Müller, Katrin; Libuda, Lars; Terschlüsen, Anna Maria; Kersting, Mathilde
Because of widespread irregular lunch consumption by both children and adults, information on the effects of lunch on short-term cognitive functioning is relevant to public health. In September 2012, a MEDLINE search was conducted for studies in which the effects of lunch on cognitive performance were examined. Eleven experimental studies published from 1981 to 1996 were found and evaluated; all involved adults. In three studies, the effects of lunch and lunch skipping were compared; the remaining studies involved a determination of the effects of lunch size and lunch composition. Results of studies in which lunch was compared with no lunch indicate that lunch leads to potential impairment of some aspects of cognitive functioning in the early afternoon. Lunch size may influence cognitive functioning, with impairment more likely to occur after a large lunch than a small lunch. Furthermore, in comparison with low-fat lunches, high-fat lunches seem to result in slower but more accurate responses to some cognitive tasks. However, these suggestions must be viewed with caution, as they are based on only a few studies and are not thoroughly supported by high-quality evidence. In addition, results obtained with adults are not applicable to children. Thus, the potential effects of lunch need further examination in children and adults.
Pengelly, Andrew; Snow, James; Mills, Simon Y; Scholey, Andrew; Wesnes, Keith; Butler, Leah Reeves
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has traditional reputations that justify investigation for a potential role in reducing widespread cognitive decline in the elderly. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study was conducted to investigate possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. Twenty-eight older adults (mean age, 75 years) were tested using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours following a placebo and four different doses of rosemary. Doses were counterbalanced, and there was a 7-day washout between visits. There was a biphasic dose-dependent effect in measures of speed of memory: the lowest dose (750 mg) of rosemary had a statistically significant beneficial effect compared with placebo (P=.01), whereas the highest dose (6,000 mg) had a significant impairing effect (Pmemory is a potentially useful predictor of cognitive function during aging. The positive effect of the dose nearest normal culinary consumption points to the value of further work on effects of low doses over the longer term.
Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko
Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.
Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine
Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks.
Edwards, Lindsay M; Murray, Andrew J; Holloway, Cameron J; Carter, Emma E; Kemp, Graham J; Codreanu, Ion; Brooker, Helen; Tyler, Damian J; Robbins, Peter A; Clarke, Kieran
We recently showed that a short-term high-fat diet blunted exercise performance in rats, accompanied by increased uncoupling protein levels and greater respiratory uncoupling. In this study, we investigated the effects of a similar diet on physical and cognitive performance in humans. Twenty sedentary men were assessed when consuming a standardized, nutritionally balanced diet (control) and after 7 d of consuming a diet comprising 74% kcal from fat. Efficiency was measured during a standardized exercise task, and cognition was assessed using a computerized assessment battery. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function was measured using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The diet increased mean ± se plasma free fatty acids by 44% (0.32±0.03 vs. 0.46±0.05 mM; Pdiet consumption also increased subjects' simple reaction times (Pdiet blunts whole-body efficiency and cognition in sedentary men. We suggest that this effect may be due to increased respiratory uncoupling.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. Methods A total of 264 participants aged 25–45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, smoking habits, drinking habits, and breakfast behaviours. The participants will be randomly assigned to 3 equal-sized groups (Groups A, B, and C and will be provided with a nutrition-adequate breakfast, a nutrition-inadequate breakfast, or no breakfast, respectively. Each participant will receive the breakfast treatment on the basis of assignment to one of three sequences (ABC/BCA/CAB. Each participant will complete a battery of cognitive tests assessing short-term memory, attention, and working memory 120 minutes after breakfast. Mood will be measured through a self-administered questionnaire assessing the dimensions of positive and negative frames of mind. Additionally, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2-hour blood glucose levels will be tested with a blood-glucose meter (Roche ACCU-CHEK®-Performa. All the participants will take all the tests in three successive weeks, and the order of presentation will be counter-balanced across groups. Discussion The present study will be the first investigation of the effect of breakfast food type and quality on cognitive function amongst white-collar workers in China. We predict that a nutrition-adequate breakfast, compared with a nutrition-inadequate breakfast and no breakfast, will significantly improve short-term cognitive function. The results of this study should provide scientific evidence of the effect of
Gálvez, Gerardo; Recuero, Manuel; Canuet, Leonides; Del-Pozo, Francisco
We applied rhythmic binaural sound to Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients to investigate its influence on several symptoms of this disease and on Electrophysiology (Electrocardiography and Electroencephalography (EEG)). We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled study in which rhythmic binaural beats and control were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). Patients ([Formula: see text], age [Formula: see text], stage I-III Hoehn & Yahr scale) participated in two sessions of sound stimulation for 10[Formula: see text]min separated by a minimum of 7 days. Data were collected immediately before and after both stimulations with the following results: (1) a decrease in theta activity, (2) a general decrease in Functional Connectivity (FC), and (3) an improvement in working memory performance. However, no significant changes were identified in the gait performance, heart rate or anxiety level of the patients. With regard to the control stimulation, we did not identify significant changes in the variables analyzed. The use of binaural-rhythm stimulation for PD, as designed in this study, seems to be an effective, portable, inexpensive and noninvasive method to modulate brain activity. This influence on brain activity did not induce changes in anxiety or gait parameters; however, it resulted in a normalization of EEG power (altered in PD), normalization of brain FC (also altered in PD) and working memory improvement (a normalizing effect). In summary, we consider that sound, particularly binaural-rhythmic sound, may be a co-assistant tool in the treatment of PD, however more research is needed to consider the use of this type of stimulation as an effective therapy.
Morris, John N.; Steel, Knight; Strout, Kelley A.; Fries, Brant E.; Moore, Alice; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka
Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one's status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being. PMID:27891520
Elizabeth P. Howard
Full Text Available Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one’s status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being.
Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L.; Belliveau, John W.; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko
Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory ...
Montreuil, Tina; Bodnar, Michael; Bertrand, Marie-Claude; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Lepage, Martin
In psychotic disorders, impairments in cognition have been associated with both clinical and functional outcome, while deficits in social cognition have been associated with functional outcome. As an extension to a recent report on neurocognition and short-term clinical outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP), the current study explored whether social cognitive deficits could also identify poor short-term clinical outcome among FEP patients. We defined the social-cognition domain based on the scores from the Hinting Task and the Four Factor Tests of Social Intelligence. Data were collected in 45 FEP patients and 26 healthy controls. The patients were divided into good- and poor-outcome groups based on clinical data at six months following initiation of treatment. Social cognition was compared among 27 poor-outcome, 18 good-outcome, and 26 healthy-control participants. Outcome groups significantly differed in the social cognition domain (z-scores: poor outcome=-2.0 [SD=1.4]; good outcome=-1.0 [SD=1.0]; p=0.005), with both groups scoring significantly lower than the control group (psocial cognition appears to be compromised in all FEP patients compared to healthy controls. More interestingly, significant differences in social cognitive impairments exist between good and poor short-term clinical outcome groups, with the largest effect found in the Cartoon Predictions subtest.
Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri; Marcello eRosa; Nafiseh eAtapour
Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor ...
Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès
Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition
Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko
Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory and surround-inhibitory modulations, constitutes a generic processing principle that supports sensory memory, short-term memory, involuntary attention, selective attention, and perceptual learning. In our model, the size and complexity of receptive fields/level of abstraction of neural representations, as well as the length of temporal receptive windows, increases as one steps up the cortical hierarchy. Consequently, the type of input (bottom-up vs. top down) and the level of cortical hierarchy that the inputs target, determine whether short-term plasticity supports purely sensory vs. semantic short-term memory or attentional functions. Furthermore, we suggest that rather than discrete memory systems, there are continuums of memory representations from short-lived sensory ones to more abstract longer-duration representations, such as those tapped by behavioral studies of short-term memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bogliacino, Francesco; Grimalda, Gianluca; Ortoleva, Pietro; Ring, Patrick
Previous research has investigated the effects of violence and warfare on individuals' well-being, mental health, and individual prosociality and risk aversion. This study establishes the short- and long-term effects of exposure to violence on short-term memory and aspects of cognitive control. Short-term memory is the ability to store information. Cognitive control is the capacity to exert inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Both have been shown to affect positively individual well-being and societal development. We sampled Colombian civilians who were exposed either to urban violence or to warfare more than a decade earlier. We assessed exposure to violence through either the urban district-level homicide rate or self-reported measures. Before undertaking cognitive tests, a randomly selected subset of our sample was asked to recall emotions of anxiety and fear connected to experiences of violence, whereas the rest recalled joyful or emotionally neutral experiences. We found that higher exposure to violence was associated with lower short-term memory abilities and lower cognitive control in the group recalling experiences of violence, whereas it had no effect in the other group. This finding demonstrates that exposure to violence, even if a decade earlier, can hamper cognitive functions, but only among individuals actively recalling emotional states linked with such experiences. A laboratory experiment conducted in Germany aimed to separate the effect of recalling violent events from the effect of emotions of fear and anxiety. Both factors had significant negative effects on cognitive functions and appeared to be independent from each other.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with the loss of participants in long-term longitudinal studies of ageing, due to refusal or moves, have been discussed less than those with short term follow-up. Methods In a population-based study of cognition and ageing (the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS, factors associated with dropout due to refusal and moving in the first follow-up period (over two years are compared with factors associated with dropout over ten years. Participants at 10-year follow-up are compared with their age-standardised baseline contemporaries. Results Some consistent trends are found over the longer term. Refusers tended to have poorer cognition, less years of education, not have a family history of dementia and be women. Characteristics of people who moved differed between waves, but the oldest and people in worse health moved more. When surviving and responding individuals at ten years are compared with those of the same age at baseline many differences are found. Individuals of lower social class, education, cognitive ability, in residential care, with sight/hearing problems and poor/fair self-reported health are less likely to be seen after 10 years of follow-up. Individuals report more health problems when they participate in multiple interviews. Conclusion The characteristics of refusers in the longer term are similar to those refusing to participate over the shorter term. Long-term follow-up studies will under represent the disadvantaged and disabled but represent full health status of participating individuals better. There are advantages and disadvantages to both short-term and long-term follow-up.
Demeter, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály; Csigó, Katalin; Harsányi, András; Németh, Attila; Döme, László
Previous neuropsychological studies produced inconsistent results with tasks tapping short-term verbal and visual-spatial memory and executive functions in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of deficits in these cognitive domains. A further goal was to describe the distribution of patients in different impairment ranges for all functions, and clarify the relationship between symptom severity and cognitive impairments. Thirty patients with OCD (DSM-IV) and 30 healthy volunteers were compared using well-known neuropsychological tasks. We assessed short-term verbal memory with the Digit Span Forward and Digit Span Backward Tasks, short-term visual-spatial memory with the Corsi Block Tapping Task, while we measured the level of executive functions with the StroopTask and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Compared with a matched healthy control group, the performance of OCD patients was in the impaired range only in the two executive tasks. We find a significant positive correlations between the Y-BOCS (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale) total scores and the number of perseverative responses (r(28) = 0.409, p short-term memory is intact in OCD. This is in line with neuropsychological model of OCD that the deficit of cognitive and behavioral inhibition are responsible for the main cognitive findings of this disorder, most prevalently the deficit in set shifting and prepotent response inhibition.
Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK
Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET. The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03. The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.
Kramer, Ueli; Ortega, Diana; Ambresin, Gilles; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; de Roten, Yves
The concept of biased thinking - or cognitive biases - is relevant to psychotherapy research and clinical conceptualization, beyond cognitive theories. The present naturalistic study aimed to examine the changes in biased thinking over the course of a short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and to discover potential links between these changes and symptomatic improvement. This study focuses on 32 self-referred patients consulting for Adjustment Disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. The therapists were experienced psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists and psychotherapists. Coding of cognitive biases (using the Cognitive Errors Rating Scale; CERS) was made by external raters based on transcripts of interviews of psychotherapy; the reliability of these ratings on a randomly chosen 24% of all sessions was established. Based on the Symptom Check List SCL-90-R given before and after, the Reliable Change Index (RCI) was used. The assessment of cognitive errors was done at three time points: early (session 4-7), mid-treatment (session 12-17), and close to the end (after session 20) of the treatment. The results showed that the total frequency of cognitive biases was stable over time (p = .20), which was true both for positive and for negative cognitive biases. In exploring the three main subscales of the CERS, we found a decrease in selective abstraction (p = .02) and an increase in personalization (p = .05). A significant link between RCI scores (outcome) and frequency of positive cognitive biases was found, suggesting that biases towards the positive might have a protective function in psychotherapy. Therapists may be attentive to changes in biased thinking across short-term dynamic psychotherapy for adjustment disorder. Therapists may foster the emergence of positive cognitive biases at mid-treatment for adjustment disorder. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri
Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.
Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore
We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…
Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.
Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.
An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of
Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V
for the primary outcome analysis, calculation of the 95% confidence interval showed that it was highly unlikely that an increase in sample size would have rendered any beneficial effects of CR vs. ST on the verbal memory. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term group-based CR did not seem to improve overall cognitive...... aimed to investigate the effects of CR on persistent cognitive dysfunction in BD. METHOD: Patients with BD in partial remission with cognitive complaints were randomised to 12 weeks group-based CR (n=23) or standard treatment (ST) (n=23). Outcomes were improved verbal memory (primary), sustained...... or psychosocial function in individuals with BD in full or partial remission. The present findings suggest that that longer-term, more intensive and individualised CR may be necessary to improve cognition in BD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01457235....
van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van de Rest, Ondine; Kessels, Roy P C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M
In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-reported memory complaints were included. Drinks consisted of 250 ml with dissolved glucose (50 g), sucrose (100 g), or a mixture of artificial sweeteners (placebo). Multiple neuropsychological tests were performed and were combined by means of z scores into four cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, attention and information (processing speed), and executive functioning. Mood was assessed with the short Profile of Mood Status (s-POMS) questionnaire. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at five time points to divide participants into those with a better or poorer blood glucose recovery. Performance on the domain of attention and information processing speed was significantly better after consuming the sucrose drink (domain score of 0.06, SD = 0.91) than after the placebo drink (-0.08, SD = 0.92, p = .04). Sucrose had no effect on the other three domains, and glucose had no effect on any of the domains compared to the placebo. When dividing participants into poorer or better glucose recoverers, the beneficial effect of sucrose on attention and information processing speed was only seen in participants with a poorer recovery. After sucrose consumption, depressive feelings and tension were slightly higher than after the placebo. To conclude, 100 g sucrose, but not 50 g glucose, optimized attention and information processing speed in the short term in this study in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints.
Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie
Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, C.P.G.M. de
In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with
Lim, Julian; Dinges, David F.
A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (less than 48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of…
Full Text Available Computerized cognitive training (CCT is a safe and inexpensive intervention to enhance cognitive performance in the elderly. However, the neural underpinning of CCT-induced effects and the timecourse by which such neural changes occur are unknown. Here, we report on results from a pilot study of healthy older adults who underwent three 1-hour weekly sessions of either multidomain CCT program (n = 7 or an active control intervention (n = 5 over 12 weeks. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and cognitive assessments were performed at baseline and after 9 and 36 hours of training. Voxel-based structural analysis revealed a significant Group × Time interaction in the right postcentral gyrus indicating increased gray matter density in the CCT group compared to active control at both follow-ups. Across the entire sample, there were significant positive correlations between changes in the postcentral gyrus and change in global cognition after 36 hours of training. A post-hoc vertex-based analysis found a significant between-group difference in rate of thickness change between baseline and post-training in the left fusiform gyrus, as well as a large cluster in the right parietal lobe covering the supramarginal and postcentral gyri. Resting-state functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate and the superior frontal gyrus, and between the right hippocampus and the superior temporal gyrus significantly differed between the two groups after 9 hours of training and correlated with cognitive change post-training. No significant interactions were found for any of the spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging data. Though preliminary, our results suggest that functional change may precede structural and cognitive change, and that about one-half of the structural change occurs within the first nine hours of training. Future studies are required to determine the role of these brain changes in the mechanisms underlying CCT
Horsch, A.; Jacobs, I.; McKenzie-McHarg, K.
This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 a...
Chengyang, Li; Daqing, Huang; Jianlin, Qi; Haisheng, Chang; Qingqing, Meng; Jin, Wang; Jiajia, Liu; Enmao, Ye; Yongcong, Shao; Xi, Zhang
Acute sleep restriction heavily influences cognitive function, affecting executive processes such as attention, response inhibition, and memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between hippocampal activity and short-term memory function. However, the specific contribution of the hippocampus to the decline of short-term memory following sleep restriction has yet to be established. In the current study, we utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the association between hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the decline of short-term memory following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Twenty healthy adult males aged 20.9 ± 2.3 years (age range, 18-24 years) were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Short-term memory and FC were assessed using a Delay-matching short-term memory test and a resting-state fMRI scan before and after TSD. Seed-based correlation analysis was performed using fMRI data for the left and right hippocampus to identify differences in hippocampal FC following TSD. Subjects demonstrated reduced alertness and a decline in short-term memory performance following TSD. Moreover, fMRI analysis identified reduced hippocampal FC with the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), temporal regions, and supplementary motor area. In addition, an increase in FC between the hippocampus and bilateral thalamus was observed, the extent of which correlated with short-term memory performance following TSD. Our findings indicate that the disruption of hippocampal-cortical connectivity is linked to the decline in short-term memory observed after acute sleep restriction. Such results provide further evidence that support the cognitive impairment model of sleep deprivation.
Cicero, A F; Bove, M; Colletti, A; Rizzo, M; Fogacci, F; Giovannini, M; Borghi, C
The prevalence of senile dementia is increasing worldwide, especially in the developed countries. Nevertheless, drug therapy isn't often enough to treat this condition. Researchers are evaluating the possible impact of a preventive approach, based on an improvement of lifestyle and the intake of micronutrients. Moreover, there is an increasing interest for combined nutraceuticals that can act as memory and learning enhancers, with a significant and beneficial potential on the cognitive disorders. To evaluate the effects of a rational assemblage of nutraceuticals on cognitive functions in a sample of 30 elderly subjects. Double bind, cross-over designed trial versus placebo Setting: outpatient clinical practice. 30 elderly subjects with basal Mini-Mental State Examination score between 20 and 27 and self-perceived cognitive decline. Treatment with a combination of nutraceuticals based on Bacopa monnieri, L-theanine, Crocus sativus, copper, folate and vitamins of B and D group. After2 months of treatment or placebo. Patients were evaluated with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and Index and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SRDS). MMSE and PSQ Index significantly improved in the active treatment arm, both versus baseline and versus the parallel arm. Both groups experienced a significant improving in the SRDS scores. We obtained a good and significant improvement of the cognitive functions tested with the MMSE, PSQ-Index and SRDS score, after 2 months of combined therapy of nutraceuticals. Further confirmation will be needed to verify these observations on the middle and long term in a larger number of subjects.
Sheremata, Summer L; Somers, David C; Shomstein, Sarah
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are distinct yet interrelated processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires the maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection; therefore, it is important to determine whether overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands. While attention and VSTM activated similar cortical areas, BOLD amplitude and functional connectivity in parietal cortex differentiated the two tasks. Relative to attention, VSTM increased BOLD amplitude in dorsal parietal cortex and decreased BOLD amplitude in the angular gyrus. Additionally, the tasks differentially modulated parietal functional connectivity. Contrasting VSTM and attention, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 1-2 were more strongly connected with anterior frontoparietal areas and more weakly connected with posterior regions. This divergence between tasks demonstrates that parietal activation reflects memory-specific functions and consequently modulates functional connectivity across the cortex. In contrast, both tasks demonstrated hemispheric asymmetries for spatial processing, exhibiting a stronger contralateral visual field bias in the left versus the right hemisphere across tasks, suggesting that asymmetries are characteristic of a shared selection process in IPS. These results demonstrate that parietal activity and patterns of functional connectivity distinguish VSTM from more general attention processes, establishing a central role of the parietal cortex in maintaining visual information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and
Loginov, V.M.; Gnezditskij, V.V.; Emulyushina, O.N.; Mukhamedzhanov, N.Z.
The paper is concerned with the results of investigation of the effect of short-term hyperglycemia on main cerebral functions in 13 neurooncological patients. Taking into account good tolerance of short-term hyperglycemia and the results of its effective use in general oncology, one can recommend it as a modifier in radiation therapy of brain gliomas
Qvenild Torgunn; Svendsen Kristin; Svedahl Sindre; Sjaastad Ann; Hilt Bjørn
Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled level...
Wiegand, Iris; Lauritzen, Martin J.; Osler, Merete
Visual short-term memory (vSTM) is a cognitive resource that declines with age. This study investigated whether electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of vSTM vary with cognitive development over individuals' lifespan. We measured vSTM performance and EEG in a lateralized whole-report task...... in a healthy birth cohort, whose cognitive function (intelligence quotient) was assessed in youth and late-middle age. Higher vSTM capacity (K; measured by Bundesen's theory of visual attention) was associated with higher amplitudes of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the central positivity (CP......). In addition, rightward hemifield asymmetry of vSTM (Kλ) was associated with lower CDA amplitudes. Furthermore, more severe cognitive decline from young adulthood to late-middle age predicted higher CDA amplitudes, and the relationship between K and the CDA was less reliable in individuals who show higher...
Wiegand, Iris; Lauritzen, Martin J; Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Rostrup, Egill; Rask, Lene; Richard, Nelly; Horwitz, Anna; Benedek, Krisztina; Vangkilde, Signe; Petersen, Anders
Visual short-term memory (vSTM) is a cognitive resource that declines with age. This study investigated whether electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of vSTM vary with cognitive development over individuals' lifespan. We measured vSTM performance and EEG in a lateralized whole-report task in a healthy birth cohort, whose cognitive function (intelligence quotient) was assessed in youth and late-middle age. Higher vSTM capacity (K; measured by Bundesen's theory of visual attention) was associated with higher amplitudes of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the central positivity (CP). In addition, rightward hemifield asymmetry of vSTM (K λ ) was associated with lower CDA amplitudes. Furthermore, more severe cognitive decline from young adulthood to late-middle age predicted higher CDA amplitudes, and the relationship between K and the CDA was less reliable in individuals who show higher levels of cognitive decline compared to individuals with preserved abilities. By contrast, there was no significant effect of lifespan cognitive changes on the CP or the relationship between behavioral measures of vSTM and the CP. Neither the CDA, nor the CP, nor the relationships between K or K λ and the event-related potentials were predicted by individuals' current cognitive status. Together, our findings indicate complex age-related changes in processes underlying behavioral and EEG measures of vSTM and suggest that the K-CDA relationship might be a marker of cognitive lifespan trajectories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Cubelli, Roberto; Hernandez Valdez, Maria; Della Sala, Sergio
Remembering complex events requires binding features within unified objects (conjunctions) and holding associations between objects (relations). Recent studies suggest that the two functions dissociate in long-term memory (LTM). Less is known about their functional organization in short-term memory (STM). The present study investigated this issue in patient AE affected by a stroke which caused damage to brain regions known to be relevant for relational functions both in LTM and in STM (i.e., the hippocampus). The assessment involved a battery of standard neuropsychological tasks and STM binding tasks. One STM binding task (Experiment 1) presented common objects and common colors forming either pairs (relations) or integrated objects (conjunctions). Free recall of relations or conjunctions was assessed. A second STM binding task used random polygons and non-primary colors instead (Experiment 2). Memory was assessed by selecting the features that made up the relations or the conjunctions from a set of single polygons and a set of single colors. The neuropsychological assessment revealed impaired delayed memory in AE. AE's pronounced relational STM binding deficits contrasted with his completely preserved conjunctive binding functions in both Experiments 1 and 2. Only 2.35% and 1.14% of the population were expected to have a discrepancy more extreme than that presented by AE in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Processing relations and conjunctions of very elementary nonspatial features in STM led to dissociating performances in AE. These findings may inform current theories of memory decline such as those linked to cognitive aging.
Full Text Available We examine the relationship between response speed and the number of items in short-term memory in four different paradigms and find evidence for a similar high-speed processing rate of about 25 to 30 items per second (~35 to 40 ms/item. We propose that the similarity of the processing rates across paradigms reflects the operation of a very basic covert memory process, high-speed retrieval, that is involved in both the search for information in STM and the reactivation or refreshing of information that keeps it in STM. We link this process to a specific pattern of rhythmic, repetitive neural activity in the brain (gamma oscillations. This proposal generates ideas for research and calls for an integrative approach that combines neuroscientific measures with behavioral cognitive techniques.
Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Stone, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Crowther, Janis H
Many bariatric surgery candidates report body image concerns before surgery. Research has reported post-surgical improvements in body satisfaction, which may be associated with weight loss. However, research has failed to comprehensively examine changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive body image. This research examined (1) short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image from pre-surgery to 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, and (2) the association between percent weight loss and these changes. Participants were recruited from a private hospital in the midwestern United States. Eighty-eight females (original N = 123; lost to follow-up: n = 15 at 1-month and n = 20 at 6-months post-surgery) completed a questionnaire battery, including the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Checking Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and Body Shape Questionnaire, and weights were obtained from patients' medical records before and at 1- and 6-months post-surgery. Results indicated significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness, and body image avoidance at 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, with the greatest magnitude of change occurring for body image avoidance. Change in feelings of fatness was significantly correlated with percent weight loss at 6-months, but not 1-month, post-surgery. These findings highlight the importance of examining short-term changes in body image from a multidimensional perspective in the effort to improve postsurgical outcomes. Unique contributions include the findings regarding the behavioral component of body image, as body image avoidance emerges as a particularly salient concern that changes over time among bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the effects of elevated doses of solifenacin and trospium on cognitive function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in elderly women receiving treatment for urinary incontinence. Methods The study included 312 women aged 60–83 years (mean age, 69.4 years. All participants had scored at least 24 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scale, and all of them had been diagnosed with urge urinary incontinence (UUI or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI. The women were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group A, individuals who were simultaneously administered solifenacin at a high dosage of 20 mg per day and trospium at a high dosage of 60 mg per day; group B, persons taking solifenacin and trospium at the usual dosage of 10 and 30 mg per day, respectively; and group C, persons who received a placebo. Participants’ cognitive status was assessed by the MMSE, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Wechsler Memory Scale III, Colour Trails Test, and California Verbal Learning Test scales. The HRQoL assessment was performed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey. Results The cognitive function parameters did not differ at the start and end of the study across the groups (P>0.05. Additionally, the cognitive function parameters did not differ significantly within each group between the start and end of the study (P>0.05. The values of most HRQoL parameters regarding the functional state of the lower urinary tract (LUT after the termination of treatment significantly improved in groups A and B (P<0.05. A significant correlation between cognitive status and HRQoL or LUT parameters was absent (r<0.3, while the correlations between HRQoL and LUT parameters were r=0.31–0.83, P<0.05. Conclusions The use of elevated doses of solifenacin and trospium did not increase the risk of cognitive impairment in women with UUI and MUI. The
Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.
Here we present a characterization of short-term stability of random Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given any distribution of transfer functions for a random Boolean network, we present a formula that decides whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. We provide a formal proof for this formula, and empirically show that its predictions are accurate. Previous work only works for special cases of balanced families. Finally, it has been observed that these characterizations fail for unbalanced families, yet such families are widespread in real biological networks.
Horsch, Antje; Jacobs, Ingo; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie
This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 and 6 months (Cohen's d ranged .34-.52). Regression analyses also revealed a specific positive relationship between Rumination and concurrent frequency of PTSD symptoms (β = .45). Negative Self-View and Negative World-View related positively and Self-Blame related negatively to concurrent number of PTSD symptoms (β = .48, .44, -.45, respectively). Suppression and Distraction predicted a decrease and Numbing predicted an increase in time-lagged number of PTSD symptoms (β = -.33, -.28, .30, respectively). Risk factors for PTSD symptoms were younger age (β = -.25), lower income (β = -.29), fewer previous pregnancies (β = -.31), and poorer perceived social support (β = -.26). Interventions addressing negative appraisals, dysfunctional strategies, and social support are recommended for mothers with PTSD following stillbirth. Knowledge of cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD may inform the development of a screening instrument. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Hvid, Lars G; Ørtenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per
Very little attention has been given to the combined effect of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile...
Sørensen, V.R.; Mathiassen, E.R.; Clausen, P.
AIM: To study the effects of short-term poor glycaemic control on vascular function in Type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: Ten Type 1 diabetic patients, with diabetes duration of less than 10 years and normal urinary albumin excretion and ophthalmoscopy, were studied. All patients were examined af...
Withagen, M.I.J.; Vierhout, M.E.; Mannaerts, G.H.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term anatomic and functional outcomes and safety of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with bone anchor fixation. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of women undergoing laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy between 2004 and 2009. Anatomic
Wiegand, Iris; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Engel, Rolf R; Finke, Kathrin
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. A reduction in visual short-term memory (vSTM) storage capacity was recently suggested as a potential neuro-cognitive endophenotype, i.e., a testable marker of an individual's liability for developing ADHD. This study aimed at identifying markers of the brain abnormalities underlying vSTM reductions in adult ADHD. We combined behavioral parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology in groups of adult ADHD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Amplitudes of ERP markers of vSTM storage capacity, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the P3b, were analyzed according to (i) differences between individuals with higher vs. lower storage capacity K and (ii) differences between ADHD patients and control participants. We replicated the finding of reduced storage capacity in adult ADHD. Across groups, individuals with higher relative to lower storage capacity showed a larger CDA and P3b. We further found differences between the patient and control groups in the ERPs: The CDA amplitude was attenuated in an early time window for ADHD patients compared to control participants, and was negatively correlated with ADHD patients' symptom severity ratings. Furthermore, the P3b was larger in ADHD patients relative to control participants. These electrophysiological findings indicate altered brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity in ADHD, which are characterized by deficient encoding and maintenance, and increased recruitment of control processes. Accordingly, (quantifiable) ERP markers of vSTM in adult ADHD bear candidacy as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan
Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Mokros, Łukasz; Koprowicz, Jacek; Pietras, Tadeusz
The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group. The dependence intensity was assessed using SADD and MAST scales. The neuropsychological assessment was based on the FAS Test, Stroop Test and TMT A&B Test. The results obtained for alcohol-dependent patients revealed significant disturbances of cognitive functions. Such results indicate the presence of severe frontal cerebral cortex dysfunctions. Frontal cortex dysfunctions affecting the verbal fluency and working memory subsystems and the executive functions also persisted during long-term abstinence periods. No significant correlations between the duration of dependence, quantity of alcohol consumed and efficiency of the working memory and executive functions were observed in alcohol-dependent subjects after short-term or long-term abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cole, Rachel L.; Treadwell, Susanne; Dosani, Sima; Frederickson, Norah
This study evaluated the school-based short-term, cognitive-behavioral group anger management programme, "Learning How to Deal with our Angry Feelings" (Southampton Psychology Service, 2003). Thirteen groups of children aged 7- to 11-years-old were randomly allocated to two different cohorts: One cohort ("n"?=?35) first…
Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N
It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality
Dominic Guitard; Jean Saint-Aubin
The present study is a direct replication of Experiments 2 and 3 of Jones, Farrand, Stuart, & Morris (1995). Functional Equivalence of Verbal and Spatial Information in Serial Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 1008-1018.
Kirsa M Demant
Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is common in bipolar disorder (BD but is not sufficiently addressed by current treatments. Cognitive remediation (CR may improve cognitive function in schizophrenia but no randomised controlled trial has investigated this intervention in BD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CR on persistent cognitive dysfunction in BD.Patients with BD in partial remission with cognitive complaints were randomised to 12 weeks group-based CR (n=23 or standard treatment (ST (n=23. Outcomes were improved verbal memory (primary, sustained attention, executive and psychosocial function (secondary and additional measures of cognitive and psychosocial function (tertiary. Participants were assessed at baseline and weeks 12 and 26.Of the 46 randomised participants five dropped out and one was excluded after baseline. CR (n=18 had no effect on primary or secondary measures of cognitive or psychosocial function compared with ST (n=22. However, CR improved subjective sharpness at week 12, and quality of life and verbal fluency at week 26 follow-up (tertiary outcomes. Although the trial turned out to have suboptimal statistical power for the primary outcome analysis, calculation of the 95% confidence interval showed that it was highly unlikely that an increase in sample size would have rendered any beneficial effects of CR vs. ST on the verbal memory.Short-term group-based CR did not seem to improve overall cognitive or psychosocial function in individuals with BD in full or partial remission. The present findings suggest that that longer-term, more intensive and individualised CR may be necessary to improve cognition in BD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01457235.
Akter, Sanjida; Hassan, Md Rajib; Shahriar, Mohammad; Akter, Nahia; Abbas, Md Golam; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed
Studies have shown that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase the brain burden of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and also create vitamin B12 deficiency. However, these two phenomena have deleterious effect on cognition and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since the use of PPIs has increased tremendously for the last few years, it is of great public health importance to investigate the cognitive impact of PPIs. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of neuropsychological association of each PPI with different cognitive functions. Sixty volunteers of either gender were recruited and divided randomly into six groups: five test groups for five classes of PPIs and one control group. All the groups participated in the five computerized neuropsychological tests (nine subtests) of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery twice: at the beginning of the study and 7 days thereafter. We found statistically and clinically significant impairment in visual memory, attention, executive function, and working and planning function. One-way analysis of variance findings showed that all PPIs had a similar negative impact on cognition. However, paired-samples t tests indicated that omeprazole showed significant (p benefits of prescribing these medications. A study done for a longer period of time with a larger sample size might yield better results.
Houssa, Marine; Jacobs, Emilie; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
In two experimental and exploratory studies, we wanted to test the differentiated effects on preschoolers with externalizing behavior (EB) of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions, in comparison with typically developing (TD) preschoolers or with preschoolers with EB whom didn't receive…
Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad
Working memory consolidation denotes the process that enables sensory information to be stored in short-term memory. What is currently unclear is how long this process takes and whether it continues after a stimulus has been masked. Here, we address these matters by examining whether the
Mat Eil Ismail, Mohd Shukry; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Shokri, Amran Ahmed; Ab Rahman, Shaifuzain
Physiotherapy is an important part of rehabilitation following arthroplasty, but the impact of preoperative physiotherapy on functional outcomes is still being studied. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of preoperative physiotherapy on the short-term functional outcomes of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 50 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis who underwent unilateral primary TKA were randomised into two groups: the physiotherapy group (n = 24), whose patients performed physical exercises for six weeks immediately prior to surgery, and the nonphysiotherapy group (n = 26). All patients went through a similar physiotherapy regime in the postoperative rehabilitation period. Functional outcome assessment using the algofunctional Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) scale and range of motion (ROM) evaluation was performed preoperatively, and postoperatively at six weeks and three months. Both groups showed a significant difference in all algofunctional KOOS subscales (p 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the time-versus-treatment analysis between groups for the symptoms (p = 0.003) and activities of daily living (p = 0.025) subscales. No significant difference in ROM was found when comparing preoperative measurements and those at three months following surgery, as well as in time-versus-treatment analysis (p = 0.928). Six-week preoperative physiotherapy showed no significant impact on short-term functional outcomes (KOOS subscales) and ROM of the knee following primary TKA. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Carbè, Katia; Gevers, Wim
Number interval bisection consists of estimating the mid-number within a pair (1-9=>5). Healthy adults and right-brain damage patients can show biased performance in this task, underestimating and overestimating the mid-number, respectively. The role of visuospatial attention during this task, and its interplay with other cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory) is still object of debate. In this study we explored the relation between visuospatial attention and individual differences in working memory and executive functions during number interval bisection. To manipulate the deployment of visuospatial attention, healthy participants tracked a dot moving to the left or moving to the right while bisecting numerical intervals. We also collected information concerning verbal and visuospatial short-term memory span, and concerning verbal and visuospatial fluency scores. Beside replicating what is typically observed in this task (e.g., underestimation bias), a correlation was observed between verbal short-term memory and bisection bias, and an interesting relation between performance in the number interval bisection, verbal short-term memory, and visuospatial attention. Specifically, performance of those participants with low verbal span was affected by the direction of the moving dot, underestimating at a larger extent when the dot moved leftward than rightward. Finally, it was also observed that participants' verbal fluency ability contributed in the generation of biases in the numerical task. The finding of the involvement of abilities belonging to the verbal domain contributes to unveil the multi-componential nature of number interval bisection. Considering the debate on the nature of number interval bisection and its use in the clinical assessment of deficits following brain damage, this finding may be interesting also from a clinical perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ljungman, Petter L; Wilker, Elissa H; Rice, Mary B; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R; Koutrakis, Petros; Vita, Joseph A; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mittleman, Murray A; Hamburg, Naomi M
We investigated associations between ambient air pollution and microvessel function measured by peripheral arterial tonometry between 2003 and 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts. We measured particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), black carbon, sulfates, particle number, nitrogen oxides, and ozone by using fixed monitors, and we determined moving averages for 1-7 days preceding vascular testing. We examined associations between these exposures and hyperemic response to ischemia and baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial tone (n = 2,369). Higher short-term exposure to air pollutants, including PM2.5, black carbon, and particle number was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude. For example, higher 3-day average PM2.5 exposure was associated with 6.3% higher baseline pulse amplitude (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 10.9). However, there were no consistent associations between the air pollution exposures assessed and hyperemic response. Our findings in a community-based sample exposed to relatively low pollution levels suggest that short-term exposure to ambient particulate pollution is not associated with vasodilator response, but that particulate air pollution is associated with baseline pulse amplitude, suggesting potentially adverse alterations in baseline vascular tone or compliance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Neuhaus, Edmund C; Christopher, Michael; Jacob, Karen; Guillaumot, Julien; Burns, James P
Brief, cost-contained, and effective psychiatric treatments benefit patients and public health. This naturalistic pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 2-week, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) oriented partial hospital program. Study participants were 57 patients with mood, anxiety, and/or personality disorders receiving treatment in a private psychiatric partial hospital (PH) setting. A flexible treatment model was used that adapts evidence-based CBT treatment interventions to the PH context with emphases on psychoeducation and skills training. Participants completed self-report measures at admission and after 1 and 2 weeks, to assess stabilization and functional improvements, with added attention to the acquisition of cognitive and behavioral skills. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analyses of variance and correlation. Participants reported a decrease in symptoms and negative thought patterns, improved satisfaction with life, and acquisition and use of cognitive and behavioral skills. Skill acquisition was correlated with symptom reduction, reduced negative thought patterns, and improved satisfaction with life. Results of this pilot study suggest that a 2-week PH program can be effective for a heterogeneous patient population with mood, anxiety, and/or personality disorders. These findings are promising given the prevalence of treatments of such brief duration in private sector PH programs subject to the managed care marketplace. Future studies are planned to test this flexible PH treatment model, with particular attention to the effectiveness of the CBT approach for the treatment of different disorders and to whether effectiveness is sustained at follow-up. Further study should also examine whether skill acquisition is a mechanism of change for symptom reduction and functional improvements.
Huotilainen, Minna; Kujala, Anu; Hotakainen, Merja; Parkkonen, Lauri; Taulu, Samu; Simola, Juha; Nenonen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Matti; Näätänen, Risto
Studies in fetuses and in prematurely born infants show that auditory discriminative skills are present prior to birth. The magnetic fields generated by the fetal brain activity pass the maternal tissues and, despite their weakness, can be detected externally using MEG. Recent studies on the auditory evoked magnetic responses show that the fetal brain responds to sound onset. In contrast, higher-level auditory skills, such as those involving discriminative and memory functions, were not so far studied in fetuses with MEG. Here we show that fetal responses related to discriminating sounds can be recorded, implicating that the auditory change-detection system is functional. These results open new views to developmental neuroscience by enabling one to determine the sensory capabilities as well as the extent and accuracy of the short-term memory system of the fetus, and, further, to follow the development of these crucial processes.
Jebbink, R. J.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Akkermans, L. M.; Smout, A. J.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the interdigestive and postprandial antroduodenal motility patterns of patients with functional dyspepsia using prolonged ambulatory antroduodenal manometry and to compare these findings with conventional stationary manometry. METHODS: Prolonged ambulatory and short-term
Cabezas, Carolina; Buño, Washington
Recent evidence suggests that functional and silent synapses are not only postsynaptically different but also presynaptically distinct. The presynaptic differences may be of functional importance in memory formation because a proposed mechanism for long-term potentiation is the conversion of silent synapses into functional ones. However, there is little direct experimentally evidence of these differences. We have investigated the transmitter release properties of functional and silent Schaffer collateral synapses and show that on the average functional synapses displayed a lower percentage of failures and higher excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes than silent synapses at +60 mV. Moreover, functional but not silent synapses show paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at +60 mV and thus presynaptic short-term plasticity will be distinct in the two types of synapse. We examined whether intraterminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores influenced the release properties of these synapses. Ryanodine (100 microM) and thapsigargin (1 microM) increased the percentage of failures and decreased both the EPSC amplitude and PPF in functional synapses. Caffeine (10 mM) had the opposite effects. In contrast, silent synapses were insensitive to both ryanodine and caffeine. Hence we have identified differences in the release properties of functional and silent synapses, suggesting that synaptic terminals of functional synapses express regulatory molecular mechanisms that are absent in silent synapses.
Hvid, Lars G; Ortenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per
Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile...... IIa: young 18% and old 25%; P selective decrease in Ca(2+) sensitivity in MHC IIa fibres of young (P ....05), respectively. In conclusion, 2 weeks of lower limb immobilisation caused greater impairments in single muscle fibre force and specific force in MHC IIa than MHC I fibres independently of age. In contrast, immobilisation-induced changes in Ca(2+) sensitivity that were dependent on age and MHC isoform....
Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue
Lu, Chunming; Zheng, Lifen; Long, Yuhang; Yan, Qian; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling; Howell, Peter
This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups. Across the 7-day period of the intervention, AWS+ alone showed a significant increase of brain activation in the left ventral IFC/insula. There were no changes in brain function for the other two groups. Further analysis revealed that the change did not correlate with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) that AWS showed in the cerebellum (Lu et al., 2012). However, both changes in task-related brain function and RSFC correlated with changes in speech fluency level. Together, these findings suggest that functional reorganization in a brain region close to the left IFC that shows anomalous function in AWS, occurs after a short-term behavioral intervention for stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Mittleman, Murray A.
Rationale: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower lung function. Few studies have examined whether these associations are detectable at relatively low levels of pollution within current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Objectives: To examine exposure to ambient air pollutants within EPA standards and lung function in a large cohort study. Methods: We included 3,262 participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts living within 40 km of the Harvard Supersite monitor in Boston, Massachusetts (5,358 examinations, 1995–2011) who were not current smokers, with previous-day pollutant levels in compliance with EPA standards. We compared lung function (FEV1 and FVC) after previous-day exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index to exposure in the “good” range. We also examined linear relationships between moving averages of pollutant concentrations 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days before spirometry and lung function. Measurements and Main Results: Exposure to pollutant concentrations in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index was associated with a 20.1-ml lower FEV1 for PM2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], −33.4, −6.9), a 30.6-ml lower FEV1 for NO2 (95% CI, −60.9, −0.2), and a 55.7-ml lower FEV1 for O3 (95% CI, −100.7, −10.8) compared with the “good” range. The 1- and 2-day moving averages of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 before testing were negatively associated with FEV1 and FVC. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 within current EPA standards was associated with lower lung function in this cohort of adults. PMID:24200465
Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Nowicka, Anna; Kozak, Anna; Szwed, Marcin; Kossut, Malgorzata
Neuroplastic changes induced by sensory learning have been recognized within the cortices of specific modalities as well as within higher ordered multimodal areas. The interplay between these areas is not fully understood, particularly in the case of somatosensory learning. Here we examined functional and structural changes induced by short-term tactile training based of Braille reading, a task that requires both significant tactile expertise and mapping of tactile input onto multimodal representations. Subjects with normal vision were trained for 3 weeks to read Braille exclusively by touch and scanned before and after training, while performing a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters and meaningless characters. Functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were used to assess resulting changes. The strongest training-induced effect was found in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), where we observed bilateral augmentation in activity accompanied by an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the contralateral SI. Increases of white matter fractional anisotropy were also observed in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the thalamus. Outside of somatosensory system, changes in both structure and function were found in i.e., the fusiform gyrus, the medial frontal gyri and the inferior parietal lobule. Our results provide evidence for functional remodeling of the somatosensory pathway and higher ordered multimodal brain areas occurring as a result of short-lasting tactile learning, and add to them a novel picture of extensive white matter plasticity.
Krenk, L.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Siersma, V.
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the elderly is a subject of intense focus. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding definition of significant decline in connection with repeated testing and the interpretation of cognitive tests results must take into account the practice effect...
Sang, Yu Ming; Wang, Li Jun; Mao, Hong Xian; Lou, Xue Yong; Zhu, Yi Jun
This study assessed short-term memory and biochemical indicators with the levels of ghrelin, leptin, and cortisol between cognitive impairment and normal older adults with or without diabetes. We enrolled 286 older adults (aged 65-85 years) with or without diabetes from the local community. Short-term memory was assessed using pictures of common objects; cognitive functioning was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The physiological indexes assessed were plasma levels of fasting ghrelin and leptin, ghrelin level at 2_h after breakfast, 24-h urinary cortisol value, body mass index, and plasma cortisol levels at 8:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m., and 12:00 p.m. In both non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, short-term memory was significantly lower in the impaired cognition group (5.99 ± 2.90 in non-diabetic subjects and 4.71 ± 2.14 in diabetic subjects) than in the normal cognition group (8.14 ± 2.23 in non-diabetic subjects and 7.82 ± 3.37 in diabetic subjects). Baseline ghrelin level was significantly lower in the impaired cognition group (9.07 ± 1.13 ng/mL in non-diabetic subjects and 7.76 ± 1.34 ng/mL in diabetic subjects) than in the normal cognition group (10.94 ± 1.53 ng/mL in non-diabetic subjects and 9.93 ± 1.76 ng/mL in diabetic subjects); plasma cortisol levels at 8:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m., and 12:00 p.m. were significantly higher in the impaired cognition group than in the normal cognition group, while no significant difference was observed in plasma levels of fasting leptin between different groups. Fasting plasma ghrelin and cortisol levels may be markers of cognitive decline and memory loss. It is possible that adjusting their levels may have a therapeutic effect, and this should be investigated in future studies.
Smith, Keith; Ricaud, Benjamin; Shahid, Nauman; Rhodes, Stephen; Starr, John M.; Ibáñez, Augustin; Parra, Mario A.; Escudero, Javier; Vandergheynst, Pierre
Visual short-term memory binding tasks are a promising early marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To uncover functional deficits of AD in these tasks it is meaningful to first study unimpaired brain function. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained from encoding and maintenance periods of tasks performed by healthy young volunteers. We probe the task’s transient physiological underpinnings by contrasting shape only (Shape) and shape-colour binding (Bind) conditions, displayed in the left and right sides of the screen, separately. Particularly, we introduce and implement a novel technique named Modular Dirichlet Energy (MDE) which allows robust and flexible analysis of the functional network with unprecedented temporal precision. We find that connectivity in the Bind condition is less integrated with the global network than in the Shape condition in occipital and frontal modules during the encoding period of the right screen condition. Using MDE we are able to discern driving effects in the occipital module between 100-140 ms, coinciding with the P100 visually evoked potential, followed by a driving effect in the frontal module between 140-180 ms, suggesting that the differences found constitute an information processing difference between these modules. This provides temporally precise information over a heterogeneous population in promising tasks for the detection of AD.
Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P
A partly occluded visual object is perceptually filled in behind the occluding surface, a process known as amodal completion or visual interpolation. Previous research focused on the image-based properties that lead to amodal completion. In the present experiments, we examined the role of a higher-level visual process-visual short-term memory (VSTM)-in amodal completion. We measured the degree of amodal completion by asking participants to perform an object-based attention task on occluded objects while maintaining either zero or four items in visual working memory. When no items were stored in VSTM, participants completed the occluded objects; when four items were stored in VSTM, amodal completion was halted (Experiment 1). These results were not caused by the influence of VSTM on object-based attention per se (Experiment 2) or by the specific location of to-be-remembered items (Experiment 3). Items held in VSTM interfere with amodal completion, which suggests that amodal completion may not be an informationally encapsulated process, but rather can be affected by high-level visual processes.
Doksöz, Önder; Çeleğen, Kübra; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Uysal, Utku; İşgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Mehmet; Meşe, Timur
Our primary aim was to determine the short-term effects of a ketogenic diet on cardiac ventricular function in patients with refractory epilepsy. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this prospective study. Echocardiography was performed on all patients before beginning the ketogenic diet and after the sixth month of therapy. Two-dimensional, M-mode, color flow, spectral Doppler, and pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging measurements were performed on all patients. The median age of the 32 patients was 45.5 months, and 22 (57.8%) of them were male. Body weight, height, and body mass index increased significantly at the sixth month of therapy when compared with baseline values (P 0.05). Doppler flow indices of mitral annulus and tricuspid annulus velocity of patients at baseline and month 6 showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Tricuspid annular E/A ratio was lower at month 6 (P 0.05), there was a decrease in Ea velocity and Ea/Aa ratio gathered from tricuspid annulus at month 6 compared with baseline (P ketogenic diet does not impair left ventricular functions in children with refractory epilepsy; however, it may be associated with a right ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Souders, Dustin J; Boot, Walter R; Blocker, Kenneth; Vitale, Thomas; Roque, Nelson A; Charness, Neil
The degree to which "brain training" can improve general cognition, resulting in improved performance on tasks dissimilar from the trained tasks (transfer of training), is a controversial topic. Here, we tested the degree to which cognitive training, in the form of gamified training activities that have demonstrated some degree of success in the past, might result in broad transfer. Sixty older adults were randomly assigned to a gamified cognitive training intervention or to an active control condition that involved playing word and number puzzle games. Participants were provided with tablet computers and asked to engage in their assigned training for 30 45-min training sessions over the course of 1 month. Although intervention adherence was acceptable, little evidence for transfer was observed except for the performance of one task that most resembled the gamified cognitive training: There was a trend for greater improvement on a version of the corsi block tapping task for the cognitive training group relative to the control group. This task was very similar to one of the training games. Results suggest that participants were learning specific skills and strategies from game training that influenced their performance on a similar task. However, even this near-transfer effect was weak. Although the results were not positive with respect to broad transfer of training, longer duration studies with larger samples and the addition of a retention period are necessary before the benefit of this specific intervention can be ruled out.
Prätzlich, Martin; Kossowsky, Joe; Gaab, Jens; Krummenacher, Peter
Meditation improves executive functions such as attention and working memory processes. However, it remains unclear to what extent contextual effects contribute to these improvements, since the role of meditation-associated expectations has not been investigated so far. In a randomized, single-blind, deceptive, between-subject design we compared the impact of short-term meditation (MG) on executive functioning with an expectation (ECG) and a passive control group (CG) as well as the effect of positive and negative outcome expectations. Fifty-nine healthy meditation-naïve volunteers participated on three consecutive days (20 min/session). Five groups were examined: 2 MGs, 2 ECGs and 1 CG. While one MG and one ECG were given positive suggestions concerning the effect of meditation on attention, the other two groups were given negative suggestions. MGs practised a focused attention meditation technique; ECGs were told that they were practising meditation but were given instructions for a sham meditation. CG participants sat in silence with their eyes closed. Interference control (Stroop task), selective sustained attention (d2 task), figural and verbal fluency measures of executive functions were assessed. Results indicate that suggestions have a substantial impact on interference control and verbal fluency, with positive suggestions leading to an increase in performance, whereas negative suggestions impeded improvement. This proof of concept study demonstrates the importance of the implementation of a credible ECG to elucidate context effects in meditation processes. It also indicates that suggestions can modulate the small effect of meditation on verbal fluency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits.
Takeda, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Uematsu, Chihiro; Minamino, Tatsuya; Adlard, Paul A; Bush, Ashley I; Tamano, Haruna
We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ) concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol) into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits.
Risko, Evan F; Dunn, Timothy L
We often store to-be-remembered information externally (e.g., written down on a piece of paper) rather than internally. In the present investigation, we examine factors that influence the decision to store information in-the-world versus in-the-head using a variant of a traditional short term memory task. In Experiments 1a and 1b participants were presented with to-be-remembered items and either had to rely solely on internal memory or had the option to write down the presented information. In Experiments 2a and 2b participants were presented with the same stimuli but made metacognitive judgments about their predicted performance and effort expenditure. The spontaneous use of external storage was related both to the number of items to be remembered and an individual's actual and perceived short-term-memory capacity. Interestingly, individuals often used external storage despite its use affording no observable benefit. Implications for understanding how individuals integrate external resources in pursuing cognitive goals are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori infection is major etiologic factor of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Functional dyspepsia (FD is defined as “persistent or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen in patient who has no definite structural or biochemical explanation of their symptoms. It is uncertain whether treatment of H.pylori infection relieves symptoms in patients with FD. We searched short term effects of H.pylori eradication for symptoms in patients with FD.Material and method: We enrolled patients with dyspeptic symptoms which were diagnosed FD and satisfied en-rollment criteria of trial. Endoscopic biopsy was taken from each patient during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. H.pylori infected patients were assigned to seven days of treatment with 30 mgr of lansoprozole twice daily, 1000 mg of amoksisilin twice daily, and 500 mg levofloxacin once daily. Patients were assessed whether treatment was suc-cessful or not by 14C urea breathe test after 6-8 week. Also pretreatment and post treatment symptom scores were questioned.Results: There were 99 female and 68 male patients. After treatment 114 patients (68% was negative for H. pylori, 53 patients (32% remained positive. Mean of age and proportion of sex was similar in H.pylori (+ and (- groups. While 111 (97.4% of H.pylori (- patients’ symptom scores decreased, 38 (71.7% of H.pylori (+ patients’ scores de-creased. There was significant differences between two groups (p=0.001.Conclusion: Eradication of H.pylori relieves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. New trials for long term effect of H.pylori eradication on symptoms must be conducted in future.
Moulding, Richard; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Kyrios, Michael; Osborne, Debra; Mogan, Christopher
The study aim was to test whether a 12-week publically rebated group programme, based upon Steketee and Frost's Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based hoarding treatment, would be efficacious in a community-based setting. Over a 3-year period, 77 participants with clinically significant hoarding were recruited into 12 group programmes. All completed treatment; however, as this was a community-based naturalistic study, only 41 completed the post-treatment assessment. Treatment included psychoeducation about hoarding, skills training for organization and decision making, direct in-session exposure to sorting and discarding, and cognitive and behavioural techniques to support out-of-session sorting and discarding, and nonacquiring. Self-report measures used to assess treatment effect were the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), Savings Cognition Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Pre-post analyses indicated that after 12 weeks of treatment, hoarding symptoms as measured on the SI-R had reduced significantly, with large effect sizes reported in total and across all subscales. Moderate effect sizes were also reported for hoarding-related beliefs (emotional attachment and responsibility) and depressive symptoms. Of the 41 participants who completed post-treatment questionnaires, 14 (34%) were conservatively calculated to have clinically significant change, which is considerable given the brevity of the programme judged against the typical length of the disorder. The main limitation of the study was the moderate assessment completion rate, given its naturalistic setting. This study demonstrated that a 12-week group treatment for hoarding disorders was effective in reducing hoarding and depressive symptoms in an Australian clinical cohort and provides evidence for use of this treatment approach in a community setting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A 12-week group programme delivered in a community setting was effective for helping with
Barry, Johanna G; Sabisch, Beate; Friederici, Angela D; Brauer, Jens
Verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to play a critical role in language learning. It is indexed by the nonword repetition task where listeners are asked to repeat meaningless words like 'blonterstaping'. The present study investigated the effect on nonword repetition performance of differences in efficiency of functioning of some part of the neural architecture mediating VSTM. Hypotheses were stated within Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) multicomponent model of VSTM, with respect to regions of the brain known to be active during tasks tapping into VSTM. We were specifically interested in activations associated with the posterior planum temporale (Spt) which emerge during rehearsal since this region is hypothesized to be central to VTSM (Buchsbaum, Olsen, Koch, & Berman, 2005a). Participants performed a delayed reaction time task in the scanner which explicitly mimicked the three main stages of information-processing involved in VSTM (encoding, rehearsal, recall (here recognition)). The data for each stage were then convolved with scores from a separately measured nonword repetition task. Rather than observing a pattern of individual differences located to specific regions specialized for supporting VSTM, a dissociation in direction of correlation in overlapping regions of the brain was observed during encoding and recognition. Larger hemodynamic responses during encoding were associated with better nonword repetition, and vice versa during recognition. There was little evidence for a network of activations specialized for VSTM. Instead, the main correlations were observed in regions also known to be involved in long-term memory. It seems that individuals who are better at nonword repetition and hence at language learning, activate these regions more efficiently than poorer nonword-repeaters early after stimulus input. These observations are discussed with respect to various models proposed for explaining the phenomenon of VSTM. Crown Copyright Â© 2011
McGhee, Ron; Lieberman, Lewis
Study sought to determine whether separate short-term auditory and visual memory factors would emerge given a sufficient number of markers in a factor matrix. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Short-term visual and short-term auditory memory factors emerged as expected. (RJM)
SPRINGER, TAMAR; LOHR, NAOMI E.; BUCHTEL, HENRY A.; SILK, KENNETH R.
A randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy group, based on Linehan’s dialectical behavior therapy, for inpatients with personality disorders. The treatment, a problem-solving skills group focused on parasuicidality, was compared with a discussion control group. Change was assessed by self-report measures and behavioral observations on the unit. Subjects in both groups improved significantly on most change measures, although no significant between-group differences were found. However, the treatment group patients viewed the intervention as more beneficial to them in their lives outside the hospital. The usefulness of this type of group on a short-term unit is discussed. PMID:22700265
Timothy J. Ricker
Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into s...
Hall-Scullin, Emma P
Cluster randomised controlled trial. Clusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks. Gender, family socio-economic status (baseline) and different social-cognitive domain variables (baseline, six, and 12 months) were assessed using a questionnaire. Dental plaque levels were the primary outcome measure and they were measured at baseline, after the intervention measured only in the social-cognitive theory-guided group, at six and 12 months. At the six-month follow-up there was a statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 19.4) and the control group (35.1 ± 20.0). At the 12-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 18.5) and the control group (31.9 ± 17.8). Variations in dental plaque levels at different time periods were explained by the following predictors: family's socio-economic status, social-cognitive domain variables, group affiliation and baseline plaque levels. Social-cognitive theory-guided interventions improved oral self-care of adolescents in the short term. This improvement lasted only for five months after the intervention was discontinued.
Hvid, Lars; Aagaard, Per; Justesen, Lene
Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of aging and disuse as separate factors causing deterioration in muscle mechanical function. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 wk of immobilization followed by 4 wk of retraining on knee extensor muscle...... to the deleterious effects of short-term muscle disuse on muscle fiber size and rapid force capacity than YM. Furthermore, OM seems to require longer time to recover and regain rapid muscle force capacity, which may lead to a larger risk of falling in aged individuals after periods of short-term disuse....
Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Cepeda, Nicholas J; Chau, Tom
Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.
Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.
Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.
A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity…
Rollnik, Jens D; Borsutzky, Marthias; Huber, Thomas J; Mogk, Hannu; Seifert, Jürgen; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo
Atypical neuroleptics seem to be more beneficial than typical ones with respect to long-term neuropsychological functioning. Thus, most studies focus on the long-term effects of neuroleptics. We were interested in whether atypical neuroleptic treatment is also superior to typical drugs over relatively short periods of time. We studied 20 schizophrenic patients [10 males, mean age 35.5 years, mean Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score at entry 58.9] admitted to our hospital with acute psychotic exacerbation. Nine of them were treated with typical and 11 with atypical neuroleptics. In addition, 14 healthy drug-free subjects (6 males, mean age 31.2 years) were enrolled in the study and compared to the patients. As neuropsychological tools, a divided attention test, the Vienna reaction time test, the Benton visual retention test, digit span and a Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B) were used during the first week after admission, within the third week and before discharge (approximately 3 months). Patients scored significantly worse than healthy controls on nearly all tests (except Vienna reaction time). Clinical ratings [BPRS and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)] improved markedly (p divided attention task (r = 0.705, p = 0.034). Neuropsychological functioning (explicit memory, p divided attention, p < 0.05) moderately improved for both groups under treatment but without a significant difference between atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs. Over short periods of time (3 months), neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia seem to be moderately responsive to both typical and atypical neuroleptics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Fissler, Patrick; Müller, Hans-Peter; Küster, Olivia C; Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Woll, Alexander; Elbert, Thomas; Kassubek, Jan; von Arnim, Christine A F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana
related to FA scores at baseline (cognitive training skills and FA composite score, r s = 0.68, p = 0.05; functional physical fitness and fornix FA, r = 0.35, p = 0.03). Overall, we found no evidence of a link between short-term physical or cognitive activities and WMI changes, despite activity-related cognitive changes in older adults at risk of dementia. However, we found positive associations between the two targeted training outcomes and WMI, hinting at a potential of long-term activities to affect WMI.
Genazzani, Alessandro D; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Prati, Alessia; Despini, Giulia; Angioni, Stefano; Simoncini, Tommaso; Meczekalski, Blazej
To evaluate the influence of short-term estriol administration (10 d) on the hypothalamus-pituitary function and gonadotropins secretion in patients affected by functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Controlled clinical study on patients with FHA (n = 12) in a clinical research environment. Hormonal determinations and gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone [LH] and FSH) response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) bolus (10 μg) at baseline condition and after 10 d of therapy with 2 mg/d of estriol per os. Measurements of plasma LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, androstenedione, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, insulin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine. After treatment, the FHA patients showed a statistically significant increase of both LH and FSH plasma levels and the significant increase of their responses to the GnRH bolus. Estriol short-term therapy modulates within 10 d of administration the neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamus-pituitary unit and induces the recovery of both gonadotropins synthesis and secretion in hypogonadotropic patients with FHA.
Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa
Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i) the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term warming
Full Text Available Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland. The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term
Hvid, Lars; Aagaard, Per; Justesen, Lene
to the deleterious effects of short-term muscle disuse on muscle fiber size and rapid force capacity than YM. Furthermore, OM seems to require longer time to recover and regain rapid muscle force capacity, which may lead to a larger risk of falling in aged individuals after periods of short-term disuse.......Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of aging and disuse as separate factors causing deterioration in muscle mechanical function. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 wk of immobilization followed by 4 wk of retraining on knee extensor muscle...... mechanical function (e.g., maximal strength and rapid force capacity) and muscle fiber morphology in 9 old (OM: 67.3 ± 1.3 yr) and 11 young healthy men (YM: 24.4 ± 0.5 yr) with comparable levels of physical activity. Following immobilization, OM demonstrated markedly larger decreases in rapid force capacity...
Siep, Nicolette; Roefs, Anne; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Bonte, Milene; Jansen, Anita
The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about health consequences), or suppress food palatability thoughts and cravings. We examined whether these strategies affect self-reported food craving and mesocorticolimbic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was hypothesized that cognitive reappraisal would most effectively inhibit the mesocorticolimbic activity and associated food craving as compared to suppression. In addition, it was hypothesized that suppression would lead to more prefrontal cortex activity, reflecting the use of more control resources, as compared to cognitive reappraisal. Self-report results indicated that up-regulation increased food craving compared to the other two conditions, but that there was no difference in craving between the suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategy. Corroborating self-report results, the neuroimaging results showed that up-regulation increased activity in important regions of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, operculum, posterior insular gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypothesis, suppression more effectively decreased activity in the core of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry (i.e., ventral tegmental area and ventral striatum) compared to cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the results support the contention that appetitive motivation can be modulated by the application of short-term cognitive control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
He, Fei; Guan, Hao; Zhao, Zhijing; Miao, Xinfang; Zhou, Qin; Li, Lihong; Huang, Dongmei; Liu, Anheng; Miao, Danmin
To investigate the short-term psychological function of opiate addicts who have undergone ablative stereotactic surgery targeting the nucleus accumbens (NAc) for alleviating opiate drug psychological dependence. The psychological functional status of 14 opiate addicts was assessed by standardized psychological tests both before and approximately 3 months after stereotactic surgery. Standardized tests included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese (WAIS-RC), the Clinical Memory Scale of Chinese (CMS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). The evaluation of psychological dimensions included intelligence, memory, personality characteristics and mental health symptoms. Compared with the preoperative state, there was no statistically significant difference in full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) postoperatively, but without Bonferroni correction a significant decline by 13.55% (p memory quotient (MQ) of CMS demonstrated a significant decline of 10.65% (p increase (p intelligence measures were not changed significantly, their short-term memory and attention appeared to decline postoperatively. In addition, there was a trend towards change in some personality characteristics postoperatively. The postoperative mental health levels of the patients increased, indicating a trend towards improvement. Stereotactic ablation of the NAc in opiate addicts may be associated with short-term negative psychological functions. Advisement regarding the safety of the new surgical modality and recommendations for further investigation are necessary. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Camart, N; André, C; Trybou, V; Bourdel, M-C
This study analyses the short term effects of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy with 60 patients suffering from social phobia according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM IV. The therapeutic program is based on 12 sessions of 2 hours (for 6 to 9 subjects) and includes exposure, cognitive restructuring and social skills training. The sample included 34 women and 26 men, with an average age of 34.8 years (SD=9.3). Most patients presented generalized social phobia (n=42; not generalized social phobia: n=18), and 24 received at least one comorbid axis I diagnosis. Subjects were evaluated before and after the therapy with instruments measuring the intensity of social phobia (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the assertiveness (Rathus Assertiveness Schedule), the disability associated with the disorder (Sheehan Disability Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Beck shortened Depression Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The results show significant differences (pScale, total score) to 0.51 (Sheehan item 3), exhibiting patients' improvement on all variables. The highest effect sizes are observed with the instruments specifically designed for the assessment of social phobia (Liebowitz, Rathus and Sheehan scales). Our patients show the major improvements in the Liebowitz Scale (ES=1.29), the best indicator for social phobia, concerning the intensity of anxiety in social situations (ES=1.28) and concerning the frequency of avoidance (ES=1.16). Logically, the effect sizes are somehow lower on Sheehan (ES=1.06) and Rathus (ES=1.00) scales, which are less specifically centered on the score symptoms of social phobia. The improvement is also significant but less remarkable in the other measurements. The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale reveals a reduction in the level of anxiety and depression, however more significant for anxiety (ES=0.88) than for depression (ES=0.60), that is consistent with the fact that social
Zhang, Hong-Yan; Sillar, Keith T
Brain networks memorize previous performance to adjust their output in light of past experience. These activity-dependent modifications generally result from changes in synaptic strengths or ionic conductances, and ion pumps have only rarely been demonstrated to play a dynamic role. Locomotor behavior is produced by central pattern generator (CPG) networks and modified by sensory and descending signals to allow for changes in movement frequency, intensity, and duration, but whether or how the CPG networks recall recent activity is largely unknown. In Xenopus frog tadpoles, swim bout duration correlates linearly with interswim interval, suggesting that the locomotor network retains a short-term memory of previous output. We discovered an ultraslow, minute-long afterhyperpolarization (usAHP) in network neurons following locomotor episodes. The usAHP is mediated by an activity- and sodium spike-dependent enhancement of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump function. By integrating spike frequency over time and linking the membrane potential of spinal neurons to network performance, the usAHP plays a dynamic role in short-term motor memory. Because Na(+)/K(+) pumps are ubiquitously expressed in neurons of all animals and because sodium spikes inevitably accompany network activity, the usAHP may represent a phylogenetically conserved but largely overlooked mechanism for short-term memory of neural network function. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bielak, Allison A. M.; Hultsch, David F.; Levy-Ajzenkopf, Judi; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hunter, Michael A.; Strauss, Esther
We examined short-term changes in younger and older adults' control beliefs. Participants completed measures of general and memory-specific competence and locus of control on 10 bi-monthly occasions. At each occasion, participants rated their control beliefs prior to and following completion of a battery of cognitive tasks. Exposure to the set of…
Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh
This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…
Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan
Short-term visual memory was studied by displaying arrays of four or five numerals, each numeral in its own depth plane, followed after various delays by an arrow cue shown in one of the depth planes. Subjects reported the numeral at the depth cued by the arrow. Accuracy fell with increasing cue delay for the first 500 ms or so, and then recovered almost fully. This dipping pattern contrasts with the usual iconic decay observed for memory traces. The dip occurred with or without a verbal or color-shape retention load on working memory. In contrast, accuracy did not change with delay when a tonal cue replaced the arrow cue. We hypothesized that information concerning the depths of the numerals decays over time in sensory memory, but that cued recall is aided later on by transfer to a visual memory specialized for depth. This transfer is sufficiently rapid with a tonal cue to compensate for the sensory decay, but it is slowed by the need to tag the arrow cue's depth relative to the depths of the numerals, exposing a dip when sensation has decayed and transfer is not yet complete. A model with a fixed rate of sensory decay and varied transfer rates across individuals captures the dip as well as the cue modality effect.
Chien, Huei-Ting; Zach, Peter W; Friedel, Bettina
In this study, we focus on the induced degradation and spatial inhomogeneity of organic photovoltaic devices under different environmental conditions, uncoupled from the influence of any auxiliary hole-transport (HT) layer. During testing of the corresponding devices comprising the standard photoactive layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) as donor, blended with phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester as acceptor, a comparison was made between the nonencapsulated devices upon exposure to argon in the dark, dry air in the dark, dry air with illumination, and humid air in the dark. The impact on the active layer's photophysics is discussed, along with the device physics in terms of integral solar cell performance and spatially resolved photocurrent distribution with point-to-point analysis of the diode characteristics to determine the origin of the observed integrated organic photovoltaic device behavior. The results show that even without the widely used hygroscopic HT layer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), humidity is still a major factor in the short-term environmental degradation of organic solar cells with this architecture, and not only oxygen or light, as is often reported. Different from previous reports where water-induced device degradation was spatially homogeneous and formation of Al 2 O 3 islands was only seen for oxygen permeation through pinholes in aluminum, we observed insulating islands merely after humidity exposure in the present study. Further, we demonstrated with laser beam induced current mapping and point-to-point diode analysis that the water-induced performance losses are a result of the exposed device area comprising regions with entirely unaltered high output and intact diode behavior and those with severe degradation showing detrimentally lowered output and voltage-independent charge blocking, which is essentially insulating behavior. It is suggested that this is caused by transport of water through pinholes to the
Emery, Charles F; Hsiao, Evana T; Hill, Scott M; Frid, David J
Exercise has been associated with improved cognitive performance among patients with coronary artery disease. Music listening has been associated with enhanced cognitive functioning among healthy adults. This study evaluated the combined influence of exercise and music listening on cognitive performance among patients in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Using a within-subjects repeated measures design, this study was conducted in an outpatient University-based CR facility. Thirty-three men and women (mean age = 62.6 +/- 10.5 years) participated in this study. Participants completed 1 exercise session accompanied by music and a second exercise session without music. Order of conditions was assigned randomly. Before and after each exercise session, participants completed a brief assessment of depression and anxiety, and a cognitive test of verbal fluency. The music condition was associated with significant improvements in verbal fluency, but the no-music control condition was not associated with cognitive change. The study provides preliminary evidence of the combined benefit of exercise and music listening for cognitive performance among patients in CR.
Serdar Demirci; Gizem Irem Kinikli; Michael J. Callaghan; Volga Bayrakci Tunay
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of Mobilization with movement (MWM) and Kinesiotaping (KT) on patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) respect to pain, function and balance. Methods: Thirty-five female patients diagnosed with unilateral PFP were assigned into 2 groups. The first group (n = 18) received two techniques of MWM intervention (Straight Leg-Raise with Traction and Tibial Gliding) while KT was applied to the other group (n = 17). Both groups r...
Curceac, S.; Ternynck, C.; Ouarda, T.
Over the past decades, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to model and forecast climatic variables. In this study, Nonparametric Functional Data Analysis (NPFDA) methods are applied to forecast air temperature and wind speed time series in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The dataset consists of hourly measurements recorded for a period of 29 years, 1982-2010. The novelty of the Functional Data Analysis approach is in expressing the data as curves. In the present work, the focus is on daily forecasting and the functional observations (curves) express the daily measurements of the above mentioned variables. We apply a non-linear regression model with a functional non-parametric kernel estimator. The computation of the estimator is performed using an asymmetrical quadratic kernel function for local weighting based on the bandwidth obtained by a cross validation procedure. The proximities between functional objects are calculated by families of semi-metrics based on derivatives and Functional Principal Component Analysis (FPCA). Additionally, functional conditional mode and functional conditional median estimators are applied and the advantages of combining their results are analysed. A different approach employs a SARIMA model selected according to the minimum Akaike (AIC) and Bayessian (BIC) Information Criteria and based on the residuals of the model. The performance of the models is assessed by calculating error indices such as the root mean square error (RMSE), relative RMSE, BIAS and relative BIAS. The results indicate that the NPFDA models provide more accurate forecasts than the SARIMA models. Key words: Nonparametric functional data analysis, SARIMA, time series forecast, air temperature, wind speed
Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan
Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.
Lin, Whei-Min; Gow, Hong-Jey; Tsai, Ming-Tang
This paper proposed a price forecasting system for electric market participants to reduce the risk of price volatility. Combining the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) and Orthogonal Experimental Design (OED), an Enhanced Radial Basis Function Network (ERBFN) has been proposed for the solving process. The Locational Marginal Price (LMP), system load, transmission flow and temperature of the PJM system were collected and the data clusters were embedded in the Excel Database according to the year, season, workday and weekend. With the OED applied to learning rates in the ERBFN, the forecasting error can be reduced during the training process to improve both accuracy and reliability. This would mean that even the ''spikes'' could be tracked closely. The Back-propagation Neural Network (BPN), Probability Neural Network (PNN), other algorithms, and the proposed ERBFN were all developed and compared to check the performance. Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed ERBFN to provide quality information in a price volatile environment. (author)
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...
Parving, H H; Noer, J; Kehlet, H
Kidney function was studied in six normal males before and during a 2 h glucagon (10 ng/kg/min) infusion. The following variables were determined during each 20 min clearance period; glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma-flow (RPF) , filtration fraction (FF), urinary albumin and beta2......-microglobulin-excretion rates. Glucagon infusion resulted in a fourfold increase in plasma glucagon concentration. The infusion induced a significant increase in GFR (+9%), FF (+9%) and urinary beta2-microglobulin excretion rate (+32%), (p less than 0.01). RPF and urinary albumin excretion rates were...
Parving, H H; Noer, I; Mogensen, C E
Kidney function was studied in 9 normal males before and during a 2 h growth hormone (GH) infusion of 50 ng/kg/min. The following variables were measured during each 20 min clearance period: glomerular filtration rate, GFR, effective renal plasma flow, RPF (steady state infusion technique...... with urinary collections using [125I]iothalamate and [131I]iodohippurate), and urinary albumin and beta2-microglobulin excretion rates (radioimmunoassays). The GH infusion resulted in a 10-fold increase in plasma GH concentration. All the above mentioned variables remained practically unchanged during...... the infusion except for a small (-5%) but significant decrease in renal plasma flow (P less than 0.01). Our negative results contrast to the findings of increased GFR and RPF during prolonged GH administration and suggest that GH requires several hours or days for its renal effects to become manifest....
Demirci, Serdar; Kinikli, Gizem Irem; Callaghan, Michael J; Tunay, Volga Bayrakci
The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of Mobilization with movement (MWM) and Kinesiotaping (KT) on patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) respect to pain, function and balance. Thirty-five female patients diagnosed with unilateral PFP were assigned into 2 groups. The first group (n = 18) received two techniques of MWM intervention (Straight Leg-Raise with Traction and Tibial Gliding) while KT was applied to the other group (n = 17). Both groups received 4 sessions of treatment twice a week for a period of 2 weeks with a 6-week-home exercise program. Pain severity, knee range of motion, hamstring flexibility, and physical performance (10-step stair climbing test, timed up and go test), Kujala Patellofemoral Pain Scoring and Y-Balance test were assessed. These outcomes were evaluated before the treatment, 45 min after the initial treatment, at the end of the 4-session-treatment during 2-week period and 6 weeks later in both groups. Both treatment groups had statistically significant improvements on pain, function and balance (p < 0.05). Pain at rest (p = 0.008) and the hamstring muscle flexibility (p = 0.027) were demonstrated significant improvements in favor of MWM group. Our results demonstrated similar results for both treatment techniques in terms of pain, function and balance. The MWM technique with exercise had a short-term favorable effect on pain at rest and hamstring muscle flexibility than the KT technique with exercise in patients with PFP. Level I, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe
Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and
Mitchell, Karen J; Mather, Mara; Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Greene, Erich J
We investigated the hypothesis that arousal recruits attention to item information, thereby disrupting working memory processes that help bind items to context. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared brain activity when participants remembered negative or neutral picture-location conjunctions (source memory) versus pictures only. Behaviorally, negative trials showed disruption of short-term source, but not picture, memory; long-term picture recognition memory was better for negative than for neutral pictures. Activity in areas involved in working memory and feature integration (precentral gyrus and its intersect with superior temporal gyrus) was attenuated on negative compared with neutral source trials relative to picture-only trials. Visual processing areas (middle occipital and lingual gyri) showed greater activity for negative than for neutral trials, especially on picture-only trials.
Pellegrino, J W; Siegel, A W; Dhawan, M
Picture and word triads were tested in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task at varying delay intervals (3, 10, or 30 sec) and under acoustic and simultaneous acoustic and visual distraction. Pictures were superior to words at all delay intervals under single acoustic distraction. Dual distraction consistently reduced picture retention while simultaneously facilitating word retention. The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis with modality-specific interference effects in the visual and acoustic processing systems. The differential effects of dual distraction were related to the introduction of visual interference and differential levels of functional acoustic interference across dual and single distraction tasks. The latter was supported by a constant 2/1 ratio in the backward counting rates of the acoustic vs. dual distraction tasks. The results further suggest that retention may not depend on total processing load of the distraction task, per se, but rather that processing load operates within modalities.
Parving, H H; Christiansen, J S; Noer, I
Kidney function was studied in nine, metabolically well controlled, short-term insulin-dependent male diabetics before and during glucagon infusion of 4 to 5 and 8 to 10 ng/kg/min. Glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique, with urinary collections......, using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-iodohippurate), and urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured. The mean plasma glucagon concentration increased during infusion from 254 +/- 19 pg/ml to 440 +/- 31 pg/ml (low dose) and 730 +/- 52 pg/ml (high dose). Glomerular filtration rate...... increased in all subjects from 133 +/- 5 before the glucagon infusion to 141 +/- 4 with the low dose, and 148 +/- 7 ml/min/1.73 m2 with the high dose (p
Helge H.O. Müller
Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is effective in the treatment of treatment-resistant major depression. The fear of cognitive impairment after ECT often deters patients from choosing this treatment option. There is little reliable information regarding the effects of ECT on overall cognitive performance, while short-term memory deficits are well known but not easy to measure within clinical routines. In this pilot study, we examined ECT recipients’ pre- and posttreatment performances on a digital ascending number tapping test. We found that cognitive performance measures exhibited good reproducibility in individual patients and that ECT did not significantly alter cognitive performance up to 2 hours after this therapy was applied. Our results can help patients and physicians make decisions regarding the administration of ECT. Digital measurements are recommended, especially when screening for the most common side effects on cognitive performance and short-term memory.
Hashimoto, K; Otsuka, R; Minato, A; Sato-Wakabayashi, M; Takada, J; Inoue-Arai, M S; Miyamoto, J J; Ono, T; Ohyama, K; Moriyama, K
To investigate the short-term effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function in 21 subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Design - Morphological changes in the maxillofacial region were measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs taken immediately before (pre-DO) and after DO (post-DO) and 1 year after DO (1-year follow-up). A questionnaire was evaluated using a visual analog scale. A chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of TMJ symptoms between pre-DO and 1-year follow-up. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between changes in cephalometric variables and TMJ symptoms in association with maxillary DO. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results - The ANB (anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla with the mandible) angle and the mandibular plane angle at pre-DO, post-DO, and 1-year follow-up were -4.3 degrees , +5.8 degrees , +4.3 degrees and 32.1 degrees , 33.5 degrees , 33.6 degrees , respectively. The average amounts of anterior and downward movement of the maxilla at post-DO and 1-year follow-up were 8.3, -1.3 and 0.9, 1.1 mm, respectively. The prevalence of TMJ symptoms showed no significant increase in association with maxillary DO. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between changes in cephalometric variables and TMJ symptoms. Conclusion - These results suggest that there was no short-term (i.e., up to 1 year after DO) effect of maxillary DO on TMJ function in subjects with CLP.
Vedunova M.V.; Korotchenko S.A.; Balashova A.N.; Isakova A.O.; Khaspekov L.G.; Kazantsev V.B.; Mukhina I.V.
There has been studied the effect of a short-term glucose deprivation on neuron net functioning of hippocampus primary culture developing within 32 days on a multi-electrode matrix MED64 (Alpha MED Sciences Company, Japan) in an early and remote periods after deprivation. A short-term glucose deprivation (20 min) has been shown to result in the increase of electrobiological activity of neuron net of hippocampus primary culture, with the cascade of metabolic reactions being activated leading t...
Vinod Babu. K
Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.
Bertram J Jobst
Full Text Available Non-invasive end-points for interventional trials and tailored treatment regimes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD for monitoring regionally different manifestations of lung disease instead of global assessment of lung function with spirometry would be valuable. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRI allows for a radiation-free assessment of regional structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term reproducibility of a comprehensive morpho-functional lung MRI protocol in COPD.20 prospectively enrolled COPD patients (GOLD I-IV underwent 1H-MRI of the lung at 1.5T on two consecutive days, including sequences for morphology, 4D contrast-enhanced perfusion, and respiratory mechanics. Image quality and COPD-related morphological and functional changes were evaluated in consensus by three chest radiologists using a dedicated MRI-based visual scoring system. Test-retest reliability was calculated per each individual lung lobe for the extent of large airway (bronchiectasis, wall thickening, mucus plugging and small airway abnormalities (tree in bud, peripheral bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, consolidations, nodules, parenchymal defects and perfusion defects. The presence of tracheal narrowing, dystelectasis, pleural effusion, pulmonary trunk ectasia, right ventricular enlargement and, finally, motion patterns of diaphragma and chest wall were addressed.Median global scores [10(Q1:8.00;Q3:16.00 vs.11(Q1:6.00;Q3:15.00] as well as category subscores were similar between both timepoints, and kappa statistics indicated "almost perfect" global agreement (ĸ = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.81-0.91. Most subscores showed at least "substantial" agreement of MRI1 and MRI2 (ĸ = 0.64-1.00, whereas the agreement for the diagnosis of dystelectasis/effusion (ĸ = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.00-0.93 was "moderate" and of tracheal abnormalities (ĸ = 0.21, 95%CI = 0.00-0.75 "fair". Most MRI acquisitions showed at least diagnostic quality at
Chapman, Robert M; Gardner, Margaret N; Mapstone, Mark; Klorman, Rafael; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Dupree, Haley M; Antonsdottir, Inga M; Kamalyan, Lily
To determine how aging and dementia affect the brain's initial storing of task-relevant and irrelevant information in short-term memory. We used brain Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to measure short-term memory storage (ERP component C250) in 36 Young Adults, 36 Normal Elderly, and 36 early-stage AD subjects. Participants performed the Number-Letter task, a cognitive paradigm requiring memory storage of a first relevant stimulus to compare it with a second stimulus. In Young Adults, C250 was more positive for the first task-relevant stimulus compared to all other stimuli. C250 in Normal Elderly and AD subjects was roughly the same to relevant and irrelevant stimuli in Intratrial Parts 1-3 but not 4. The AD group had lower C250 to relevant stimuli in part 1. Both normal aging and dementia cause less differentiation of relevant from irrelevant information in initial storage. There was a large aging effect involving differences in the pattern of C250 responses of the Young Adult versus the Normal Elderly/AD groups. Also, a potential dementia effect was obtained. C250 is a candidate tool for measuring short-term memory performance on a biological level, as well as a potential marker for memory changes due to normal aging and dementia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this clinical follow-up study, we examined the effect of clinical holistic medicine (psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients with poor self-assessed sexual functioning and found that this problem could be solved in 41.67% of the patients ((95% CI: 27.6156.7%; 1.75 < NNT < 3.62, p = 0.05. The bodywork was inspired by the Marion Rosen method and helped the patients to confront painful emotions from childhood trauma(s, and thus accelerated and deepened the therapy. The goal of therapy was the healing of the whole life of the patient through Antonovsky-salutogenesis. In this process, rehabilitation of the character and purpose of life of the patient was essential, and assisted the patient to recover his or her sense of coherence (existential coherence. We conclude that clinical holistic medicine is the treatment of choice if the patient is ready to explore and assume responsibility for his or her existence (true self, and willing to struggle emotionally in the therapy to reach this important goal. When the patient heals existentially, quality of life, health, and ability to function in general are improved at the same time. The therapy was mindful in its focus on existential and spiritual issues. The patients received in average 14.8 sessions at the cost of 1,188 EURO.
Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the effect of biliary stent placement without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST on common bile duct stones (CBDS disappearance and the contribution of preserving the duodenal papilla function to reduce recurrence of CBDS. Methods. Sixty-six patients admitted for acute obstructive cholangitis due to CBDS who underwent biliary stent placement without EST for 2 years from March 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The second endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed for treatment of CBDS 3 to 4 months after the first ERCP. We estimated the rate of stone disappearance at the time of second ERCP. Results. CBDS disappearance was observed in 32 (48.5% of 66 patients. The diameter of the bile ducts and the diameter of CBDS in patients with CBDS disappearance were significantly smaller than in those with CBDS requiring extraction (p=0.007 and p<0.001, resp.. Stone disappearance was evident when the diameter of bile ducts and that of CBDS were <10 and 7 mm, respectively (p=0.002. Conclusions. Short-term stent placement without EST eliminates CBDS while preserving duodenal papilla function and may be suitable for treating CBDS in patients with nondilated bile ducts and small CBDS.
Jeong, Min Su; Ha, Seung Beom; Lee, Chang Ju; Cho, Min Chul; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung
To evaluate the serial changes in sexual function in the short-term period after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to investigate whether a change in each domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is associated with improvement of micturition. Thirty-eight potent men who underwent HoLEP and in whom complete 12-month follow-up data on the IIEF were available were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a baseline evaluation for BPH. The surgical outcome was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score, IIEF, and uroflowmetry. The mean age and body mass index of the patients was 64.5±6.2 years and 24.2±2.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Mean total prostate volume and transitional zone volume were 48.8±18.8 ml and 24.2±16.1 ml, respectively. Most IIEF domain scores showed a slight decrease at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery but recovered to the baseline or showed a marginal but nonsignificant increase at 12 months postoperatively compared with baseline. Orgasmic function and the overall sexual satisfaction domain score remained slightly reduced up to 12 months postoperatively. There was no significant correlation between improvement of micturition and change in sexual function throughout the follow-up period after surgery. Although HoLEP achieves significant improvements in micturition, overall sexual function decreases slightly in the early postoperative period, but recovers to the baseline at 12 months postoperatively. Our data suggest that changes in sexual function after HoLEP are not associated with improvement of micturition.
Baker, Richelle; Coenen, Pieter; Howie, Erin; Lee, Jeremy; Williamson, Ann; Straker, Leon
Due to concerns about excessive sedentary exposure for office workers, alternate work positions such as standing are being trialled. However, prolonged standing may have health and productivity impacts, which this study assessed. Twenty adult participants undertook two hours of laboratory-based standing computer work to investigate changes in discomfort and cognitive function, along with muscle fatigue, movement, lower limb swelling and mental state. Over time, discomfort increased in all body areas (total body IRR [95% confidence interval]: 1.47[1.36-1.59]). Sustained attention reaction time (β = 18.25[8.00-28.51]) deteriorated, while creative problem solving improved (β = 0.89[0.29-1.49]). There was no change in erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris or tibialis anterior muscle fatigue; low back angle changed towards less lordosis, pelvis movement increased, lower limb swelling increased and mental state decreased. Body discomfort was positively correlated with mental state. The observed changes suggest replacing office work sitting with standing should be done with caution. Practitioner Summary: Standing is being used to replace sitting by office workers; however, there are health risks associated with prolonged standing. In a laboratory study involving 2 h prolonged standing discomfort increased (all body areas), reaction time and mental state deteriorated while creative problem-solving improved. Prolonged standing should be undertaken with caution.
Fuggetta, Giorgio; Duke, Philip A
The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence. Overall, practice decreased behavioural response times, increased accuracy, and modulated several ERP components that represent cognitive and neural processing stages. This neuromodulation through practice was also associated with an enhanced link between behavioural measures and ERP components and with an enhanced cortico-cortical interaction of functionally interconnected ERP components. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ERP amplitude data revealed three components, having different rostro-caudal topographic representations. The first component included both the centro-parietal and parieto-occipital mismatch triggered negativity - involved in integration of visual representations of the target with current task-relevant representations stored in visual working memory - loaded with second negative posterior-bilateral (N2pb) component, involved in categorising specific pop-out target features. The second component comprised the amplitude of bilateral anterior P2 - related to detection of a specific pop-out feature - loaded with bilateral anterior N2, related to detection of conflicting features, and fronto-central mismatch triggered negativity. The third component included the parieto-occipital N1 - related to early neural responses to the stimulus array - which loaded with the second
Hughes, Robert W; Marsh, John E
A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory (STM) is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity as-but that are order-incongruent with-the to-be-remembered items. We test the view that such interference is because of the obligatory perceptual organization of the spoken stimuli yielding a sequence that competes with a subvocal motor-plan assembled to support the reproduction of the to-be-remembered list. In support of this view, the interference can be eliminated without changing either the identities or objective serial order of the spoken stimuli but merely by promoting a subjective perceptual organization that strips them of their order-incongruent relation to the to-be-remembered list (Experiment 1). The interference is also eliminated if subvocal motor sequence-planning is impeded via articulatory suppression (Experiment 2). The results are in line with the view that performance-limits in verbal serial STM are because of having to exploit perceptual and motor processes for purposes for which they did not evolve, not the inherently limited capacity of structures or mechanisms dedicated to storage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Inada, Toru; Kaneko, Fuminari; Hayami, Tatsuya
Kinesthetic illusions by visual stimulation (KiNVIS) enhances corticomotor excitability and activates motor association areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of KiNVIS induction on muscular output function after short-term immobilization. Thirty subjects were assigned to 3 groups: an immobilization group, with the left hand immobilized for 12h (immobilization period); an illusion group, with the left hand immobilized and additionally subjected to KiNVIS of the immobilized part during the immobilization period; and a control group with no manipulation. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), fluctuation of force (force fluctuation) during a force modulation task, and twitch force were measured both before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the immobilization period. Data were analyzed by performing two-way (TIME×GROUP) repeated measures ANOVA. The MVC decreased in the immobilization group only (pre-test; 37.8±6.1N, post-test; 32.8±6.9N, p<0.0005) after the immobilization period. The force fluctuation increased only in the immobilization group (pre-test; 2.19±0.54%, post-test; 2.78±0.87%, p=0.007) after the immobilization period. These results demonstrate that induction of KiNVIS prevents negative effect on MVC and force fluctuation after 12h of immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Celani, M F S; Hurtado, R; Brandão, A H F; Maciel da Fonseca, A M R; Geber, S
Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with tibolone 2.5 mg daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive tibolone (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 28 days. Measurement of the FMD of the brachial artery was performed before and after the use of tibolone and placebo. Results A total of 31 women completed the study in the tibolone group, and 32 women completed the study in the control group. The results of the FMD measurements obtained from the women in the two groups before treatment were similar (0.018 and 0.091, for tibolone and placebo, p = 0.57). The values of the FMD in women who used tibolone and placebo, before and after the treatment, were similar in both groups. The numbers of women who presented an increase in the values of the FMD in both groups were also similar. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the administration of 2.5 mg tibolone to healthy postmenopausal women for 28 days does not promote endothelial-dependent vasodilation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery.
Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Lin, Szu-Hung; Yeh, Yei-Yu
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) allows individuals to briefly maintain information over time for guiding behaviours. Because the contents of VSTM can be neutral or emotional, top-down influence in VSTM may vary with the affective codes of maintained representations. Here we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the functional interplay of top-down attention with affective codes in VSTM using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were instructed to remember both threatening and neutral objects in a cued VSTM task. Retrospective cues (retro-cues) were presented to direct attention to the hemifield of a threatening object (i.e., cue-to-threat) or a neutral object (i.e., cue-to-neutral) during VSTM maintenance. We showed stronger activity in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex and amygdala for attending threatening relative to neutral representations. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we found better classification performance for cue-to-threat versus cue-to-neutral objects in early visual areas and in the amygdala. Importantly, retro-cues modulated the strength of functional connectivity between the frontoparietal and early visual areas. Activity in the frontoparietal areas became strongly correlated with the activity in V3a-V4 coding the threatening representations instructed to be relevant for the task. Together, these findings provide the first demonstration of top-down modulation of activation patterns in early visual areas and functional connectivity between the frontoparietal network and early visual areas for regulating threatening representations during VSTM maintenance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Qin; Yang, Chen; Liu, Tianyao; Liu, Liang; Li, Fen; Cai, Yulong; Lv, Keyi; Li, Xin; Gao, Junwei; Sun, Dayu; Xu, Haiwei; Yang, Qingwu; Fan, Xiaotang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In addition to cognitive impairments, deficits in non-cognitive behaviors are also common neurological sequelae in AD. Here, we show that complex behavioral deficits in 7-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice include impairments in object recognition, deficient social interaction, increased depression and buried marbles. Citalopram, one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), ameliorated the amyloid deposition in AD patients and transgenic animal models. After treatment for 4 weeks, citalopram rescued the deficits in short-term memory, sociability and depression in these mice. Further immunohistochemical analysis showed chronic citalopram treatment significantly attenuated β-amyloid deposition and microglial activation in the brains of APP/PS1 mice as demonstrated previously. Parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, which are the primary cellular subtype of GABAergic neurons and considered indispensable for short-term memory and social interaction, also contributed to the progress of depression. Additionally, we found the citalopram could significantly increase the PV-positive neurons in the cortex of APP/PS1 mice without alteration in the hippocampus, which might contribute to the improvement of behavioral performance. Our findings suggest that citalopram might be a potential candidate for the early treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tian Xiaoping; Zhuang Huiqin; Su Cainu; Xu Ning; Yin Dong; Hui Yuan; Wu Yan
To evaluate the effect of short-term intensive insulin treatment on β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with apparently hyperglycemia, twenty-four newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with FPG more than 12.0 mmol/L were treated by short-term transient intensive insulin in average 9.04-4.8 days. Their β-cell function was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test. The FPG, HbAlc and HOMA IR of patients were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while the insulin, the Area Under Curve (AUC) of insulin and HOMA β were significantly increased (P<0.01) after the treatment with insulin. Improvement of β-cell function can be induced by short-term intensive insulin treatment for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with apparently hyperglycemia. (authors)
Sørensen, Per; Birket-Smith, M; Wattar, U
Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim of this ......Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim...... of this study was to test CBT for hypochondriasis in a centre that was not involved in its development and compare both CBT and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) to a waiting-list control and to each other. CBT was modified by including mindfulness and group therapy sessions, reducing the therapist...
Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Novak, Tomas; Pohlova, Libuse
The treatment of personality disorder is repeatedly reported as less successful than the treatment of patients without personality disorder. Most clinicians believe that anxiety disorder in tandem with a personality disorder often leads to longer treatment, worsens the prognosis, and thus increases treatment costs. Our study was designed to compare the short-term effectiveness of therapy in patients suffering from social phobia with and without personality disorder. The specific aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a 6 week therapeutic program designed for social phobia (SSRIs and CBT) in patients suffering from social phobia with comorbid personality disorder (17 patients) and social phobia without comorbid personality disorder (18 patients). The patients were regularly assessed in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 using the CGI (Clinical Global Improvement) for severity, LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and in self-assessments BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory) and BDI (Beck Depression Inventory). Patients in both groups improved their scores in most of the assessment instruments used. A combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy proved to be the most effective treatment for patients suffering with social phobia with or without comorbid personality disorder. Treatment efficacy in patients with social phobia without personality disorder was significantly better than in the group with social phobia comorbid with personality disorder for CGI and specific inventory for social phobia - LSAS. The scores on the subjective depression inventory (BDI) also showed significantly greater decrease over the treatment in the group without personality disorder. The treatment effect between groups did not differ in subjective general anxiety scales BAI. Our study showed that patients suffering from social phobia and comorbid personality disorder showed a smaller decrease in specific social phobia symptomatology during treatment compared than patients with social phobia without personality
Hurtado, R; Celani, M; Geber, S
To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial over 3 years. Randomization was performed using computer-generated sorting. All participants were blinded to the use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo and FMD was assessed by a blinded examiner, before and after 28 days of medication. A total of 64 healthy postmenopausal women were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of treatment: 0.625 mg of CEE or placebo. FMD values were statistically different between the groups (p = 0.025): the group receiving CEE showed a FMD value of 0.011 compared to the placebo group (FMD = -0.082). The two groups were additionally evaluated for homogeneity through the Shapiro-Wilk test in respect to variables that could interfere with endothelial function such as age (p = 0.729), body mass index (p = 0.891), and time since menopause (p = 0.724). Other variables were excluded during selection of the participants such as chronic vascular conditions, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Our results demonstrate that the administration of 0.625 mg CEE for 28 days is effective in improving vascular nitric oxide-dependent dilation assessed by FMD of the brachial artery in postmenopausal women. NCT01482416.
Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias
In decisions under objective risk conditions information about the decision options' possible outcomes and the rules for outcomes' occurrence are provided. Thus, deciders can base decision-making strategies on probabilistic laws. In many laboratory decision-making tasks, choosing the option with the highest winning probability in all trials (=maximization strategy) is probabilistically regarded the most rational behavior. However, individuals often behave less optimal, especially in case the individuals have lower cognitive functions or in case no feedback about consequences is provided in the situation. It is still unclear which cognitive functions particularly predispose individuals for using successful strategies and which strategies profit from feedback. We investigated 195 individuals with two decision-making paradigms, the Game of Dice Task (GDT) (with and without feedback), and the Card Guessing Game. Thereafter, participants reported which strategies they had applied. Interaction effects (feedback × strategy), effect sizes, and uncorrected single group comparisons suggest that feedback in the GDT tended to be more beneficial to individuals reporting exploratory strategies (e.g., use intuition). In both tasks, the self-reported use of more principled and more rational strategies was accompanied by better decision-making performance and better performances in reasoning and executive functioning tasks. The strategy groups did not significantly differ in most short-term and working-memory tasks. Thus, particularly individual differences in reasoning and executive functions seem to predispose individuals toward particular decision-making strategies. Feedback seems to be useful for individuals who rather explore the decision-making situation instead of following a certain plan.
Malek, F; Rani, K A; Rahim, H A; Omar, M H
Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipse(TM)) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P's > 0.05).
Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K.; Slotsbo, Stine
the extent of such effects in long-term field-based experiments. In this study we make use of both recent (short-term) and long-term geothermal warming of Icelandic soils to examine the responses of Collembola, an ecologically important group of soil invertebrates, to warming. 2. On the basis of metabolic...
Gamlin, Peter J.
Examines the effects of short term memory (STM) capacity, meaningfulness of stimuli, and age upon listeners' structuring of sentences. Results show that the interaction between STM capacity and meaningfulness (1) approached significance when data were collapsed over both age levels, and (2) was significant for one age level. Tables and references.…
Full Text Available Objective: With increased recognition of the importance of conscious process and cognition activities in the stability and regulation of posture and also in line of probable adaptation in central nervous system in patients with functional ankle instability, this study was aimed to assess interference patterns between short–term memory task and postural stability tasks in functional ankle instability patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Materials & Methods: In this cross–sectional and case–control study, with dual–task paradigm fifteen functional ankle instability patients whom were selected simply and conveniently and fifteen healthy persons whom were matched with patients as control group were assessed and compared. Six steps of tests were performed for every case with two situation of balance Biodex system instability and three situation of auditory short–term memory task. Data were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA. Results: Finding showed that there was significant interference between postural task and cognitive task in both groups (P<0.05 , but there was no significant difference between interferences of two groups. Conclusion: Present study, certificated disruption in information processing in a peripheral musculoskeletal injury such as functional ankle instability. Application of training programs in order to facilitate central information processing in balance rehabilitation process of this patients and improved dual–task paradigms with different degrees of cognitive and postural tasks seems to be effective.
The Relationship of Cognitive Performance and the Theta-Alpha Power Ratio Is Age-Dependent: An EEG Study of Short Term Memory and Reasoning during Task and Resting-State in Healthy Young and Old Adults
Janet P. Trammell
Full Text Available Objective: The Theta-Alpha ratio (TAR is known to differ based upon age and cognitive ability, with pathological electroencephalography (EEG patterns routinely found within neurodegenerative disorders of older adults. We hypothesized that cognitive ability would predict EEG metrics differently within healthy young and old adults, and that healthy old adults not showing age-expected EEG activity may be more likely to demonstrate cognitive deficits relative to old adults showing these expected changes.Methods: In 216 EEG blocks collected in 16 young and 20 old adults during rest (eyes open, eyes closed and cognitive tasks (short-term memory [STM]; matrix reasoning [RM; Raven's matrices], models assessed the contributing roles of cognitive ability, age, and task in predicting the TAR. A general linear mixed-effects regression model was used to model this relationship, including interaction effects to test whether increased cognitive ability predicted TAR differently for young and old adults at rest and during cognitive tasks.Results: The relationship between cognitive ability and the TAR across all blocks showed age-dependency, and cognitive performance at the CZ midline location predicted the TAR measure when accounting for the effect of age (p < 0.05, chi-square test of nested models. Age significantly interacted with STM performance in predicting the TAR (p < 0.05; increases in STM were associated with increased TAR in young adults, but not in old adults. RM showed similar interaction effects with aging and TAR (p < 0.10.Conclusion: EEG correlates of cognitive ability are age-dependent. Adults who did not show age-related EEG changes were more likely to exhibit cognitive deficits than those who showed age-related changes. This suggests that healthy aging should produce moderate changes in Alpha and TAR measures, and the absence of such changes signals impaired cognitive functioning.
Paulesu, Eraldo; Shallice, Tim; Danelli, Laura; Sberna, Maurizio; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Frith, Chris D
Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971), a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H 2 15 O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain degree of
Full Text Available Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971, a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain
Staiano, Amanda E.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.
Exergames are videogames that require gross motor activity, thereby combining gaming with physical activity. This study examined the role of competitive versus cooperative exergame play on short-term changes in executive function skills, following a 10-week exergame training intervention. Fifty-four low-income overweight and obese African American…
Webster, Raymond E.
A significant two-way input modality by output modality interaction suggested that short term memory capacity among the groups differed as a function of the modality used to present the items in combination with the output response required. (Author/CL)
Andreou, Christina; Treszl, András; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Köther, Ulf; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Moritz, Steffen
Symptom severity and neuropsychological deficits negatively influence functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Recent research implicates specific types of biased thinking styles (e.g. jumping-to-conclusions) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This is the first study to test the impact of jumping-to-conclusions on functional outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of psychopathology, neuropsychology and JTC with subjective quality of life, vocational outcome and housing status in schizophrenia. Analyses were carried out both cross-sectionally at baseline, and longitudinally over the course of symptomatic improvement in the immediate aftermath of a psychotic exacerbation. Seventy-nine patients with schizophrenia were included in the study. Data concerning the variables of interest were collected at baseline, after one month, and after six months. Positive symptomatology was the most significant predictor of subjective and vocational outcome and changes across time. Verbal memory deficits were associated with functional status cross-sectionally, whereas general cognitive capacity significantly predicted functional changes over time. Improvement of the jumping-to-conclusions bias positively affected vocational outcome. Though limited, the observed effect of this bias on real-world functioning highlights the possible usefulness of interventions aimed at improving (meta)cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernández, Alejandro; Mascayano, Franco; Lips, Walter; Painel, Andrés; Norambuena, Jonathan; Madrid, Eva
Modafinil is a drug developed and used for the treatment of excessive lethargy. Even though very effective for sleep disorders, it is still controversial whether modafinil can improve performance in high-order cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was designed to evaluate the effect of modafinil (compared to placebo) on the cognitive functions of healthy students. 160 volunteers were recruited and allocated randomly to modafinil or placebo group, and were assessed using the Stroop Test, BCET test and Digit span test. We found a significant difference in favor of modafinil compared to placebo in the proportion of correct answers of Stroop Test in congruent situation. A significant shorter latency of modafinil group in the incongruent situation of Stroop test was also found. No differences were found in Digit Span, or BCET tests. The study demonstrated that modafinil does not enhance the global cognitive performance of healthy non-sleep deprived students, except regarding non-demanding tasks. In particular, this drug does not seem to have positive effects on mental processes that sustain studying tasks in the college population under normal conditions. We expect these findings to demystify the use of this drug and help decision making concerning pharmacological public policies.
Chee, Michael W L; Chuah, Y M Lisa
Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs short-term memory, but it is unclear whether this is because of reduced storage capacity or processes contributing to appropriate information encoding. We evaluated 30 individuals twice, once after a night of normal sleep and again after 24 h of SD. In each session, we evaluated visual memory capacity by presenting arrays of one to eight colored squares. Additionally, we measured cortical responses to varying visual array sizes without engaging memory. The magnitude of intraparietal sulcus activation and memory capacity after normal sleep were highly correlated. SD elicited a pattern of activation in both tasks, indicating that deficits in visual processing and visual attention accompany and could account for loss of short-term memory capacity. Additionally, a comparison between better and poorer performers showed that preservation of precuneus and temporoparietal junction deactivation with increasing memory load corresponds to less performance decline when one is sleep-deprived.
Full Text Available Impaired cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were found in selected subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with long-term disease. Our study aimed to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics, systemic endothelial function and sympatho-vagal balance in a selected population of well-controlled T2DM patients with short-term disease and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Twenty-six T2DM patients with short-term (4.40±4.80 years and well-controlled (HbA1C = 6.71±1.29% disease, without any complications, treated with diet and/or metformin, were consecutively recruited. Eighteen controls, comparable by sex and age, were enrolled also.FMD and shear rate FMD were found to be reduced in T2DM subjects with short-term disease (8.5% SD 3.5 and 2.5 SD 1.3, respectively compared to controls (15.4% SD 4.1 and 3.5 SD 1.4; p.05.In well-controlled T2DM patients with short-term disease cerebral hemodynamics and systemic endothelial function are altered while autonomic balance appeared to be preserved.
Aki, Atsuko; Tomotake, Masahito
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes of levels of depression and quality of life in adolescent students after receiving short-term cognitive behavioral educational program in health class for stress management. Subjects were 176 middle school students aged 12 to 14 years. They completed the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRS-C) and the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (Kiddo-KINDL(R)) before, after and 6-months after the program. The three-session program consisted of psychoeducation and learning skills of cognitive restructuring and problem solving. The total scores of the DSRS-C and the Kiddo-KINDL(R) in all subjects did not significantly change after the completion of program. However, as for the high risk group (score of the DSRS-C≥16), significant improvement in the two scales was found after the program. Especially, depression level in the high risk group significantly decreased and the improvement was maintained 6-months later. These results suggest that this type of approach may be effective for adolescents with high risk of depression in terms of improving not only depressive symptom but also quality of life.
This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.
Full Text Available Delayed recall of words in a verbal learning test is a sensitive measure for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD. The relative validity of different retention intervals of delayed recall has not been well characterized. Using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Huashan version, we compared the differentiating value of short-term delayed recall (AVL-SR, that is, a 3- to 5-minute delay time and long-term delayed recall (AVL-LR, that is, a 20-minute delay time in distinguishing patients with aMCI (n = 897 and mild AD (n = 530 from the healthy elderly (n = 1215. In patients with aMCI, the correlation between AVL-SR and AVL-LR was very high (r = 0.94, and the difference between the two indicators was less than 0.5 points. There was no difference between AVL-SR and AVL-LR in the frequency of zero scores. In the receiver operating characteristic curves analysis, although the area under the curve (AUC of AVL-SR and AVL-LR for diagnosing aMCI was significantly different, the cut-off scores of the two indicators were identical. In the subgroup of ages 80 to 89, the AUC of the two indicators showed no significant difference. Therefore, we concluded that AVL-SR could substitute for AVL-LR in identifying aMCI, especially for the oldest patients.
Gonzalez-Garrido, A A; Barrios, F A; de la Serna-Tuya, J M; Cocula-León, H; Gómez-Velázquez, F R
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder found mainly in males, thus current knowledge on its clinical expression in female adults is extremely limited. AIM. To evaluate the behavioral and neural substrates associated with the performance of a short-term memory task in female ADHD adults, with and without methylphenidate exposure, with respect to a control group. Two groups of eight young right-handed, female, university students with ADHD and healthy controls matched by age, gender, handedness and academic level, voluntarily participated. All subjects performed twice an easy auditory short-term memory task (ADHD group without, and 90 minutes post-intake of methylphenidate 0.4 mg/kg in a counterbalanced order). The BOLD-fMRI response was used as a measure of neural activity during task performance. ADHD subjects showed a tendency to improve their performances under medication, showing an increased widespread functional activation, especially relevant over left frontal and cerebellar areas, in comparison with control subjects. Methylphenidate slightly improves short-term memory task performance in adult female ADHD subjects by modifying underlying neural functioning patterns.
Princi, Maria Polsia; Lupini, Antonio; Longo, Caterina; Miller, Anthony J; Sunseri, Francesco; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa
Boron (B) is an essential plant nutrient, but when present in excess it is toxic. Morphological measurements were made to assess the impact of B toxicity on the growth of two different tomato hybrids, Losna and Ikram. Contrasting long and short-term B responses in these tomato hybrids, were observed. Losna showed less toxicity symptoms, maintaining higher growth and showing much less B content in both root and shoot tissues compared to Ikram. Root morphological differences did not explain the tolerance between the two hybrids. Under excess B supply, a significant inhibition on net nitrate uptake rate was observed in Ikram, but not in Losna. This effect may be explained by a decrease of nitrate transporter transcripts in Ikram, which was not measured in Losna. There was a different pattern of B transporter expression in two tomatoes and this can explain the contrasting tolerance observed. Indeed, Losna may be able to exclude or efflux B resulting in less accumulation in the shoot. Particularly, SlBOR4 expression showed significant differences between the tomato hybrids, with higher expression in Losna explaining the improved B-tolerance. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kollbrunner, Jürg; Seifert, Eberhard
Children with nonorganic voice disorders (NVDs) are treated mainly using direct voice therapy techniques such as the accent method or glottal attack changes and indirect methods such as vocal hygiene and voice education. However, both approaches tackle only the symptoms and not etiological factors in the family dynamics and therefore often enjoy little success. The aim of the "Bernese Brief Dynamic Intervention" (BBDI) for children with NVD was to extend the effectiveness of pediatric voice therapies with a psychosomatic concept combining short-term play therapy with the child and family dynamic counseling of the parents. This study compares the therapeutic changes in three groups where different procedures were used, before intervention and 1 year afterward: counseling of parents (one to two consultations; n = 24), Brief Dynamic Intervention on the lines of the BBDI (three to five play therapy sessions with the child plus two to four sessions with the parents; n = 20), and traditional voice therapy (n = 22). A Voice Questionnaire for Parents developed by us with 59 questions to be answered on a four-point Likert scale was used to measure the change. According to the parents' assessment, a significant improvement in voice quality was achieved in all three methods. Counseling of parents (A) appears to have led parents to give their child more latitude, for example, they stopped nagging the child or demanding that he/she should behave strictly by the rules. After BBDI (B), the mothers were more responsive to their children's wishes and the children were more relaxed and their speech became livelier. At home, they called out to them less often at a distance, which probably improved parent-child dialog. Traditional voice therapy (C) seems to have had a positive effect on the children's social competence. BBDI seems to have the deepest, widest, and therefore probably the most enduring therapeutic effect on children with NVD. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation
Gibson, Brett; Wasserman, Edward; Luck, Steven J
Visual short-term memory plays a key role in guiding behavior, and individual differences in visual short-term memory capacity are strongly predictive of higher cognitive abilities. To provide a broader evolutionary context for understanding this memory system, we directly compared the behavior of pigeons and humans on a change detection task. Although pigeons had a lower storage capacity and a higher lapse rate than humans, both species stored multiple items in short-term memory and conformed to the same basic performance model. Thus, despite their very different evolutionary histories and neural architectures, pigeons and humans have functionally similar visual short-term memory systems, suggesting that the functional properties of visual short-term memory are subject to similar selective pressures across these distant species.
Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Driessen, Ellen; DeRubeis, Robert J; Van, Henricus L; Keefe, John R; Hendriksen, Mariëlle; Dekker, Jack
Prior studies have suggested that the association between the alliance and depression improvement varies as a function of prior history of depression. We sought to replicate these findings and extend them to short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy (SPSP) in a sample of patients who were randomized to one of these treatments and were administered the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (N=282) at Week 5 of treatment. Overall, the alliance was a predictor of symptom change (d=0.33). In SPSP, the alliance was a modest but robust predictor of change, irrespective of prior episodes (d=0.25-0.33). By contrast, in CBT, the effects of the alliance on symptom change were large for patients with 0 prior episodes (d=0.86), moderate for those with 1 prior episode (d=0.49), and small for those with 2+ prior episodes (d=0.12). These findings suggest a complex interaction between patient features and common vs. specific therapy processes. In CBT, the alliance relates to change for patients with less recurrent depression whereas other CBT-specific processes may account for change for patients with more recurrent depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vogel, T; Leprêtre, P-M; Brechat, P-H; Lonsdorfer, E; Benetos, A; Kaltenbach, G; Lonsdorfer, J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a short-term Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) among healthy elderly subjects. This longitudinal prospective study took place at the Strasbourg University Hospital geriatric department. One hundred and fifty older volunteers, previously determined as being free from cardiac and pulmonary disease, were separated into two age groups: the "young senior" (60.2 ± 3.1 yr) and the "older senior" groups (70.8 ± 5.2 yr). These groups were then subdivided by gender into the "young female senior", "young male senior" "older female senior" and "older male senior" groups. Before and after the IWEP, all subjects were asked to perform an incremental cycle exercise to obtain their first ventilatory threshold (VT1), maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal minute ventilation (MMV). The IWEP consisted of a 30-min cycling exercise which took place twice a week, and was divided into six 5-min stages consisting of 4 min at VT1 intensity and 1 min at 90% MTP. An assessment was made of the effects of the IWEP on maximal cardio-respiratory function (MTP, VO2peak, MMV) and endurance parameters (VT1, heart rate [HR] measured at pretraining VT1 and lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP). This short-term training program resulted in a significant increase of MTP (from 13.2% to 20.6%), VO2peak (from 8.9% to 16.6%) and MMV (from 11.1% to 21.8%) in all groups (pseniors" were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the "young seniors" pre-training values for the same parameters. The most striking finding in this study is that after only 9 weeks, our short-term "individually-tailored" IWEP significantly improved both maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters in healthy, previously untrained seniors.
Jung, Ye-Ha; Suh, Yoo-Hun
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate receptors implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory function. The specific functions of NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B have not yet been fully determined in the different types of memory. Nine Wistar rats (8-weeks-old) were subjected to the Morris water maze task to evaluate the memory behaviorally. Quantitative analysis of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B levels in the right and left forebrain of rats was performed and subunit associations with different types of memory were investigated using the Morris water maze task. Right forebrain NR2A expression was significantly increased and correlated with faster escape time onto a hidden platform, indicating involvement of short-term memory, because of the training time interval. Right forebrain NR2B expression was positively associated with long-term memory lasting 24-h (h). In the left forebrain, NR2B expression was positively related to 72-h long-term memory. In conclusion, the functions of NR2A and NR2B receptors were differentially specialized in short-term and long-term memory, depending on the right or left forebrain.
Tseng, Wei-Che; Hsieh, Ru-Lan
The effects of active video game play on healthy individuals remain uncertain. A person's functional health status constitutes a dynamic interaction between components identified in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of active video game play on community adults using the ICF. Sixty community adults with an average age of 59.3 years and without physical disabilities were recruited. Over 2 weeks, each adult participated in six sessions of active video game play lasting 20 minutes each. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention. Variables were collected using sources related to the ICF components, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Biodex Stability System, chair- rising time, Frenchay Activity Index, Rivermead Mobility Index, Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version. Compared to baseline data, significantly reduced risk of a fall measured by Biodex Stability System and improvements in disability scores measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire were noted. There was no significant change in the other variables measured. Short-term, active video game play reduces fall risks and ameliorates disabilities in community adults.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of short-term intensive atorvastatin treatment on interventional treatment effect and cardiac function of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: A total of 104 cases of patients with acute coronary syndrome who received PCI treatment in Emergency Department of our hospital from May 2014 to November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into intensive group and routine group according to different atorvastatin treatment methods, and then biochemical indexes, cardiac ultrasound indicators and inflammatory indexes of two groups were compared. Results: Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, hs- CRP, LDH, α-HBDH, CK and CK-MB content of intensive group were significantly lower than those of routine group while HDL-C content was higher than that of routine group; E/ A ratio and LVEF of intensive group were higher than those of routine group while Tei index, systolic index and diastolic index were lower than those of routine group; TLR4 and NF-kB expression levels in peripheral blood as well as TNF-α and IL-6 content in serum of intensive group were significantly lower than those of routine group. Conclusion: Short-term intensive atorvastatin treatment improves the interventional treatment effect of patients with acute coronary syndrome, and can reduce myocardial injury, improve cardiac diastolic and systolic function and inhibit the inflammation mediated by TLR4/NF-kB.
Li, Yuman; Wang, Xinfang; Lv, Qing; Wang, Jing; Yang, YaLi; He, Lin; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Li; Xie, Mingxing
Abstract Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is an important determinant of poor clinical status in repaired patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The purpose of our study is to assess the impact of surgical repair on short-term RV and LV function by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Sixty-seven patients (median age 12 months) with TOF before and 6 months after repair and 35 healthy subjects were studied. The patients were divided into the younger (age at surgery ≤12 months) and older (age at surgery >12 months) subgroups. RV and LV global longitudinal systolic strain and strain rate (SR), and LV global circumferential and radial systolic strain and SR were measured by STE. After repair, RV longitudinal strain and SR increased in the younger patients, whereas RV longitudinal SR was decreased in the older patients. LV deformation parameters were unchanged in all patients. In the multivariate analysis, patients with better RV and LV deformation parameters preoperatively were identified to have better RV and LV strain and SR postoperatively (P < 0.05 for all). The surgical approach of the pulmonary valve ring was predictive of RV and LV systolic function postoperatively (P < 0.05 for all). After TOF repair, short-term RV function improvement is identified in the younger but not in the older patients, whereas LV function is unchanged in all patients. The preoperative RV and LV deformational indices are the determinant of postoperative biventricular function improvement. STE appears to be a valuable tool for assessment of biventricular function after congenital heart disease surgery. PMID:27495064
Antonio C. Pinto
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence on the sexual function of women and to identify whether such treatment can improve their sexual function and overall quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 heterosexual women with such indication were studied using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire, modified by introducing one question to evaluate the impact of urine loss. This was applied preoperatively and six months after surgery. RESULT: Among these 64 patients, 60.94% had regular sexual activity, while 39.06% did not. Among sexually active patients, 59% had urine loss during sexual intercourse and, of these, 87% had urine losses in half or more of sexual relations. There were no statistically significant differences in assessments of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain, or in totaling the scores, between the preoperative period and six months after surgical treatment. However, the scores for urine losses during sexual intercourse were significantly better after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results allowed the following conclusions to be reached: Urine lost during sexual activity was frequent among patients with stress urinary incontinence. Suburethral support surgery did not jeopardize sexual activity. Patients cured of stress urinary incontinence did not present improvement in sexual function.
Li, Jun-Min; Jin, Ze-Xin; Hagedorn, Frank; Li, Mai-He
Native parasitic plants may be used to infect and control invasive plants. We established microcosms with invasive Mikania micrantha and native Coix lacryma-jobi growing in mixture on native soils, with M. micrantha being infected by parasitic Cuscuta campestris at four intensity levels for seven weeks to estimate the top-down effects of plant parasitism on the biomass and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Parasitism significantly decreased root biomass and altered soil microbial communities. Soil microbial biomass decreased, but soil respiration increased at the two higher infection levels, indicating a strong stimulation of soil microbial metabolic activity (+180%). Moreover, a Biolog assay showed that the infection resulted in a significant change in the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that microbial biomass declined significantly with decreasing root biomass, particularly of the invasive M. micrantha. Also, the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities were positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Therefore, the negative effects on the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial community by the seven week long plant parasitism was very likely caused by decreased root biomass and root exudation of the invasive M. micrantha.
Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K.; Serlie, Mireille J.
Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in
Rambaran, J. Ashwin; Hopmeyer, Andrea; Schwartz, David; Steglich, Christian; Badaly, Daryaneh; Veenstra, René
In this study, the associations between peer effects and academic functioning in middle adolescence (N = 342; 14-15 years old; 48% male) were investigated longitudinally. Similarity in achievement (grade point averages) and unexplained absences (truancy) was explained by both peer selection and peer influence, net of acceptance, and connectedness.…
Rambaran, J. Ashwin; Hopmeyer, Andrea; Schwartz, David; Steglich, Christian; Badaly, Daryaneh; Veenstra, Rene
In this study, the associations between peer effects and academic functioning in middle adolescence (N = 342; 14-15 years old; 48% male) were investigated longitudinally. Similarity in achievement (grade point averages) and unexplained absences (truancy) was explained by both peer selection and peer
Rogerson, David; McNeill, Scott; Könönen, Heidi; Klonizakis, Markos
The microvascular benefits of regional diets appear in the literature; however, little is known about Nordic-type diets. We investigated the effects of a short-term, adapted, Nordic diet on microvascular function in younger and older individuals at rest and during activity. Thirteen young (mean age: 28 y; standard deviation: 5 y) and 15 older (mean age: 68 y; standard deviation: 6 y) participants consumed a modified Nordic diet for 4 wk. Laser Doppler flowmetry and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring were used to assess cutaneous microvascular function and oxygen tension pre- and postintervention; blood pressure, body mass, body fat percentage, ratings of perceived exertion, and peak heart rate during activity were examined concurrently. Axon-mediated vasodilation improved in older participants (1.17 [0.30] to 1.30 [0.30]; P Nordic diet might improve microvascular health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dubois, Luc; Malthaner, Richard A
We measured lung function before and after video-assisted thoracoscopic apical bullectomy and talc poudrage in patients with spontaneous pneumothoraces. Seventy-two patients were prospectively followed up for 12 months. The indications for surgery were recurrent pneumothoraces (n = 58), bilateral pneumothoraces (n = 8), and persistent air leak (n = 6). There were 46 males and 26 females with mean age of 29 years (range 15-61 years). The results were analyzed using paired t tests. There were no recurrences. There were 4 complications (5.6%): 1 wound infection, 1 case of pneumonia, and 2 persistent air leaks each lasting 1 week. There were no conversions to open surgery. Preoperative and 6-month pulmonary function test results were available on 41 patients, and 35 patients completed 12-month pulmonary function tests. Twelve-month values (mean percent ± SD) were as follows: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second fell from 95 ± 19 to 89 ± 16 (P = .02); forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio was unchanged, 95 ± 12 versus 94 ± 13 (P = .9); total lung capacity fell from 106 ± 19 to 98 ± 12 (P = 0.002); vital capacity fell from 100 ± 22 to 96 ± 16 (P = .05); residual volume fell from 126 ± 32 to 107 ± 29 (P = .002); and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for alveolar volume was unchanged, 88 ± 15 versus 91 ± 17 (P = .07). Flow rates and diffusion capacities were preserved, but lung volumes were slightly reduced at 1 year. Video-assisted thoracoscopic apical bullectomy and talc poudrage is an effective treatment for spontaneous pneumothoraces with a low complication rate and recurrence rate and only minor changes in pulmonary function at 1 year. Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Elise Marie Jerschabek Laetz
Full Text Available Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only metazoans known to perform functional kleptoplasty, the sequestration and retention of functional chloroplasts within their digestive gland cells. Remarkably, a few species with this ability can survive starvation periods of 3-12 months likely due to their stolen chloroplasts. There are no reports of kleptoplast transfer from mother slug to either eggs or juveniles, demonstrating that each animal must independently acquire its kleptoplasts and develop the ability to maintain them within its digestive gland. We present here an investigation into the development of functional kleptoplasty in a long-term kleptoplast retaining species, Elysia timida. Laboratory-reared juvenile slugs of different post-metamorphic ages were placed in starvation and compared to 5 known short-term retaining slug species and 5 non-retaining slug species. The subsequent results indicate that functional kleptoplasty is not performed by E. timida until after 15 days post-metamorphosis and that by 25 days, these animals outlive many of the short-term retention species. Digestive activity was also monitored using lysosomal abundance as an indicator, revealing different patterns in starving juveniles versus adults. Starved juveniles were reintroduced to food to determine any differences in digestive activity when starvation ends, resulting in an increase in the number of kleptoplasts, but no overall change in lysosomal activity. By revealing some of the changes that occur during early development in these animals, which begin as non-kleptoplast-retaining and grow into long-term retaining slugs, this investigation provides a basis for future inquiries into the origin and development of this remarkable ability.
Full Text Available High altitude acclimatization and adaptation mechanisms have been well clarified, however, high altitude de-adaptation mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a controlled study on cardiac functions in 96 healthy young male who rapidly entered the high altitude (3700 m and returned to the plains (1500 m after 50 days. Ninety eight healthy male who remained at low altitude were recruited as control group. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, cardiac function index (Tei index were tested. Levels of serum creatine kinase isoform MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-1 (LDH-1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, nitrogen oxide (NO, serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α (8-iso PGF(2α, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malonaldehyde (MDA were measured at an altitude of 3700 m and 1500 m respectively. The results showed that after short-term exposure to high altitude mPAP and Tei index increased significantly, while LVEF and LVFS decreased significantly. These changes were positively correlated with altitude. On the 15(th day after the subjects returned to low altitude, mPAP, LVEF and LVFS levels returned to the same level as those of the control subjects, but the Tei index in the returned subjects was still significantly higher than that in the control subjects (P<0.01. We also found that changes in Tei index was positively correlated with mPAP, ET-1, HIF-1α and 8-iso PGF(2α levels, and negatively correlated with the level of NO, LVEF, LVFS, CK-MB and LDH-1. These findings suggest that cardiac function de-adapts when returning to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude and the function recovery takes a relatively long time.
Williams, Mark E; Pulliam, Charles C; Hunter, Rebecca; Johnson, Ted M; Owens, Justine E; Kincaid, Jean; Porter, Carol; Koch, Gary
To determine whether a medication review by a specialized team would promote regimen changes in elders taking multiple medications and to measure the effect of regimen changes on monthly cost and functioning. A randomized-controlled trial. Health center ambulatory clinic. Community-dwelling older adults taking five or more medications were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks. A medication-change intervention group of 57 elders was compared with a control group of 76 elder adults. The primary intervention was a comprehensive review and recommended modification of a patient's medication regimen. Changes were endorsed by each patient's primary physician and discussed with each patient. Measures were the Timed Manual Performance Test, Physical Performance Test, Functional Reach Assessment, subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, a modified Randt Memory Test, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and the Rand 36-item Health Survey 1.0. Comorbidity was determined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Medication usage was determined using brown bag review. Intervention subjects decreased their medications by an average of 1.5 drugs. No differences in functioning were observed between groups. Intervention subjects saved an average $26.92 per month in wholesale medication costs; control subjects saved $6.75 per month (P<.006). Although the intervention significantly reduced the medications taken and monthly cost, most patients were resistant to reducing medications to the recommended level. Further study is needed to understand patient resistance to reducing adverse polypharmacy and to devise better strategies for addressing this important problem in geriatric health. Greater focus on prescriber behavior is recommended.
Yildirim, Adem; Sürücü, Gülseren Dost; Karamercan, Ayşe; Gedik, Dilay Eken; Atci, Nermin; Dülgeroǧlu, Deniz; Özgirgin, Neşe
A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT
Gotway, Michael B; Golden, Jeffrey A; LaBerge, Jeanne M; Webb, W Richard; Reddy, Gautham P; Wilson, Mark W; Kerlan, Robert K; Gordon, Roy L
To determine the short- and long-term improvement in airflow dynamics in patients undergoing tracheobronchial stent placement for benign airway stenoses. Twenty-two patients underwent 34 tracheal and/or bronchial stent placement procedures for benign airway stenoses and had the results of pulmonary function tests available. Stent placement indications included bronchomalacia after lung transplantation (n = 11), postintubation stenoses (n = 6), relapsing polychondritis (n = 2), and 1 each of tracheomalacia, tracheal compression, and histoplasmosis. Six patients underwent more than one stent placement procedure (range: 2-7 procedures). The mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1) ), forced expiratory flow rate in the midportion of the forced vital capacity curve (FEF(25-75) ), forced vital capacity, and peak flow (PF) rate obtained before stent placement were compared with those immediately after stent placement and with those measurements most remote from stent placement using the paired two-tailed test. All patients reported improved respiratory function immediately after stent placement. The mean FEV(1), FEF(25-75), and PF rate improved significantly (p stent placement. On long-term follow-up averaging 15 months after stent placement, these parameters declined despite patients' subjective sense of improvement. Segregating the population into transplant and nontransplant airway stenosis etiologies, however, FEF(25-75) and PF rate remained significantly improved (p = 0.045, p = 0.027, respectively), over the long term for the latter. FEV increased after subsequent stent placements for patients receiving multiple stents. Stent placement for benign tracheobronchial stenoses provides significant immediate improvement in airflow dynamics. Long-term improvement in airflow obstruction may be expected, and additional stent placements may further improve pulmonary function.
Pederzolli, Rae-Leigh A; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Campbell, John; Hendrick, Steve; Wood, Katie M; Penner, Gregory B
The objective of this study was to determine effect of ruminal acidosis (RA) and low feed intake [LFI] on the regional barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty-one Holstein steers were fed for ad libitum intake for 5 d (control [CON]), fed at 25% of ad libitum intake for 5 d (LFI), or provided 2 d of ad libitum intake followed by 1-d of feed restriction (25% of ad libitum intake), 1 d where 30% of ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI) was provided as pelleted barley followed by the full allocation (RA) and fed for ad libitum intake the following day. Tissues and digesta from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, proximal, and distal colon were collected. Permeability was assessed using the mucosal-to-serosal flux of inulin (JMS-inulin) and mannitol (JMS-mannitol). Digesta pH was 0.81, 0.63, and 0.42 pH units less for RA than CON in the rumen, cecum, and proximal colon; while, LFI had pH that was 0.47 and 0.36 pH units greater in the rumen and proximal colon compared to CON. Total ruminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration were less for LFI (92 mM; P = 0.010) and RA (87 mM; P = 0.007) than CON (172 mM) steers. In the proximal colon, the proportion of butyrate (P = 0.025 and P = 0.022) and isobutyrate (P = 0.019 and P = 0.019) were greater, and acetate (P = 0.028 and P = 0.028) was less for LFI and RA, respectively, when compared to CON steers. Ruminal papillae length, width, perimeter, and surface area were 1.21 mm, 0.78 mm, 3.84 mm, and 11.15 mm2 less for LFI than CON; while, RA decreased papillae width by 0.52 mm relative to CON. The JMS-mannitol was less for LFI steers than CON in the proximal colon (P = 0.041) and in the distal colon (P = 0.015). Increased gene expression for claudin 1, occludin, tight-cell junction protein 1 and 2, and toll-like receptor 4 were detected for LFI relative to CON in the rumen, jejunum, and proximal colon. For RA steers, expression of toll-like receptor 4 in the rumen, and occludin and tight
Hinojosa, M. B.; Parra, A.; Laudicina, V. A.; Moreno, J. M.
Fire is a major ecosystem driver, causing significant changes in soil nutrients and microbial community structure and functionality. Post-fire soil dynamics can vary depending on rainfall patterns, although variations in response to drought are poorly known. This is particularly important in areas with poor soils and limited rainfall, like arid and semiarid ones. Furthermore, climate change projections in many such areas anticipate reduced precipitation and longer drought, together with an increase in fire severity. The effects of experimental drought and fire were studied on soils in a Mediterranean Cistus-Erica shrubland in Central Spain. A replicated (n = 4) field experiment was carried out in which four levels of rainfall pattern were implemented by means of a rain-out shelters and irrigation system. The treatments were: environmental control (natural rainfall), historical control (long-term average rainfall, 2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction of historical control, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). After one growing season, the plots were burned with high fire intensity, except a set of unburned plots that served as control. Soils were collected seasonally during one year and variables related to soil nutrient availability and microbial community structure and functionality were studied. Burned soils increased nutrient availability (P, N, K) with respect to unburned ones, but drought reduced such an increase in P, while it further increased N and K. Such changes in available soil nutrients were short-lived. Drought caused a further decrease of enzyme activities, carbon mineralization rate and microbial biomass. Fire decreased the relative abundance of fungi and actinomycetes. However, fire and drought caused a further reduction in fungi, with bacteria becoming relatively more abundant. Arguably, increasing drought and fires due to climate change will likely shift soil recovery after fire.
Volf, Martin; Redmond, Conor; Albert, Ágnes J; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Biella, Paolo; Götzenberger, Lars; Hrázský, Záboj; Janeček, Štěpán; Klimešová, Jitka; Lepš, Jan; Šebelíková, Lenka; Vlasatá, Tereza; de Bello, Francesco
The functional structures of communities respond to environmental changes by both species replacement (turnover) and within-species variation (intraspecific trait variability; ITV). Evidence is lacking on the relative importance of these two components, particularly in response to both short- and long-term environmental disturbance. We hypothesized that such short- and long-term perturbations would induce changes in community functional structure primarily via ITV and turnover, respectively. To test this we applied an experimental design across long-term mown and abandoned meadows, with each plot containing a further level of short-term management treatments: mowing, grazing and abandonment. Within each plot, species composition and trait values [height, shoot biomass, and specific leaf area (SLA)] were recorded on up to five individuals per species. Positive covariations between the contribution of species turnover and ITV occurred for height and shoot biomass in response to both short- and long-term management, indicating that species turnover and intraspecific adjustments selected for similar trait values. Positive covariations also occurred for SLA, but only in response to long-term management. The contributions of turnover and ITV changed depending on both the trait and management trajectory. As expected, communities responded to short-term disturbances mostly through changes in intraspecific trait variability, particularly for height and biomass. Interestingly, for SLA they responded to long-term disturbances by both species turnover and intraspecific adjustments. These findings highlight the importance of both ITV and species turnover in adjusting grassland functional trait response to environmental perturbation, and show that the response is trait specific and affected by disturbance regime history.
Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.
Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both
Lecce, Serena; Bianco, Federica; Devine, Rory T; Hughes, Claire
Studies with preschool children have shown significant links between children's executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM), but few studies have examined these associations in primary school children. To address this gap, we designed a three-wave cross-lagged longitudinal study in which we followed a group of 113 children (61 boys) across three time points from age 9.5-10.5years (mean age at Time 1=112.3months, SD=4.18; mean age at Time 2=118.3months, SD=4.15; mean age at Time 3=124.7months, SD=4.06). At each time point, we measured EF (working memory and inhibitory control), ToM, and language. Our analyses showed (a) moderate rank-order stability of individual differences in both EF and ToM and (b) growth in ToM task performance across time. Cross-lagged longitudinal analyses revealed an asymmetric developmental relation between ToM and working memory. Early working memory predicted later ToM but not vice versa. Our results suggest a specific role for working memory in the ongoing development of ToM in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha
Inclusion of processed amla have been found to enhance the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream by augmenting the fiber content, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity. The present investigation assessed the changes in these constituents, color values (L, a* and b*), melting rate, sensory scores and microbiological quality of ice cream containing amla shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder during 60 days' storage at - 18 to - 20 °C. The total solids increased slightly whereas the antioxidant activity, total phenols, ascorbic acid and tannins decreased on storage. The L values declined whereas a* and b* values amplified, the rate of change being highest in candy containing sample followed by preserve. The first drip time of all the samples increased whereas melting rate decreased. The overall acceptability scores declined non significantly. Standard plate count of all the ice cream samples decreased significantly whereas yeast and molds were not detected throughout the storage. The psychrophiles were not spotted up to 30 days, thereafter, a small increase was observed.
Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.
Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different
Li, Jiao-yuan; Ma, Lu; Liu, Li-zhi; Zhou, Jie; He, Ming-quan; Shima, Masayuki; Tamura, Kenji
To evaluate the effects of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (fine particulate matter, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) on lung function of college students in autumn and winter in Wuhan. In this panel study, 37 college students (excluded subject of respiratory disease and smoking history) aged 19 - 21 were investigated by cluster sampling in a university in Wuhan. The follow-up study lasted for 28 days in total, including two study periods, Oct. 29 to Nov. 11, 2009 (autumn) and Dec. 23, 2009 to Jan.5, 2010 (winter), the peak expiratory flow (PEF) of the college students were measured daily in the morning and evening in the university. PM10 and PM2.5 were monitored indoors and outdoors. The effects of PM on lung function of college students were analyzed by using generalized estimating equation (GEE). Average daily concentrations of indoor, outdoor PM2.5 in autumn were (91.3 ± 43.7) and (104.2 ± 49.4) µg/m(3) respectively, while in winter the concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were (110.6 ± 42.3) and (143.5 ± 51.2) µg/m(3). The single pollutant model showed that in winter, the evening PEF decrement was significantly associated with increasing outdoor PM2.5. With an increase of 10 µg/m(3) outdoor PM2.5, the PEF measured in the evening decreased 1.27 L/min (95%CI: 0.02 - 2.52 L/min, respectively). Meanwhile, the results showed that 2-days lagged outdoor PM2.5 was also significantly associated with morning PEF. An increase of 10 µg/m(3) 2-days lagged outdoor PM2.5 caused the decrease of 1.82 L/min (95%CI: -3.53 - -0.11 L/min) of PEF measured in the morning. Controlling the influence of gaseous pollutants and building the two pollutants models, the results indicated that no significant changes of PEF of students being exposed to PM2.5 on same day (lag 0) were observed. However, under consideration of SO2 effect, significant association between an increase of 10 µg/m(3) 2-days lagged outdoor PM2.5 and changes of morning PEF (-1.81 L
Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Stefania; Siviero, Paola; Maggi, Stefania; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Nuti, Ranuccio
The hypothesis tested in this study, carried out on elderly Italian women with recent hip fracture, was to assess the extent to which the effect of a condition of being overweight/obese on short-term functional recovery as evaluated by the "time to permitted load" could be explained by a mediator variable (type of hip fracture). We studied 727 women aged 60 years or over with a recent low trauma surgically treated hip fracture and for whom an information on post-surgery complications and on the time to permitted load was available. To assess for mediation, the statistical analyses were carried out following the procedure described by Baron and Kenny. In this study, 46 % of women with hip fracture presented a time to permitted load of ≥ 10 days. The women with a post-surgery time to permitted load of ≥ 10 days showed a significantly higher proportion of trochanteric fracture localization (72.1 vs 42 %), of total overweight/obesity (46.5 vs 36.8 %) and of post-surgery complications (38.8 vs 18.8 %). The mediating effect of hip fracture localization on the association between overweight/obesity and the time of permitted load was demonstrated and confirmed in a multivariate logistic regression model. This study, carried out using a "mediator" statistical analysis, suggests that in elderly women with hip fracture being overweight/obese is associated with a slower short-term functional recovery as evaluated by the time to permitted load and that this association is mediated by the trochanteric localization of hip fracture.
Full Text Available Short-term traffic flow prediction is an important part of intelligent transportation systems research and applications. For further improving the accuracy of short-time traffic flow prediction, a novel hybrid prediction model (multivariate phase space reconstruction–combined kernel function-least squares support vector machine based on multivariate phase space reconstruction and combined kernel function-least squares support vector machine is proposed. The C-C method is used to determine the optimal time delay and the optimal embedding dimension of traffic variables’ (flow, speed, and occupancy time series for phase space reconstruction. The G-P method is selected to calculate the correlation dimension of attractor which is an important index for judging chaotic characteristics of the traffic variables’ series. The optimal input form of combined kernel function-least squares support vector machine model is determined by multivariate phase space reconstruction, and the model’s parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, case validation is carried out using the measured data of an expressway in Xiamen, China. The experimental results suggest that the new proposed model yields better predictions compared with similar models (combined kernel function-least squares support vector machine, multivariate phase space reconstruction–generalized kernel function-least squares support vector machine, and phase space reconstruction–combined kernel function-least squares support vector machine, which indicates that the new proposed model exhibits stronger prediction ability and robustness.
Full Text Available The extraction of minerals from land-based mines necessitates the disposal of large amounts of mine tailings. Dumping and storage of tailings into the marine environment, such as fjords, is currently being performed without knowing the potential ecological consequences. This study investigated the effect of short-term exposure to different deposition depths of inert iron ore tailings (0.1, 0.5, and 3 cm and dead subsurface sediment (0.5 and 3 cm on a deep water (200 m fjord benthic assemblage in a microcosm experiment. Biotic and abiotic variables were measured to determine structural and functional changes of the benthic community following an 11 and 16 day exposure with tailings and dead sediment, respectively. Structural changes of macrofauna, meiofauna, and bacteria were measured in terms of biomass, density, community composition and mortality while measures of oxygen penetration depth, sediment community oxygen consumption and 13C-uptake and processing by biota revealed changes in the functioning of the system. Burial with mine tailings and natural sediments modified the structure and functioning of the benthic community albeit in a different way. Mine tailings deposition of 0.1 cm and more resulted in a reduced capacity of the benthic community to remineralize fresh 13C-labeled algal material, as evidenced by the reduced sediment community oxygen consumption and uptake rates in all biological compartments. At 3 cm of tailings deposition, it was evident that nematode mortality was higher inside the tailings layer, likely caused by reduced food availability. In contrast, dead sediment addition led to an increase in oxygen consumption and bacterial carbon uptake comparable to control conditions, thereby leaving deeper sediment layers anoxic and in turn causing nematode mortality at 3 cm deposition. This study clearly shows that even small levels (0.1 cm of instantaneous burial by mine tailings may significantly reduce benthic ecosystem
Li, Hongyu; Wu, Shaowei; Pan, Lu; Xu, Junhui; Shan, Jiao; Yang, Xuan; Dong, Wei; Deng, Furong; Chen, Yahong; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Xinbiao
Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower pulmonary function and higher blood pressure (BP). However, controversy remains regarding the relationship between ambient multiple daily ozone (O 3 ) metrics and cardiopulmonary health outcomes, especially in the developing countries. To investigate and compare the short-term effects of various O 3 metrics on pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and BP in a panel study of COPD patients. We measured pulmonary function, FeNO and BP repeatedly in a total of 43 patients with COPD for 215 home visits. Daily hourly ambient O 3 concentrations were obtained from central-monitoring stations close to subject residences. We calculated various O 3 metrics [daily 1-h maximum (O 3 -1 h max), maximum 8-h average (O 3 -8 h max) and 24-h average (O 3 -24 h avg)] based on the hourly data. Daily indoor O 3 concentrations were estimated based on estimated indoor/outdoor O 3 ratios. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations of various O 3 metrics with cardiopulmonary function variables. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in ambient O 3 -8 h max (80.5 μg/m 3 , 5-d) was associated with a 5.9% (95%CI: -11.0%, -0.7%) reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and a 6.2% (95%CI: -10.9%, -1.5%) reduction in peak expiratory flow (PEF). However, there were no significant negative associations between ambient O 3 -1 h max, O 3 -24 h avg and FEV 1 , PEF. An IQR increase in ambient O 3 -1 h max (85.3 μg/m 3 , 6-d) was associated with a 6.7 mmHg (95%CI: 0.7, 12.7) increase in systolic BP. The estimated indoor O 3 were still significantly associated with reduction of FEV 1 and PEF. No significant associations were found between various O 3 metrics and FeNO. Our results provide clues for the adverse cardiopulmonary effects associated with various O 3 metrics in COPD patients and highlight that O 3 -8 h max was more closely associated with respiratory
Amir H Pakpour
Full Text Available The investigation of short-term changes in female sexual functioning has received little attention so far. The aims of the study were to gain empirical knowledge on within-subject and within- and across-variable fluctuations in women's sexual functioning over time. More specifically, to investigate the stability of women´s self-reported sexual functioning and the moderating effects of contextual and interpersonal factors. A convenience sample of 206 women, recruited across eight Health care Clinics in Rasht, Iran. Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine fluctuations of sexual functioning over a six week period. A shortened version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI was applied to assess sexual functioning. Self-constructed questions were included to assess relationship satisfaction, partner's sexual performance and stress levels. Mixed linear two-level model analyses revealed a link between orgasm and relationship satisfaction (Beta = 0.125, P = 0.074 with this link varying significantly between women. Analyses further revealed a significant negative association between stress and all six domains of women's sexual functioning. Women not only reported differing levels of stress over the course of the assessment period, but further differed from each other in how much stress they experienced and how much this influenced their sexual response. Orgasm and sexual satisfaction were both significantly associated with all other domains of sexual function (P<0.001. And finally, a link between partner performance and all domains of women`s sexual functioning (P<0.001 could be detected. Except for lubrication (P = 0.717, relationship satisfaction had a significant effect on all domains of the sexual response (P<0.001. Overall, our findings support the new group of criteria introduced in the DSM-5, called "associated features" such as partner factors and relationship factors. Consideration of these criteria is important and necessary for
Turusheva, Anna; Frolova, Elena; Hegendoerfer, Eralda; Degryse, Jean-Marie
The classical phenotype, accumulated deficit model and self-report approach of frailty were found not useful in older adults in northwest Russia. More research is needed to identify predictors of adverse outcomes in this population. The aim of this study is to identify predictors of mortality, autonomy and cognitive decline in a population that is characterized by a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate. A population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals 65+. Anthropometry, medical history nutritional status were recorded. An evaluation of cognitive, physical and autonomy function, spirometry, and laboratory tests were performed. The total follow-up was 5 years. Multiple imputation, backward stepwise Cox regression analysis, C-statistic, risk reclassification analysis and the bootstrapping techniques were used to analyze the data. We found that the combination of increasing age, male sex, low physical function, low mid-arm muscle area, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s and anemia was associated with mortality for people 65+. The substitution of anemia with anemia + high level of C-reactive protein (hCRP) and the addition of high brain natriuretic peptide (hBNP) levels improved the classification of older persons at risk for mortality. The combination of low physical function, low mid-arm muscle area, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s, anemia with hCRP levels and hBNP identified older persons at a higher risk for mortality. These predictors may be used for the development of a prediction model to detect older people who are at risk for adverse health outcomes in northwest Russia.
Morelli, Luca; Di Franco, Gregorio; Guadagni, Simone; Rossi, Leonardo; Palmeri, Matteo; Furbetta, Niccolò; Gianardi, Desirée; Bianchini, Matteo; Caprili, Giovanni; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Mosca, Franco; Moglia, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred
Robotic rectal resection with da Vinci Si has some technical limitations, which could be overcome by the new da Vinci Xi. We compare short-term surgical and functional outcomes following robotic rectal resection with total mesorectal excision for cancer, with the da Vinci Xi (Xi-RobTME group) and the da Vinci Si (Si-RobTME group). The first consecutive 30 Xi-RobTME were compared with a Si-RobTME control group of 30 patients, selected using a one-to-one case-matched methodology from our prospectively collected Institutional database, comprising all cases performed between April 2010 and September 2016 by a single surgeon. Perioperative outcomes were compared. The impact of minimally invasive TME on autonomic function and quality of life was analyzed with specific questionnaires. The docking and overall operative time were shorter in the Xi-RobTME group (p 25 kg/m 2 was necessary in ten patients (45 vs. 0%, p da Vinci Xi seem to be mainly associated with a shorter docking and operative time and with superior ability to perform a fully-robotic approach. Clinical and functional outcomes seem not to be improved, with the introduction of the new Xi platform.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is fundamental in achieving positive rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of our study was to investigate post operative pain management in relation to short term functional mobility in an intervention group receiving concomitant use of an IV narcotic PCA and a continuous infusion of local anaesthetic via a femoral nerve catheter (CFNC, compared to a group receiving narcotic PCA alone. This was a preliminary study conducted to establish an appropriate design for a larger investigative study. Methods A prospective design was used to measure the effect of a CFNC on post operative pain management and functional mobility prior to hospital discharge. The amount of fentanyl used, pain and nausea scores, timed up and go (TUG tests and active range of knee movement (AROM were used to compare a CFNC and supplemental narcotic patient controlled analgesia (PCA group (n = 27 with a PCA only group (n = 25. Results The CFNC group used significantly less fentanyl than the PCA only group (p s = .505 p s = .529 p s = .328, p = .034 Conclusions In this small preliminary study improved TUG performance at Day 4 post op was not influenced by the use of a CFNC but was positively correlated with male gender, preoperative performance, time elapsed since last oral analgesia and pain score. However AROM was decreased in the CFNC group suggesting further research on the relationship between CFNCs, local anaesthetic concentration and quadriceps strength should be incorporated in the follow up study's design.
Irwin, David E
The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.
Full Text Available Aim. The galactose single-point (GSP test assesses functioning liver mass by measuring the galactose concentration in the blood 1 hour after its administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hemodialysis (HD on short-term and long-term liver function by use of GSP test. Methods. Seventy-four patients on maintenance HD (46 males and 28 females, 60.38 ± 11.86 years with a mean time on HD of 60.77 ± 48.31 months were studied. The GSP values were compared in two groups: (1 before and after single session HD, and (2 after one year of maintenance HD. Results. Among the 74 HD patient, only the post-HD Cr levels and years on dialysis were significantly correlated with GSP values (r=0.280, P<0.05 and r=-0.240, P<0.05, resp.. 14 of 74 patients were selected for GSP evaluation before and after a single HD session, and the hepatic clearance of galactose was similar (pre-HD 410 ± 254 g/mL, post-HD 439 ± 298 g/mL, P=0.49. GSP values decreased from 420.20 ± 175.26 g/mL to 383.40 ± 153.97 g/mL after 1 year maintenance HD in other 15 patients (mean difference: 19.00 ± 37.66 g/mL, P<0.05. Conclusions. Patients on maintenance HD for several years may experience improvement of their liver function. However, a single HD session does not affect liver function significantly as assessed by the GSP test. Since the metabolism of galactose is dependent on liver blood flow and hepatic functional mass, further studies are needed.
Evaluation the short term effects on serum creatinine concentration in patients with normal renal function, mild and moderate renal insufficiency after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine
Luo Jian; Liu Jing; Wang Xiaoying; Yang Xuedong; Jiang Xuexiang
Objective: To explore the effects of gadopentetate dimeglumine injection on renal function. Methods: The study included 623 consecutive patients. Their serum creatinine concentrations before and within 3 days after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine were analyzed. Their eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were calculated. Patients were divided into two groups according to their injection dose: group received single dose and group received double dose. Patients in each group were subdivided into three subgroups according to their eGFR: subgroup of normal renal function, subgroup of mild renal insufficiency and subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency. Paried sample t test and group design paired sample Rank Sum test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no adverse reaction or occurrence of acute renal insufficiency. The mean level of serum creatinine dropped from (74.0± 17.2) μmol/L to (71.5±19.0) μmol/L (t=5.39, P 0.05) in subgroup of mild renal insufficiency under group received double dose and increased from (118.3±15.3) μmol/L to (135.7±8.5) μmol/L (t=2.02, P<0.05) in subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency under group received double dose, the mean level of serum creatinine dropped in all other subgroups. Conclusions: Single dose gadopentetate dimeglumine is safe for patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate renal insufficiency in short term, but patients with abnormal renal function should be followed up after double dose injection. (authors)
Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative cognitive behavioural program for the treatment of patients with binge eating disorder in the University Psychiatric Center K.U. Leuven Campus Kortenberg in Belgium. The program runs one day a week during 6 months and consists of 24 sessions. The most important therapeutic goals are: (1 normalization of eating habits and stopping the binge eating episodes; (2 promoting physical activity and a positive body experience; (3 learning specific skills such as assertivity, installing a functional self-evaluation system; learning to identify, tolerate and express negative emotions, promoting self-esteem and prevention of relapse. Overall, the goal is to promote both physical and psychological well-being and quality of life. Some preliminary research data on the effectiveness of this program are described. Despite a rather limited weight loss, the number of binges per week decreased significantly, which was the main therapeutic goal of the treatment. Furthermore, the results show some promising improvements on different psychological parameters in BED patients.
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach： Halliday＇s Systemic Functional Grammar （SFG）, Dik＇s Functional Grammar （FG）, and Van Valin＇s Role and Reference Grammar （RRG）. Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks： Langacker＇s Cognitive Grammar （CG）, Goldberg＇s Cognitive Construction Grammar （CCG）, and Croft＇s Radical Construction Grammar （RCG）. Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.
Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.
We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.
Wnuk, Bartosz; Frackiewicz, Joanna; Durmala, Jacek; Czernicki, Krzysztof; Wadolowski, Karol
The aim of the study was to evaluate the positive effects of combination of several physiotherapy methods on the respiratory function on example of a case report. 14 years old girl with an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), right thoracic (primary curve, Cobb angle = 40°, AVR = 12°) and left lumbar (secondary curve, Cobb angle = 33°, AVR = 24°) participated in the study. She was 2 years after menarche. She underwent stationary (in-patient) treatment for 3 weeks with use of standard medical care (DoboMed). Treatment also included manual therapy (OMT Kaltenborn-Evjenth) and Dynamic Brace System (DBC) device, produced by Meditrack. Then she continued exercises at home. Respiratory system function was analyzed with use of SpiroPro electronic spirometer (Jaeger) and the strength of respiratory muscles with use of portable digital pressure meter equipped with the Omega PX 25 ± 35 kPa pressure transducer. Range of movement of the spine was examined with Rippstein V plurimeter, angle of apical trunk rotation (ATR) with the Bunnell scoliometer. Measurement was performed 4 times: before treatment, after one week and 3 weeks after the beginning of the treatment and 3 months after finalization of the treatment period. Examination showed that DoboMed medical care treatment, manual therapy and use of DBC device in period of 3 weeks caused improvement of respiratory parameters (MIP - maximal inspiration pressure by 6.7%; MEP - maximal expiratory pressure by 12.6%, PEF - peak expiratory flow by 16.1%). Spinal range of lateral movement and angle of apical trunk rotation has also improved. In short term treatment, the manual therapy aided with DBC system has improved the respiratory parameters and trunk morphology values. Such a composition of various physiotherapy methods can help to conduct further specialized exercises of DoboMed method.
Imanaka, Kuniyasu; Funase, Kozo; Yamauchi, Masaki
We examined in this review article the behavioural and conceptual models of motor control and short-term memory which have intensively been investigated since the 1970s. First, we reviewed both the dual-storage model of short-term memory in which movement information is stored and a typical model of motor control which emphasizes the importance of efferent factors. We then examined two models of preselection effects: a cognitive model and a cognitive/ efferent model. Following this we reviewe...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hip arthroplasty is a routine operation which relieves pain in patients with osteoarthritis. The role of physical therapy after hip arthroplasty was recognized, but the importance of preoperative physical therapy and education is still to be judged. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term preoperative program of education and physical therapy on patients' early functional recovery immediately after total hip arthroplasty (THA. Methods. This prospective study included 45 patients with hip osteoarthritis scheduled to undergo primary THA and admitted to the Department of Orthopedics of Military Medical Academy. They were randomized into 2 groups: study and control one (with and without preoperative education and physical therapy. Preoperative education was conducted through conversation (1 appointment with physiatrist and brochure. The study group was instructed to perform exercises and basic activities from the postoperative rehabilitation program (2 practical classes with physiotherapist. Effects were measured with questionnaires (Harris, Oxford and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA hip scores, range of motion and visual analog scale of pain. Marks showing ability to perform basic activities and endurance were from 0 (did not perform activity to 5 (independent and secure. Analyses examined differences between the groups over the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods and 15 months after the operation. Results. There were no differences between the groups at discharge according to pain, range of motion, Harris hip score and JOA hip score. Oxford hip score did not differ between the groups 15 months after the operation. The groups started to walk at the same time, but the study group walked up and down stairs (3.7±1.66 vs 5.37±1.46, p ≤ 0.002, used toilet (2.3±0.92 vs 3.2±1.24, p ≤ 0.02 and chair (2.2±1.01 vs 3.25±1.21, p ≤ 0.006 significantly earlier than the control group. On the
Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud
Several authors have hypothesized that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996b). Experiment I replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of DVN on recall of static matrix patterns, despite a significant effect of a concurrent spatial tapping task. Experiment 4 showed no effect of DVN on encoding or maintenance of arrays of matrix patterns, despite testing memory by a recognition procedure to encourage visual rather than spatial processing. Serial position curves showed a one-item recency effect typical of visual short-term memory. Experiment 5 showed no effect of DVN on short-term recognition of Chinese characters, despite effects of visual similarity and a concurrent colour memory task that confirmed visual processing of the characters. We conclude that irrelevant visual noise does not impair visual short-term memory. Visual working memory may not be functionally analogous to verbal working memory, and different cognitive processes may underlie visual short-term memory and visual imagery.
Prochloraz is a fungicide known to cause endocrine disruption through effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To determine the short-term impacts of prochloraz on gene expression and steroid production, adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exp...
Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine
This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Shah, Peter Jivan
A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...
Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M
The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.
Richardson, Fiona M.; Ramsden, Sue; Ellis, Caroline; Burnett, Stephanie; Megnin, Odette; Catmur, Caroline; Schofield, Tom M.; Leff, Alex P.; Price, Cathy J.
A central feature of auditory STM is its item-limited processing capacity. We investigated whether auditory STM capacity correlated with regional gray and white matter in the structural MRI images from 74 healthy adults, 40 of whom had a prior diagnosis of developmental dyslexia whereas 34 had no history of any cognitive impairment. Using…
Daubin, Cédric; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Séguin, Amélie; Gaillard, Cathy; Valette, Xavier; Prévost, Fabrice; Terzi, Nicolas; Ramakers, Michel; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien; Charbonneau, Pierre
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of 3-month mortality in critically ill older persons under medical care and to assess the clinical impact of an ICU stay on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status in survivors. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including all older persons 75 years and older consecutively admitted into ICU during a one-year period, except those admitted after cardiac arrest, All patients were followed for 3 months or until death. Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson index and physical dependence was evaluated using the Katz index of Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Cognitive dependence was determined by a score based on the individual components of the Lawton index of Daily Living and subjective health status was evaluated using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) score. One hundred patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 79.3 ± 3.4 years. The median Charlson index was 6 [IQR, 4 to 7] and the mean ADL and cognitive scores were 5.4 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.4, respectively, corresponding to a population with a high level of comorbidities but low physical and cognitive dependence. Mortality was 61/100 (61%) at 3 months. In multivariate analysis only comorbidities assessed by the Charlson index [Adjusted Odds Ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2; p physical (p = 0.04), and cognitive (p = 0.62) dependence in survivors had changed very little at 3 months. In addition, the mean NHP score was 213.1 ± 132.8 at 3 months, suggesting an acceptable perception of their quality of life. In a selected population of non surgical patients 75 years and older, admission into the ICU is associated with a 3-month survival rate of 38% with little impact on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status. Nevertheless, a high comorbidity level (ie, Charlson index), multi-organ failure, and the need for extra-renal support at the early phase of intensive care could be considered as
4.2%; P=0.025. Conclusions Perioperative short-term rosuvastatin therapy may have a certain protective effect on renal function of ACS patients with DM and concomitant CKD, and reduce the postoperative cardiovascular events. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.07
Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A
Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1mg (low) Harmine and 5mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested on the visible platform task, a water-escape task with the same motor, motivational, and reinforcement components as the other tasks used to evaluate cognition, but differing in its greater simplicity and that the platform was visible above the surface of the water. A subset of the Harmine-high treated animals showed clear motor impairments on all behavioral tasks, and the visible platform task confirmed a lack of competence to perform the procedural components of water maze testing. After excluding animals from the high dose group that could not perform the procedural components of a swim task, it was revealed that both high- and low-dose treatment with Harmine enhanced performance on the latter portion of DMS testing, but had no effect on MM performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of confirming motor and visual competence when studying animal cognition, and verifies the one-day visible platform task as a reliable measure of ability to perform the procedural components necessary for completion of a swim task. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.
Ricker, Timothy J; Hardman, Kyle O
Short-term consolidation is the process by which stable working memory representations are created. This process is fundamental to cognition yet poorly understood. The present work examines short-term consolidation using a Bayesian hierarchical model of visual working memory recall to determine the underlying processes at work. Our results show that consolidation functions largely through changing the proportion of memory items successfully maintained until test. Although there was some evidence that consolidation affects representational precision, this change was modest and could not account for the bulk of the consolidation effect on memory performance. The time course of the consolidation function and selective influence of consolidation on specific serial positions strongly indicates that short-term consolidation induces an attentional blink. The blink leads to deficits in memory for the immediately following item when time pressure is introduced. Temporal distinctiveness accounts of the consolidation process are tested and ruled out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.
Rationale: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding
Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.
RATIONALE: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding
Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis
Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…
Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; De Souza Melo Costa, Fernando; Pantoni, Camila Bianca Falasco; Di Thommazo, Luciana; Luzzi, Sérgio; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is accompanied by severe impairment of cardiac autonomous regulation (CAR). This study aimed to determine whether a short-term physiotherapy exercise protocol post-CABG, during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR), might improve CAR. Seventy-four patients eligible for CABG were recruited and randomised into physiotherapy exercise group (EG) or physiotherapy usual care group (UCG). EG patients underwent a short-term supervised inpatient physiotherapy exercise protocol consisting of an early mobilisation with progressive exercises plus usual care (respiratory exercises). UCG only received respiratory exercises. Forty-seven patients (24 EG and 23 UGC) completed the study. Outcome measures of CAR included linear and non-linear measures of heart rate variability (HRV) assessed before discharge. By hospital discharge, EG presented significantly higher parasympathetic HRV values [rMSSD, high frequency (HF), SD1)], global power (STD RR, SD2), non-linear HRV indexes [detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)alpha1, DFAalpha2, approximate entropy (ApEn)] and mean RR compared to UCG (pexercise protocol during inpatient CR improves CAR at the time of discharge. Thus, exercise-based inpatient CR might be an effective non-pharmacological tool to improve autonomic cardiac tone in patient's post-CABG.
Cvan Trobec, Katja; Kerec Kos, Mojca; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D; Macdougall, Iain C; Ponikowski, Piotr; Lainscak, Mitja
To compare the performance of iohexol plasma clearance and creatinine-based renal function estimating equations in monitoring longitudinal renal function changes in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, and to assess the effects of body composition on the equation performance. Iohexol plasma clearance was measured in 43 CHF patients at baseline and after at least 6 months. Simultaneously, renal function was estimated with five creatinine-based equations (four- and six-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Cockcroft-Gault, Cockcroft-Gault adjusted for lean body mass, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation) and body composition was assessed using bioimpedance and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Over a median follow-up of 7.5 months (range 6-17 months), iohexol clearance significantly declined (52.8 vs 44.4 mL/[min ×1.73 m2], P=0.001). This decline was significantly higher in patients receiving mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists at baseline (mean decline -22% of baseline value vs -3%, P=0.037). Mean serum creatinine concentration did not change significantly during follow-up and no creatinine-based renal function estimating equation was able to detect the significant longitudinal decline of renal function determined by iohexol clearance. After accounting for body composition, the accuracy of the equations improved, but not their ability to detect renal function decline. Renal function measured with iohexol plasma clearance showed relevant decline in CHF patients, particularly in those treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. None of the equations for renal function estimation was able to detect these changes. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01829880.
Cvan Trobec, Katja; Kerec Kos, Mojca; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D.; Macdougall, Iain C.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Lainscak, Mitja
Aim To compare the performance of iohexol plasma clearance and creatinine-based renal function estimating equations in monitoring longitudinal renal function changes in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, and to assess the effects of body composition on the equation performance. Methods Iohexol plasma clearance was measured in 43 CHF patients at baseline and after at least 6 months. Simultaneously, renal function was estimated with five creatinine-based equations (four- and six-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Cockcroft-Gault, Cockcroft-Gault adjusted for lean body mass, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation) and body composition was assessed using bioimpedance and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Over a median follow-up of 7.5 months (range 6-17 months), iohexol clearance significantly declined (52.8 vs 44.4 mL/[min ×1.73 m2], P = 0.001). This decline was significantly higher in patients receiving mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists at baseline (mean decline -22% of baseline value vs -3%, P = 0.037). Mean serum creatinine concentration did not change significantly during follow-up and no creatinine-based renal function estimating equation was able to detect the significant longitudinal decline of renal function determined by iohexol clearance. After accounting for body composition, the accuracy of the equations improved, but not their ability to detect renal function decline. Conclusions Renal function measured with iohexol plasma clearance showed relevant decline in CHF patients, particularly in those treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. None of the equations for renal function estimation was able to detect these changes. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01829880 PMID:26718759
Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert
Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H
Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.
Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru
Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitive functions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects.
Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason
Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.
Reichenbach, Katrin; Bastian, Laura; Rohrbach, Saskia; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea
A growing body of research has focused on executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, results show limited convergence, particularly in preschool age. The current neuropsychological study compared performance of cognitive functions focused on executive components and working memory in preschool children with SLI to typically developing controls. Performance on the measures cognitive flexibility, inhibition, processing speed and phonological short-term memory was assessed. The monolingual, Caucasian study sample consisted of 30 children with SLI (Mage = 63.3 months, SD = 4.3 months) and 30 healthy controls (Mage = 62.2 months, SD = 3.7 months). Groups were matched for age and nonverbal IQ. Socioeconomic status of the participating families was included. Children with SLI had significantly poorer abilities of phonological short-term memory than matched controls. A tendency of poorer abilities in the SLI group was found for inhibition and processing speed. We confirmed phonological short-term memory to be a reliable marker of SLI in preschoolers. Our results do not give definite support for impaired executive function in SLI, possibly owing to limited sensitivity of test instruments in this age group. We argue for a standardization of executive function tests for research use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.
A key question in cognitive psychology is whether information in short-term memory is lost as a function of time. Lewandowsky, Duncan, and Brown (2004) argued against that memory loss because forgetting in serial recall occurred to the same extent across serial positions regardless of the rate of recall. However, we believe Lewandowsky et al. only prevented one of two types of rehearsal; they did not prevent non-articulatory rehearsal via attention. To prevent articulatory and non-articulator...
Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej
Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following
Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan
Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…
Tjeerd V Olde Scheper
Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.
Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.
Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871
Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers.
Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie
Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, KM; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Sivasankaran, S; Sanjay, G; Bijulal, S; Anees, T
Objective: To evaluate the effect of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in children. Background: Limited studies are available on alteration in LV hemodynamics, especially diastolic function, after PDA closure. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive children with isolated PDA treated by trans-catheter closure were studied. The LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography ...
Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Betzel, Richard F; Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; Richiardi, Jonas; Ruge, Hannes
The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions. Practice-related efficiency gains are facilitated by enhanced coupling between the cingulo-opercular network and the dorsal attention network. Simultaneously, short-term task automatization is accompanied by decreasing activation of the fronto-parietal network, indicating a release of high-level cognitive control, and a segregation of the default mode network from task-related networks. These findings suggest that short-term task automatization is enabled by the brain's ability to rapidly reconfigure its large-scale network organization involving complementary integration and segregation processes.
Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto
Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)
Seeley, Karen M.
This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…
Saurabh Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA on left ventricular (LV systolic and diastolic function in children. Background: Limited studies are available on alteration in LV hemodynamics, especially diastolic function, after PDA closure. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive children with isolated PDA treated by trans-catheter closure were studied. The LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by two-dimensional (2D echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging 1 day before the PDA closure, on day 1, and on follow-up. Results: At baseline, none of the patients had LV systolic dysfunction. On day 1 post-PDA closure, 8 (25% children developed LV systolic dysfunction. The baseline LV ejection fraction (LVEF, LV end-systolic dimension (LVESD, and PDA diastolic gradient predicted the post-closure LVEF. Patients who developed post-closure LV systolic dysfunction had poorer LV diastolic function than those who did not. LV diastolic properties improved after PDA closure; however, the improvement in LV diastolic properties lagged behind the improvement in the LV systolic function. All children were asymptomatic and had normal LVEF on follow up of >3 months. Conclusions: Percutaneous closure of PDA is associated with the reversible LV systolic dysfunction. Improvement in the LV diastolic function lags behind that in the LV systolic function.
Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Km; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Sivasankaran, S; Sanjay, G; Bijulal, S; Anees, T
To evaluate the effect of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in children. Limited studies are available on alteration in LV hemodynamics, especially diastolic function, after PDA closure. Thirty-two consecutive children with isolated PDA treated by trans-catheter closure were studied. The LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging 1 day before the PDA closure, on day 1, and on follow-up. At baseline, none of the patients had LV systolic dysfunction. On day 1 post-PDA closure, 8 (25%) children developed LV systolic dysfunction. The baseline LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end-systolic dimension (LVESD), and PDA diastolic gradient predicted the post-closure LVEF. Patients who developed post-closure LV systolic dysfunction had poorer LV diastolic function than those who did not. LV diastolic properties improved after PDA closure; however, the improvement in LV diastolic properties lagged behind the improvement in the LV systolic function. All children were asymptomatic and had normal LVEF on follow up of >3 months. Percutaneous closure of PDA is associated with the reversible LV systolic dysfunction. Improvement in the LV diastolic function lags behind that in the LV systolic function.
Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary
The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three g...
Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary
The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on >500,000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138,098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.
Full Text Available The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task, with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.
Marijnen, CAM; van de Velde, CJH; Putter, H; van den Brink, M; Maas, CP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJ; Wiggers, T; Kranenbarg, EK; Leer, JWH; Stiggelbout, AM
Background Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual
Marijnen, C.A.; Velde, C.J. van de; Putter, H.; Brink, M.; Maas, C.P.; Martijn, H.; Rutten, H.J.; Wiggers, T.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Leer, J.W.H.; Stiggelbout, A.M.
BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual
Garcia-Sanchez, Cristina; Roman Martin, Ana A.; Conde-Sanchez, J. Manuel; Congregado-Ruiz, C. Belen; Osman-Garcia, Ignacio; Medina-Lopez, Rafael A.
Introduction: There is a growing interest in achieving higher survival rates with the lowest morbidity in localized prostate cancer (PC) treatment. Consequently, minimally invasive techniques such as low-dose rate brachytherapy (BT) and robotic-assisted prostatectomy (RALP) have been developed and improved. Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 51BT and 42Da Vinci prostatectomies DV. Materials and Methods: Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 93 patients with low-risk localized PC diagnosed in 2011. 51 patients underwent low-dose rate BT and the other 42 patients RALP. IIEF to assess erectile function, ICIQ to evaluate continence and SF36 test to quality of life wee employed. Results: ICIQ at the first revision shows significant differences which favour the BT group, 79% present with continence or mild incontinence, whereas in the DV group 45% show these positive results. Differences disappear after 6 months, with 45 patients (89%) presenting with continence or mild incontinence in the BT group vs. 30 (71%) in the DV group. 65% of patients are potent in the first revision following BT and 39% following DV. Such differences are not significant and cannot be observed after 6 months. No significant differences were found in the comparative analysis of quality of life. Conclusions: ICIQ after surgery shows significant differences in favour of BT, which disappear after 6 months. Both procedures have a serious impact on erectile function, being even greater in the DV group. Differences between groups disappear after 6 months. (author)
Garcia-Sanchez, Cristina; Roman Martin, Ana A.; Conde-Sanchez, J. Manuel; Congregado-Ruiz, C. Belen; Osman-Garcia, Ignacio; Medina-Lopez, Rafael A. [Virgen del Rocio Universitary Hospital, Seville (Spain)
Introduction: There is a growing interest in achieving higher survival rates with the lowest morbidity in localized prostate cancer (PC) treatment. Consequently, minimally invasive techniques such as low-dose rate brachytherapy (BT) and robotic-assisted prostatectomy (RALP) have been developed and improved. Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 51BT and 42Da Vinci prostatectomies DV. Materials and Methods: Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 93 patients with low-risk localized PC diagnosed in 2011. 51 patients underwent low-dose rate BT and the other 42 patients RALP. IIEF to assess erectile function, ICIQ to evaluate continence and SF36 test to quality of life wee employed. Results: ICIQ at the first revision shows significant differences which favour the BT group, 79% present with continence or mild incontinence, whereas in the DV group 45% show these positive results. Differences disappear after 6 months, with 45 patients (89%) presenting with continence or mild incontinence in the BT group vs. 30 (71%) in the DV group. 65% of patients are potent in the first revision following BT and 39% following DV. Such differences are not significant and cannot be observed after 6 months. No significant differences were found in the comparative analysis of quality of life. Conclusions: ICIQ after surgery shows significant differences in favour of BT, which disappear after 6 months. Both procedures have a serious impact on erectile function, being even greater in the DV group. Differences between groups disappear after 6 months. (author)
Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Vallero, Fulvia; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa
The aim of this study was to evaluate functional recovery in a subgroup of hip fracture patients who sustained a simultaneous fracture at the upper limb, taking into account the site of upper limb injury. Of 760 patients admitted consecutively to the authors' rehabilitation hospital because of a fall-related hip fracture, 700 were retrospectively investigated. Functional outcome was assessed using Barthel Index scores. In 49 of the 700 patients, a single fall resulted in both a hip fracture and a fracture of either wrist (n = 34) or proximal humerus (n = 15). The patients with concomitant shoulder fractures had lower median Barthel Index scores after rehabilitation (70 vs. 90, P = 0.003), lower median Barthel Index effectiveness (57.1 vs. 76.9, P = 0.018), and prolonged median length of stay (42 vs. 36 days, P = 0.011) than did the patients with isolated hip fractures. Significant differences persisted after adjustment for six potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratio for achieving a Barthel Index score lower than 85 was 6.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-26.81; P = 0.007) for the patients with concomitant shoulder fractures. Conversely, no prognostic disadvantages were associated with concomitant wrist fractures. Data show a worse functional recovery and a prolonged length of stay in the subgroup of hip fracture patients who sustained a concomitant fracture at the proximal humerus, but not at the wrist.
Forozeshfard, Mohammad; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Aminianfar, Atefeh; Sheikhian, Sajedeh; Akbarzadeh, Zeinab
Menstrual low back pain (LBP) in young females can reduce daily activity and cause functional disability, while the progressive application of kinesio-taping (KT) on pain reduction and functional correction has been stated. This study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of the lumbar vertebral column KT in young female with menstrual LBP. Thirty-two young females with menstrual LBP participated in this crossover study and were assigned randomly in two separate groups. The first group received KT during their first menstrual cycle and No-KT in their next menstrual, while the other group had no KT during the first mentrual cycle and received KT during the next menstrual cycle. The primary outcome measurements included the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, Oswestry disability index and McGill pain questionnaire score which were planned to collect at the end of the third day of the menstrual cycle. Comparing pain and disability between two conditions, of menstrual cycle with KT and menstrual cycle without KT, revealed significant reduction in VAS (mean change = 1.7; 95%CI = 0.6 to 2.8; P= 0.005), McGill pain score (mean change = 20.1; 95%CI = 8.7 to 31.3; P= 0.001) and functional disability (mean change = 12.3; 95%CI = 7.2 to 17.5; Pkinesiotaping in young females with menstrual LBP.
Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)
The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)
Gibson, Brett; Wasserman, Edward; Luck, Steven J.
Visual short-term memory plays a key role in guiding behavior, and individual differences in visual short-term memory capacity are strongly predictive of higher cognitive abilities. To provide a broader evolutionary context for understanding this memory system, we directly compared the behavior of pigeons and humans on a change detection task. Although pigeons had a lower storage capacity and a higher lapse rate than humans, both species stored multiple items in short-term memory and conforme...
Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise
This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.
Wang-Saegusa, Ana; Cugat, Ramón; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent, chronic, degenerative condition that generates a high expense. Alternative and co-adjuvant therapies to improve the quality of life and physical function of affected patients are currently being sought. A total of 808 patients with knee pathology were treated with PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors), 312 of them with OA of the knee (Outerbridge grades I-IV) and symptoms of >3 months duration met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated to obtain a sample of 261 patients, 109 women and 152 men, with an average age of 48.39. Three intra-articular injections of autologous PRGF were administered at 2-week intervals in outpatient surgery. The process of obtaining PRGF was carried out following the Anitua Technique. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire with personal data and the following assessment instruments: VAS, SF-36, WOMAC Index and Lequesne Index before the first infiltration of PRGF and 6 months after the last infiltration. Statistically significant differences (P PRGF infiltration. At 6 months following intra-articular infiltration of PRGF in patients with OA of the knee, improvements in function and quality of life were documented by OA-specific and general clinical assessment instruments. These favourable findings point to consider PRGF as a therapy for OA.
Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.
Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise
This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776
The report investigates the short-term memory capacity of echo state recurrent neural networks. A quantitative measure MC of short-term memory capacity is introduced. The main result is that MC 5 N for networks with linear Output units and i.i.d. input, where N is network size. Conditions under which these maximal memory capacities are realized are described. Several theoretical and practical examples demonstrate how the short-term memory capacities of echo state networks can be exploited for...
Tang, Xiang; Zhu, Lan; Zhong, Wen; Li, Bin; Lang, Jinghe
To investigate whether patient quality of life and sexual function are improved after the tension-free vaginal tape SECUR (TVT-S) procedure (H-type). Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Single-center hospital. Thirty-three women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (high urethral mobility) and no concomitant pelvic floor prolapse underwent TVT-S between October 2009 and October 2011. TVT-S procedure. Before and after surgery(6 and 12 months), all patients completed the Chinese version of the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL). In addition, 28 sexually active patients who underwent the TVT-S procedure completed the short-form Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12) before and after surgery (6 and 12 months). We used a paired t test to compare I-QOL scores before and after surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the preoperative and postoperative PISQ scores. The objective cure rate was 78% (26 of 33 patients) at 12 months after surgery. The objective improvement rate was 12.1% (4 of 33 patients). The subjective satisfaction rate was 90%. Three operations (9.1%) were considered failures. Two patients underwent a TVT procedure after TVT-S because of recurrence. No patients reported severe pain; the mean (SD) visual analog scale pain score was 1.8 (1.2) after surgery. Only 1 patient (3%) was found to have sling erosion at 12 months postoperatively. The I-QOL score was 28.3 (14.2) before surgery and increased to 69.5 (18.9) at 12 months after the TVT-S procedure. The I-QOL score improved significantly after surgery (p .05). Although the objective cure rate was not high, the TVT-S procedure is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective surgical procedure for treatment of SUI (high urethral mobility) and can improve the quality of life and sexual function in women with SUI. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Śpiewak, M.; Małek, Ł.A.; Petryka, J.; Biernacka, E.K.; Hoffman, P.; Demkow, M.; Miśko, J.; Rużyłło, W.
Aim: To assess changes in ventricular size and function over time in conservatively treated adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and significant pulmonary regurgitation (PR). Materials and methods: Patients with repaired TOF who had undergone more than one cardiac magnetic resonance study were identified. To confine the cause of ventricular size and function deviation to PR, patients with residual ventricular septal defect, more than mild regurgitation at a valve other than the pulmonary valve, and known coronary artery disease were excluded. Results: The final analysis included 27 adults with PR fraction >20%. During a follow-up of mean 2.1 ± 0.8 years, there was no change in right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDV; 162.1 ± 27.6 versus 164 ± 29.6 ml/m 2 , p = 0.5). Left ventricular (LV) EDV showed a small decrease (85.1 ± 16.2 versus 81.5 ± 14.1 ml/m 2 , p = 0.02). The mean PR fraction, PR volume, and peak RV outflow tract gradient did not change. Additionally, both RV ejection fraction (EF) and LVEF remained stable over the follow-up period (48.1 ± 6.5 versus 48.4 ± 6.7%, p = 0.83, and 57.3 ± 5.4 versus 57.2 ± 5.1 %, p = 0.91, respectively). Only two asymptomatic patients (7.4% of the study group) developed symptoms and the remaining did not deteriorate. Conclusion: The RVEDV, RVEF, and LVEF remained stable over a mean follow-up of approximately 2 years in the majority of adult patients after TOF repair with significant PR and a wide range of RVEDV
Full Text Available Chronic face pain syndrome is a diagnostic and therapeutic problem for many specialists, and this proves the interdisciplinary and complex nature of this ailment. Physiotherapy is of particular importance in the treatment of pain syndrome in the course of temporomandibular joint functional disorders. In patients with long-term dysfunction of masticatory muscles, the palpation examination can localize trigger points, that is, thickening in the form of nodules in the size of rice grains or peas. Latent trigger points located in the muscles can interfere with muscular movement patterns, cause cramps, and reduce muscle strength. Because hidden trigger points can spontaneously activate, they should be found and released to prevent further escalation of the discomfort. Kinesiotaping (KT is considered as an intervention that can be used to release latent myofascial trigger points. It is a method that involves applying specific tapes to the patient’s skin in order to take advantage of the natural self-healing processes of the body. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the kinesiotaping method and trigger points inactivation on the nonpharmacological elimination of pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders. The study was conducted in 60 patients (18 to 35 years old. The subjects were randomly divided into two subgroups of 30 people each. Group KT (15 women and 15 men were subjected to active kinesiotaping application. Group TrP, composed of 16 women and 14 men, was subjected to physiotherapy with the release of trigger points by the ischemic compression method. The results show that the KT method and TrP inactivation brought significant therapeutic analgesic effects in the course of pain-related functional disorders of the muscles of mastication. The more beneficial outcomes of the therapy were observed after using the KT method, which increased the analgesic effect in dysfunctional patients.
Full Text Available The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems – ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally – that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes.
Macken, Bill; Taylor, John; Jones, Dylan
The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems - ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally - that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes.
Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy Versus Radical Nephrectomy for Clinical T1 Renal Hilar Tumor: Comparison of Perioperative Characteristics and Short-Term Functional and Oncologic Outcomes.
Yang, Chuance; Wang, Zhenlong; Huang, Shanlong; Xue, Li; Fu, Delai; Chong, Tie
To present our single-center experience with retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) for T1 renal hilar tumors and evaluate which one is better. A retrospective review of 63 patients with hilar tumors undergoing retroperitoneal LPN or LRN was performed. The perioperative characteristics, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline to month 3, and oncologic outcomes were summarized. In total, 25 patients underwent LPN, and 38 patients underwent LRN. The mean tumor size in the LPN and LRN groups was 4.5 and 4.9 cm, respectively. The mean operation time was longer in the LPN group than that in the LRN group (212.5 minutes versus 160.7 minutes, respectively; P .05). In experienced hands, although retroperitoneal LRN can result in shorter operation times and shorter lengths of stay, retroperitoneal LPN can preserve renal function better than LRN. Retroperitoneal LPN should be the priority in selected patients with T1 renal hilar tumors, especially for patients with renal insufficiency.
Estigoni, Eduardo H.; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M.; Davis, Glen M.
This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery. PMID:25479324
Full Text Available Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the nonword-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.
Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.
Sauseng, Paul; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Heise, Kirstin F; Gruber, Walter R; Holz, Elisa; Karim, Ahmed A; Glennon, Mark; Gerloff, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Hummel, Friedhelm C
The amount of information that can be stored in visual short-term memory is strictly limited to about four items. Therefore, memory capacity relies not only on the successful retention of relevant information but also on efficient suppression of distracting information, visual attention, and executive functions. However, completely separable neural signatures for these memory capacity-limiting factors remain to be identified. Because of its functional diversity, oscillatory brain activity may offer a utile solution. In the present study, we show that capacity-determining mechanisms, namely retention of relevant information and suppression of distracting information, are based on neural substrates independent of each other: the successful maintenance of relevant material in short-term memory is associated with cross-frequency phase synchronization between theta (rhythmical neural activity around 5 Hz) and gamma (> 50 Hz) oscillations at posterior parietal recording sites. On the other hand, electroencephalographic alpha activity (around 10 Hz) predicts memory capacity based on efficient suppression of irrelevant information in short-term memory. Moreover, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at alpha frequency can modulate short-term memory capacity by influencing the ability to suppress distracting information. Taken together, the current study provides evidence for a double dissociation of brain oscillatory correlates of visual short-term memory capacity.
Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group
Etindele Sosso, Faustin Armel
Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning. The findings also suggested the interplay between primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. The properties inside a visual target shape the perception and affect the basic encoding. Using visual cortex, it may be possible to train the memory and improve the recovery of people with cognitive disabilities or memory deficit.
Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y
Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.
Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin
Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...
Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul
We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.
As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation
Colas, Damien; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Garner, Craig C; Heller, H Craig
Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABA A receptor (GABA A R) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABA A R antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval. Long-term memory was assessed by the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) testing in Ts65Dn mice after acute or short-term chronic treatment with FLUM. Short-term, low, chronic dose regimens of FLUM elicit long-lasting (>1week) normalization of cognitive function in both young and aged mice. FLUM at low dosages produces long lasting cognitive improvements and has the potential of fulfilling an unmet therapeutic need in DS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin
Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.
There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...
Masley, Steven C; Roetzheim, Richard; Clayton, Gwendolyn; Presby, Angela; Sundberg, Kelley; Masley, Lucas V
Rates of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are increasing rapidly. None of the current treatment regimens for Alzheimer's disease are effective in arresting progression. Lifestyle choices may prevent cognitive decline. This study aims to clarify which factors best predict cognitive function. This was a prospective cross-sectional analysis of 799 men and women undergoing health and cognitive testing every 1 to 3 years at an outpatient center. This study utilizes data collected from the first patient visit. Participant ages were 18 to 88 (mean = 50.7) years and the sample was 26.6% female and 73.4% male. Measurements were made of body composition, fasting laboratory and anthropometric measures, strength and aerobic fitness, nutrient and dietary intake, and carotid intimal media thickness (IMT). Each participant was tested with a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in bivariate analyses using t-tests and correlation coefficients and in multivariable analysis (controlling for age) using multiple linear regression. The initial bivariate analyses showed better Neurocognitive Index (NCI) scores with lower age, greater fitness scores (push-up strength, VO 2 max, and exercise duration during treadmill testing), and lower fasting glucose levels. Better cognitive flexibility scores were also noted with younger age, lower systolic blood pressure, lower body fat, lower carotid IMT scores, greater fitness, and higher alcohol intake. After controlling for age, factors that remained associated with better NCI scores include no tobacco use, lower fasting glucose levels, and better fitness (aerobic and strength). Higher cognitive flexibility scores remained associated with greater aerobic and strength fitness, lower body fat, and higher intake of alcohol. Modifiable biomarkers that impact cognitive performance favorably include greater aerobic fitness and strength, lower blood sugar levels, greater alcohol intake, lower body
Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G
It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes . Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicators - heart rate at rest and after 20 squats, lung capacity, breath-hold inspiration and expiration. Physical development factor was calculated by taking into account actual and average population indices. Results . Found that the volume of short-term visual memory, the boys and girls high school age does not depend on the level of their physical development. Despite the fact that the trend towards higher performance memory in groups of persons with a high level of physical development compared to their same age with medium and low levels, significant differences between the mean values for the most part have been identified. No significant differences between the values of the investigated cognitive function in groups by sex. Conclusions . Growth pattern memory with age in this period of ontogenesis preserved that coincides with the data presented in the scientific works of scientists.
Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Duan, Haiping
BACKGROUND: the genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive function in the old people have been well addressed for the Western populations using twin modelling showing moderate to high heritability. No similar study has been conducted in the world largest and rapidly ageing Chinese...... population living under distinct environmental condition as the Western populations. OBJECTIVE: this study aims to explore the genetic and environmental impact on normal cognitive ageing in the Chinese twins. DESIGN/SETTING: cognitive function was measured on 384 complete twin pairs with median age of 50...... years for seven cognitive measurements including visuospatial, linguistic skills, naming, memory, attention, abstraction and orientation abilities. Data were analysed by fitting univariate and bivariate twin models to estimate the genetic and environmental components in the variance and co...
Sørensen, Thomas Alrik
Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...
In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term "working memory") that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1.
Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Neudecker, J; Müller, J M
Colorectal resections are common surgical procedures all over the world. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is technically feasible in a considerable amount of patients under elective conditions. Several short-term benefits of the laparoscopic approach to colorectal resection (less pain, less morbidity, improved reconvalescence and better quality of life) have been proposed. This review compares laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection with regards to possible benefits of the laparoscopic method in the short-term postoperative period (up to 3 months post surgery). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1991 to 2004. We also handsearched the following journals from 1991 to 2004: British Journal of Surgery, Archives of Surgery, Annals of Surgery, Surgery, World Journal of Surgery, Disease of Colon and Rectum, Surgical Endoscopy, International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, Der Chirurg, Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Aktuelle Chirurgie/Viszeralchirurgie. Handsearch of abstracts from the following society meetings from 1991 to 2004: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons, Royal Society of Surgeons, British Assocation of Coloproctology, Surgical Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Asian Society of Endoscopic Surgeons. All randomised-controlled trial were included regardless of the language of publication. No- or pseudorandomised trials as well as studies that followed patient's preferences towards one of the two interventions were excluded, but listed separately. RCT presented as only an abstract were excluded. Results were extracted from papers by three observers independently on a predefined data sheet. Disagreements were solved by discussion. 'REVMAN 4.2' was used for statistical analysis. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals) were used for analysing continuous variables. If
Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.
Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P
A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.
Quantification of pancreatic exocrine function with secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: normal values and short-term effects of pancreatic duct drainage procedures in chronic pancreatitis. Initial results
Bali, M.A.; Sztantics, A.; Metens, T.; Matos, C.; Arvanitakis, M.; Delhaye, M.; Deviere, J.
The aim of this study was to quantify pancreatic exocrine function in normal subjects and in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) before and after pancreatic duct drainage procedures (PDDP) with dynamic secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP). Pancreatic exocrine secretions [quantified by pancreatic flow output (PFO) and total excreted volume (TEV)] were quantified twice in ten healthy volunteers and before and after treatment in 20 CP patients (18 classified as severe, one as moderate, and one as mild according to the Cambridge classification). PFO and TEV were derived from a linear regression between MR-calculated volumes and time. In all subjects, pancreatic exocrine fluid volume initially increased linearly with time during secretin stimulation. In controls, the mean PFO and TEV were 6.8 ml/min and 97 ml; intra-individual deviations were 0.8 ml/min and 16 ml. In 10/20 patients with impaired exocrine secretions before treatment, a significant increase of PFO and TEV was observed after treatment (P<0.05); 3/20 patients presented post-procedural acute pancreatitis and a reduced PFO. The S-MRCP quantification method used in the present study is reproducible and provides normal values for PFO and TEV in the range of those obtained from previous published intubation studies. The initial results in CP patients have demonstrated non-invasively a significant short-term improvement of PFO and TEV after PDDP. (orig.)
Linke, Annika C; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Cusack, Rhodri
Philosophers and scientists have puzzled for millennia over how perceptual information is stored in short-term memory. Some have suggested that early sensory representations are involved, but their precise role has remained unclear. The current study asks whether auditory cortex shows sustained frequency-specific activation while sounds are maintained in short-term memory using high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI). Investigating short-term memory representations within regions of human auditory cortex with fMRI has been difficult because of their small size and high anatomical variability between subjects. However, we overcame these constraints by using multivoxel pattern analysis. It clearly revealed frequency-specific activity during the encoding phase of a change detection task, and the degree of this frequency-specific activation was positively related to performance in the task. Although the sounds had to be maintained in memory, activity in auditory cortex was significantly suppressed. Strikingly, patterns of activity in this maintenance period correlated negatively with the patterns evoked by the same frequencies during encoding. Furthermore, individuals who used a rehearsal strategy to remember the sounds showed reduced frequency-specific suppression during the maintenance period. Although negative activations are often disregarded in fMRI research, our findings imply that decreases in blood oxygenation level-dependent response carry important stimulus-specific information and can be related to cognitive processes. We hypothesize that, during auditory change detection, frequency-specific suppression protects short-term memory representations from being overwritten by inhibiting the encoding of interfering sounds.
Arenkiel, Benjamin R
Adult neurogenesis has captivated neuroscientists for decades, with hopes that understanding the programs underlying this phenomenon may provide unique insight toward avenues for brain repair. Interestingly, however, despite intense molecular and cellular investigation, the evolutionary roles and biological functions for ongoing neurogenesis have remained elusive. Here I review recent work published in the Journal of Neuroscience that reveals a functional role for continued neurogenesis toward forming short-term olfactory memories.
Wouters, H.; Hilmer, S.; Gnjidic, D.; Van Campen, J.; Teichert, M.; Van Der Meer, H.; Schaap, L.; Huisman, M.; Denig, P.; Lamoth, C.; Taxis, K.
Introduction: Anticholinergic and sedative drugs from various therapeutic classes are frequently prescribed to older people. These drugs are known to impair cognitive and physical function in the short-term. However, long-term exposure to these drugs remains less examined. Methods: Data from the
Dhabhar, Firdaus S
Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production. Short-term stress may also enhance mental/cognitive and physical performance through effects on brain, musculo-skeletal, and cardiovascular function, reappraisal of threat/anxiety, and training-induced stress-optimization. Therefore, short-term stress psychology/physiology could be harnessed to enhance immuno-protection, as well as mental and physical performance. This review aims to provide a conceptual framework and targets for further investigation of mechanisms and conditions under which the protective/adaptive aspects of short-term stress/exercise can be optimized/harnessed, and for developing pharmacological/biobehavioral interventions to enhance health/healing, and mental/cognitive/physical performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo
In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC, 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis, cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery and cognitive function (for all items (P<0.05. Compared to OHC, CHD patients had lower [Formula: see text] peak, CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (during recovery and short term-working memory, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (P<0.05. [Formula: see text] peak and CI max were related to exercise cerebral oxygenation-perfusion and cognitive function (P<0.005. Cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (exercise was related to cognitive function (P<0.005. Stable CHD patients have a worse cognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.
The extension of deep learning towards temporal data processing is gaining an increasing research interest. In this paper we investigate the properties of state dynamics developed in successive levels of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in terms of short-term memory abilities. Our results reveal interesting insights that shed light on the nature of layering as a factor of RNN design. Noticeably, higher layers in a hierarchically organized RNN architecture results to be inherently biased ...
Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda
The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)
Morris, R.J.T.; Wong, W.S.
Neural network memories with storage prescriptions based on Hebb's rule are known to collapse as more words are stored. By requiring that the most recently stored word be remembered precisely, a new simple short-term neutral network memory is obtained and its steady state capacity analyzed and simulated. Comparisons are drawn with Hopfield's method, the delta method of Widrow and Hoff, and the revised marginalist model of Mezard, Nadal, and Toulouse.
Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi
The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…
Barnes, Jill N.
Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…
Sinke, Christopher; Forkmann, Katarina; Schmidt, Katharina; Wiech, Katja; Bingel, Ulrike
Over the recent years, neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the influence of expectations on perception. However, it seems equally reasonable to assume that expectations impact cognitive functions. Here we used fMRI to explore the role of expectations on task performance and its underlying neural mechanisms. 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Using verbal instructions, group 1 was led to believe that pain enhances task performance while group 2 was instructed that pain hampers their performance. All participants performed a Rapid-Serial-Visual-Presentation (RSVP) Task (target detection and short-term memory component) with or without concomitant painful heat stimulation during 3T fMRI scanning. As hypothesized, short-term memory performance showed an interaction between painful stimulation and expectation. Positive expectations induced stronger neural activation in the right inferior parietal cortex (IPC) during painful stimulation than negative expectation. Moreover, IPC displayed differential functional coupling with the left inferior occipital cortex under pain as a function of expectancy. Our data show that an individual's expectation can influence cognitive performance in a visual short-term memory task which is associated with activity and connectivity changes in brain areas implicated in attentional processing and task performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Latruffe, Laure; LETORT, Elodie
The paper investigates short-term marginal costs in French agriculture for field cropping, beef cattle, and dairy farms during the period 1995-2006. The multi-input multi-output Symmetric Generalised MacFadden cost function is used, with three variable inputs (crop-specific, animal-specific, energy costs), four outputs and three quasi-fixed inputs. Results indicate that marginal costs are on average lower for crop farms than for livestock samples. However, for crop farms, Common Agricultural ...
Hirel, Catherine; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Lévêque, Yohana; Hannoun, Salem; Fornoni, Lesly; Daligault, Sébastien; Bouchet, Patrick; Jung, Julien; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks. All participants then performed verbal and musical auditory short-term memory (STM) tasks that were implemented in the same way for both materials. Participants had to indicate whether series of four words or four tones presented in pairs, were the same or different. To detect domain-general STM deficits, they also had to perform a visual STM task. Behavioral results showed that patients had lower performance for the STM tasks in comparison with control participants, regardless of the material (words, tones, visual) and the lesion side. The individual patient data showed a double dissociation between some patients exhibiting verbal deficits without musical deficits or the reverse. Exploratory VLSM analyses suggested that dorsal pathways are involved in verbal (phonetic), musical (melodic), and visual STM, while the ventral auditory pathway is involved in musical STM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The theoretical concepts short-term memory (STM and working memory (WM have been used to refer to the maintenance and the maintenance plus manipulation of memory, respectively. Although they are conceptually different, the use of the terms STM and WM in literature is not always strict. Short-term memory and WM are different theoretical concepts that are assumed to reflect different cognitive functions. However, correlational studies have not been able to separate both constructs consistently and there is evidence for a large or even complete overlap. The emerging view from neurobiological studies is partly different, although there are conceptual problems troubling the interpretation of findings. In this regard, there is a crucial role for the tasks that are used to measure STM or WM (simple and complex span tasks, respectively and for the cognitive load reflected by factors like attention and processing speed that may covary between and within these tasks. These conceptual issues are discussed based on several abstract models for the relation between STM and WM.
The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.
Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)
The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Services Directive and the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive. Because the underlying data become available only after some time, the savings figures are not always timely available. This is especially true for the ODEX efficiency indices per sector that rely on a number of indicators. Therefore, there is a need for so-called short-term indicators that become available shortly after the year has passed for which data are needed. The short term indicators do not replace the savings indicators but function as a proxy for the savings in the most recent year. This proxy value is faster available, but will be less accurate than the saving indicators themselves. The short term indicators have to be checked regularly with the ODEX indicators in order to see whether they can function still as a proxy.
Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.
Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill
Traditional accounts of verbal short-term memory explain differences in performance for different types of verbal material by reference to inherent characteristics of the verbal items making up memory sequences. The role of previous experience with sequences of different types is ostensibly controlled for either by deliberate exclusion or by presenting multiple trials constructed from different random permutations. We cast doubt on this general approach in a detailed analysis of the basis for the robust finding that short-term memory for digit sequences is superior to that for other sequences of verbal material. Specifically, we show across four experiments that this advantage is not due to inherent characteristics of digits as verbal items, nor are individual digits within sequences better remembered than other types of individual verbal items. Rather, the advantage for digit sequences stems from the increased frequency, compared to other verbal material, with which digits appear in random sequences in natural language, and furthermore, relatively frequent digit sequences support better short-term serial recall than less frequent ones. We also provide corpus-based computational support for the argument that performance in a short-term memory setting is a function of basic associative learning processes operating on the linguistic experience of the rememberer. The experimental and computational results raise questions not only about the role played by measurement of digit span in cognition generally, but also about the way in which long-term memory processes impact on short-term memory functioning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Landberg, L; Joensen, A; Giebel, G [and others
This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.
Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan
Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galatti, Laura; Polimeni, Giovanni; Salvo, Francesco; Romani, Marcello; Sessa, Aurelio; Spina, Edoardo
Memory loss and cognitive impairment have been reported in the literature in association with several 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), but we found no published case reports associated with rosuvastatin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rosuvastatin-related short-term memory loss. A 53-year-old Caucasian man with hypercholesterolemia experienced memory loss after being treated with rosuvastatin 10 mg/day. He had no other concomitant conditions or drug therapies. After discontinuation of rosuvastatin, the neuropsychiatric adverse reaction resolved gradually, suggesting a probable drug association. During the following year, the patient remained free from neuropsychiatric disturbances. Clinicians should be aware of possible adverse cognitive reactions during statin therapy, including rosuvastatin.
Doesburg, Sam M; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Moiseev, Alexander; Whitfield, Michael F; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E
Children born very preterm, even when intelligence is broadly normal, often experience selective difficulties in executive function and visual-spatial processing. Development of structural cortical connectivity is known to be altered in this group, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence indicates that very preterm children recruit different patterns of functional connectivity between cortical regions during cognition. Synchronization of neural oscillations across brain areas has been proposed as a mechanism for dynamically assigning functional coupling to support perceptual and cognitive processing, but little is known about what role oscillatory synchronization may play in the altered neurocognitive development of very preterm children. To investigate this, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) activity while 7-8 year old children born very preterm and age-matched full-term controls performed a visual short-term memory task. Very preterm children exhibited reduced long-range synchronization in the alpha-band during visual short-term memory retention, indicating that cortical alpha rhythms may play a critical role in altered patterns functional connectivity expressed by this population during cognitive and perceptual processing. Long-range alpha-band synchronization was also correlated with task performance and visual-perceptual ability within the very preterm group, indicating that altered alpha oscillatory mechanisms mediating transient functional integration between cortical regions may be relevant to selective problems in neurocognitive development in this vulnerable population at school age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.
Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.
Carter, R Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L; Burden, Matthew J; Armony-Sivan, Rinat; Dodge, Neil C; Angelilli, Mary Lu; Lozoff, Betsy; Jacobson, Sandra W
This study examined effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on specific domains of infant cognitive function and the role of IDA-related socioemotional deficits in mediating and/or moderating these effects. Infants were recruited during routine 9-month visits to an inner-city clinic. IDA was defined as hemoglobin level or =2 abnormal iron deficiency indicators (mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, zinc protoporphyrin, transferrin saturation, and ferritin). At 9 and 12 months, the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII); A-not-B task; Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability Temperament Survey; and Behavior Rating Scale were administered. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, including age and sociodemographic variables. Twenty-eight infants met criteria for IDA, 28 had nonanemic iron deficiency (NA ID) and 21 had iron sufficiency (IS). There was a linear effect for object permanence at 9 months: infants with IDA were least likely to exhibit object permanence, IS most likely, and NA ID intermediate. Infants with IDA and those with hemoglobin level object permanence and short-term memory encoding and/or retrieval in infants with IDA at 9 months. These cognitive effects were attributable, in part, to IDA-related deficits in socioemotional function. Children with poor socioemotional performance seem to be more vulnerable to the effects of IDA on cognitive function.
Singh, Yogesh; Singh, Jayvardhan; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana
The EEG is considered as building block of functional signaling in the brain. The role of EEG oscillations in human information processing has been intensively investigated. To study the quantitative EEG correlates of short term memory load as assessed through Sternberg memory test. The study was conducted on 34 healthy male student volunteers. The intervention consisted of Sternberg memory test, which runs on a version of the Sternberg memory scanning paradigm software on a computer. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 19 scalp locations according to 10-20 international system of electrode placement. EEG signals were analyzed offline. To overcome the problems of fixed band system, individual alpha frequency (IAF) based frequency band selection method was adopted. The outcome measures were FFT transformed absolute powers in the six bands at 19 electrode positions. Sternberg memory test served as model of short term memory load. Correlation analysis of EEG during memory task was reflected as decreased absolute power in Upper alpha band in nearly all the electrode positions; increased power in Theta band at Fronto-Temporal region and Lower 1 alpha band at Fronto-Central region. Lower 2 alpha, Beta and Gamma band power remained unchanged. Short term memory load has distinct electroencephalographic correlates resembling the mentally stressed state. This is evident from decreased power in Upper alpha band (corresponding to Alpha band of traditional EEG system) which is representative band of relaxed mental state. Fronto-temporal Theta power changes may reflect the encoding and execution of memory task.
This paper explores a variety of different versions of the thesis that natural language is involved in human thinking. It distinguishes amongst strong and weak forms of this thesis, dismissing some as implausibly strong and others as uninterestingly weak. Strong forms dismissed include the view that language is conceptually necessary for thought (endorsed by many philosophers) and the view that language is de facto the medium of all human conceptual thinking (endorsed by many philosophers and social scientists). Weak forms include the view that language is necessary for the acquisition of many human concepts and the view that language can serve to scaffold human thought processes. The paper also discusses the thesis that language may be the medium of conscious propositional thinking, but argues that this cannot be its most fundamental cognitive role. The idea is then proposed that natural language is the medium for nondomain-specific thinking, serving to integrate the outputs of a variety of domain-specific conceptual faculties (or central-cognitive "quasimodules"). Recent experimental evidence in support of this idea is reviewed and the implications of the idea are discussed, especially for our conception of the architecture of human cognition. Finally, some further kinds of evidence which might serve to corroborate or refute the hypothesis are mentioned. The overall goal of the paper is to review a wide variety of accounts of the cognitive function of natural language, integrating a number of different kinds of evidence and theoretical consideration in order to propose and elaborate the most plausible candidate.
Ward, Anthony R; Alarcón, Gabriela; Nigg, Joel T; Musser, Erica D
Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairment in working memory and short-term memory, up to half of individual children with ADHD perform within a normative range. Heterogeneity in other ADHD-related mechanisms, which may compensate for or combine with cognitive weaknesses, is a likely explanation. One candidate is the robustness of parasympathetic regulation (as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Theory and data suggest that a common neural network is likely tied to both heart-rate regulation and certain cognitive functions (including aspects of working and short-term memory). Cardiac-derived indices of parasympathetic reactivity were collected during short-term memory (STM) storage and rehearsal tasks from 243 children (116 ADHD, 127 controls). ADHD was associated with lower STM performance, replicating previous work. In addition, RSA reactivity moderated the association between STM and ADHD - both as a category and a dimension - independent of comorbidity. Specifically, conditional effects revealed that high levels of withdrawal interacted with weakened STM but high levels of augmentation moderated a positive association predicting ADHD. Thus, variations in parasympathetic reactivity may help explain neuropsychological heterogeneity in ADHD.
Dima, Danai; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E; Frangou, Sophia
Individual differences in cognitive efficiency, particularly in relation to working memory (WM), have been associated both with personality dimensions that reflect enduring regularities in brain configuration, and with short-term neural plasticity, that reflects task-related changes in brain connectivity. To elucidate the relationship of these two divergent mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that personality dimensions, which reflect enduring aspects of brain configuration, inform about the neurobiological framework within which short-term, task-related plasticity, as measured by effective connectivity, can be facilitated or constrained. As WM consistently engages the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), parietal (PAR), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), we specified a WM network model with bidirectional, ipsilateral, and contralateral connections between these regions from a functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset obtained from 40 healthy adults while performing the 3-back WM task. Task-related effective connectivity changes within this network were estimated using Dynamic Causal Modelling. Personality was evaluated along the major dimensions of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Only two dimensions were relevant to task-dependent effective connectivity. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness respectively constrained and facilitated neuroplastic responses within the WM network. These results suggest individual differences in cognitive efficiency arise from the interplay between enduring and short-term plasticity in brain configuration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: Associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles
Renner, F.; van Goor, M.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Arntz, A.; Butz, B.; Bernstein, D.
The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the
Oraby, Azza M; Raouf, Ehab R Abdol; El-Saied, Mostafa M; Abou-Khadra, Maha K; Helal, Suzette I; Hashish, Adel F
We conducted the present study to examine cognitive function and serum heat shock protein 70 levels among children with temporal lobe epilepsy. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test was carried out to examine cognitive function in 30 children with temporal lobe epilepsy and 30 controls. Serum heat shock protein 70 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The epilepsy group had significantly lower cognitive function testing scores and significantly higher serum heat shock protein 70 levels than the control group; there were significant negative correlations between serum heat shock protein 70 levels and short-term memory and composite scores. Children with uncontrolled seizures had significantly lower verbal reasoning scores and significantly higher serum heat shock protein 70 levels than children with controlled seizures. Children with temporal lobe epilepsy have cognitive dysfunction and elevated levels of serum heat shock protein 70, which may be considered a stress biomarker.
Mueller, U.; Waechter, T.; Barthel, H.; Reuter, M.; Cramon, D.Y. von
Twenty non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [ 123 I]β-CIT to further investigate the contribution of nigrostriatal dysfunction to cognitive and motor deficits. Compared to matched controls PD patients showed normal verbal intelligence, short-term memory and phasic alertness. There were significant (p 123 I]β-CIT SPECT. These results support the view that the striatum is part of a neuronal network that is mediating prefrontal cognitive functions. (author)
Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi
Full Text Available We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n=9 and nonfasting (n=8 groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan. Digit span test (DST and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p<0.05. Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p<0.05. Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p<0.05. Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p<0.05. The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes.
Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.
The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies...... that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...
Frees, E W
A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt
The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.
Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan
The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour. The TBAG form of the Stroop task was administered to all participants twice, before playing and immediately after playing the game. Participants with improved posttest scores, compared to their pretest scores, used the computer on average 0.67 +/- 1.1 hr/day, while the average administered was measured at 1.6 +/- 1.4 hr/day and 1.3 +/- 0.9 hr/day computer use for participants with worse or unaltered scores, respectively. According to the regression model, male gender, younger ages, duration of daily computer use, and ADHD inattention type were found to be independent risk factors for worsened posttest scores. Time spent playing computer games can exert a short-term effect on attention as measured by the Stroop test.
Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch
Often, the contents of consciousness are equated with the contents of short-term memory (or working memory), sometimes to a point where they are treated as identical entities. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether they may be modulated independently and thus dissociated from each...... if conscious content simply can be reduced to a cognitive process like short-term memory. In two experiments, we combined two different measures of short-term memory capacity to investigate how manipulations of set-size affect performance in observers with the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS) to measure...... conscious experience of the stimulus in every trial (Ramsøy & Overgaard, 2004; Overgaard & Sørensen, 2004). We trained observers to report their experience of a visual target stimulus on the four-point PAS scale; ranging from “no experience” to “clear experience”. To measure short-term memory we used...
Leong, In-Tyng; Moghadam, Sedigheh; Hashim, Hairul A
Regular aerobic exercise and milk consumption have been found to have positive effects on certain cognitive functions such as short-term memory and sustained attention. However, aggregated effects of combining these modalities have not been explored. This study examined the combined effects of milk supplementation and aerobic exercise on the short-term memory and sustained attention of female students aged 16 yr. (N = 81). The intervention involved serving of 250 ml of regular milk during school days and/or a 1-hr. aerobic exercise period twice per week for 6 weeks. The Digit Span Test and Digit Vigilance Test were used to measure short-term memory and sustained attention, respectively. The combination group (milk and exercise) and exercise group performed significantly better than did the milk and control groups in terms of short-term memory. No significant interaction or group differences were found for sustained attention. The results suggest benefits of regular exercise for students' short-term memory.
Full Text Available Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2 is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic- memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate and speech tempo. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech and sequence learning.
Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance......, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and distracter set size in IPS could not be accounted for by a simple explanation in terms of number of items accessing VSTM. Instead, it led us to a model where items accessing VSTM receive differential...
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro
We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10 −26 ∼10 −27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.
Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.
Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…
Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M
A key question in cognitive psychology is whether information in short-term memory is lost as a function of time. Lewandowsky, Duncan, and Brown (2004) argued against that memory loss because forgetting in serial recall occurred to the same extent across serial positions regardless of the rate of recall. However, we believe Lewandowsky et al. (2004) only prevented one of two types of rehearsal; they did not prevent nonarticulatory rehearsal via attention. To prevent articulatory and nonarticulatory rehearsal without introducing interference, we presented unevenly timed stimuli for serial recall and, on some trials, required that the timing of stimuli be reproduced in the response. In those trials only, evidence of memory loss over time emerged. Further research is needed to identify whether this memory loss is decay or lost distinctiveness.
Ferrari, C; Cattaneo, Z; Oldrati, V; Casiraghi, L; Castelli, F; D'Angelo, E; Vecchi, T
Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum is not only involved in motor functions, but it significantly contributes to sensory and cognitive processing as well. In particular, it has been hypothesized that the cerebellum identifies recurrent serial events and recognizes their violations. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the role of the cerebellum in short-term memory of visual sequences. In two experiments, we found that TMS over the right cerebellar hemisphere impaired participants' ability to recognize the correct order of appearance of geometrical stimuli varying in shape and/or size. In turn, cerebellar TMS did not affect recognition of highly familiar short sequences of letters or numbers. Overall, our data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in memorizing the order in which (concatenated) stimuli appear, this process being important for sequence learning.
Full Text Available Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.
Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele
Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.
As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...
As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...
The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.
Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.
Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs
Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn
or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the health......Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...
Nairne, James S
Psychologists often assume that short-term storage is synonymous with activation, a mnemonic property that keeps information in an immediately accessible form. Permanent knowledge is activated, as a result of on-line cognitive processing, and an activity trace is established "in" short-term (or working) memory. Activation is assumed to decay spontaneously with the passage of time, so a refreshing process-rehearsal-is needed to maintain availability. Most of the phenomena of immediate retention, such as capacity limitations and word length effects, are assumed to arise from trade-offs between rehearsal and decay. This "standard model" of how we remember over the short-term still enjoys considerable popularity, although recent research questions most of its main assumptions. In this chapter I review the recent research and identify the empirical and conceptual problems that plague traditional conceptions of short-term memory. Increasingly, researchers are recognizing that short-term retention is cue driven, much like long-term memory, and that neither rehearsal nor decay is likely to explain the particulars of short-term forgetting.
Bonavita, S; Sacco, R; Della Corte, M; Esposito, S; Sparaco, M; d'Ambrosio, A; Docimo, R; Bisecco, A; Lavorgna, L; Corbo, D; Cirillo, S; Gallo, A; Esposito, F; Tedeschi, G
To better understand the effects of short-term computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (cCR) on cognitive performances and default mode network (DMN) intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in cognitively impaired relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Eighteen cognitively impaired RRMS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation by the Rao's brief repeatable battery and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate FC of the DMN before and after a short-term (8 weeks, twice a week) cCR. A control group of 14 cognitively impaired RRMS patients was assigned to an aspecific cognitive training (aCT), and underwent the same study protocol. Correlations between DMN and cognitive performances were also tested. After cCR, there was a significant improvement of the following tests: SDMT (p Color-Word Interference Test and FC in the PCC emerged. After aCT, the control group did not show any significant effect either on FC or neuropsychological tests. No significant differences were found in brain volumes and lesion load in both groups when comparing data acquired at baseline and after cCR or aCT. In cognitively impaired RRMS patients, cCR improves cognitive performances (i.e., processing speed and visual and verbal sustained memory), and increases FC in the PCC and IPC of the DMN. This exploratory study suggests that cCR may induce adaptive cortical reorganization favoring better cognitive performances, thus strengthening the value of cognitive exercise in the general perspective of building either cognitive or brain reserve.
M. E. Bégin
Full Text Available We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.
Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Drigny, Joffrey; Dupuy, Olivier; Lapierre, Gabriel; Labelle, Véronique; Fortier, Annik; Nigam, Anil
Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD) sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC), 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC) and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis), cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography) and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy) were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max), cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery) and cognitive function (for all items) (Pcognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.
Perna, Giampaolo; Daccò, Silvia; Sacco, Ferdinando; Micieli, Wilma; Cavedini, Paolo; Caldirola, Daniela
Our pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of a Short-Term (4 weeks) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program (S-T PsyRP), without specific cognitive remediation trainings, on the neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning of inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Published studies with similar aims are lacking. Fifty-three inpatients with MDD and 27 with BD (type I/II) were included. The S-T PsyRP was usually performed as clinical practice at Villa San Benedetto Menni Hospital and included a variety of activities aimed at promoting personal autonomies, interpersonal/social skills, and self-care. At the beginning and the end of the hospitalization we evaluated: neuropsychological performance (cognitive tests on verbal/visual working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency, and comprehension); psychosocial functioning by the Rehabilitation Areas Form (RAF, handbook VADO); illness severity by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Repeated-measure ANOVA and Pearson's linear correlation were used. We found significant improvement (pneuropsychological tests except for one, in 4 out of 6 RAF psychosocial areas ("involvement in ward activities", "autonomies", "self-care", and "self-management of health") and in clinical symptoms severity. No associations were found between the amelioration of clinical symptoms and neuropsychological or psychosocial improvement. A S-T PsyRP without specific cognitive remediation trainings may improve several cognitive/functional domains in MDD or BD inpatients, probably by offering opportunities to engage in demanding problem-solving conditions and cognitively stimulating activities.
Avgerinos, Konstantinos I; Spyrou, Nikolaos; Bougioukas, Konstantinos I; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios
Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals. Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration. Regarding other cognitive domains, such as long-term memory, spatial memory, memory scanning, attention, executive function, response inhibition, word fluency, reaction time and mental fatigue, the results were conflicting. Performance on cognitive tasks stayed unchanged in young individuals. Vegetarians responded better than meat-eaters in memory tasks but for other cognitive domains no differences were observed. Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals. Since creatine is safe, future studies should include larger sample sizes. It is imperative that creatine should be tested on patients with dementias or cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stevens, Madelyn N; Baudhuin, Jacqueline E; Hullar, Timothy E
Cochlear implantation is a highly effective intervention for hearing loss, but insertion of an implant into the cochlea is often accompanied by loss of residual hearing function. Sometimes, postoperative testing also shows loss of function in the semicircular canals or otolith organs. The effect of this loss on equilibrium, particularly in the short term following surgery, and the risk of falling due to this loss is unknown. We prospectively measured balance in 16 consecutive adult cochlear implant patients before and 2 weeks after surgery. Subjects stood on a foam pad with eyes closed, feet together and arms at the side. The length of time over which this posture could be maintained was recorded up to a maximum value of 30 s indicating normal performance. Ten of 16 subjects reached a maximal time on preoperative testing. Nine of 16 subjects lost balance function after surgery. Four of the 10 subjects with normal preoperative balance function lost function. Subjects older than the age of 60 were more likely to lose balance function than younger subjects. We used previously published values relating balance performance on foam to risk of falling to calculate the fall risk among our subjects. The relative risk of falling increased after surgery by more than threefold in some patients. Imbalance after cochlear implantation may be much more common, particularly in the short term, than previously appreciated. This imbalance is accompanied by an increased risk of falling in many patients. Careful preoperative counseling before implantation and postoperative therapeutic intervention to improve comfort and reduce the chance of falling may be warranted, particularly in patients at a risk for injuries from falls (level of evidence: 2b). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Fernández, Guillén
It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on
Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.
Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b",…
Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Liow, Susan Rickard; Dodd, Barbara
While little is known about why children make speech errors, it has been hypothesized that cognitive-linguistic factors may underlie phonological speech sound disorders. This study compared the phonological short-term and phonological working memory abilities (using immediate memory tasks) and receptive vocabulary size of 14 monolingual preschool…
Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo
Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…
Chi, Michelene T. H.
Evaluates the assertion that short-term memory (STM) capacity increases with age and concludes that the STM capacity limitation in children is due to the deficits in the processing strategies and speeds, which presumably improve with age through cumulative learning. (JM) Available from: Memory and Cognition, Psychonomic Society, 1018 West 34…
te Nijenhuis, Jan; Resing, Wilma; Tolboom, Elsbeth; Bleichrodt, Nico
The predictive validity and utility of assessment procedures can be increased by adding predictors to the prediction supplied by general ability tests. Of Jensen's early work comes the suggestion of focusing on the cognitive ability short-term memory (STM), especially for low-"g" Black children. Meta-analysis convincingly shows high…
Fritsch, P.; Beauvallet, M.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.
The genetic effects induced by α irradiation were examined using short term assays in Procaryotes and Eucaryotes. Irradiation was produced by 239 Pu dissolved as a DTPA equimolar complex in the culture medium. Induced mutagenesis was not observed with Ames' test or when test for ouabain resistance in CHO cells was used: GTG resistance and chromosome aberrations in Eucaryote cells were increased at dose rate exposure down to 5 R.day -1 . Until an optimal delivered dose, these two biological effects have shown a linear increase as a function of the dose. In our experimental conditions α irradiation has appeared to be much more lethal than mutagenic. Using lower dose rate, corresponding to 1 and 3 R a day we could also demonstrate a linear increase with dose of the induced TG resistant cells. Efficiency per unit dose was 3 to 5 times superior to what was observed at 5 R.day -1 . This phenomenon could correspond to an induced cell sensitivity, and clearly pointed out that for chronic and low delivered doses, informations deduced from flash or short term α exposure are not valuable
Mara A. McAdams-DeMarco
Conclusion: Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed and executive function is possibly prevented by intradialytic CT and ET. These preliminary pilot findings should be replicated.
Phillips, Brandon N; Chun, Dal W
To report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity after short-term therapy. Observational case report. A 56-year-old woman presented to the Ophthalmology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) with a 6-month history of gradually decreasing vision in both eyes. The patient had been taking hydroxychloroquine for the preceding 48 months for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Examination of the posterior segment revealed bilateral "bull's eye" macular lesions. Fundus autofluorescence revealed hyperfluorescence of well-defined bull's eye lesions in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography revealed corresponding parafoveal atrophy with a loss of the retinal inner segment/outer segment junction. Humphrey visual field 10-2 white showed significant central and paracentral defects with a generalized depression. The patient was on a standard dose of 400 mg daily, which was above her ideal dose. The patient had no history of kidney or liver dysfunction. There were no known risk factors but there were several possible confounding factors. The patient was started on high-dose nabumetone, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, at the same time she was started on hydroxychloroquine. She also reported taking occasional ibuprofen. Retinal toxicity from chloroquine has been recognized for decades with later reports showing retinopathy from long-term hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) use for the treatment of antiinflammatory diseases. Hydroxychloroquine is now widely used and retinal toxicity is relatively uncommon. However, it can cause serious vision loss and is usually irreversible. The risk of hydroxychloroquine toxicity rises to nearly 1% with a total cumulative dose of 1,000 g, which is ∼5 years to 7 years of normal use. Toxicity is rare under this dose. For this reason, the American Academy of Ophthalmology has revised its recommendations such that annual screenings begin 5 years after therapy with hydroxychloroquine has begun unless there are known risk
Aslam, Mohammed; Siddiq, Mohamed; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K; Kulkarni, B R
The present study was undertaken to establish short term memory status in bipolar disorder cases as compared with normal age and sex matched control group in Bijapur (Karnataka). Results showed that a significant decrease in short term memory status in bipolar disorder cases as compared to their control group .Loss of attention, decreased processing speed and executive function patterns may be the probable causes of such observations.
Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud
Several authors have hypothesised that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996a). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of ...
Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Saul, Alison N.; Daugherty, Christine; Holmes, Tyson H.; Bouley, Donna M.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.
In contrast to chronic/long-term stress that suppresses/dysregulates immune function, an acute/short-term fight-or-flight stress response experienced during immune activation can enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Moderate ultraviolet-B (UV) exposure provides a non-invasive system for studying the naturalistic emergence, progression and regression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Because SCC is an immunoresponsive cancer, we hypothesized that short-term stress experienced before UV exposu...
Bhagya, Venkanna Rao; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Veena, Jayagopalan; Shankaranarayana Rao, Byrathnahalli S
Exposure to prolonged stress results in structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus including reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), neurogenesis, spatial learning and working memory impairments, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) has beneficial effects on hippocampal structure and function, such as improved memory, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and progressive synaptic plasticity. It is unclear whether exposure to short-term EE for 10 days can overcome restraint stress-induced cognitive deficits and impaired hippocampal plasticity. Consequently, the present study explored the beneficial effects of short-term EE on chronic stress-induced impaired LTP, working memory, and anxiety-like behavior. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (6 hr/day) over a period of 21 days, and then they were exposed to EE (6 hr/day) for 10 days. Restraint stress reduced hippocampal CA1-LTP, increased anxiety-like symptoms in elevated plus maze, and impaired working memory in T-maze task. Remarkably, EE facilitated hippocampal LTP, improved working memory performance, and completely overcame the effect of chronic stress on anxiety behavior. In conclusion, exposure to EE can bring out positive effects on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and thereby elicit its beneficial effects on cognitive functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ickmans, Kelly; Meeus, Mira; De Kooning, Margot; De Backer, Annabelle; Kooremans, Daniëlle; Hubloue, Ives; Schmitz, Tom; Van Loo, Michel; Nijs, Jo
Controlled laboratory study. In addition to persistent pain, people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) commonly deal with cognitive dysfunctions. In healthy individuals, aerobic exercise has a positive effect on cognitive performance, and preliminary evidence in other chronic pain conditions reveals promising results as well. However, there is evidence that people with chronic WAD may show a worsening of the symptom complex following physical exertion. To examine postexercise cognitive performance in people with chronic WAD. People with chronic WAD (n = 27) and healthy, inactive, sex- and age-matched controls (n = 27) performed a single bout of an incremental submaximal cycling exercise. Before and after the exercise, participants completed 2 performance-based cognitive tests assessing selective and sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, and simple and choice reaction time. At baseline, people with chronic WAD displayed significantly lower scores on sustained attention and simple reaction time (Pselective attention, cognitive inhibition, and choice reaction time (P>.05), compared with healthy controls. Postexercise, both groups showed significantly improved selective attention and choice reaction time (chronic WAD, P = .001; control, Pattention, cognitive inhibition, pain, and fatigue were observed (P>.05). In the short term, postexercise cognitive functioning, pain, and fatigue were not aggravated in people with chronic WAD. However, randomized controlled trials are required to study the longer-term and isolated effects of exercise on cognitive functioning.
Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F
Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α. IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-α were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-α and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-α and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-α and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions (EF, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitive functioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted. .In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery.
Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David
The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the "working memory" model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients' performances on STM tasks.
Zhang, Shusheng; Wang, Dangxiao; Afzal, Naqash; Zhang, Yuru; Wu, Ruilin
Brainwave entrainment using rhythmic visual and/or auditory stimulation has shown its efficacy in modulating neural activities and cognitive ability. In the presented study, we aim to investigate whether rhythmic haptic stimulation could enhance short-term attention. An experiment with sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) increasing protocol was performed in which participants were presented sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulus of 15 Hz on their palm. Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.) was performed before and after the stimulating session. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded across the stimulating session and the two attention test sessions. SMR band power manifested a significant increase after stimulation. Results of T.O.V.A. tests indicated an improvement in the attention of participants who had received the stimulation compared to the control group who had not received the stimulation. The D prime score of T.O.V.A. reveals that participants performed better in perceptual sensitivity and sustaining attention level compared to their baseline performance before the stimulating session. These findings highlight the potential value of using haptics-based brainwave entrainment for cognitive training.
Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David
Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786
Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah
Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Takahashi, Eiki; Niimi, Kimie; Itakura, Chitoshi
Ca(V)2.1 is highly expressed in the nervous system and plays an essential role in the presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitter release machinery. Recently, the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam was reported to inhibit presynaptic Ca(V)2.1 functions, reducing glutamate release in the hippocampus, although the precise physiological role of Ca(V)2.1-regulated synaptic functions in cognitive performance at the system level remains unknown. This study examined whether Ca(V)2.1 mediates hippocampus-dependent spatial short-term memory using the object location and Y-maze tests, and perirhinal cortex-dependent nonspatial short-term memory using the object recognition test, via a combined pharmacological and genetic approach. Heterozygous rolling Nagoya (rol/+) mice carrying the Ca(V)2.1alpha(1) mutation had normal spatial and nonspatial short-term memory. A 100mg/kg dose of levetiracetam, which is ineffective in wild-type controls, blocked spatial short-term memory in rol/+ mice. At 5mg/kg, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), which is ineffective in wild-type controls, also blocked the spatial short-term memory in rol/+ mice. Furthermore, a combination of subthreshold doses of levetiracetam (25 mg/kg) and CPP (2.5mg/kg) triggered a spatial short-term memory deficit in rol/+ mice, but not in wild-type controls. Similar patterns of nonspatial short-term memory were observed in wild-type and rol/+ mice when injected with levetiracetam (0-300 mg/kg). These results indicate that Ca(V)2.1-mediated NMDA receptor signaling is critical in hippocampus-dependent spatial short-term memory and differs in various regions. The combination subthreshold pharmacological and genetic approach presented here is easily performed and can be used to study functional signaling pathways in neuronal circuits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Logan A. Berg; Kathleen E. Darbor; Heather C. Lench
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that pre...
Wang, L; Li, K; Zhang, Q; Zeng, Y; Dai, W; Su, Y; Wang, G; Tan, Y; Jin, Z; Yu, X; Si, T
Most knowledge regarding the effects of antidepressant drugs is at the receptor level, distal from the nervous system effects that mediate their clinical efficacy. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the effects of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on resting-state brain function in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Fourteen first-episode drug-naive MDD patients completed two fMRI scans before and after 8 weeks of escitalopram therapy. Scans were also acquired in 14 matched healthy subjects. Data were analyzed using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach. Compared to controls, MDD patients before treatment demonstrated decreased ReHo in the frontal (right superior frontal gyrus), temporal (left middle and right inferior temporal gyri), parietal (right precuneus) and occipital (left superior occipital gyrus and right cuneus) cortices, and increased ReHo in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus and left anterior lobe of the cerebellum. Compared to the unmedicated state, ReHo in the patients after treatment was decreased in the left dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus, the right insula and the bilateral thalamus, and increased in the right superior frontal gyrus. Compared to controls, patients after treatment displayed a ReHo decrease in the right precuneus and a ReHo increase in the left anterior lobe of the cerebellum. Successful treatment with escitalopram may be associated with modulation of resting-state brain activity in regions within the fronto-limbic circuit. This study provides new insight into the effects of antidepressants on functional brain systems in MDD.
Leff, Alexander P.; Schofield, Thomas M.; Crinion, Jennifer T.; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Grogan, Alice; Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.
Competing theories of short-term memory function make specific predictions about the functional anatomy of auditory short-term memory and its role in language comprehension. We analysed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images from 210 stroke patients and employed a novel voxel based analysis to test the relationship between auditory short-term memory and speech comprehension. Using digit span as an index of auditory short-term memory capacity we found that the structural integrit...
Bantoft, Christina; Summers, Mathew J; Tranent, Peter J; Palmer, Matthew A; Cooley, P Dean; Pedersen, Scott J
In the present study, we examined the effect of working while seated, while standing, or while walking on measures of short-term memory, working memory, selective and sustained attention, and information-processing speed. The advent of computer-based technology has revolutionized the adult workplace, such that average adult full-time employees spend the majority of their working day seated. Prolonged sitting is associated with increasing obesity and chronic health conditions in children and adults. One possible intervention to reduce the negative health impacts of the modern office environment involves modifying the workplace to increase incidental activity and exercise during the workday. Although modifications, such as sit-stand desks, have been shown to improve physiological function, there is mixed information regarding the impact of such office modification on individual cognitive performance and thereby the efficiency of the work environment. In a fully counterbalanced randomized control trial, we assessed the cognitive performance of 45 undergraduate students for up to a 1-hr period in each condition. The results indicate that there is no significant change in the measures used to assess cognitive performance associated with working while seated, while standing, or while walking at low intensity. These results indicate that cognitive performance is not degraded with short-term use of alternate workstations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Braissand, Vérane; Eliez, Stephan
Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS group showed impaired performance on the serial order short-term memory tasks compared to both control groups. Relative to the vocabulary-matched control group, item short-term memory was preserved. The implication of serial order short-term memory deficits on other aspects of cognitive development in VCFS (e.g., language development, numerical cognition) is discussed.
Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge
The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, w...
Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects
Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos
OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610
The evaluation of cognitive functions can be performed using two approaches: a quantitative one, based on screening tools; a qualitative one, based on the examination of specific cognitive functions. The quantitative approach offers a pragmatic process: to screen rapidly for a cognitive dysfunction that may require assistance or treatments. We will present three screening tools and their diagnostic value: the clock test, the Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. They help select patients who require a more detailed examination to precisely diagnose their cognitive dysfunction. We propose a way to perform a detailed cognitive examination at the bedside, including the examination of alertness, attention, memory, language, frontal functions, praxis and hemi-neglect. This simple examination indicates the location of the cerebral lesion and sometimes suggests the underlying disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Dhamoon, Mandip S; Cheung, Ying-Kuen; Gutierrez, Jose; Moon, Yeseon P; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B
Cognition and education influence functional trajectories, but whether associations differ with subclinical brain infarcts (SBI) or white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) is unknown. We hypothesized that SBI and WMHV moderated relationships between cognitive performance and education and functional trajectories. A total of 1290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and were followed for 7.3 years (mean) with annual functional assessments with the Barthel index (range, 0-100). Magnetic resonance imaging measurements included pathology-informed SBI (PI-SBI) and WMHV (% total cranial volume). Generalized estimating equation models tested associations between magnetic resonance imaging variables and baseline Barthel index and change in Barthel index, adjusting for demographic, vascular, cognitive, and social risk factors, and stroke and myocardial infarction during follow-up. We tested interactions among education level, baseline cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State score), and functional trajectories and ran models stratified by levels of magnetic resonance imaging variables. Mean age was 70.6 (SD, 9.0) years; 19% had PI-SBI, and mean WMHV was 0.68%. Education did not modify associations between cognition and functional trajectories. PI-SBI modified associations between cognition and functional trajectories ( P =0.04) with a significant protective effect of better cognition on functional decline seen only in those without PI-SBI. There was no significant interaction for WMHV ( P =0.8). PI-SBI, and greater WMHV, were associated with 2- to 3-fold steeper functional decline, holding cognition constant. PI-SBI moderated the association between cognition and functional trajectories, with 3-fold greater decline among those with PI-SBI (compared with no PI-SBI) and normal baseline cognition. This highlights the strong and independent association between subclinical markers and patient-centered trajectories over time. © 2018 American Heart
Butterworth, B; Cipolotti, L; Warrington, E K
We document the dissociation of preserved calculation skills in a patient with impaired auditory short-term memory. The patient (MRF) had a memory span of three digits. Furthermore, he showed rapid decrement in performance of single digits and letters with both auditory and visual presentation in the Brown-Peterson forgetting task. Analysis of his calculation skills revealed a normal ability to solve auditorily presented multidigit addition and subtraction problems such as 173 + 68 and to execute the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (Sampson, 1956, 1958; Gronwall, 1977). In addition, his performance on other tests, including arithmetic manipulation of natural numbers, decimals and fractions, approximation, magnitude, ratio, and percentage, appeared to be normal (Hitch, 1978b). It is argued that these findings require a revision of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) concept of the function of working memory.
Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.
Koontz, E; Cox, D; Hastings, S
1. Although family involvement has been increasingly recognized as a vital component in the treatment and care of the mentally ill, little has been written about efforts to provide education and support to the families of patients hospitalized for short-term evaluation and treatment. 2. The family education and support group provided emotional support and critical information to increase family members' coping and problem solving abilities, and enabled them to return to a pre-crisis or higher level of functioning. 3. The family education and support group not only enhances the assessment and planning phases of the nursing process, but it also can serve as a useful intervention for strengthening the patient's major support system.
Alicia de la Parra
Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.
Prakash, Aanchal; Hou, Jue; Liu, Lei; Gao, Yi; Kettering, Casey; Ragin, Ann B
This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations. At the initial timepoint, the HIV group demonstrated significantly weaker performance on measures of verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, motor speed, and executive function. A similar pattern was found when cognitive function was examined at follow-up and across both timepoints. The HIV subjects had generally weaker performance on psychomotor speed, executive function, motor speed, visual memory, and verbal memory. The rate of decline in cognitive function across the 2-year follow-up period did not differ between groups. Correlations between clinical status markers and cognitive function at both timepoints showed weaker performance associated with increased disease burden. Neurocognitive difficulty in chronic HIV infection may have very early onset and reflect consequences of initial brain viral invasion and neuroinflammation during the intense, uncontrolled viremia of acute HIV infection. Further characterization of the changes occurring in initial stages of infection and the risk and protective factors for cognitive function could inform new strategies for neuroprotection.
Short-term effect of add on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular functions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled study.
Nagasukeerthi, Padakandla; Mooventhan, A; Manjunath, N K
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. Though various studies have reported the beneficial effect of Yoga in patient with T2DM, there is a lack of study in combination with bell pepper and yoga. Hence, the present study aims at evaluating short-term effect of add on bell pepper juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular variables in patients with T2DM. Fifty T2DM subjects with the age varied from 34 to 69-years were recruited and randomly divided into either study group or control group. The study group received 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT while the control group received only IAYT for 4-consecutive days. Baseline and post-test assessments were taken before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for the social sciences, version-16. Results of this study showed no significant difference in overall (fasting and post prandial) blood glucose level in the study group compared with control group. However, a significant reduction in Post prandial blood glucose (PPBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), rate pressure product (RPP) and Double product (Do-P) was observed in the study group compared with control group. Results of this study suggest that though an addition of 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT is not more effective in reducing fasting blood glucose, it may be more effective in reducing PPBG, SBP, PP, RPP and Do-P than IAYT alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jackson, D. D.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Schorlemmer, D.; Zechar, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Wong, K.
Earthquake induced Coulomb stresses, whether static or dynamic, suddenly change the probability of future earthquakes. Models to estimate stress and the resulting seismicity changes could help to illuminate earthquake physics and guide appropriate precautionary response. But do these models have improved forecasting power compared to empirical statistical models? The best answer lies in prospective testing in which a fully specified model, with no subsequent parameter adjustments, is evaluated against future earthquakes. The Center of Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) facilitates such prospective testing of earthquake forecasts, including several short term forecasts. Formulating Coulomb stress models for formal testing involves several practical problems, mostly shared with other short-term models. First, earthquake probabilities must be calculated after each “perpetrator” earthquake but before the triggered earthquakes, or “victims”. The time interval between a perpetrator and its victims may be very short, as characterized by the Omori law for aftershocks. CSEP evaluates short term models daily, and allows daily updates of the models. However, lots can happen in a day. An alternative is to test and update models on the occurrence of each earthquake over a certain magnitude. To make such updates rapidly enough and to qualify as prospective, earthquake focal mechanisms, slip distributions, stress patterns, and earthquake probabilities would have to be made by computer without human intervention. This scheme would be more appropriate for evaluating scientific ideas, but it may be less useful for practical applications than daily updates. Second, triggered earthquakes are imperfectly recorded following larger events because their seismic waves are buried in the coda of the earlier event. To solve this problem, testing methods need to allow for “censoring” of early aftershock data, and a quantitative model for detection threshold as a function of
Pontes, Jose C.A. de; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.
We investigate short-term memories in linear and weakly nonlinear coupled map lattices with a periodic external input. We use locally coupled maps to present numerical results about short-term memory formation adding a stochastic perturbation in the maps and in the external input
The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts
vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ
Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than
Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the efficacy and cost effectivines of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for short term elective surgery. Material and Method: After written informed consent, 33 patients aged 18%u201365, ASA I-III, who were undergoing short term surgery (
Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.
Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)
The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.
Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.
This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of
Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel
Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…
Saral, Ilknur; Sindel, Dilsad; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Sertel-Berk, Hanife Ozlem; Oral, Aydan
We investigated the effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches for reducing symptoms and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical functions of patients with fibromyalgia and compared the effects of two different interdisciplinary treatment approaches. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving 66 women with fibromyalgia eligible for the study at a university hospital setting. The patients were randomized into three groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1) using a computer-generated random numbers: a long-term interdisciplinary treatment group (LG, n = 22) that participated in 10 sessions (3-h once-weekly session for 10 weeks) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) together with exercise training and other fibromyalgia related educational programs (two full days); a short-term interdisciplinary treatment group (SG, n = 22) that received two full days of educational, exercise, and CBT programs; and a control group (CG, n = 22). The patients were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (pain, fatigue, and sleep), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form-36, tender point numbers, and pressure algometry as primary outcomes. The statistical analysis was confined to the 'per-protocol' set. No blinding was performed. The number of patients analyzed was 21 in the LG, 19 in the SG, and 19 in the CG. The intensity of pain (p treatment approaches when compared with controls; the long-term treatment was found more effective in reducing pain than the short-term. Both, long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatments were effective in reducing the severity of some symptoms and disease activity in patients with fibromyalgia. The short-term program well meets the needs of women with fibromyalgia particularly in relation to pain and health status as measured using FIQ; however, a long-term program may be beneficial in reducing fatigue and
Ogata, Soshiro; Tanaka, Haruka; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo
Previous studies have indicated associations between intake of dairy products and better cognitive function and reduced risk of dementia. However, these studies did not adjust for genetic and family environmental factors that may influence food intake, cognitive function, and metabolism of dairy product nutrients. In the present study, we investigated the association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for almost all genetic and family environmental factors using a genetically informative sample of twin pairs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among twin pairs aged between 20 and 74. Short-term memory was assessed as primary outcome variable, intake of dairy products was analyzed as the predictive variable, and sex, age, education level, marital status, current smoking status, body mass index, dietary alcohol intake, and medical history of hypertension or diabetes were included as possible covariates. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed by treating twins as individuals and regression analyses were used to identify within-pair differences of a twin pair to adjust for genetic and family environmental factors. Data are reported as standardized coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were performed on data from 78 men and 278 women. Among men, high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with better short-term memory after adjustment for the possible covariates (standardized coefficients = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.38) and almost all genetic and family environmental factors (standardized coefficients = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.69). Among women, no significant associations were found between intake of dairy products and short-term memory. Subsequent sensitivity analyses were adjusted for small samples and showed similar results. Intake of dairy product may prevent cognitive declines regardless of genetic and family environmental factors in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd
Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine
The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Min; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Yoo, Hyung-Suk; Smith, Patrice D
Previous evidence suggests that a significant decline in cognitive ability begins during middle-age and continues to deteriorate with increase in age. Recent work has demonstrated the potential rejuvenation impact of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) in aged mice. We carried out experiments to evaluate the impact of a single dose of recombinant (rGDF-11) on short-term visual and spatial memory in middle-aged male mice. On the novel object recognition task, we observed middle-aged mice treated rGDF-11 showed improved performance on the novel object recognition task. However, middle-aged mice did not show increased expression of phosphorylated-Smad2/3, a downstream effector of GDF-11. We noted however that the expression of the transcription factor, Sox2 was increased within the dentate gyrus. Our data suggest that a single injection of rGDF-11 contributes to improvements in cognitive function of middle-aged animals, which may be critical in the preservation of short-term memory capacity in old age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chiricozzi, Francesca R; Clausi, Silvia; Molinari, Marco; Leggio, Maria G
The cerebellum is a recent addition to the growing list of cerebral areas involved in the multifaceted structural system that sustains verbal working memory (vWM), but its contribution is still a matter of debate. Here, we present a patient with a selective deficit of vWM resulting from a bilateral cerebellar ischemic lesion. After this acute event, the patient had impaired immediate and delayed word-serial recall and auditory-verbal delayed recognition. The digit span, however, was completely preserved. To investigate the cerebellar contribution to vWM, four experiments addressing the function of different vWM phonological loop components were performed 18 months after the lesion, and results were compared with normative data or, when needed, with a small group of matched controls. In Experiment 1, digit span was assessed with different presentation and response modalities using lists of digits of varying lengths. In Experiment 2, the articulatory rehearsal system was analyzed by measurement of word length and articulatory suppression effects. Experiment 3 was devoted to analyzing the phonological short-term store (ph-STS) by the recency effect, the phonological similarity effect, short-term forgetting, and unattended speech. Data suggested a possible key role of the semantic component of the processed material, which was tested in Experiment 4, in which word and nonword-serial recall with or without interpolating activity were analyzed. The patient showed noticeably reduced scores in the tasks that primarily or exclusively engaged activity of the ph-STS, namely those of Experiment 3, and good performance in the tests that investigated the recirculation of verbal information. This pattern of results implicates the ph-STS as the cognitive locus of the patient's deficit. This report demonstrates a cerebellar role in encoding and/or strengthening the phonological traces in vWM.
Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.
In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references
Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A; Halpern, Leslie F
Studies have shown cognitive problems in adults treated with anticholinergics. It is unclear if children are also susceptible to anticholinergic adverse effects. This study evaluates the effects of long-acting oxybutynin and tolterodine on short-term memory and attention in children with urgency and urge incontinence. Children with urgency or urge incontinence were recruited to take part in a prospective, randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial using long-acting oxybutynin or tolterodine. Patients underwent a baseline test of their memory/recall ability and attention span using a standardized developmental/neuropsychological assessment tool. They were then randomized to either medication or placebo with retesting in 2 weeks, at which time they were crossed. They were retested after the second 2 weeks. Fourteen children (9 boys and 5 girls), ranging in age from 5 to 11 (M = 7.7) participated in the study. Attention and memory scores increased over time in all children, however, the analyses showed no significant negative effects of anticholinergic medications on attention or memory. Indeed, though not statistically significant, trends were for improvement in test scores in both areas. Our results in a double blinded cross-over trial suggest that long-acting oxybutynin and tolterodine do not have a deleterious effect on children's attention and memory. Other cognitive functions may be affected. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Raine, Adrian; And Others
Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)
Potter, Mary C
Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle - identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material - may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed.
Mary C. Potter
Full Text Available Conceptual short term memory (CSTM is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009. CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from long term memory. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into long term memory. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle--identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in long term memory, and forgetting of nonstructured material--may occur in less than 1 second when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screening methods actually do affect cognitive function; identify and characterize the mechanisms or pathways by which effects at these targets lead to cognitive dysfunction; address issues of susceptibility and variability, which require understanding the compensations and interactions that only a whole organism can engage; and improve our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive function.This chapter has several purposes. First, it provides working definitions of cognitive functions, such as learning, memory and attention, in terms frequently used by behavioral toxicologists. It is important to have a common vocabulary to assess methods used in this area of research. Second, it presents an overview of some of the procedures commonly used in behavioral toxicology to assess the effects of chemicals on cognitive function in animals. It should be noted that this overview is not intended to be comprehensive or complete, but is intended to illustrate specific points by discussing examples. Finally, this chapter discusses some critical experimental and conceptual variables that are important for studies on chemical-induced cognitive dysfunction, and touches on the potential p
Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.
Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; Braissand, V.; Eliez, S.
Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS...
Švob Štrac Dubravka
Full Text Available Symptoms of cognitive dysfunction like memory loss, poor concentration, impaired learning and executive functions are characteristic features of both schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognition in healthy subjects and neuropsychiatric patients are not completely understood. Studies have focused on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT as one of the possible cognitionrelated biomarkers. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current literature on the role of the serotonergic (5-HTergic system in cognitive function, particularly in AD and schizophrenia.
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Purpose: Internalized stigmatization (IS generally has a negative effect on diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prognosis of diseases. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression both are in remission in terms of IS and social functioning (SF, cognitive function and secondly to consider relationship between IS, cognitive functions and SF. Methods: This cross-sectional study is carried out with bipolar (BD and unipolar depression (UD patients in remission, admitted to the psychiatry outpatient clinics of Akdeniz University Hospital. The sample size is estimated as 35 patients. Basic independent variable is the type of disease and dependent variables are; IS, cognitive functions and SF. Performed scales are: The internalized stigma of mental ilness scale, the social functioning scale and for the assesment of cognitive functions: Wisconsin card sorting, stroop test, test of verbal memory process. Results.Concerning the results there was negative corelation between IS and SF scores in all groups. There was only significant relationship between verbal memory and IS in UD patients. There was not any significant relationship between IS and cognitive function in BD patients. Conclusion: This study indicates that in terms of cognitive functions, patients with unipolar depression are effected as much as the patients with bipolar disorder also manifesting the inverse relation between IS and SF, however cognitive functions were relevant to IS only in UD patients. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 390-402
Kristina M Visscher
Full Text Available Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches; the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples. Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1 the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity, and (2 the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity. A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.
Visscher, Kristina M; Kaplan, Elina; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert
Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches); the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples). Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1) the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity), and (2) the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity). A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.
PMD), has become a growing public health concern, as it may potentially result in the development of hearing difficulties. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the differential impact and short-term effects of simultaneous ...
Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral therapy in the intensive care unit, general medical wards and outpatient HIV clinics at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.
Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.
The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)
Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral shaft fracture treated with locking intramedullary sign nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Tanzania. Billy T. Haonga, Felix S. Mrita, Edmundo E. Ndalama, Jackline E. Makupa ...
Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.
The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...
Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.
some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss
Memory and forgetting are inextricably intertwined. Any account of short-term memory (STM) should address the following question: If three, four, or five chunks are being held in STM, what happens after attention is diverted?
Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.
Feredoes, Eva; Tononi, Giulio; Postle, Bradley R
What are the precise brain regions supporting the short-term retention of verbal information? A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study suggested that they may be topographically variable across individuals, occurring, in most, in regions posterior to prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that detection of these regions may be best suited to a single-subject (SS) approach to fMRI analysis (Feredoes and Postle, 2007). In contrast, other studies using spatially normalized group-averaged (SNGA) analyses have localized storage-related activity to PFC. To evaluate the necessity of the regions identified by these two methods, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to SS- and SNGA-identified regions throughout the retention period of a delayed letter-recognition task. Results indicated that rTMS targeting SS analysis-identified regions of left perisylvian and sensorimotor cortex impaired performance, whereas rTMS targeting the SNGA-identified region of left caudal PFC had no effect on performance. Our results support the view that the short-term retention of verbal information can be supported by regions associated with acoustic, lexical, phonological, and speech-based representation of information. They also suggest that the brain bases of some cognitive functions may be better detected by SS than by SNGA approaches to fMRI data analysis.
Full Text Available China has the largest population of elderly adults. Meanwhile, it is one of the countries showing fastest aging speed in the world. Aging processing is always companied with a series of brain structural and functional changes, which result in the decline of processing speed, working memory, long-term memory and executive function, etc. The studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI found certain aging effects on brain function activation, spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in old people. However, few studies have explored the brain functional curve during the aging process while most previous studies explored the differences in the brain function between young people and old people. Delineation of the human brain functional aging curve will promote the understanding of brain aging mechanisms and support the normal aging monitoring and early detection of abnormal aging changes. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.005
Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann
members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important......The authors investigated whether cognitive function may be used as an endophenotype for longevity by assessing the cognitive performance of a family-based cohort consisting of 1380 individuals from 283 families recruited for exceptional survival in field centers in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh......, and Denmark. Cognitive performance was assessed in the combined offspring of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) probands and their LLFS siblings as compared with their spouses' cognitive performance. Our results indicate that the combined offspring of the LLFS probands and their siblings achieve significantly...
Melissa Andréia Costa-Silva
Full Text Available Although migraine is highly prevalent in children and teenagers, it often goes undetected in these patients, resulting in underdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. Several studies have investigated cognitive changes in adults with migraine. However, there are few studies focusing on children and adolescents. Objective : To investigate cognitive performance of adolescents with migraine. Methods : Twenty-eight adolescents diagnosed with migraine and twenty-six individuals without a history of headache were recruited for the study. All participants were evaluated using standardized neuropsychological tests. Results : Adolescents with migraine had worse performance on tests evaluating short- and long-term verbal memory, attention, executive function, and speed of processing information than controls. Conclusion : Cognitive dysfunction is common in adolescents with migraine. Since the cognitive deficits found in adolescents with migraine are similar to those reported in adults with migraine, cognitive impairment seems to persist throughout life.
Dupont, Benjamin; De Jonghe, Cedric; Kessels, Kris; Belmans, Ronnie
Consumer benefits of dynamic pricing depend on a variety of factors. Consumer characteristics and climatic circumstances widely differ, which forces a regional comparison. This paper presents a general overview of demand response programs and focuses on the short-term benefits of dynamic pricing for an average Flemish residential consumer. It reaches a methodology to develop a cost reflective dynamic pricing program and to estimate short-term bill savings. Participating in a dynamic pricing p...
DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy
Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...
Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention. Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals. Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context. Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed. Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention. Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.
Full Text Available With the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and brain analysis tools, it has become possible to measure brain volume changes up to around 0.5%. Besides long-term brain changes caused by atrophy in aging or neurodegenerative disease, short-term mechanisms that influence brain volume may exist. When we focus on short-term changes of the brain, changes may be either physiological or pathological. As such determining the cause of volumetric dynamics of the brain is essential. Additionally for an accurate interpretation of longitudinal brain volume measures by means of neurodegeneration, knowledge about the short-term changes is needed. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms influencing brain volumes on a short-term basis and set-out a framework of MRI techniques to be used for volumetric changes as well as the used analysis tools. 3D T1-weighted images are the images of choice when it comes to MRI of brain volume. These images are excellent to determine brain volume and can be used together with an analysis tool to determine the degree of volume change. Mechanisms that decrease global brain volume are: fluid restriction, evening MRI measurements, corticosteroids, antipsychotics and short-term effects of pathological processes like Alzheimer's disease, hypertension and Diabetes mellitus type II. Mechanisms increasing the brain volume include fluid intake, morning MRI measurements, surgical revascularization and probably medications like anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-hypertensive medication. Exercise was found to have no effect on brain volume on a short-term basis, which may imply that dehydration caused by exercise differs from dehydration by fluid restriction. In the upcoming years, attention should be directed towards studies investigating physiological short-term changes within the light of long-term pathological changes. Ultimately this may lead to a better understanding of the physiological short-term effects of
Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone
We provided novel evidence of a frequency-specific effect by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the left posterior parietal cortex on short-term memory, during a digit span task. the effect was prominent with stimulation at beta frequency for young and not for middle-aged adults and correlated with age. Our findings highlighted a short-term memory capacity improvement by tACS application.
Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo
The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: Higher aro...
Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri
Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....
Judith M. Reichel
Full Text Available GABAergic interneurons are essential for a functional equilibrium between excitatory and inhibitory impulses throughout the CNS. Disruption of this equilibrium can lead to various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders such as epileptic seizures or schizophrenia. Schizophrenia itself is clinically defined by negative- (e.g. depression and positive- (e.g. hallucinations symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunction. GABAergic interneurons are proposed to play a central role in the etiology and progression of schizophrenia; however, the specific mechanisms and the time-line of symptom development as well as the distinct involvement of cortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the etiology of schizophrenia-related symptoms are still not conclusively resolved.Previous work demonstrated that GABAergic interneurons can be selectively depleted in adult mice by means of saporin-conjugated anti-vesicular GABA transporter antibodies (SAVAs in vitro and in vivo. Given their involvement in Schizophrenia-related disease etiology, we ablated GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC in adult male C57BL/6N mice. Subsequently we assessed alterations in anxiety, sensory processing, hyperactivity and cognition after long-term (>14 days and short-term (< 14 days GABAergic depletion. Long-term GABAergic depletion in the mPFC resulted in a decrease in sensorimotor-gating and impairments in cognitive flexibility. Notably, the same treatment at the level of the dHPC completely abolished spatial learning capabilities. Short-term GABAergic depletion in the dHPC revealed a transient hyperactive phenotype as well as marked impairments regarding the acquisition of a spatial memory. In contrast, recall of a spatial memory was not affected by the same intervention. These findings emphasize the importance of functional local GABAergic networks for the encoding but not the recall of hippocampus-dependent spatial memories.
Hoffman, M.; Hassan, A. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Martinez, D. [Black Hills Power and Light, Rapid City, SD (United States)
Details of a neuro-fuzzy network-based short term load forecasting system for power utilities were presented. The fuzzy logic controller was used to fuzzify inputs representing historical temperature and load curves. The fuzzified inputs were then used to develop the fuzzy rules matrix. Output membership function values were determined by evaluating the fuzzified inputs with the fuzzy rules. Output membership function values were used as inputs for the neural network portion of the system. The training process used a back propagation gradient descent algorithm to adjust the weight values of the neural network in order to reduce the error between the neural network output and the desired output. The neural network was then used to predict future load values. Sample data were taken from a local power company's daily load curve to validate the system. A 10 per cent forecast error was introduced in the temperature values to determine the effect on load prediction. Results of the study suggest that the combined use of fuzzy logic and neural networks provide greater accuracy than studies where either approach is used alone. 6 refs., 6 figs.
Regan, J. E.
Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.
Lara, Antonio H; Wallis, Jonathan D
Temporary storage of information in visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a key component of many complex cognitive abilities. However, it is highly limited in capacity. Understanding the neurophysiological nature of this capacity limit will require a valid animal model of VSTM. We used a multiple-item color change detection task to measure macaque monkeys' VSTM capacity. Subjects' performance deteriorated and reaction times increased as a function of the number of items in memory. Additionally, we measured the precision of the memory representations by varying the distance between sample and test colors. In trials with similar sample and test colors, subjects made more errors compared to trials with highly discriminable colors. We modeled the error distribution as a Gaussian function and used this to estimate the precision of VSTM representations. We found that as the number of items in memory increases the precision of the representations decreases dramatically. Additionally, we found that focusing attention on one of the objects increases the precision with which that object is stored and degrades the precision of the remaining. These results are in line with recent findings in human psychophysics and provide a solid foundation for understanding the neurophysiological nature of the capacity limit of VSTM.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana
A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...
Merema, Matt R; Speelman, Craig P
It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males) participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.
Matt R Merema
Full Text Available It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.
Straszecka, J; Jonderko, G; Kucharz, E J; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Kotulska, A; Bogdanowski, T
Central nervous system involvement is seldom reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Cognitive functions were determined in 21 patients with definite SSc and 42 healthy controls. Thyroid function was also measured in order to eliminate the effect of hypothyroidism on cognitive functioning. It was found that the SSc patients with normal thyroid function showed defective long-term and recent memory, learning ability, criticism, perception and visuo-perceptual skills, their simple reaction time was prolonged. Similar but less advanced cognitive defects were shown in the SSc patients with overt or latent hypothyroidism. The obtained results indicate that the central nervous system involvement is more common in patients with SSc than it has been reported earlier.
Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A
The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.
Siew Li Teoh
Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane’s Risk of Bias (ROB tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD of −0.55 (−1.04, −0.06 and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (−0.001, 1.40. For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (−0.16, 1.42. Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE.
Zainol, Nurul Ain; Hashim, Hairul Anuar
We examined the moderating effects of exercise habit strength on the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in primary school children. The sample consisted of 165 primary school students (10-12 years old). Participants completed measures of emotional distress, exercise habit strength, and the Digit Span Test. Mid-year exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. The results of SEM revealed an acceptable fit for the hypothesised model. Exercise habit was positively associated with short-term memory, and better short-term memory was associated with better academic performance. However, although an inverse relationship was found between emotional distress and short-term memory, a positive association was found between exercise habit strength and emotional distress. The findings indicate that exercise habit is positively associated with cognitive ability and mediates the negative effect of distress.
Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M
Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.
Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina; Lampe, Fiona; Gilson, Richard; Speakman, Andrew; Antinori, Andrea; Bruun, Tina; Vassilenko, Anna; Collins, Simon; Rodger, Alison
We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment. We also estimated the diagnostic accuracy of both questionnaires as tests for cognitive impairment. Four hundred forty-eight patients completed the assessments [mean age 45.8 years, 84% male, 87% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed (HIV-1 plasma RNA symptoms of cognitive impairment were both associated with worse performance on some cognitive tests. There were also strong associations with financial difficulties, depressive and anxiety symptoms, unemployment, and longer time since HIV diagnosis. Both questionnaires performed poorly as diagnostic tests for cognitive impairment. Patients' own assessments of everyday function and symptoms were associated with objectively measured cognitive function. However, there were strong associations with other psychosocial issues including mood and anxiety disorders and socioeconomic hardship. This should be considered when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.
Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Tanigawa, Takanori; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Aoyama, Tomoki; Tsuboyama, Tadao
To investigate whether a 12-week physical and cognitive exercise program can improve cognitive function and brain activation efficiency in community-dwelling older adults. Randomized controlled trial. Kyoto, Japan. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 48) were randomized into an exercise group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 24). Exercise group participants received a weekly dual task-based multimodal exercise class in combination with pedometer-based daily walking exercise during the 12-week intervention phase. Control group participants did not receive any intervention and were instructed to spend their time as usual during the intervention phase. The outcome measures were global cognitive function, memory function, executive function, and brain activation (measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging) associated with visual short-term memory. Exercise group participants had significantly greater postintervention improvement in memory and executive functions than the control group (P cognitive exercise program can improve the efficiency of brain activation during cognitive tasks in older adults, which is associated with improvements in memory and executive function. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Tochihara, Yutaka
This study investigated the effects of passive heat exposure on pre-frontal cortex oxygenation and cognitive functioning, specifically to examine whether the change in pre-frontal cortex oxygenation coincided with cognitive functioning during heat exposure. Eleven male students who participated in this study immersed their lower legs to the knees in three different water temperatures, 38 °C, 40 °C, and 42 °C water in an air temperature of 28 º C and 50 % relative humidity for 60 min. After 45 min of leg immersion they performed cognitive functioning tasks assessing their short-term memory while immersing their lower legs. There were higher rectal temperature ( P 0.05). No statistical difference in cognitive functioning among the three conditions was observed with a higher increase of oxyhemoglobin during the cognitive functioning in the 42 °C condition for the left ( P = 0.05) and right ( P thermally comfortable.
Seo, Heung Suk; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Rhee, Jong Chul; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Anticancer effect and complications were evaluated after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in 12 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma until 2 weeks and 4 weeks after TAE, respectively. The results were as follows; 1. Serum alpha-fetoprotein value decreased in 7 out of 9 patients with high value prior to TAE. 2. Loss of enhancement and better definition on enhanced computed tomography (CT) were seen in the tumors in all caes, and low density areas in 9/10.Gas bubbles were seen in low-density areas in 4/10 and high density areas caused by lipiodol in 6/10. 3. Post-embolization syndrome was developed in most patients but improved clinically within a week after TAE. 4. On laboratory examination, impairment of liver function was developed in most patients but improved within 4 weeks after TAE. 5. Complications on CT included splenic infarction and thickening of wall of the gallbladder, which didn't require specific treatment. The authors conclude that TAE for hepatocellular carcinoma reveals apparent anticancer effect on short-term evaluation, and resultant complications are transient and improved by conservative treatment.
Seo, Heung Suk; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Rhee, Jong Chul; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk
Anticancer effect and complications were evaluated after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in 12 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma until 2 weeks and 4 weeks after TAE, respectively. The results were as follows; 1. Serum alpha-fetoprotein value decreased in 7 out of 9 patients with high value prior to TAE. 2. Loss of enhancement and better definition on enhanced computed tomography (CT) were seen in the tumors in all caes, and low density areas in 9/10.Gas bubbles were seen in low-density areas in 4/10 and high density areas caused by lipiodol in 6/10. 3. Post-embolization syndrome was developed in most patients but improved clinically within a week after TAE. 4. On laboratory examination, impairment of liver function was developed in most patients but improved within 4 weeks after TAE. 5. Complications on CT included splenic infarction and thickening of wall of the gallbladder, which didn't require specific treatment. The authors conclude that TAE for hepatocellular carcinoma reveals apparent anticancer effect on short-term evaluation, and resultant complications are transient and improved by conservative treatment
Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P
Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity.
Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya
Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.
Logan A. Berg
Full Text Available This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1 are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2 how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Lench, Heather C; Darbor, Kathleen E; Berg, Logan A
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear) versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim – Understand if functional and cognitive decline is accentuated during hospitalization in elderly patients. Method – It was design a descriptive and correlational study. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were used. Results – Were evaluated at admission and discharge 51 elderly (75.53 ± 7.16 years, 53% women, admitted in an internal medicine unit with a length of stay of 14.27±6.45 days. For FIM and MMSE were found statistically significant differences with lower scores from admission to discharge. Negative correlations between age and length of stay and the scores of all measures were found. Except for the Cognitive FIM at admission, all elderly residents at home fared better than the institutionalized in all measures. Conclusions – The hospitalization contributes to a greater weakness/frailty of the elderly and is considered high risk for decline in physical fitness and cognitive function.
Jarrold, C; Baddeley, A D
This paper is divided into three sections. The first reviews the evidence for a verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome. Existing research suggests that short-term memory for verbal information tends to be impaired in Down syndrome, in contrast to short-term memory for visual and spatial material. In addition, problems of hearing or speech do not appear to be a major cause of difficulties on tests of verbal short-term memory. This suggests that Down syndrome is associated with a specific memory problem, which we link to a potential deficit in the functioning of the 'phonological loop' of Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory. The second section considers the implications of a phonological loop problem. Because a reasonable amount is known about the normal functioning of the phonological loop, and of its role in language acquisition in typical development, we can make firm predictions as to the likely nature of the short-term memory problem in Down syndrome, and its consequences for language learning. However, we note that the existing evidence from studies with individuals with Down syndrome does not fit well with these predictions. This leads to the third section of the paper, in which we consider key questions to be addressed in future research. We suggest that there are two questions to be answered, which follow directly from the contradictory results outlined in the previous section. These are 'What is the precise nature of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome', and 'What are the consequences of this deficit for learning'. We discuss ways in which these questions might be addressed in future work.
Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Saul, Alison N; Daugherty, Christine; Holmes, Tyson H; Bouley, Donna M; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M
In contrast to chronic/long-term stress that suppresses/dysregulates immune function, an acute/short-term fight-or-flight stress response experienced during immune activation can enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Moderate ultraviolet-B (UV) exposure provides a non-invasive system for studying the naturalistic emergence, progression and regression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Because SCC is an immunoresponsive cancer, we hypothesized that short-term stress experienced before UV exposure would enhance protective immunity and increase resistance to SCC. Control and short-term stress groups were treated identically except that the short-term stress group was restrained (2.5h) before each of nine UV-exposure sessions (minimum erythemal dose, 3-times/week) during weeks 4-6 of the 10-week UV exposure protocol. Tumors were measured weekly, and tissue collected at weeks 7, 20, and 32. Chemokine and cytokine gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, the short-term stress group showed greater cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27, RANTES, IL-12, and IFN-gamma gene expression at weeks 7, 20, and 32, higher skin infiltrating T cell numbers (weeks 7 and 20), lower tumor incidence (weeks 11-20) and fewer tumors (weeks 11-26). These results suggest that activation of short-term stress physiology increased chemokine expression and T cell trafficking and/or function during/following UV exposure, and enhanced Type 1 cytokine-driven cell-mediated immunity that is crucial for resistance to SCC. Therefore, the physiological fight-or-flight stress response and its adjuvant-like immuno-enhancing effects, may provide a novel and important mechanism for enhancing immune system mediated tumor-detection/elimination that merits further investigation.
Konstantinou, Nikos; Constantinidou, Fofi; Kanai, Ryota
Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM. Behavioral capacity estimates were calculated separately for spatial and object information using a novel adaptive staircase procedure and were found to be unrelated, supporting domain-specific VSTM capacity limits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed dissociable neuroanatomical correlates of spatial versus object VSTM. Interindividual variability in spatial VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, object VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the left insula. These dissociable findings highlight the importance of considering domain-specific estimates of VSTM capacity and point to the crucial brain regions that limit VSTM capacity for different types of visual information. Hum Brain Mapp 38:767-778, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe
Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.
Hylin, Michael J; Orsi, Sara A; Rozas, Natalia S; Hill, Julia L; Zhao, Jing; Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K
Concussive force can cause neurocognitive and neurobehavioral dysfunction by inducing functional, electrophysiological, and/or ultrastructural changes within the brain. Although concussion-triggered symptoms typically subside within days to weeks in most people, in 15%-20% of the cases, symptomology can continue beyond this time point. Problems with memory, attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility (e.g., problem solving, conflict resolution) are some of the prominent post-concussive cognitive symptoms. Repeated concussions (with loss or altered consciousness), which are common to many contact sports, can exacerbate these symptoms. The pathophysiology of repeated concussions is not well understood, nor is an effective treatment available. In order to facilitate drug discovery to treat post-concussive symptoms (PCSs), there is a need to determine if animal models of repeated mild closed head injury (mCHI) can mimic the neurocognitive and histopathological consequences of repeated concussions. To this end, we employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device to deliver a mCHI directly to the skull of mice daily for 4 days, and examined the ensuing neurological and neurocognitive functions using beam balance, foot-fault, an abbreviated Morris water maze test, context discrimination, and active place avoidance tasks. Repeated mCHI exacerbated vestibulomotor, motor, short-term memory and conflict learning impairments as compared to a single mCHI. Learning and memory impairments were still observed in repeated mCHI mice when tested 3 months post-injury. Repeated mCHI also reduced cerebral perfusion, prolonged the inflammatory response, and in some animals, caused hippocampal neuronal loss. Our results show that repeated mCHI can reproduce some of the deficits seen after repeated concussions in humans and may be suitable for drug discovery studies and translational research.
Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…
Moran, Jean M.; Balter, James M.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Marsh, Robin B.; van Herk, Marcel; Pierce, Lori J.
PURPOSE: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients
Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.
coast of India have been analyzed to study the short-term statistics of waves covering full one year period. The study indicates that the values of the observed maximum wave height as a function of duration are not consistent with the theoretical...
Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahveninen, Jyrki
The ability to concentrate on relevant sounds in the acoustic environment is crucial for everyday function and communication. Converging lines of evidence suggests that transient functional changes in auditory-cortex neurons, “short-term plasticity”, might explain this fundamental function. Under conditions of strongly focused attention, enhanced processing of attended sounds can take place at very early latencies (~50 ms from sound onset) in primary auditory cortex and possibly even at earlier latencies in subcortical structures. More robust selective-attention short-term plasticity is manifested as modulation of responses peaking at ~100 ms from sound onset in functionally specialized nonprimary auditory-cortical areas by way of stimulus-specific reshaping of neuronal receptive fields that supports filtering of selectively attended sound features from task-irrelevant ones. Such effects have been shown to take effect in ~seconds following shifting of attentional focus. There are findings suggesting that the reshaping of neuronal receptive fields is even stronger at longer auditory-cortex response latencies (~300 ms from sound onset). These longer-latency short-term plasticity effects seem to build up more gradually, within tens of seconds after shifting the focus of attention. Importantly, some of the auditory-cortical short-term plasticity effects observed during selective attention predict enhancements in behaviorally measured sound discrimination performance. PMID:24551458
Nokes, C; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Sawyer, A W; Cooper, E S; Robinson, B A; Bundy, D A
A double-blind placebo trial was conducted to determine the effect of moderate to high loads of Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) infection on the cognitive functions of 159 school children (age 9-12 years) in Jamaica. Infected children were randomly assigned to Treatment or Placebo groups. A third group of randomly selected uninfected children were assigned to a Control for comparative purposes. The improvement in cognitive function was evaluated using a stepwise multiple linear regression, designed to control for any confounding variables. The expulsion of worms led to a significant improvement in tests of auditory short-term memory (P less than 0.02; P less than 0.01), and a highly significant improvement in the scanning and retrieval of long-term memory (P less than 0.001). After 9 weeks, treated children were no longer significantly different from an uninfected Control group in these three tests of cognitive function. The removal of T. trichiura was more important than Ascaris lumbricoides in determining this improvement. The results suggest that whipworm infection has an adverse effect on certain cognitive functions which is reversible by therapy.
Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi
Time perception is involved in various cognitive functions. This study investigated the characteristics of short-term memory for event duration by examining how the length of the retention period affects inter- and intramodal duration judgment. On each trial, a sample stimulus was followed by a comparison stimulus, after a variable delay period (0.5-5 s). The sample and comparison stimuli were presented in the visual or auditory modality. The participants determined whether the comparison stimulus was longer or shorter than the sample stimulus. The distortion pattern of subjective duration during the delay period depended on the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus but was not affected by that of the sample stimulus. When the comparison stimulus was visually presented, the retained duration of the sample stimulus was shortened as the delay period increased. Contrarily, when the comparison stimulus was presented in the auditory modality, the delay period had little to no effect on the retained duration. Furthermore, whenever the participants did not know the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus beforehand, the effect of the delay period disappeared. These results suggest that the memory process for event duration is specific to sensory modality and that its performance is determined depending on the sensory modality in which the retained duration will be used subsequently.
Margaret C Jackson
Full Text Available Fluid and effective social communication requires that both face identity and emotional expression information are encoded and maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM to enable a coherent, ongoing picture of the world and its players. This appears to be of particular evolutionary importance when confronted with potentially threatening displays of emotion - previous research has shown better VSTM for angry versus happy or neutral face identities.Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, here we investigated the neural correlates of this angry face benefit in VSTM. Participants were shown between one and four to-be-remembered angry, happy, or neutral faces, and after a short retention delay they stated whether a single probe face had been present or not in the previous display. All faces in any one display expressed the same emotion, and the task required memory for face identity. We find enhanced VSTM for angry face identities and describe the right hemisphere brain network underpinning this effect, which involves the globus pallidus, superior temporal sulcus, and frontal lobe. Increased activity in the globus pallidus was significantly correlated with the angry benefit in VSTM. Areas modulated by emotion were distinct from those modulated by memory load.Our results provide evidence for a key role of the basal ganglia as an interface between emotion and cognition, supported by a frontal, temporal, and occipital network.
A commonly expressed view is that short-term memory (STM) is nothing more than activated long-term memory. If true, this would overturn a central tenet of cognitive psychology-the idea that there are functionally and neurobiologically distinct short- and long-term stores. Here I present an updated case for a separation between short- and long-term stores, focusing on the computational demands placed on any STM system. STM must support memory for previously unencountered information, the storage of multiple tokens of the same type, and variable binding. None of these can be achieved simply by activating long-term memory. For example, even a simple sequence of digits such as "1, 3, 1" where there are 2 tokens of the digit "1" cannot be stored in the correct order simply by activating the representations of the digits "1" and "3" in LTM. I also review recent neuroimaging data that has been presented as evidence that STM is activated LTM and show that these data are exactly what one would expect to see based on a conventional 2-store view. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo
Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789
Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne
Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lyons, Lisa C; Roman, Gregg
Endogenous biological clocks are widespread regulators of behavior and physiology, allowing for a more efficient allocation of efforts and resources over the course of a day. The extent that different processes are regulated by circadian oscillators, however, is not fully understood. We investigated the role of the circadian clock on short-term associative memory formation using a negatively reinforced olfactory-learning paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that memory formation was regulated in a circadian manner. The peak performance in short-term memory (STM) occurred during the early subjective night with a twofold performance amplitude after a single pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. This rhythm in memory is eliminated in both timeless and period mutants and is absent during constant light conditions. Circadian gating of sensory perception does not appear to underlie the rhythm in short-term memory as evidenced by the nonrhythmic shock avoidance and olfactory avoidance behaviors. Moreover, central brain oscillators appear to be responsible for the modulation as cryptochrome mutants, in which the antennal circadian oscillators are nonfunctional, demonstrate robust circadian rhythms in short-term memory. Together these data suggest that central, rather than peripheral, circadian oscillators modulate the formation of short-term associative memory and not the perception of the stimuli.
Edmund T Rolls
Full Text Available Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.
Rolls, Edmund T; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo
Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.
Renal function, efficacy, and safety of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil after short-term calcineurin inhibitor-based quadruple therapy in de novo renal transplant patients: one-year analysis of a randomized multicenter trial.
Guba, Markus; Pratschke, Johann; Hugo, Christian; Krämer, Bernhard K; Nohr-Westphal, Constanze; Brockmann, Jens; Andrassy, Joachim; Reinke, Petra; Pressmar, Katharina; Hakenberg, Oliver; Fischereder, Michael; Pascher, Andreas; Illner, Wolf-Dieter; Banas, Bernhard; Jauch, Karl-Walter
De novo sirolimus in calcineurin inhibitor-free regimens, although potentially useful to improve early renal function, are complicated by various drug-related side effects. We report a prospective open-label, multicenter, randomized trial to evaluate early conversion from a CsA-based to a sirolimus (SRL)-based regimen 10 to 24 days after renal transplantation. Of the 196 patients, 141 patients with a low-to-moderate immunological risk were eligible to be converted to SRL or to continue CsA. All patients received antithymocyte globulin-F single-bolus induction, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The primary endpoint, renal function determined by S-creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by Nankivell formula at 12 months was significantly better in the SRL group (1.51+/-0.59 vs. 1.87+/-0.98 mg/dL or 64.5+/-25.2 vs. 53.4+/-18.0 mL/min/1.73 m). Patient survival, graft survival, and incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection after conversion were not statistically different. Drug discontinuations were significantly higher in the SRL group (36.2% vs. 19.7%). Significantly, more patients in the SRL group reported acne, aphtous, and temporary hyperlipidemia, whereas cytomegalovirus viremia was significantly decreased (7.3% vs. 28.2%). Early conversion to a calcineurin inhibitor-free regimen with SRL in combination with mycophenolate mofetil may be a useful strategy to improve renal function. The identification of appropriate candidates and safe management of SRL-related adverse events will be a key to avoid the high rate of dropouts, which currently limit the broad applicability of this protocol.
McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Konel, Jonathan; Warsame, Fatima; Ying, Hao; Fernández, Marlís González; Carlson, Michelle C; Fine, Derek M; Appel, Lawrence J; Segev, Dorry L
Cognitive decline is common and increases mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic interventions like cognitive training (CT) and exercise training (ET) may preserve cognitive function. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of 20 hemodialysis patients to study the impact of 3 months of intradialytic CT (tablet-based brain games) (n = 7), ET (foot peddlers) (n = 6), or standard of care (SC) (n = 7) on cognitive function. Global cognitive function was measured by the Modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MS), psychomotor speed was measured by Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA and TMTB), and executive function was assessed by subtracting (TMTB - TMTA). Lower 3MS scores and slower TMTA and TMTB times reflected worse cognitive function. P values for differences were generated using analysis of variance, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values were generated from linear regression. Patients with SC experienced a decrease in psychomotor speed and executive function by 3 months (TMTA: 15 seconds; P = 0.055; TMTB: 47.4 seconds; P = 0.006; TMTB - TMTA; 31.7 seconds; P = 0.052); this decline was not seen among those with CT or ET (all P > 0.05). Compared with SC, the difference in the mean change in 3MS score was -3.29 points (95% CI: -11.70 to 5.12; P = 0.42) for CT and 4.48 points (95% CI: -4.27 to 13.22; P = 0.30) for ET. Compared with SC, the difference in mean change for TMTA was -15.13 seconds (95% CI: -37.64 to 7.39; P = 0.17) for CT and -17.48 seconds (95% CI: -41.18 to 6.22; P = 0.14) for ET, for TMTB, the difference was -46.72 seconds (95% CI: -91.12 to -2.31; P = 0.04) for CT and -56.21 seconds (95% CI: -105.86 to -6.56; P = 0.03) for ET, and for TMTB - TMTA, the difference was -30.88 seconds (95% CI: -76.05 to 14.28; P = 0.16) for CT and -34.93 seconds (95% CI: -85.43 to 15.56; P = 0.16) for ET. Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed
Yri, Hanne Maria; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte
-up. At the time of testing, none of the patients took medication potentially affecting cognitive function. Controls were 31 healthy age-matched and sex-matched volunteers from the local community. OUTCOME MEASURES: Executive function, working memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, attention and reaction......OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department...... time assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery consisting of validated computerised (Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery) and paper-and-pencil tests. RESULTS: Patients with IIH performed significantly worse than controls in four of six cognitive domains (p≤0...
Atkins, Alexandra S; Berman, Marc G; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Lewis, Richard L; Jonides, John
Interference is a major source of short-term errors of memory. The present investigation explores the relationship between two important forms of interference: proactive interference (PI), induced by the need to reject recently studied items no longer relevant to task performance, and semantic interference (SI), induced by the need to reject lures sharing a meaningful relationship with current memoranda. We explore the possibility that shared cognitive control processes are recruited to resolve both forms of interference. In Experiment 1, we find that the requirement to engage in articulatory suppression during the retention interval of tasks that induce either PI or SI increases both forms of interference similarly and selectively. In Experiment 2, we develop a task to examine PI and SI within the same experimental context. The results show interactive effects between factors that lead to the two forms of interference. Taken together, these findings support contextual-cuing models of short-term remembering (Nairne, Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 53-81 2002), where the context in which retrieval occurs can influence susceptibility to interference. Lastly, we discuss several theoretical hypotheses concerning the cognitive control processes that are recruited to resolve SI and PI in short-term remembering.
Potagas, Constantin; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Evdokimidis, Ioannis
The aim of the present study is to investigate short-term memory and working memory deficits in aphasics in relation to the severity of their language impairment. Fifty-eight aphasic patients participated in this study. Based on language assessment, an aphasia score was calculated for each patient. Memory was assessed in two modalities, verbal and spatial. Mean scores for all memory tasks were lower than normal. Aphasia score was significantly correlated with performance on all memory tasks. Correlation coefficients for short-term memory and working memory were approximately of the same magnitude. According to our findings, severity of aphasia is related with both verbal and spatial memory deficits. Moreover, while aphasia score correlated with lower scores in both short-term memory and working memory tasks, the lack of substantial difference between corresponding correlation coefficients suggests a possible primary deficit in information retention rather than impairment in working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.
The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook
Papagno, C; Vallar, G
Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages.
Yuan, Xiaohui; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Yanbin; Huang, Yuehua; Tan, Qingxiong
Highlights: • A hybrid model is developed for short-term wind power prediction. • The model is based on LSSVM and gravitational search algorithm. • Gravitational search algorithm is used to optimize parameters of LSSVM. • Effect of different kernel function of LSSVM on wind power prediction is discussed. • Comparative studies show that prediction accuracy of wind power is improved. - Abstract: Wind power forecasting can improve the economical and technical integration of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Due to its intermittency and randomness, it is hard to forecast wind power accurately. For the purpose of utilizing wind power to the utmost extent, it is very important to make an accurate prediction of the output power of a wind farm under the premise of guaranteeing the security and the stability of the operation of the power system. In this paper, a hybrid model (LSSVM–GSA) based on the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is proposed to forecast the short-term wind power. As the kernel function and the related parameters of the LSSVM have a great influence on the performance of the prediction model, the paper establishes LSSVM model based on different kernel functions for short-term wind power prediction. And then an optimal kernel function is determined and the parameters of the LSSVM model are optimized by using GSA. Compared with the Back Propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model, the simulation results show that the hybrid LSSVM–GSA model based on exponential radial basis kernel function and GSA has higher accuracy for short-term wind power prediction. Therefore, the proposed LSSVM–GSA is a better model for short-term wind power prediction
Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Roelofs, R.L.; Burgt, I. van der; Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.
Objective: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common genetic disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and a slightly lowered mean IQ. Genetic research has revealed mutations in nine genes in the RAS-MAPK pathway. Although research on cognitive functioning in NS is
Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben
Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…
Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan
As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re-search...... of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in the dataset...
Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela
The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Parra, Mario; Abrahams, S.; Fabi, K.; Logie, R.; Luzzi, S.; Della Sala, Sergio
Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or ‘binding’ deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1 : 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants...
Interstitial laser photocoagulation in the treatment of liver tumors. Personal technique, short term results and complications in patients with normal and impaired liver function; Fotocoagulazione laser-interstiziale ecoguidata dei tumori maligni del fegato: tecnica personale, risultati immediati e complicanze a breve termine nei pazienti con funzionalita' epatica normale e alterata
Giorgio, A.; Tarantino, L.; De Stefano, G.; Farella, N. [Azienda Ospedaliera D. Cotugno, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Ecografia ed Ecointerventistica; Catalano, O.; Cusati, B. [Ospedale S. Maria delle Grazie, Pozzuoli, NA (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Alalia, A. [Azienda Ospedaliera D. Cotugno, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Anestesia e Rianimazione; Del Vescovo, L. [Naples Univ. II, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia
The work reports the personal experience with interstitial laser photocoagulation in patients with liver tumors (mostly cirrhotics with hepatocellular carcinoma). The aim was to evaluate the short term efficacy of percutaneous interstitial laser photocoagulation in inducing focal ablation of liver tumors and the possible complications in patients with normal and impaired liver function. [Italian] Il presente lavoro riporta l'esperienza personale con l'utilizzazione della fotocoagulazione laser-interstiziale per tumori maligni del fegato, rappresentati in gran parte da epatocarcinomi in cirrosi. Lo scopo e' quello di verificare l'efficacia terapeutica in termini di volume di necrosi e di valutare gli effetti collaterali e le complicanze a breve termine sulla riserva funzionale del fegato e di altri organi, soprattutto nei pazienti con alterata funzionalita' epatica.
Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana
With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after
Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V
Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...
Iadecola, Costantino; Yaffe, Kristine; Biller, José; Bratzke, Lisa C.; Faraci, Frank M.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Gulati, Martha; Kamel, Hooman; Knopman, David S.; Launer, Lenore J.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina
Background Age-related dementia, most commonly caused by Alzheimer disease or cerebrovascular factors (vascular dementia), is a major public health threat. Chronic arterial hypertension is a well-established risk factor for both types of dementia, but the link between hypertension and its treatment and cognition remains poorly understood. In this scientific statement, a multidisciplinary team of experts examines the impact of hypertension on cognition to assess the state of the knowledge, to identify gaps, and to provide future directions. Methods Authors with relevant expertise were selected to contribute to this statement in accordance with the American Heart Association conflict-of-interest management policy. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature, and summarized the available data. Results Hypertension disrupts the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels, leads to ischemic damage of white matter regions critical for cognitive function, and may promote Alzheimer pathology. There is strong evidence of a deleterious influence of midlife hypertension on late-life cognitive function, but the cognitive impact of late-life hypertension is less clear. Observational studies demonstrated a cumulative effect of hypertension on cerebrovascular damage, but evidence from clinical trials that antihypertensive treatment improves cognition is not conclusive. Conclusions After carefully reviewing the literature, the group concluded that there were insufficient data to make evidence-based recommendations. However, judicious treatment of hypertension, taking into account goals of care and individual characteristics (eg, age and comorbidities), seems justified to safeguard vascular health and, as a consequence, brain health. PMID:27977393
Shah, Faraaz Ali; Pike, Francis; Alvarez, Karina; Angus, Derek; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar; Tate, Judith; Kapur, Vishesh; Wilsdon, Anthony; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Hansel, Nadia; Au, David; Avdalovic, Mark; Fan, Vincent S.; Barr, R. Graham
Rationale: Relationships between chronic health conditions and acute infections remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies suggest crosstalk between nervous and immune systems. Objectives: To determine bidirectional relationships between cognition and pneumonia. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of a population-based cohort over 10 years. We determined whether changes in cognition increase risk of pneumonia hospitalization by trajectory analyses and joint modeling. We then determined whether pneumonia hospitalization increased risk of subsequent dementia using a Cox model with pneumonia as a time-varying covariate. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 5,888 participants, 639 (10.9%) were hospitalized with pneumonia at least once. Most participants had normal cognition before pneumonia. Three cognition trajectories were identified: no, minimal, and severe rapid decline. A greater proportion of participants hospitalized with pneumonia were on trajectories of minimal or severe decline before occurrence of pneumonia compared with those never hospitalized with pneumonia (proportion with no, minimal, and severe decline were 67.1%, 22.8%, and 10.0% vs. 76.0%, 19.3%, and 4.6% for participants with and without pneumonia, respectively; P pneumonia, even in those with normal cognition and physical function before pneumonia (β = −0.02; P pneumonia were subsequently at an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 2.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.62–3.11]; P = 0.01). Associations were independent of demographics, health behaviors, other chronic conditions, and physical function. Bidirectional relationship did not vary based on severity of disease, and similar associations were noted for those with severe sepsis and other infections. Conclusions: A bidirectional relationship exists between pneumonia and cognition and may explain how a single episode of infection in well-appearing older individuals accelerates decline in chronic health conditions and loss of
This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.
Full Text Available Lightness research offers ample evidence that visual scene contains all the cues necessary to perform lightness calculations. In real life, contrary to laboratory findings, familiarity of the objects seems to be more important than the temporarily viewing conditions. In our experiment observers were led to believe that they see the same object moving from one illumination to the other. The estimated shade in the second illumination varied as a function of the shade in the first illumination. In the second experiment, object identity was stressed by the introduction of targets with distinct geometrical shape. Subjects were familiarized with these targets and under the impression that those targets were the only targets used, even after illumination and background changed. Consequently, their matches corresponded to memorized and not viewed shade. In the third experiment observers were familiarized with two sets of targets. Only one set was used in the experiment, but twice, with different instructions. The targets were estimated based on the instruction mentioning the set from which the target presumably was taken. Nevertheless, imagery did not aid the process. When the observers were asked to keep imagining the gray shade they were previously observing, the lightness estimation depended exclusively on the factors presented in the visual scene. However, memory overpowers viewing condition. In the last experiment, observers were shown the same object in two illuminations simultaneously but were asked to estimate lightness when the object was removed from view. The value of this match-from-memory was in between the values for the two illumination levels.
Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi
Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients.
Full Text Available Through its capacity of plastic changes, the adult brain enables successful dealing with new demands of everyday life and recovery after an acquired brain damage either spontaneously or by the help of rehabilitation interventions. Studies which explored the effects of cognitive training in the normal population report on different types of changes in the performance of cognitive tasks as well as different types of changes in brain activation patterns.Following practice, brain activation can change in its extent, intensity or location, while cognitive processes can become more efficient or can be replaced by different processes.After acquired brain damage plastic changes are somewhat different. After the injury, the damaged brain area can either gradually regain its previous function, or different brain regions are recruited to perform that function.Studies of spontaneous and guided recovery of cognitive functions have revealed both types of plastic changes that follow each other, as well as significant correlations between these changes and improvement on the behavioural level.
Su, Yuling; Lai, Yunpeng; Huang, Wanyi; Tan, Wei; Qu, Zhe; Ding, Yulong
Although some studies showed that training can improve the ability of cross-dimension conjunction search, less is known about the underlying mechanism. Specifically, it remains unclear whether training of visual conjunction search can successfully bind different features of separated dimensions into a new function unit at early stages of visual processing. In the present study, we utilized stimulus specificity and generalization to provide a new approach to investigate the mechanisms underlying perceptual learning (PL) in visual conjunction search. Five experiments consistently showed that after 40 to 50 min of training of color-shape/orientation conjunction search, the ability to search for a certain conjunction target improved significantly and the learning effects did not transfer to a new target that differed from the trained target in both color and shape/orientation features. However, the learning effects were not strictly specific. In color-shape conjunction search, although the learning effect could not transfer to a same-shape different-color target, it almost completely transferred to a same-color different-shape target. In color-orientation conjunction search, the learning effect partly transferred to a new target that shared same color or same orientation with the trained target. Moreover, the sum of transfer effects for the same color target and the same orientation target in color-orientation conjunction search was algebraically equivalent to the learning effect for trained target, showing an additive transfer effect. The different transfer patterns in color-shape and color-orientation conjunction search learning might reflect the different complexity and discriminability between feature dimensions. These results suggested a feature-based attention enhancement mechanism rather than a unitization mechanism underlying the short-term PL of color-shape/orientation conjunction search.
Walsh, Jacquelyn N; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wayne, Peter M
Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT). Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts. A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365.
In 2015, one of the Bosch Home and Garden divisions, Bosch Lawn and Garden, has made a strategic decision to adopt a points-based short-term loyalty program called Ventum LG in the German supermarkets and petrol stations. It was decided that the base of this program will be completed Ventum PT short-term loyalty program which was managed by another division, Bosch Power Tools, and proved to be successful. This thesis aims to evaluate the worthiness of the Ventum LG loyalty program for Bosch L...
Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita [Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). GECAD - Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center
This paper proposes an energy resources management methodology based on three distinct time horizons: day-ahead scheduling, hour-ahead scheduling, and real-time scheduling. In each scheduling process the update of generation and consumption operation and of the storage and electric vehicles storage status are used. Besides the new operation conditions, the most accurate forecast values of wind generation and of consumption using results of short-term and very short-term methods are used. A case study considering a distribution network with intensive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles is presented. (orig.)
Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…
Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.
We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…
Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.
Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.
Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.
Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific... programs, confer on common problems and projects, and promote professional relationships and communications...
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding
Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.
Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a
Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán
Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.