyte cross-sectional area increased approximately 40%, collagen volume fraction decreased approximately 50%, and capillary density increased approximately 45% in SHR-Es compared with SHR-Cs. The mRNA abundance of atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 was decreased by the swimming routine (100+/-19% versus 41+/-10% and 100+/-8% versus 61+/-9% for atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively). The expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump was significantly augmented, whereas that of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was unchanged (93+/-7% versus 167+/-8% and 158+/-13% versus 157+/-7%, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; PEndurance training inhibited apoptosis, as reflected by a decrease in caspase 3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage, and normalized calcineurin activity without inducing significant changes in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. The swimming routine improved midventricular shortening determined by echocardiography (32.4+/-0.9% versus 36.9+/-1.1% in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; Pendurance training to convert pathological into physiological hypertrophy improving cardiac performance. The reduction of myocardial fibrosis and calcineurin activity plus the increase in capillary density represent factors to be considered in determining this beneficial effect.
Ana Carolina Corte de Araujo
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT] on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. METHODS: Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR. The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ~70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: BOTH THE ABSOLUTE (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0% and the relative VO(2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6% were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4% and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4% were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5% and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0% were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%, but not in the ET group (1.2%. A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%. The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. CONCLUSION: HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth.
Lira Fábio S
Full Text Available Abstract Aim We tested the effects of a cancer cachexia-anorexia sydrome upon the balance of anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus of sedentary or trained tumour-bearing (Walker-256 carcinosarcoma rats. Methods Animals were randomly assigned to a sedentary control (SC, sedentary tumour-bearing (ST, and sedentary pair-fed (SPF groups or, exercised control (EC, exercised tumour-bearing (ET and exercised pair-fed (EPF groups. Trained rats ran on a treadmill (60%VO2max for 60 min/d, 5 days/wk, for 8 wks. We evaluated food intake, leptin and cytokine (TNF-α, IL1β levels in the hypothalamus. Results The cumulative food intake and serum leptin concentration were reduced in ST compared to SC. Leptin gene expression in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT was increased in SPF in comparison with SC and ST, and in the mesenteric adipose tissue (MEAT the same parameter was decreased in ST in relation to SC. Leptin levels in RPAT and MEAT were decreased in ST, when compared with SC. Exercise training was also able to reduce tumour weight when compared to ST group. In the hypothalamus, IL-1β and IL-10 gene expression was higher in ST than in SC and SPF. Cytokine concentration in hypothalamus was higher in ST (TNF-α and IL-1β, p Conclusion Cancer-induced anorexia leads towards a pro-inflammatory state in the hypothalamus, which is prevented by endurance training which induces an anti-inflammatory state, with concomitant decrease of tumour weight.
Vicente-Salar, Néstor; Urdampilleta Otegui, Aritz; Roche Collado, Enrique
in the majority of sports the athlete is required to achieve optimal conditions both at a muscular and metabolic level as well as in body composition, increasing the lean body mass and maintaining a low body fat mass. In this context, different training protocols have been proposed in order to reduce body fat content, by maximizing fat use instead of glycogen. to verify if the training while fasting favours the use of fatty acids due to the low glycogen levels, allowing an improvement in the performance ant the control of body weight. protocols have been published, differing in time periods and exercise intensity. In addition, several markers ranging from gene expression analysis to determination of circulating parameters have been assessed in order to interpret the results. Discusion: at low intensities of endurance-based exercises, adipose tissue lipolysis and muscle fat oxidation rate seem to be higher in fasting than in fed state. On the other hand, glucose metabolism is adapted in order to save glycogen stores, possibly through gluconeogenesis activation. Finally, it has been observed that protein degradation is mainly downregulated. Only one study analyses changes in body composition after fasting during long periods, thus further work is necessary to demonstrate that this is the best method to control body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Rankinen, T; Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a mechanism that may affect blood pressure response to endurance training. Because NO plays a central role in this process, the endothelial NO synthase gene is a good candidate for the regulation of exercise blood pressure. We investigated the associations between an endothelial NO synthase gene polymorphism (Glu298Asp) and endurance training-induced changes in resting and submaximal exercise blood pressure in 471 white subjects of the HERITAGE Family Study. Two submaximal exercise tests at 50 W were conducted both before and after a 20-week endurance training program. Steady-state exercise blood pressure was measured twice in each test with an automated unit. The Glu298Asp polymorphism was typed with a PCR-based method and digestion with BAN:II. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 50 W decreased in response to the training program, whereas resting blood pressure remained unchanged. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure at 50 W was greater (P=0.0005, adjusted for age, gender, baseline body mass index, and baseline diastolic blood pressure at 50 W) in the Glu/Glu homozygotes (4.4 [SEM 0.4] mm Hg, n=187) than in the heterozygotes (3.1 [0.4] mm Hg, n=213) and the Asp/Asp homozygotes (1.3 [0.7] mm Hg, n=71). The genotype accounted for 2.3% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure at 50 W training response. Both the Glu298 homozygotes and the heterozygotes had a greater (P=0.013) training-induced reduction in rate-pressure product at 50 W than the Asp298 homozygotes. These data suggest that DNA sequence variation in the endothelial NO synthase gene locus is associated with the endurance training-induced decreases in submaximal exercise diastolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product in sedentary normotensive white subjects.
Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.
Ramos, S V; Turnbull, P C; MacPherson, R E K; LeBlanc, P J; Ward, W E; Peters, S J
What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether mitochondrial protein content of perilipin 3 (PLIN3) and perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is increased following endurance training and whether mitochondrial PLIN5 protein is increased to a greater extent in endurance-trained rats when compared with sedentary rats following acute contraction. What is the main finding and its importance? Mitochondrial PLIN3 but not PLIN5 protein was increased in endurance-trained compared with sedentary rats, suggesting a mitochondrial role for PLIN3 due to chronic exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, acute mitochondrial PLIN5 protein was similar in both sedentary and endurance-trained rats. Endurance training results in an increased association between skeletal muscle lipid droplets and mitochondria. This association is likely to be important for the expected increase in intramuscular fatty acid oxidation that occurs with endurance training. The perilipin family of lipid droplet proteins, PLIN(2-5), are thought to play a role in skeletal muscle lipolysis. Recently, results from our laboratory demonstrated that skeletal muscle mitochondria contain PLIN3 and PLIN5 protein. Furthermore, 30 min of stimulated contraction induces an increased mitochondrial PLIN5 content. To determine whether mitochondrial content of PLIN3 and PLIN5 is altered with endurance training, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into sedentary or endurance-trained groups for 8 weeks of treadmill running followed by an acute (30 min) sciatic nerve stimulation to induce lipolysis. Mitochondrial PLIN3 protein was ∼1.5-fold higher in red gastrocnemius of endurance-trained rats compared with sedentary animals, with no change in mitochondrial PLIN5 protein. In addition, there was an increase in plantaris intramuscular lipid storage. Acute electrically stimulated contraction in red gastrocnemius from sedentary and endurance-trained rats resulted in a similar increase of mitochondrial PLIN5 between
Sørensen, Thomas Alrik
Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...
Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D
This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ), power output at [Formula: see text]O 2max (W[Formula: see text]O 2max ), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (W max ) and force (F max ). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HR max . Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O 2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (W LT ) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes. Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured. Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were
Broholm, Christa; Mathur, Neha; Hvid, Thine
. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with muscle biopsies were performed before and after the training interventions. Fifteen age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative men served as a sedentary baseline group. Phosphorylation and total protein expression of insulin signaling molecules as well...... hexokinase II (HKII) protein. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and defects in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(thr308). Endurance and strength training increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in these patients......Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both endurance and resistance training improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study aims...
Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short intervention period.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001. Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .
Husak, Jerry F; Roy, Jordan C; Lovern, Matthew B
Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success. We manipulated allocation of resources to performance, via endurance exercise training, to examine trade-offs among endurance capacity, immune function and growth in juvenile green anole lizards. We trained male and female captive anoles on a treadmill for 8 weeks, with increasing intensity, and compared traits with those of untrained individuals. Our results show that training enhanced endurance capacity equally in both sexes, but immune function was suppressed only in females. Training had no effect on growth, but males had higher growth rates than females. Previous work showed that trained adults have enhanced growth, so juvenile growth is either insensitive to stimulation with exercise, or they are already growing at maximal rates. Our results add to a growing body of literature indicating that locomotor performance is an important part of life-history trade-offs that are sex and age specific. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Venturelli, Massimo; Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Schena, Federico; Caimi, Barbara; Carugo, Stefano; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio
Recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors among older adults highlighted the importance of exercise-based interventions, including endurance training (ET). However, the evidence of efficacy of other interventions based on short-bouts of exercise (circuit training, CT), and the practice of breath-control and meditation (relaxing training, RT) is growing. The aim of this study was to elucidate if CT or RT are equally effective in CVD risk factors reduction compared to ET. To this purpose, in 40 elderly participants, with clinically diagnosed grade 1 hypertension, resting blood pressure, blood glucose, and cholesterol levels, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), mechanical efficiency and quality of life were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ET, CT, and RT treatments. Resting blood pressure reduced significantly in all groups by ∼11 %. In ET, blood cholesterol levels (-18 %), [Formula: see text] (+8 %), mechanical efficiency (+9 %), and quality of life scores (+36 %) ameliorated. In CT blood glucose levels (-11 %), [Formula: see text] (+7 %) and quality of life scores (+35 %) were bettered. Conversely, in RT, the lower blood pressure went along only with an improvement in the mental component of quality of life (+42 %). ET and CT were both appropriate interventions to reduce CVDs risk factors, because blood pressure reduction was accompanied by decreases in blood glucose and cholesterol levels, increases in [Formula: see text], mechanical efficiency, and quality of life. Although RT influenced only blood pressure and quality of life, this approach would be an attractive alternative for old individuals unable or reluctant to carry out ET or CT.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Full Text Available Objective(s:Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity. Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet (HFD on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma. Materials and Methods:Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group with standard diet (CSD, endurance training with a standard diet (ESD, control group with high-fat diet (CHFD and endurance training with high-fat diet (EHFD. Twenty-four hr after the last training session, the blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hormones levels. Results: The significant increased weight gain and food intake and decreased plasma nesfatin-1 and PYY3-36 levels were observed in CHFD group, while exercise under the HFD antagonized these effects. There were no significant changes in ghrelin, insulin and leptin levels in different groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise can prevent fattening effect of HFD. Probably, performing exercise makes a reduction of food intake and weight gain in rat via the increase in nesfatin-1 and PYY levels. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this field.
Tong, Tom K; Lin, Hua; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nie, Jinlei; Tian, Ye
This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. Secondly, for age- and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 36 out of the 67 subjects (12 for each group) were then selected and investigated. In cyclists, XO, GSH, and CAT were higher as compared with runners and controls. The CAT in runners, but not GSH and XO, was also higher than in controls. TBARS, T-AOC, and SOD did not differ among the study populations. Regarding the inter-individual relationships among serum redox statuses and dietary nutrient intakes, significant correlations were noted in CAT versus carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, and manganese; GSH versus carbohydrates, protein, fat, selenium, zinc, iron, and magnesium; XO versus cholesterol; CAT versus GSH. These findings suggest that the resting blood redox balance in the professional adolescent athletes was well maintained partly by the increase of individual antioxidant in adaptation to chronic exercise.
Full Text Available Patients undergoing treatment with amiodarone can develop severe pulmonary side effects. This effect, which is often highly underestimated, can lead to dyspnea, pneumonitis, and further fibrosis. A recent change in the labeling of amdiodarone by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA supports this suspicion. Tracing the symptoms back to the causing agent can be difficult, as shown in our report. The subject of this case report is an endurance-trained 65 year old male marathon runner who appeared with atrial fibrillation during a routine check up in autumn 2003. After medical cardioversion with flecainide a complaint free interval of 8 months was followed by a relapse, which resulted in a change of medication to amiodarone. Due to misunderstandings the patient kept on taking the amiodarone loading dose for six weeks and returned with severe dyspnea on exertion. Losses in CO diffusing capacity, a lowered macrophages count and a positive lymphocyte transformation test were the only first hand clinical evidence of amiodarone intoxication, despite the sensation of dyspnea. This case shows that special care has to be taken in treatment with amiodarone. Side effects can be hard to trace and do not evidently show a clear connection to amiodarone.
Skjerbæk, Ag; Næsby, M; Lützen, Karin
This study tested whether upper-body endurance training (ET) is feasible and can be performed at sufficient intensity to induce cardiovascular adaptations in severely disabled patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven progressive MS patients (6.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 8.0) scheduled for a four......-week inpatient rehabilitation program were randomized to a control group (CON, n = 5) that received standard individualized MS rehabilitation or an intervention group (EXE, n = 6) that in addition received 10 sessions of predominantly upper-body ET. One patient dropped out of the EXE group (drop-out rate: 1....../6~17%) and no adverse events were recorded. The EXE group completed on average 9.3±0.8 sessions (~96.0±5%). During the ET sessions an average heart rate of 93.9±9.3beats*min(-1) were sustained corresponding to 91.6±6.8% of the maximal pre-intervention heart rate. In the EXE group a trend toward a time*group interaction...
Full Text Available Aims: Blood neurotrophins, such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1, mediate exercise- induced health benefits in humans. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of BDNF and IGF-1 to different endurance training intensities in runner men. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study with pre-test-posttest design in 2015, 10 people of male runners from Gorgan were selected through purposeful and accessible sampling. The endurance training protocol was 6 km running with moderate (70-75% of heart rate reserve or severe (80-85% of heart rate reserve intensity, which was performed within a week's interval. Fasting blood samples were collected before and immediately after both acute training sessions and serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 were measured by ELISA and radioimmunoassay enzyme. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software using independent t-test and paired t-test. Findings: Both acute endurance training significantly increased serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 in runners, but high intensity endurance exercises increased BDNF levels in comparison with moderate intensity (p0.05. Conclusion: Serum BDNF response in endurance athletes is affected by the intensity of exercise, so that the effect of high intensity endurance training on BDNF levels is greater than moderate intensity exercise, but the response of IGF-1 to acute endurance training is independent of the intensity of exercise.
The extension of deep learning towards temporal data processing is gaining an increasing research interest. In this paper we investigate the properties of state dynamics developed in successive levels of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in terms of short-term memory abilities. Our results reveal interesting insights that shed light on the nature of layering as a factor of RNN design. Noticeably, higher layers in a hierarchically organized RNN architecture results to be inherently biased ...
Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda
The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)
Morris, R.J.T.; Wong, W.S.
Neural network memories with storage prescriptions based on Hebb's rule are known to collapse as more words are stored. By requiring that the most recently stored word be remembered precisely, a new simple short-term neutral network memory is obtained and its steady state capacity analyzed and simulated. Comparisons are drawn with Hopfield's method, the delta method of Widrow and Hoff, and the revised marginalist model of Mezard, Nadal, and Toulouse.
Yeo, Wee Kian; Paton, Carl D; Garnham, Andrew P; Burke, Louise M; Carey, Andrew L; Hawley, John A
We determined the effects of a cycle training program in which selected sessions were performed with low muscle glycogen content on training capacity and subsequent endurance performance, whole body substrate oxidation during submaximal exercise, and several mitochondrial enzymes and signaling proteins with putative roles in promoting training adaptation. Seven endurance-trained cyclists/triathletes trained daily (High) alternating between 100-min steady-state aerobic rides (AT) one day, followed by a high-intensity interval training session (HIT; 8 x 5 min at maximum self-selected effort) the next day. Another seven subjects trained twice every second day (Low), first undertaking AT, then 1-2 h later, the HIT. These training schedules were maintained for 3 wk. Forty-eight hours before and after the first and last training sessions, all subjects completed a 60-min steady-state ride (60SS) followed by a 60-min performance trial. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after 60SS, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout this ride. Resting muscle glycogen concentration (412 +/- 51 vs. 577 +/- 34 micromol/g dry wt), rates of whole body fat oxidation during 60SS (1,261 +/- 247 vs. 1,698 +/- 174 micromol.kg(-1).60 min(-1)), the maximal activities of citrate synthase (45 +/- 2 vs. 54 +/- 1 mmol.kg dry wt(-1).min(-1)), and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (18 +/- 2 vs. 23 +/- 2 mmol.kg dry wt(-1).min(-1)) along with the total protein content of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV were increased only in Low (all P every second day compromised high-intensity training capacity. While selected markers of training adaptation were enhanced with twice a day training, the performance of a 1-h time trial undertaken after a 60-min steady-state ride was similar after once daily or twice every second day training programs.
González Gross, Marcela
Full Text Available ResumenLa alta exigencia en los deportistas de elite hace cada vez más necesario controlar el proceso de adaptación al entrenamiento. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la información biológica de un análisis de sangre, al objeto de obtener información de la carga de entrenamiento en atletas de resistencia. La mayor parte de los parámetros sanguíneos han sido empleados, más que para determinar el proceso del entrenamiento, precisamente, para lo opuesto: el sobreentrenamiento. La concentración en plasma de sustratos metabólicos (glucosa y ácidos grasos no son parámetros que pueda utilizarse para controlar el entrenamiento, debido a las bajas especificidad y sensibilidad. No obstante, la concentración de determinados enzimas que intervienen en la utilización de los sustratos puede ser importante. Valores de creatín kinasa superiores a 200 U/l en una persona sana sugiere claramente que la carga de entrenamiento total de una determinada sesión ha sido elevada. La concentración en plasma de algún producto de degradación del catabolismo también puede señalar la adaptación del organismo al entrenamiento. La concentración de ácido láctico en plasma es la herramienta más común en la valoración de la carga de entrenamiento. La concentración de urea es un buen marcador biológico de la carga de entrenamiento. Valores superiores a 8 mmol/l en varones y de 6,5 mmol/l en mujeres, indican que el entrenamiento ha sido muy intenso. La determinación de otros productos (amonio o sustratos (glutamina se han utilizado para detectar el sobreentrenamiento.AbstractThe high exigency in the elite sportsmen does more necessary to control the process of training adaptation. The purpose of this review is to analyze the biological information of a blood analysis to obtain data of load training in endurance athletes. Most blood parameters has been used to evaluate the overtraining state instead of determining the training process. The
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper
Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...
Survival training combined with sleep deprivation mostly affected peripheral factors depending on strong action from both muscles and nervous system, whereas complex tasks involving short-term central alertness and moderate exertion were maintained. In order to improve performance, more endurance strength training, if possible combined with sleep deprivation, should be introduced in military training.
Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats
Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA. Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin
O'Brien, K V; Stewart, L K; Forney, L A; Aryana, K J; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Boeneke, C A
This study was designed to determine whether kefir accentuates the positive health benefits assessed by measures in fitness, body composition, or both, as a measure of cardiovascular disease risk as well as the biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Sixty-seven adult males and females aged 18 to 24 yr were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) endurance training + control beverage, (2) endurance training +kefir beverage,(3) active control + control beverage, or (4) active control + kefir beverage. The exercise groups completed 15 wk of structured endurancetraining while the active control groups maintained their usual exercise routine. Additionally, each group was assigned to either a kefir or a calorie/macronutrient matched placebo beverage that was consumed twice per week. No significant interactions were found among groups with respect to outcome variables with the exception of serum CRP. The endurance training was effective in improving 1.5-mile (2.41 km) times and kefir supplementation may have been a factor in attenuating the increase in CRP that was observed over the course of the intervention period. This preliminary study suggests that kefir may be involved in improving the risk profile for cardiovascular disease as defined by CRP. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders; Dejgaard, Thomas; Thomsen, Carsten; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Mikines, Kari J; van Hall, Gerrit; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pedersen, Bente K
Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer and ten healthy men with normal testosterone levels underwent 12 weeks of endurance training. Primary endpoints were insulin sensitivity (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with concomitant glucose-tracer infusion) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (PBody weight (Pbody fat mass (FM) (Pbody mass (P=0.99) was unchanged. Additionally, reductions were observed in abdominal (Pcancer patients exhibited improved insulin sensitivity and body composition to a similar degree as eugonadal men.
Ozaki, Hayao; Kubota, Atsushi; Natsume, Toshiharu; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Abe, Takashi; Machida, Shuichi; Naito, Hisashi
To investigate the effects of a single high-load (80% of one repetition maximum [1RM]) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load (30% 1RM) without recovery intervals on muscle strength, endurance, and size in untrained young men. Nine untrained young men performed dumbbell curls to concentric failure 2-3 days per week for 8 weeks. Each arm was randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: 3 sets of high-load (HL, 80% 1RM) resistance exercise, 3 sets of low-load [LL, 30% 1RM] resistance exercise, and a single high-load (SDS) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load. The mean training time per session, including recovery intervals, was lowest in the SDS condition. Elbow flexor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) increased similarly in all three conditions. Maximum isometric and 1RM strength of the elbow flexors increased from pre to post only in the HL and SDS conditions. Muscular endurance measured by maximum repetitions at 30% 1RM increased only in the LL and SDS conditions. A SDS resistance training program can simultaneously increase muscle CSA, strength, and endurance in untrained young men, even with lower training time compared to typical resistance exercise protocols using only high- or low-loads.
Auerbach, Pernille; Nordby, Pernille; Bendtsen, Line Quist
in obese subjects which may be due to modulations of inflammatory pathways. In this randomized clinical trial we investigated the separate effects of endurance training-induced weight loss, diet-induced weight loss and endurance training per se (without weight loss) on plasma adiponectin multimer...... composition (Western blotting) and adipose tissue macrophage content (immunohistochemistry) in young, moderately overweight men. Weight loss and endurance training per se decreased whole body fat percentage in an additive manner. No intervention-induced changes were observed for plasma total adiponectin....... Surprisingly, endurance training, irrespectively of any associated weight loss, shifted the adiponectin multimer distribution towards a lower molecular weight (21% decrease in HMW/LMW, P=0.015) whereas diet-induced weight loss shifted the distribution towards a higher molecular weight (42% increase in HMW...
Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S
The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing......) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; P...
Landberg, L; Joensen, A; Giebel, G [and others
This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.
Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan
Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie
The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by
Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie
The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press
Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.
Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.
Heinonen, Ilkka; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kiviniemi, Antti; Noponen, Tommi; Luotolahti, Matti; Luoto, Pauliina; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Kopra, Jaakko; Mononen, Ilkka; Duncker, Dirk J; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K
Highly endurance-trained athlete's heart represents the most extreme form of cardiac adaptation to physical stress, but its circulatory alterations remain obscure. In the present study, myocardial blood flow (MBF), blood mean transit time (MTT), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and consumption (MVO2), and efficiency of cardiac work were quantified in highly trained male endurance athletes and control subjects at rest and during supine cycling exercise using [(15)O]-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. Heart rate and MBF were lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise. OEF increased in response to exercise in both groups, but was higher in athletes (70 ± 21 vs. 63 ± 11 % at rest and 86 ± 13 vs. 73 ± 10 % during exercise). MTT was longer and vascular resistance higher in athletes both at rest and during exercise, but arterial content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (oxygen affinity) was unchanged. MVO2 per gram of myocardium trended (p = 0.08) lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise, while myocardial efficiency of work and MVO2 per beat were not different between groups. Arterial levels of free fatty acids were ~twofold higher in athletes likely leading to higher myocardial fatty acid oxidation and hence oxygen cost, which may have blunted the bradycardia-induced decrease in MVO2. Finally, the observed group differences in MBF, OEF, MTT and vascular resistance remained significant also after they were controlled for differences in MVO2. In conclusion, in highly endurance-trained human heart, increased myocardial blood transition time enables higher oxygen extraction levels with a lower myocardial blood flow and higher vascular resistance. These physiological adaptations to exercise training occur independently of the level of oxygen consumption and together with training-induced bradycardia may serve as mechanisms to increase functional reserve of the human heart.
Tjeerd V Olde Scheper
Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.
Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.
Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Boushel, Robert C; Calbet, José A
subjects (29 ± 4 years) underwent cardiac MR. All subjects underwent maximal exercise testing and for elderly subjects maximal cardiac output during cycling was determined using dye dilution technique. RESULTS: Longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume did not differ between groups......BACKGROUND: Age-related decline in cardiac function can be prevented or postponed by lifelong endurance training. However, effects of normal ageing as well as of lifelong endurance exercise on longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine...... groups for RVAVPD (P = 0.2). LVAVPD was an independent predictor of maximal cardiac output (R(2 = ) 0.61, P groups. However, how longitudinal pumping...
Full Text Available Accident diagnosis is one of the complex tasks for nuclear power plant (NPP operators. In abnormal or emergency situations, the diagnostic activity of the NPP states is burdensome though necessary. Numerous computer-based methods and operator support systems have been suggested to address this problem. Among them, the recurrent neural network (RNN has performed well at analyzing time series data. This study proposes an algorithm for accident diagnosis using long short-term memory (LSTM, which is a kind of RNN, which improves the limitation for time reflection. The algorithm consists of preprocessing, the LSTM network, and postprocessing. In the LSTM-based algorithm, preprocessed input variables are calculated to output the accident diagnosis results. The outputs are also postprocessed using softmax to determine the ranking of accident diagnosis results with probabilities. This algorithm was trained using a compact nuclear simulator for several accidents: a loss of coolant accident, a steam generator tube rupture, and a main steam line break. The trained algorithm was also tested to demonstrate the feasibility of diagnosing NPP accidents. Keywords: Accident Diagnosis, Long Short-term Memory, Recurrent Neural Network, Softmax
Full Text Available Objectives: Investigating the effect of endurance training program onthe gait pattern of non-active elderly people. Methods & Materials: This study has been done by a semi-experience method with 23 old men and women by the average and standard deviation of 70.50±6.9 years old (n=14 people of exercise group, n=9 people of control group. The exercise group took part in this program for eight weeks and three sessions per week. The crude data includes speed gait, stride length, percentage of statement in stance phase, cadence and range of motion on upper body joints have been taken by using of softwares such as AutoCAD R14.0, ulead10, windows media player and CGA, in two levels before and after exercise program in two exercise and controlgroup and then analyzed by the software Spss15. Results: Significant differences shown in rang of motion of hip joint increases in toe off (P=0.05 at stance phase. Also we observed decreasing of statement in stance phase (P=0.01 in comparing pre-exercise ones. Conclusion: notice to research findings, endurance training increases range of hip motion by strengthening the flexor and extensor muscles of hip that causes improved dynamic balance and reinforcement standing balance between groups of society. As a result Endurance training can be used as an important factor to strengthen standing balance and to increase dynamic balance, doing this training isadvised in daily activity of non-active elderly people.
Winding, Kamilla Munch; Munch, Gregers Winding; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning
AIM: To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 individuals with type 2...... diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT...... in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose...
Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.
The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies...... that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...
Frees, E W
A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt
The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.
Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko
Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.
Boyce, M L; Robergs, R A; Avasthi, P S; Roldan, C; Foster, A; Montner, P; Stark, D; Nelson, C
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 months of exercise training (ET) on cardiorespiratory function and endurance, blood pressure, muscle strength, hematology, blood lipids, and renal function in individuals with chronic renal failure (CRF) who were not yet on dialysis. Sixteen subjects were recruited to volunteer for participation in this study, but only eight completed all study phases. Subjects were first evaluated before and after a 2-month baseline (BL1 and BL2), after 4 months of ET, and again after 2 months of detraining (DT). ET did not change hematology, blood lipids, or echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function and mass. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly from BL after the ET (146 +/- 15.7/87 +/- 9 mm Hg to 124 +/- 17.5/78 +/- 9.5 mm Hg; P < 0.02), and then increased significantly after DT (139 +/- 14.7 mm Hg and 87 +/- 9.9 mm Hg; P < 0.01). Peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) changed significantly during the study (1.3 +/- 0.3 L/min, 1.5 +/- 0.3 L/min, and 1.4 +/- 0.3 L/min for BL2, ET, and DT, respectively; P < 0.02), as did the VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (0.65 +/- 0.18 L/min, 0.92 +/- 0.19 L/min, and 0.68 +/- 0.23 L/min for BL2, ET, and DT, respectively; P < 0.01). Knee flexion peak torque increased after ET (43.4 +/- 25.6 Nm to 51.0 +/- 30.5 Nm; P < 0.02). GFR, as measured by creatinine clearance, continued to deteriorate during the course of the study (25.3 +/- 12.0 mL/min, 21.8 +/- 13.2 mL/min, and 21.8 +/- 13.2 mL/min for BL2, ET, and DT, respectively; P < 0.001). Individuals with predialysis CRF who undergo ET improve in functional aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and blood pressure.
Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Kuczek, Piotr; Sztefko, Krystyna; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A
In this study we have determined the effects of 20weeks of endurance running training on the GH-IGF-I axis changes in the context of the skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity level. Before and after the endurance training program a maximal incremental exercise tests, a 1500m race and a muscle strength measurements were performed and the blood samples were taken to determine both resting as well as end-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth hormone-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth hormone binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. 20weeks of endurance running training improved power output generated at the end of the maximal incremental test by 24% (P<0.012), 1500m running time by 13% (P<0.012) and maximal muscle strength by 9% (P<0.02). End-exercise IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was decreased by 22% after the training (P<0.04) and the magnitude of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio decrease (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 ex ) was 2.3 times higher after the training (P<0.04). The magnitude of the exercise-induced changes in IGFBP-3 concentration was also significantly higher (P<0.04) and there was a trend toward lower end-exercise IGF-I concentration (P=0.08) after the training. These changes were accompanied by a significantly higher (30%) end-exercise IL-6 concentration (P<0.01) as well as by a 3.4 times higher magnitude of IL-6 increase (P<0.02) after the training. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between changes in resting serum IGF-I concentration (ΔIGF-I res ) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 res ) and changes in muscle strength (ΔMVC) (r=0.95, P=0.0003 and r=0.90, P=0.002, respectively). The training-induced changes in the components of the GH-IGF-I axis may have additive effects on skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, Robert Acton; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph
Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiologic parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific me...
Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Francisco; Henriquez-Olguín, Carlos; Meylan, Cesar M P; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of vertical, horizontal, or combined vertical and horizontal plyometric training on muscle explosive, endurance, and balance performance. Forty young soccer players aged between 10 and 14 years were randomly divided into control (CG; n = 10), vertical plyometric group (VG; n = 10), horizontal plyometric group (HG; n = 10), and combined vertical and horizontal plyometric group (VHG; n = 10). Players performance in the vertical and horizontal countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1), and balance was measured. No significant or meaningful changes in the CG, apart from small change in the Yo-Yo IR1, were observed while all training programs resulted in meaningful changes in explosive, endurance, and balance performance. However, only VHG showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in all performance test and most meaningful training effect difference with the CG across tests. Although no significant differences in performance changes were observed between experimental groups, the VHG program was more effective compared with VG (i.e., jumps, MKV, sprint, CODS, and balance performance) and HG (i.e., sprint, CODS, and balance performance) to small effect. The study demonstrated that vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal jumps induced meaningful improvement in explosive actions, balance, and intermittent endurance capacity. However, combining vertical and horizontal drills seems more advantageous to induce greater performance improvements.
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST or a high fat diet (HFD and subjected to regular endurance training (ET or resistance training (RT. After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs, circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p<0.05. An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p<0.05. Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p<0.05 and reduced serum ceramides (p<0.005. While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p<0.001, respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p<0.001, ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.
Tsai, Jen-Chen; Yang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Chen, Pei-Ti; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Kao, Pai-Feng; Wang, Chia-Hui; Chan, Paul
Regular aerobic exercise can reduce blood pressure and is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Hypertension itself, or/and pharmacological treatment for hypertension is associated with adverse effects on some aspects of quality of life. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of regular endurance exercise training on quality of life and blood pressure. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-180 or diastolic blood pressure 90-110 mm Hg) were randomized to a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group training for 3 sessions/week over 10 weeks or to a non-exercising control group. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and after 6 and 10 weeks. In the 102 subjects (47 male, mean age 47 years) who completed the study, reductions in blood pressure in the exercise group at 10 weeks (-13.1/-6.3 mm Hg) were significant (P endurance training improves both blood pressure and quality of life in hypertensive patients and should be encouraged more widely.
Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.
Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Holden, Geir; Hallén, Jostein; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Sveen, Ole; Skaug, Arne; Paur, Ingvild; Bastani, Nasser E; Østgaard, Hege Nymo; Buer, Charlotte; Midttun, Magnus; Freuchen, Fredrik; Wiig, Havard; Ulseth, Elisabeth Tallaksen; Garthe, Ina; Blomhoff, Rune; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls
In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endurance training adaptations in humans. Fifty-four young men and women were randomly allocated to receive either 1000 mg of vitamin C and 235 mg of vitamin E or a placebo daily for 11 weeks. During supplementation, the participants completed an endurance training programme consisting of three to four sessions per week (primarily of running), divided into high-intensity interval sessions [4-6 × 4-6 min; >90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] and steady state continuous sessions (30-60 min; 70-90% of HRmax). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), submaximal running and a 20 m shuttle run test were assessed and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected, before and after the intervention. Participants in the vitamin C and E group increased their VO2 max (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5%) and performance in the 20 m shuttle test (10 ± 11%) to the same degree as those in the placebo group (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5% and 14 ± 17%, respectively). However, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) increased in the m. vastus lateralis in the placebo group by 59 ± 97% and 19 ± 51%, respectively, but not in the vitamin C and E group (COX4: -13 ± 54%; PGC-1α: -13 ± 29%; P ≤ 0.03, between groups). Furthermore, mRNA levels of CDC42 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) in the trained muscle were lower in the vitamin C and E group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Daily vitamin C and E supplementation attenuated increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance training. However, no clear interactions were detected for improvements in VO2 max and running performance. Consequently, vitamin C and E supplementation hampered cellular adaptations in the exercised muscles, and although this did not translate to the performance tests
Tønnessen, Espen; Sylta, Øystein; Haugen, Thomas A.; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S.; Seiler, Stephen
Published version of an article in the journal PLoS ONE. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101796 Open Access Purpose: To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Methods: Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL. min-1. kg-1 V̇O2max, 7 female, 25±4 yr, 7...
Kimura, Hiroko; Kon, Nobuko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Mukaida, Masahiro; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuko; Sone, Hirohito; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effect of wheel training on oxidative stress maker levels in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the aorta of SHRs were allowed to run for 10 weeks from the age of 15 weeks were measured and compared with those of nonexercised SHRs. The 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the exercised group were significantly lower than those in the nonexercised group. The exercised group showed a significant increase of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase. Endurance exercise showed a possible suppressing effect on the arteriosclerosis development by reducing oxidative stress, even after emergence of hypertension.
Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Duda, Krzysztof; Chłopicki, Stefan
In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 5 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training on the basal and exercise-induced systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), as assessed by plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration. Twelve physically active young men with the following characteristics participated in this study (the mean +/- SD): age, 22.7 +/- 2.0 years; body mass, 76.8 +/- 8.9 kg; BMI, 23.48 +/- 2.17 kg x m(-2); and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)), 46.1 +/- 4.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1). Plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at exhaustion (at VO(2 max)) before and after completing the training protocol. On average, the training resulted in a significant increase in VO(2 max) (p = 0.03), power output at VO(2 max) (p = 0.001) and a significant increase (p = 0.05) in the net-exercise-induced increase in plasma 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration (Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) i.e., the difference between the end-exercise and pre-exercise 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations). No effect of training on the basal PGI(2) concentration was found. Interestingly, within the study sample (n = 12), two subgroups could be defined with a differential pattern of response with respect to Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentrations. In one subgroup (n = 7), a significant increase in Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration after training was found (p < 0.02) (responders). This enhancement in the exercise-induced PGI(2) release was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO(2 max) after training. In contrast, in another subgroup (n = 5), there was no observed effect of training on the Delta 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) concentration and the VO(2 max) after training (non-responders). In both of these subgroups, training did not influence the basal PGI(2) concentration. In conclusion, the endurance training resulted in the adaptive augmentation of the systemic release of PGI(2) in response to exercise
Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK
Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...
Kryściak, Katarzyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Drzymała-Celichowska, Hanna; Krutki, Piotr; Gawedzka, Anna; Guzik, Magdalena; Korostynski, Michał; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Pyza, Elżbieta; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Celichowski, Jan
This study aimed at investigating the effects of 2, 4 and 8 weeks of endurance training on the contractile properties of slow (S), fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF) motor units (MUs) in rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) in relation to the changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. The properties of functionally isolated MUs were examined in vivo. Mitochondrial biogenesis was judged based on the changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), the content of the electron transport chain (ETC) proteins and PGC-1α in the MG. Moreover, the markers of mitochondria remodeling mitofusins (Mfn1, Mfn2) and dynamin-like protein (Opa1) were studied using qPCR. A proportion of FR MUs increased from 37.9% to 50.8% and a proportion of FF units decreased from 44.7% to 26.6% after 8 weeks of training. The increased fatigue resistance, shortened twitch duration, and increased ability to potentiate force were found as early as after 2 weeks of endurance training, predominantly in FR MUs. Moreover, just after 2 weeks of the training an enhancement of the mitochondrial network remodeling was present as judged by an increase in expression of Mfn1, Opa1 and an increase in PGC-1α in the slow part of MG. Interestingly, no signs of intensification of mitochondrial biogenesis assessed by ETC proteins content and mtDNA in slow and fast parts of gastrocnemius were found at this stage of the training. Nevertheless, after 8 weeks of training an increase in the ETC protein content was observed, but mainly in the slow part of gastrocnemius. Concluding, the functional changes in MUs' contractile properties leading to the enhancement of muscle performance accompanied by an activation of signalling that controls the muscle mitochondrial network reorganisation and mitochondrial biogenesis belong to an early muscle adaptive responses that precede an increase in mitochondrial ETC protein content.
Zoladz, Jerzy A; Grassi, Bruno; Majerczak, Joanna; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michal; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Korzeniewski, Bernard
The effect of prolonged endurance training on the pulmonary V̇O2 on- and off-kinetics in humans, in relation to muscle mitochondria biogenesis, is investigated. Eleven untrained physically active men (means±SD: age 22.4±1.5 years, V̇O2peak 3,187±479 ml/min) performed endurance cycling training (4 sessions per week) lasting 20 wk. Training shortened τp of the pulmonary V̇O2 on-kinetics during moderate-intensity cycling by ∼19% from 28.3±5.2 to 23.0±4.0 s (P=0.005). τp of the pulmonary V̇O2 off-kinetics decreased by ∼11% from 33.7±7.2 to 30.0±6.6 (P=0.02). Training increased (in vastus lateralis muscle) mitochondrial DNA copy number in relation to nuclear DNA (mtDNA/nDNA) (+53%) (P=0.014), maximal citrate synthase (CS) activity (+38%), and CS protein content (+38%) (P=0.004), whereas maximal cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity after training tended to be only slightly (+5%) elevated (P=0.08). By applying to the experimental data, our computer model of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and using metabolic control analysis, we argue that COX activity is a much better measure of OXPHOS intensity than CS activity. According to the model, in the present study a training-induced increase in OXPHOS activity accounted for about 0-10% of the decrease in τp of muscle and pulmonary V̇O2 for the on-transient, whereas the remaining 90-100% is caused by an increase in each-step parallel activation of OXPHOS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
В. М. Жогло
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to provide a comparative review of the endurance development in cadets and students in track-and-field classes and training at educational institutions of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine. Research methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing and methods of mathematical statistics of data reduction. Research results. The study resulted in a comparative analysis of the levels of endurance development in the cadets and the first-year students of the School of Psychology and the School of Emergency Rescue Forces of the National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine. Conclusions. The study results prove that the first-year students of the School of Psychology and the School of Emergency Rescue Forces have a low level of endurance (special and aerobic as compared to the cadets. In this regard, the physical training syllabus ought to include more exercises intended to develop special and aerobic endurance.
Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.
Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…
Majerczak, Joanna; Korostynski, Michal; Nieckarz, Zenon; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A
In this study, we hypothesized that 5 weeks of cycling endurance training can decrease the magnitude of the non-proportional increase in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) to power output relationship (V(O(2)) 'excess') at exercise intensities exceeding the lactate threshold (LT). Ten untrained, physically active men performed a bout of incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after training. The mitochondrial DNA copy number, myosin heavy chain composition and content of uncoupling protein 3 and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) were analysed in muscle biopsies taken from vastus lateralis before and after training. The training resulted in an enhancement of the power-generating capabilities at maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)) by ∼7% (P = 0.002) despite there being no changes in V(O(2)max) (P = 0.49). This effect was due to a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the V(O(2)) 'excess' (P 0.05) were found after training. We conclude that the training-induced increase in power-generating capabilities at V(O(2)max) was due to attenuation of the V(O(2)) 'excess' above the LT. This adaptive response seems to be related to the improvement of muscle metabolic stability, as judged by a lowering of plasma ammonia concentration. The enhancement of muscle metabolic stability after training could be caused by a decrease in ATP usage at a given power output owing to downregulation of SERCA2 pumps.
Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi
[Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ? 1.7?years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...
Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch
Often, the contents of consciousness are equated with the contents of short-term memory (or working memory), sometimes to a point where they are treated as identical entities. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether they may be modulated independently and thus dissociated from each...... if conscious content simply can be reduced to a cognitive process like short-term memory. In two experiments, we combined two different measures of short-term memory capacity to investigate how manipulations of set-size affect performance in observers with the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS) to measure...... conscious experience of the stimulus in every trial (Ramsøy & Overgaard, 2004; Overgaard & Sørensen, 2004). We trained observers to report their experience of a visual target stimulus on the four-point PAS scale; ranging from “no experience” to “clear experience”. To measure short-term memory we used...
As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...
As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...
The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.
Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.
As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.
Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)
The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)
Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.
Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs
Safarimosavi, Saleh; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rohani, Hadi
Safarimosavi, S, Mohebbi, H, and Rohani, H. High-intensity interval vs. continuous endurance training: Preventive effects on hormonal changes and physiological adaptations in prediabetes patients. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention, or an isocaloric continuous endurance training (CET) intervention on insulin resistance indices and change in irisin and preptin in patients with prediabetes. Thirty-two prediabetic male patients (age = 38.7 ± 4; body mass index = 26.9 ± 1.4 kg·m; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak = 2.49 ± 0.22 L·min) were randomly assigned into 3 training groups (N = 8). These groups were matched based on the required energy expenditure (EE) for completing each protocol: (a) HIIT (10 × 60 seconds at 90% peak oxygen uptake [V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak], 1: 1 work to recovery at 50 W), (b) CET at an intensity equivalent to maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) (CETFAT) (pedaling for a duration that expends an equivalent EE to an HIIT session [E ≈ HIIT]), (c) CET at an intensity equivalent to anaerobic threshold (CETAT) (E ≈ HIIT), and (d) the control group (CON): continued to perform their daily activities. After intervention, blood glucose levels were significantly (p HIIT group compared with CETAT group. Exercise training improved the insulin resistance index by 35, 28, and 37% in CETFAT, CETAT, and HIIT groups, respectively. Irisin concentrations in the HIIT and CETAT groups was significantly (p HIIT and CETFAT resulted in significant (p HIIT and CETFAT protocols had similar effects on the insulin resistance index of prediabetic patients. Also, the intensity and type of exercise were effective factors in changing irisin and preptin concentrations.
Kilding, Andrew E; Jones, Andrew M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants (18.6±1.6 years were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH training (n=6 and normobaric normoxic (NN training (n=6 groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid, plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX], arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE, and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and peak power output (PPO were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players.
Full Text Available Computerized cognitive training (CCT is a safe and inexpensive intervention to enhance cognitive performance in the elderly. However, the neural underpinning of CCT-induced effects and the timecourse by which such neural changes occur are unknown. Here, we report on results from a pilot study of healthy older adults who underwent three 1-hour weekly sessions of either multidomain CCT program (n = 7 or an active control intervention (n = 5 over 12 weeks. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and cognitive assessments were performed at baseline and after 9 and 36 hours of training. Voxel-based structural analysis revealed a significant Group × Time interaction in the right postcentral gyrus indicating increased gray matter density in the CCT group compared to active control at both follow-ups. Across the entire sample, there were significant positive correlations between changes in the postcentral gyrus and change in global cognition after 36 hours of training. A post-hoc vertex-based analysis found a significant between-group difference in rate of thickness change between baseline and post-training in the left fusiform gyrus, as well as a large cluster in the right parietal lobe covering the supramarginal and postcentral gyri. Resting-state functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate and the superior frontal gyrus, and between the right hippocampus and the superior temporal gyrus significantly differed between the two groups after 9 hours of training and correlated with cognitive change post-training. No significant interactions were found for any of the spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging data. Though preliminary, our results suggest that functional change may precede structural and cognitive change, and that about one-half of the structural change occurs within the first nine hours of training. Future studies are required to determine the role of these brain changes in the mechanisms underlying CCT
Sturm, Bob; Santos, João Felipe; Korshunova, Iryna
We demonstrate two generative models created by training a recurrent neural network (RNN) with three hidden layers of long short-term memory (LSTM) units. This extends past work in numerous directions, including training deeper models with nearly 24,000 high-level transcriptions of folk tunes. We discuss our on-going work.
Creative ability can be developed and improved through intervention and training. This study presents a unique and innovative intervention program for enhancing creative thinking among children, focusing on divergent thinking skills. The program was designed as a short-term (10 weeks) training and conducted with 150 school students ranging in age…
Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn
or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the health......Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...
Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L
There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.
Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Neudecker, J; Müller, J M
Colorectal resections are common surgical procedures all over the world. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is technically feasible in a considerable amount of patients under elective conditions. Several short-term benefits of the laparoscopic approach to colorectal resection (less pain, less morbidity, improved reconvalescence and better quality of life) have been proposed. This review compares laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection with regards to possible benefits of the laparoscopic method in the short-term postoperative period (up to 3 months post surgery). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1991 to 2004. We also handsearched the following journals from 1991 to 2004: British Journal of Surgery, Archives of Surgery, Annals of Surgery, Surgery, World Journal of Surgery, Disease of Colon and Rectum, Surgical Endoscopy, International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, Der Chirurg, Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Aktuelle Chirurgie/Viszeralchirurgie. Handsearch of abstracts from the following society meetings from 1991 to 2004: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons, Royal Society of Surgeons, British Assocation of Coloproctology, Surgical Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Asian Society of Endoscopic Surgeons. All randomised-controlled trial were included regardless of the language of publication. No- or pseudorandomised trials as well as studies that followed patient's preferences towards one of the two interventions were excluded, but listed separately. RCT presented as only an abstract were excluded. Results were extracted from papers by three observers independently on a predefined data sheet. Disagreements were solved by discussion. 'REVMAN 4.2' was used for statistical analysis. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals) were used for analysing continuous variables. If
Borg, Melissa L; Omran, Simin Fallah; Weir, Jacquelyn; Meikle, Peter J; Watt, Matthew J
Obesity is characterised by increased storage of fatty acids in an expanded adipose tissue mass and in peripheral tissues such as the skeletal muscle and liver, where it is associated with the development of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in the central nervous system with high-fat feeding. The capacity for hypothalamic cells to accumulate/store lipids, and the effects of obesity remain undefined. The aims of this study were (1) to examine hypothalamic lipid content in mice with increased dietary fat intake and in obese ob/ob mice fed a low-fat diet, and (2) to determine whether endurance exercise training could reduce hypothalamic lipid accumulation in high-fat fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; ob/ob mice were maintained on a chow diet. HFD-exercise (HFD-ex) mice underwent 12 weeks of high-fat feeding with 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training (increasing from 30 to 70 min day(-1)). Hypothalamic lipids were assessed by unbiased mass spectrometry. The HFD increased body mass and hepatic lipid accumulation, and induced glucose intolerance, while the HFD-ex mice had reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance. A total of 335 lipid molecular species were identified and quantified. Lipids known to induce insulin resistance, including ceramide (22%↑), diacylglycerol (25%↑), lysophosphatidylcholine (17%↑), cholesterol esters (60%↑) and dihexosylceramide (33%↑), were increased in the hypothalamus of HFD vs. LFD mice. Hypothalamic lipids were unaltered with exercise training and in the ob/ob mice, suggesting that obesity per se does not alter hypothalamic lipids. Overall, hypothalamic lipid accumulation is regulated by dietary lipid content and is refractory to change with endurance exercise training.
Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.
Grgic, Jozo; Mikulic, Pavle
The goal of this randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was to assess the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on muscular strength and power, muscular endurance, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and pain perception (PP) in resistance-trained men. Seventeen volunteers (mean ± SD: age = 26 ± 6 years, stature = 182 ± 9 cm, body mass = 84 ± 9 kg, resistance training experience = 7 ± 3 years) consumed placebo or 6 mg kg -1 of anhydrous caffeine 1 h before testing. Muscular power was assessed with seated medicine ball throw and vertical jump exercises, muscular strength with one-repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat and bench press exercises, and muscular endurance with repetitions of back squat and bench press exercises (load corresponding to 60% of 1RM) to momentary muscular failure. RPE and PP were assessed immediately after the completion of the back squat and bench press exercises. Compared to placebo, caffeine intake enhanced 1RM back squat performance (+2.8%; effect size [ES] = 0.19; p = .016), which was accompanied by a reduced RPE (+7%; ES = 0.53; p = .037), and seated medicine ball throw performance (+4.3%, ES = 0.32; p = .009). Improvements in 1RM bench press were not noted although there were significant (p = .029) decreases in PP related to this exercise when participants ingested caffeine. The results point to an acute benefit of caffeine intake in enhancing lower-body strength, likely due to a decrease in RPE; upper-, but not lower-body power; and no effects on muscular endurance, in resistance-trained men. Individuals competing in events in which strength and power are important performance-related factors may consider taking 6 mg kg -1 of caffeine pre-training/competition for performance enhancement.
Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H
Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.
Valiollah Dabidi Roshan
Full Text Available For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training and/or curcumin on lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1 lead acetate, 2 curcumin, 3 endurance training, 4 training curcumin, and 5 sham. The rats in the training groups performed treadmill running consisting of 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 min, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. All groups except sham received lead acetate (20 mg/kg, whereas the sham group received curcumin solvent. In addition, the curcumin and training curcumin groups received curcumin solution (30mg/kg intra peritoneally. Chronically administration of lead acetate resulted in a significantly increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma, but not in hippocampus. In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in hippocampus and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels, as compared to sham group. Treadmill running, curcumin supplementation, or both resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and significantly increased BDNF and TAC levels, as compared to lead acetate group. These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role of curcumin and regular exercise in the attenuation of lead-induced neurotoxicity.
GYNECOLOGIST TRAINING UNDER THE SHORT-TERM INTERDISCIPLINARE PROGRAM “DISEASES OF THE BREAST IN THE PRACTICE OF OBSTETRICIAN-GYNECOLOGIST” IN AUTONOMOUS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION OF ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION “MOSMED”
Viatcheslav Anatolievich Vladimirtsev
Full Text Available In connection with the intensive growth of morbidity and mortality from breast cancer and prevalence of precancerous diseases, before the system of continuous medical education task is to widen the scope of the interdisciplinary trainings programs in field of oncomammology for physicians of primary health care. On the example of the short course interdisciplinary Program “Diseases of the breast in the practice of obstetrician-gynecologist” shows the educational opportunities of the licensed independent noncommercial organization of additional professional education “Mosmed” in the field of advanced training of obstetrician-gynecologists in the field of the oncomammology. An important methodological feature of the program is problematic interdisciplinary approach to learning, which are taught by specialists in different disciplines: gynaecologists, oncologists and radiologists. Promotion of the short course interdisciplinary programs of advanced training of obstetrician-gynecologists in the regions aimed at the expansion of medical educational space, the development of the market of educational services and increase access to quality medical additional education in areas that are distant from the leading specialized medical centers. The Program “Diseases of the breast in the practice of obstetrician-gynecologist” are included in the system of continuous medical education and made available online on the Portal of continuing medical and pharmaceutical education of the Ministry of Health of the Russia.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factoralpha (TNF-IX as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 3011.0 years participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, ratio of early (E to late (A mitral inﬂow peak velocities (E/A, ratio of early (E' to late (A' diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E‘/A’ and E-wave deceleration time (DT were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed signiﬁcant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-or and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-or correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73 and DT (r=-0.73. It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-or might be involved in this effect.
Phillips, Brandon N; Chun, Dal W
To report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity after short-term therapy. Observational case report. A 56-year-old woman presented to the Ophthalmology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) with a 6-month history of gradually decreasing vision in both eyes. The patient had been taking hydroxychloroquine for the preceding 48 months for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Examination of the posterior segment revealed bilateral "bull's eye" macular lesions. Fundus autofluorescence revealed hyperfluorescence of well-defined bull's eye lesions in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography revealed corresponding parafoveal atrophy with a loss of the retinal inner segment/outer segment junction. Humphrey visual field 10-2 white showed significant central and paracentral defects with a generalized depression. The patient was on a standard dose of 400 mg daily, which was above her ideal dose. The patient had no history of kidney or liver dysfunction. There were no known risk factors but there were several possible confounding factors. The patient was started on high-dose nabumetone, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, at the same time she was started on hydroxychloroquine. She also reported taking occasional ibuprofen. Retinal toxicity from chloroquine has been recognized for decades with later reports showing retinopathy from long-term hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) use for the treatment of antiinflammatory diseases. Hydroxychloroquine is now widely used and retinal toxicity is relatively uncommon. However, it can cause serious vision loss and is usually irreversible. The risk of hydroxychloroquine toxicity rises to nearly 1% with a total cumulative dose of 1,000 g, which is ∼5 years to 7 years of normal use. Toxicity is rare under this dose. For this reason, the American Academy of Ophthalmology has revised its recommendations such that annual screenings begin 5 years after therapy with hydroxychloroquine has begun unless there are known risk
Jerzy A Zoladz
Full Text Available In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V'O2 kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V'O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1 performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027 in V'O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W and in shortening of τp of the V'O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007 during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001 and a decrease in the end-exercise V'O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005. An increase (P = 0.02 in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06 to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11. No significant effect of training on the V'O2peak was found (P = 0.12. However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01. The power output obtained at the V'O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003 and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001. Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS complexes after training and decrease in the ''additional" ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise.
Nicholas A. Ratamess, Noah A. Beller, Adam M. Gonzalez, Gregory E. Spatz, Jay R. Hoffman, Ryan E. Ross, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang
Full Text Available The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT or a non-exercising control group (CTL. The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON and 3-sec eccentric (ECC phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg, 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg, and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.
Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Grassi, Bruno; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michał; Gołda, Sławomir; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Kilarski, Wincenty; Karasinski, Janusz; Korzeniewski, Bernard
In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V'O2) kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V'O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1) performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027) in V'O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W) and in shortening of τp of the V'O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007) during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001) and a decrease in the end-exercise V'O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005). An increase (P = 0.02) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06) to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11). No significant effect of training on the V'O2peak was found (P = 0.12). However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01). The power output obtained at the V'O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003) and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001). Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes after training and decrease in the ''additional" ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise.
Zoladz, Jerzy A.; Majerczak, Joanna; Grassi, Bruno; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michał; Gołda, Sławomir; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Kilarski, Wincenty; Karasinski, Janusz; Korzeniewski, Bernard
In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V’O2) kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V’O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1) performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027) in V’O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W) and in shortening of τp of the V’O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007) during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001) and a decrease in the end-exercise V’O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005). An increase (P = 0.02) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06) to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11). No significant effect of training on the V’O2peak was found (P = 0.12). However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01). The power output obtained at the V’O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003) and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001). Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes after training and decrease in the ‘‘additional” ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise. PMID:27104346
Bonetti, Leandro Viçosa; Ilha, Jocemar; Schneider, Ana Paula Krauthein; Barbosa, Silvia; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina
Numerous rehabilitation treatments have been shown to be useful for peripheral and central restoration after (PNI). After sciatic nerve crush, we investigated 4 weeks of endurance training (ET) and balance and coordination training (BCT) with sciatic function index, hind-paw stride length, and spinal cord dorsal horn synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between the non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups in sciatic functional index, and in stride-length analysis, but the ET showed higher values compared with the NT group. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was higher in the BCT group compared with the NT group, and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the BCT group was greater compared with the other groups. BCT can positively affect spinal cord plasticity after a (PNI), and these modifications are important in the rehabilitation process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beis Lukas Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of creatine (Cr and glycerol (Gly has been reported to be an effective method in expanding water compartments within the human body, attenuating the rise in heart rate (HR and core temperature (Tcore during exercise in the heat. Despite these positive effects, a substantial water retention could potentially impair endurance performance through increasing body mass (BM and consequently impacting negatively on running economy (RE. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during running for 30 min at speed corresponding to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max in hot and cool conditions. Methods Cr·H2O (11.4 g, Gly (1 g·kg-1 BM and Glucose polymer (75 g were administered twice daily to 15 male endurance runners during a 7-day period. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation at 10 and 35°C and 70% relative humidity. Results BM and total body water increased by 0.90 ± 0.40 kg (P P V˙O2 and therefore RE. Both HR and Tcore were attenuated significantly after supplementation (P Conclusions Combining Cr and Gly is effective in reducing thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise in the heat without negatively impacting on RE.
Ketelhut, R G
Physical activity in the form of endurance training is highly recommendable for hypertensives. Both suitable and unsuitable forms of sports are identified. From various points of view, two one-hour sessions per week would appear to be optimal. The intensity of the activity should be oriented to the heart rate, and, for safety's sake, prior ergometric evaluation should be carried out. As a rule of thumb, the heart rate should not exceed 70% of the maximum rate during exercise. If the blood pressure should nevertheless increase too much, appropriate pharmacological treatment is indicated.
Su, Yuling; Lai, Yunpeng; Huang, Wanyi; Tan, Wei; Qu, Zhe; Ding, Yulong
Although some studies showed that training can improve the ability of cross-dimension conjunction search, less is known about the underlying mechanism. Specifically, it remains unclear whether training of visual conjunction search can successfully bind different features of separated dimensions into a new function unit at early stages of visual processing. In the present study, we utilized stimulus specificity and generalization to provide a new approach to investigate the mechanisms underlying perceptual learning (PL) in visual conjunction search. Five experiments consistently showed that after 40 to 50 min of training of color-shape/orientation conjunction search, the ability to search for a certain conjunction target improved significantly and the learning effects did not transfer to a new target that differed from the trained target in both color and shape/orientation features. However, the learning effects were not strictly specific. In color-shape conjunction search, although the learning effect could not transfer to a same-shape different-color target, it almost completely transferred to a same-color different-shape target. In color-orientation conjunction search, the learning effect partly transferred to a new target that shared same color or same orientation with the trained target. Moreover, the sum of transfer effects for the same color target and the same orientation target in color-orientation conjunction search was algebraically equivalent to the learning effect for trained target, showing an additive transfer effect. The different transfer patterns in color-shape and color-orientation conjunction search learning might reflect the different complexity and discriminability between feature dimensions. These results suggested a feature-based attention enhancement mechanism rather than a unitization mechanism underlying the short-term PL of color-shape/orientation conjunction search.
Coates, Alexandra M; Hammond, Sarah; Burr, Jamie F
The use of heart rate variability (HRV) to inform daily training prescription is becoming common in endurance sport. Few studies, however, have investigated the use of pre-training HRV to predict decreased performance or altered exercising autonomic response, typical of functional overreaching (FOR). Further, a new cardiac vagal tone (ProCVT) technology purports to eliminate some of the noise associated with daily HRV, and therefore may be better at predicting same-day performance. The purpose of this investigation was to examine if changes to resting HRV and ProCVT were associated with alterations in performance, maximal heart rate (HRmax), or heart rate recovery (HRrec) in FOR athletes. Twenty-eight recreational cyclists and triathletes were assigned to experimental/control conditions and underwent: 1 week of reduced training, 3 weeks of overload (OL) or regular training (CON), and 1 week of recovery. Testing occurred following the reduced training week (T1), post-3 weeks of training (T2), and following the recovery week (T3). Measures of resting HRV/ProCVT were collected each testing session, followed by maximal incremental exercise tests with HRrec taken 60 s post-exercise. Performance decreased from T1 to T2 in the OL group vs. CON (Δ-9 ± 12 vs. Δ9 ± 11 W, P HRV and ProCVT did not change in either group. Same-day resting autonomic measures are insufficient in predicting alterations to performance or exercising HR measures following overload training.
Timothy J. Ricker
Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into s...
Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine
This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge
The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, w...
Full Text Available Background: Endurance training improves the activity of G4 type acetylcholine esterase (AchE in muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of endurance training (ET on activity of A12 type of AchE in Flexor Hallucis Longus (FHL and Soleus (SOL muscles of rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male wistar rats (age: 10 weeks and weight: 172.17±10.080 gr, were randomly divided in 2 groups (control; N=8 and ET; N=8. Training group carried out 8 weeks (5 session/week of endurance training on animal treadmill with speed of 10 m/min for 30 min at the first week which was gradually increased to 30 m/min for 60 min (70-80% of VO2max at the last week. Forty eight hours after last session of training, FHL and Sol muscles of animals were moved out under sterilized situation by cutting on posterio-lateral side of hind limb. For separating AchE subunits, homogenization and electrophoresis (0.06 non-denaturaing polyacrilamide methods were used. AchE activity was measured by Elisa kit.Results: The activity of this protein significantly (p=0.017 increased in SOL muscle of ET group by 119%, but did not changed in FHL. In both groups (ET and Con, FHL muscle had significantly (ET: p=0.028 and Con p=0.01 higher basic levels of AchE activity compared to SOL muscle. This significant increase in AchE of SOL might be indicative of responsiveness of AchE of this muscle following endurance training for improving acetylcholine (Ach cycle in neuromuscular junction.Conclusion: Endurance training might increase the A12 type AchE activity to improve the Ach cycle as part of the adaptation of neuromuscular junction to increased level of physical activity.
Dall, Jonas Olsen; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik
We explore whether expertise can modulate the capacity of visual short-term memory, as some seem to argue that training affects capacity of short-term memory  while others are not able to find this modulation . We extend on a previous study  demonstrating expertise effects by investiga...... are in line with the theoretical interpretation that visual short-term memory reflects the sum of the reverberating feedback loops to representations in long-term memory.......We explore whether expertise can modulate the capacity of visual short-term memory, as some seem to argue that training affects capacity of short-term memory  while others are not able to find this modulation . We extend on a previous study  demonstrating expertise effects......), and expert observers (Japanese university students). For both the picture and the letter condition we find no performance difference in memory capacity, however, in the critical hiragana condition we demonstrate a systematic difference relating expertise differences between the groups. These results...
Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Weston, Matthew
Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal. Our objective was to meta-analyse the effects of endurance training and HIT on the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of healthy, young to middle-aged adults. Six electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) for original research articles. A search was conducted and search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint interval training', 'endurance training', 'peak oxygen uptake', and 'VO2max'. Inclusion criteria were controlled trials, healthy adults aged 18-45 years, training duration ≥2 weeks, VO2max assessed pre- and post-training. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. This resulted in 723 participants with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and initial fitness of 25.1 ± 5 years and 40.8 ± 7.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. We made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject SDs for baseline VO2max. The meta-analysed effect of endurance training on VO2max was a possibly large beneficial effect (4.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95 % confidence limits ±1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), when compared with no-exercise controls. A possibly moderate additional increase was observed for typically younger subjects (2.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and interventions of longer duration (2.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and a small additional improvement for subjects with lower baseline fitness (1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). When compared with no-exercise controls
Full Text Available Leptin and adiponectin play an essential role in energy metabolism. Leptin has also been proposed as a marker for monitoring training load. So far, no studies have investigated the variability of these hormones in athletes and how they are regulated during cumulative exercises This study monitored leptin and adiponectin in 15 endurance athletes twice daily in the days before, during and after a 9-day simulated cycling stage race. Adiponectin significantly increased during the race (p=0.001 and recovery periods (p=0.002 when compared to the baseline, while leptin decreased significantly during the race (p<0.0001 and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period. lntra-individual variability was substantially lower than inter-individual variability for both hormones (leptin 34.1 vs. 53.5%, adiponectin 19% vs. 37.2%. With regards to exercise, this study demonstrated that with sufficient, sustained energy expenditure, leptin concentrations can decrease within the first 24 hours. Under the investigated conditions there also appears to be an optimal leptin concentration which ensures stable energy homeostasis, as there was no significant decrease over the subsequent race days. ln healthy endurance athletes the recovery of leptin takes 48-72 hours and may even show a supercompensation- like effect. For adiponectin, significant increases were observed within 5 days of commencing racing, with these elevated values failing to return to baseline levels after 3 days of recovery. Additionally, when using leptin and adiponectin to monitor training loads, establishing individual threshold values improves their sensitivity.
Currie, Katharine D; Sless, Ryan T; Notarius, Catherine F; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M
Untrained individuals with exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses to graded exercise testing are characterized as having resting dysfunction of the sympathetic and cardiovascular systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the resting cardiovascular state of endurance-trained individuals with EBP through a comparison of normotensive athletes with and without EBP. EBP was defined as a maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 190 mmHg and at least 210 mmHg for women and men respectively, in response to a graded exercise test. Twenty-two life-long endurance-trained athletes (56 ± 5 years, 16 men) with EBP (EBP+) and 11 age and sex-matched athletes (55 ± 5 years, eight men) without EBP (EBP-) participated in the study. Sympathetic reactivity was assessed using BP responses to a cold pressor test, isometric handgrip exercise, and postexercise muscle ischemia. Resting left ventricular structure and function was assessed using two-dimensional echocardiography, whereas central arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity. Calf vascular conductance was measured at rest and peak postexercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. All sympathetic reactivity, left ventricular, and arterial stiffness indices were similar between groups. There was no between-group difference in resting vascular conductance, whereas peak vascular conductance was higher in EBP+ relative to EBP- (1.81 ± 0.65 vs. 1.45 ± 0.32 ml/100 ml/min/mmHg, P < 0.05). Findings from this study suggest that athletes with EBP do not display the resting cardiovascular state typically observed in untrained individuals with EBP. This response in athletes, therefore, is likely a compensatory mechanism to satisfy peripheral blood-flow demands rather than indicative of latent dysfunction.
Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy
Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.
Jeppesen, T D; Dunø, M; Schwartz, M
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is unknown whether prolonged training is a safe treatment to alleviate exercise intolerance in patients with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. METHODS: The effect of 3 and 12 months training and 3-12 months deconditioning was studied in four patients carrying differe...
Kormos, Judit; Safar, Anna
In our research we addressed the question what the relationship is between phonological short-term and working memory capacity and performance in an end-of-year reading, writing, listening, speaking and use of English test. The participants of our study were 121 secondary school students aged 15-16 in the first intensive language training year of…
Conclusions and importance: Eyeball tattoos are performed by non-ophthalmic trained personnel. There are a substantial number of short-term risks associated with this procedure. Long-term effects on the eyes and vision are still unknown, but in a worst case scenario could include loss of vision or permanent damage to the eyes.
Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Tuch, Carolin; Frei, Klaus Michael; Wyss, Thomas
Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is an often used measure to assess athletes' training load. However, little is known which factors could optimize the quality of data collection thereof. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of (i) the survey methods and (ii) the time points when sRPE was assessed on the correlation between subjective (sRPE) and objective (heart rate training impulse; TRIMP) assessment of training load. In the first part, 45 well-trained subjects (30 men, 15 women) performed 20 running sessions with a heart rate monitor and reported sRPE 30 minutes after training cessation. For the reporting the subjects were grouped into three survey method groups (paper-pencil, online questionnaire, and mobile device). In the second part of the study, another 40 athletes (28 men, 12 women) performed 4x5 running sessions with the four time points to report the sRPE randomly assigned (directly after training cessation, 30 minutes post-exercise, in the evening of the same day, the next morning directly after waking up). The assessment of sRPE is influenced by time point, survey method, TRIMP, sex, and training type. It is recommended to assess sRPE values via a mobile device or online tool, as the survey method "paper" displayed lower correlations between sRPE and TRIMP. Subjective training load measures are highly individual. When compared at the same relative intensity, lower sRPE values were reported by women, for the training types representing slow runs, and for time points with greater duration between training cessation and sRPE assessment. The assessment method for sRPE should be kept constant for each athlete and comparisons between athletes or sexes are not recommended.
Manzi, Vincenzo; Bovenzi, Antonio; Castagna, Carlo; Sinibaldi Salimei, Paola; Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando
To assess the distribution of exercise intensity in long-distance recreational athletes (LDRs) preparing for a marathon and to test the hypothesis that individual perception of effort could provide training responses similar to those provided by standardized training methodologies. Seven LDRs (age 36.5 ± 3.8 y) were followed during a 5-mo training period culminating with a city marathon. Heart rate at 2.0 and 4.0 mmol/L and maximal heart rate were used to establish 3 intensity training zones. Internal training load (TL) was assessed by training zones and TRIMPi methods. These were compared with the session-rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) method. Total time spent in zone 1 was higher than in zones 2 and 3 (76.3% ± 6.4%, 17.3% ± 5.8%, and 6.3% ± 0.9%, respectively; P = .000 for both, ES = 0.98, ES = 0.99). TL quantified by session-RPE provided the same result. The comparison between session-RPE and training-zones-based methods showed no significant difference at the lowest intensity (P = .07, ES = 0.25). A significant correlation was observed between TL RPE and TL TRIMPi at both individual and group levels (r = .79, P marathon (r = -.83, P recreational LDRs most of the training time is spent at low intensity and that this is associated with improved performances. Session-RPE is an easy-to-use training method that provides responses similar to those obtained with standardized training methodologies.
Full Text Available This study investigated satellite cells and their related molecular events adapted to light moderate endurance training in the white gastrocnemius muscle of the rat. The white gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats that had been trained for 4 weeks and 8 weeks, with control rats being analysed alongside them, was selected for analysis (n=3 per group. The training protocol consisted of treadmill running at 20 m · min-1 for 30 min on a 0% grade, for 3 days · week-1. Immunohistochemical staining coupled with image analysis was used for quantification. To provide deeper insight into the cell layer, 40 sections per rat, corresponding to 120 values per group, were obtained as a mean value for statistical comparison. The results indicated that at week 4, training effects increased the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF content and c-met positive satellite cell numbers. At week 8, the training effect was attenuated for VEGF and c-met satellite cell numbers, but it increased in the muscle fibre area. Additionally, c-met positive satellite cell numbers correlated with VEGF content (r = 0.79, p<0.05. In conclusion, this study suggests that light moderate endurance training could stimulate satellite cell activation that might be related to VEGF signalling. Additionally, the satellite cells activated by moderate endurance training might contribute to slight growth in myocytes.
van den Berg, Linda E M; Favejee, Marein M; Wens, Stephan C A; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Praet, Stephan F E; Reuser, Arnold J J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T
Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary outcome measures core stability, muscle function and body composition, were evaluated. Of 25 patients enrolled, 23 successfully completed the training. Improvements in endurance were shown by increases in maximum workload capacity (110 W before to 122 W after training, [95 % CI of the difference 6 · 0 to 19 · 7]), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (69 · 4 % and 75 · 9 % of normal, [2 · 5 to 10 · 4]), and maximum walking distance (6 min walk test: 492 meters and 508, [-4 · 4 to 27 · 7] ). There were increases in muscle strength of the hip flexors (156 · 4 N to 180 · 7 N [1 · 6 to 13 · 6) and shoulder abductors (143 · 1 N to 150 · 7 N [13 · 2 to 35 · 2]). As an important finding in secondary outcome measures the number of patients who were able to perform the core stability exercises rose, as did the core stability balancing time (p core stability exercises is feasible, safe and beneficial to adults with Pompe disease.
Pontes, Jose C.A. de; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.
We investigate short-term memories in linear and weakly nonlinear coupled map lattices with a periodic external input. We use locally coupled maps to present numerical results about short-term memory formation adding a stochastic perturbation in the maps and in the external input
The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts
vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ
Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than
Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the efficacy and cost effectivines of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for short term elective surgery. Material and Method: After written informed consent, 33 patients aged 18%u201365, ASA I-III, who were undergoing short term surgery (
Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.
Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)
The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.
Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.
This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of
Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel
Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…
Abbas Ghanbari Niaki
Full Text Available Background: Hypothalamus is mentioned as the major center of appetite and energy balance. Physical activity and the exersice are able to disturb the energy balance to negative. Nesfatin-1 is a regulating neuropeptide that is produced by hypothalamus and has an important role in establishing energy balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training regimen on nesfatin-1 gene expression and its concentration in the male rat hypothalamus. Materials and Methods: Eleven adult wistar male rats (8-10 week old, 130-145g assigned into control(C, n=5 and training (E, n=6 groups. Training group was given exercise on a motor-driven treadmill (20m/min, 0% grade, 60 min/session, 5days/week for 8 weeks. Rats were sacrificed 72h after the last training session and then the hypothalamus tissue was excised for determination of nesfatin-1 gene expression and its concentration by RT-PCR & ELIZA methods, respectively. Four hours before the experiment the food not tap water was removed from the animal cages. Data was analyzed by using an independent t-student test. Results: The current results indicated that the levels of nesfatin-1 gene expression and its concentration, ATP, and glycogen concentrations were non-significantly lower in trained group when compared with control group. Conclusion: This research showed for the first time, that a low-intensity exercises, decreases nesfatin-1 expression and concentration in the hypothalamus, which accompanied insignificant reduction in energy source. It seems that in the present research, the exercise has had the same fasting and being hungry like effect on nesfatin-1 expression and concentration in the hypothalamus.
Carneiro-Júnior, Miguel Araujo; Quintão-Júnior, Judson Fonseca; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Lavorato, Victor Neiva; Drummond, Filipe Rios; da Cunha, Daise Nunes Queiroz; Amadeu, Marco Aurélio; Felix, Leonardo Bonato; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Cruz, Jader Santos; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Mill, José Geraldo; Natali, Antonio José
The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of low-intensity endurance training and detraining on the mechanical and molecular properties of cardiomyocytes from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs and normotensive control Wistar rats at 16-weeks of age were randomly divided into eight groups of eight animals: NC8 and HC8 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 8weeks); NT8 and HT8 (normotensive and hypertensive trained at 50-60% of maximal exercise capacity for 8weeks); NC12 and HC12 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 12weeks); NDT and HDT (normotensive and hypertensive trained for 8weeks and detrained for 4weeks). The total exercise time until fatigue (TTF) was determined by a maximal exercise capacity test. Resting heart rate (RHR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were measured. After the treatments, animals were killed by cervical dislocation and left ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dispersion. Isolated cells were used to determine intracellular global Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transient and cardiomyocyte contractility (1Hz; ~25°C). [Ca(2+)]i regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot, and the markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). Exercise training augmented the TTF (NC8, 11.4±1.5min vs. NT8, 22.5±1.4min; HC8, 11.7±1.4min vs. HT8, 24.5±1.3min; Pendurance training induces positive benefits to left ventricular myocyte mechanical and molecular properties, which are reversed within 4weeks of detraining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.
Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena
Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be
Full Text Available Are considered indicators of regulation of cardiac activity proposed D.N. Davidenko et al. (1984. It is established age-related indicators in girls from 9 to 10 years. It is shown that in the process of double-entry physical training with the implementation of priority endurance exercise significantly improves the efficiency of regulation of cardiac activity for girls. The expediency of the lessons of physical culture directed on the priority of development endurance to improve the physical health of school girls of primary school.
Cobley, James N; Sakellariou, George K; Murray, Scott; Waldron, Sarah; Gregson, Warren; Burniston, Jatin G; Morton, James P; Iwanejko, Lesley A; Close, Graeme L
The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age and habitual activity level, at rest and following a single bout of high-intensity exercise, on the levels of three proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), cleaved-PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), involved in the DNA repair and cell death responses to stress and genotoxic insults. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of young trained (22 ± 3 years, n = 6), young untrained (24 ± 4 years, n = 6), old trained (64 ± 3 years, n = 6) and old untrained (65 ± 6 years, n = 6) healthy males before, immediately after and three days following a high-intensity interval exercise bout. PARP-1, which catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins and DNA in response to a range of intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, was increased at baseline in old trained and old untrained compared with young trained and young untrained participants (P ≤ 0.05). Following exercise, PARP-1 levels remained unchanged in young trained participants, in contrast to old trained and old untrained where levels decreased and young untrained where levels increased (P ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, baseline levels of the cleaved PARP-1, a marker of apoptosis, and PARG, responsible for polymer degradation, were both significantly elevated in old untrained compared with old trained, young trained and young untrained (P ≤ 0.05). Despite this baseline difference in PARG, there was no change in any group following exercise. There was a non-significant statistical trend (P = 0.072) towards increased cleaved-PARP-1 expression post-exercise in younger but not old persons, regardless of training status. Collectively, these results show that exercise slows the progression towards a chronically stressed state but has no impact on the age-related attenuated response to acute exercise. Our findings provide valuable insight into how habitual exercise training could protect skeletal muscle from chronic damage to
Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W; Van Hall, Gerrit; Pedersen, Bente K; Mortensen, Stefan P
To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A total of 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT). Glycaemic control (HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, 3-hour mixed meal tolerance test with double tracer technique and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]), lipolysis, VO 2 peak and body composition were evaluated before and after 11 weeks of intervention. Exercise training increased VO 2 peak more in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycaemic variability and HOMA-IR decreased after HIIT. The reduced postprandial glucose in the HIIT group was driven primarily by a lower rate of exogenous glucose appearance. In the CON group, postprandial lipolysis was augmented over the 11-week control period. Despite a ~45% lower training volume, HIIT resulted in similar or even better improvements in physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control compared to END. HIIT therefore appears to be an important time-efficient treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Raine, Adrian; And Others
Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)
Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C
Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements