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Sample records for short-term antibiotic therapy

  1. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

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    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  2. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy after short-term therapy.

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    Phillips, Brandon N; Chun, Dal W

    2014-01-01

    To report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity after short-term therapy. Observational case report. A 56-year-old woman presented to the Ophthalmology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) with a 6-month history of gradually decreasing vision in both eyes. The patient had been taking hydroxychloroquine for the preceding 48 months for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Examination of the posterior segment revealed bilateral "bull's eye" macular lesions. Fundus autofluorescence revealed hyperfluorescence of well-defined bull's eye lesions in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography revealed corresponding parafoveal atrophy with a loss of the retinal inner segment/outer segment junction. Humphrey visual field 10-2 white showed significant central and paracentral defects with a generalized depression. The patient was on a standard dose of 400 mg daily, which was above her ideal dose. The patient had no history of kidney or liver dysfunction. There were no known risk factors but there were several possible confounding factors. The patient was started on high-dose nabumetone, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, at the same time she was started on hydroxychloroquine. She also reported taking occasional ibuprofen. Retinal toxicity from chloroquine has been recognized for decades with later reports showing retinopathy from long-term hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) use for the treatment of antiinflammatory diseases. Hydroxychloroquine is now widely used and retinal toxicity is relatively uncommon. However, it can cause serious vision loss and is usually irreversible. The risk of hydroxychloroquine toxicity rises to nearly 1% with a total cumulative dose of 1,000 g, which is ∼5 years to 7 years of normal use. Toxicity is rare under this dose. For this reason, the American Academy of Ophthalmology has revised its recommendations such that annual screenings begin 5 years after therapy with hydroxychloroquine has begun unless there are known risk

  3. Short term efficacy of interventional therapy for hilar biliary obstruction

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    Zhai Renyou; Dai Dingke; Wang Jianfeng; Yu Ping; Wei Baojie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the method and short term efficacy of interventional therapy for hilar biliary obstructive jaundice. Methods: 100 consecutive patients with perihilar biliary obstruction admitted before May 2004 were treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or placement of metallic stents. Among them, 39 patients were found with bile duct cancer, 6 with adenocarcinoma of gallbladder, 22 with metastatic carcinoma, 15 with primary liver carcinoma and 18 with bile duct strait after liver transplantation. Serum total bilirubin before operation and 3-7 days, 8-14 days after procedure were analysed by t test. Results: 79 patients with PTBD (including simple external drainage and combined internal and external drainage), and 21 patients with stents placement (including 31 stents of 4 different kinds) were all carried out successfully. There were significant differences in serum total bilirubin before and 3-7 days, 8-14 days after the procedure, P<0.05 vs P<0.01. Conclusion: Interventional therapy is simple, safe, and effective for hilar biliary obstruction, the latter showed more significance than the former with short term satisfaction. (authors)

  4. The periodontal abscess (II). Short-term clinical and microbiological efficacy of 2 systemic antibiotic regimes.

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    Herrera, D; Roldán, S; O'Connor, A; Sanz, M

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this short-term open parallel longitudinal clinical study was to compare the clinical and microbiological efficacy of 2 different antibiotic regimes in the treatment of acute periodontal abscesses. After patient selection, a clinical examination was carried out recording the following variables: pain, edema, redness, swelling, bleeding on probing, suppuration, tooth mobility, lymphadenopathy, and probing pocket depth. Microbiological samples were taken from the lesion and the patient was randomly assigned to one of two antibiotic regimes: azithromycin or amoxicillin/clavulanate. Clinical variables were recorded, and microbiological samples were taken, at 3-5 days, 10-12 days and 30 days. Additional mechanical treatment (debridement and scaling) was performed in the third visit (10-12 days). Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and after 10-12 days. Microbiological samples were processed by anaerobic culturing, and isolated periodontal pathogens were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by means of the spiral gradient endpoint methodology. 15 patients took azithromycin, and 14 amoxicillin/clavulanate. Subjective clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant improvements with both antibiotic regimes, which lasted for at least 1 month (pperiodontal abscesses in periodontitis patients.

  5. Short-term versus continuous antimicrobial therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

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    Whalley, P J; Cunningham, F G

    1977-03-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria was identified in 300 pregnant women prior to the 28th week of gestation. In one group of 200 women short-term treatment with either nitrofurantoin or sulfamethizole was given for 14 days, and in another group of 100 women continuous therapy with one of these drugs was given for the remainder of gestation. Weekly urine cultures were obtained from all the women. Of the women treated with short-term therapy, 65% were abacteriuric for the remainder of pregnancy following one course of therapy, 24% became abacteriuric but subsequently relapsed, 2% had reinfection after becoming abacteriuric, and 9% demonstrated no response. Following treatment with a second course of short-term therapy, another 19% of these women were cured for the remainder of their pregnancy, and 3.5% responded to a third course. In the continuous therapy group, 88% of the women became abacteriuric for the remainder of the gestation, 3% demonstrated relapse, 2% developed reinfection, and 7% had no response to the first drug given. These data demonstrate that short-term administration of antimicrobials, when combined with surveillance for recurrent bacteriuria, is effective for the management of the pregnant woman with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

  6. [Contract focused short-term group therapy--results of an evaluation].

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    Hirschberg, Rainer; Meyer, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    A short description outlines the development of commission focused short-term therapy (AFoG) for children and adolescents. Subsequently the generic principles of psychotherapy are applied to AFoG in order to underline the basic assumptions of this variation of systemic group therapy. Behavioural changes arising in different contexts (school, family, group therapy) show the need for an appropriate flexibility of group therapy techniques. The evaluation was accomplished using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL 4-18) at the beginning and 3 month after the end of the group therapy. The results show positive effects which finally are discussed critically.

  7. Impact of long-term and short-term therapies on seminal parameters

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    Jlenia Elia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was: i to evaluate the prevalence of male partners of subfertile couples being treated with long/short term therapies for non andrological diseases; ii to study their seminal profile for the possible effects of their treatments on spermatogenesis and/or epididymal maturation. Methods: The study group was made up of 723 subjects, aged between 25 and 47 years. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines (1999. The Superimposed Image Analysis System (SIAS, which is based on the computerized superimposition of spermatozoa images, was used to assess sperm motility parameters. Results: The prevalence of subjects taking pharmacological treatments was 22.7% (164/723. The prevalence was 3.7% (27/723 for the Short-Term Group and 18.9% (137/723 for the Long-Term Group. The subjects of each group were also subdivided into subgroups according to the treatments being received. Regarding the seminal profile, we did not observe a significant difference between the Long-Term, Short-Term or the Control Group. However, regarding the subgroups, we found a significant decrease in sperm number and progressive motility percentage in the subjects receiving treatment with antihypertensive drugs compared with the other subgroups and the Control Group. Conclusions: In the management of infertile couples, the potential negative impact on seminal parameters of any drugs being taken as Long-Term Therapy should be considered. The pathogenic mechanism needs to be clarified.

  8. Effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient psychotherapy unit

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    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy in heterogeneous patient groups is common in the public Danish psychiatric system but is in need of evaluation. AIM: To investigate improvement in 39-session psychodynamic group therapy using three criteria: 1) effect size (Cohen's d), 2...... compared with Danish norms. Clinical implications: Patients referred to public outpatient treatment settings may need alternative or longer treatment than 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy over 3 months.......) and subscales. Analyses were conducted on the total sample and after exclusion of 32 GSI pre-treatment no-cases. RESULTS: The total sample GSI effect size was 0.74 indicating a moderate to large effect size (ranging from 0.67 in depressed to 0.74 in neurotic and personality disorder patients), which increased...

  9. Psychological Mindedness and Psychotherapy Process in Short-Term Group Therapy.

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    Kealy, David; Sierra-Hernandez, Carlos A; Piper, William E; Joyce, Anthony S; Weideman, Rene; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2017-01-01

    Psychological mindedness is regarded as an important patient characteristic that can influence the course of psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' capacity for psychological mindedness and aspects of the group psychotherapy process as experienced and rated by therapists and other group members. Participants were 110 patients who completed two forms of short-term group therapy for the treatment of complicated grief. Psychological mindedness was assessed at pretreatment by external raters using a video-interview procedure. Group therapists assessed patients' therapeutic work and therapeutic alliance following each group therapy session. Therapists and other group members rated each patient's expression of emotion and provided appraisals of their cohesion to each patient throughout the course of therapy. Psychological mindedness was found to be positively associated with several group process variables as rated by the therapist and other group members.

  10. Agency over Phantom Limb Enhanced by Short-Term Mirror Therapy.

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    Imaizumi, Shu; Asai, Tomohisa; Koyama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Most amputees experience phantom limb, whereby they feel that the amputated limb is still present. In some cases, these experiences include pain that can be alleviated by "mirror therapy." Mirror therapy consists of superimposing a mirrored image of the moving intact limb onto the phantom limb. This therapy provides a closed loop between the motor command to the amputated limb and its predicted visual feedback. This loop is also involved in the sense of agency, a feeling of controlling one's own body. However, it is unclear how mirror therapy is related to the sense of agency over a phantom limb. Using mirror therapy, we investigated phantom limb pain and the senses of agency and ownership (i.e., a feeling of having one's own body) of the phantom limb. Nine upper-limb amputees, five of whom reported recent phantom limb pain, underwent a single 15-min trial of mirror therapy. Before and after the trial, the participants completed a questionnaire regarding agency, ownership, and pain related to their phantom limb. They reported that the sense of agency over the phantom limb increased following the mirror therapy trial, while the ownership slightly increased but not as much as did the agency. The reported pain did not change; that is, it was comparably mild before and after the trial. These results suggest that short-term mirror therapy can, at least transiently, selectively enhance the sense of agency over a phantom limb, but may not alleviate phantom limb pain.

  11. ORACLE--antibiotics for preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes: short-term and long-term outcomes.

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    Kenyon, S; Taylor, D J; Tarnow-Mordi, W O

    2002-01-01

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM) is the most common antecedent of preterm birth and can lead to death, neonatal disease and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for pPROM suggested some health benefits for the neonate, but the results were inconclusive. A large, randomized, multicentre trial was undertaken to try to resolve this issue. In total, 4826 women with pPROM were randomized to one of four treatments: 325 mg co-amoxiclav plus 250 mg erythromycin, co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin placebo, erythromycin plus co-amoxiclav placebo, or co-amoxiclav placebo plus erythromycin placebo, four times daily for 10 d or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. The analysis was undertaken by intention to treat. Indications of short-term respiratory function, chronic lung disease and major neonatal cerebral abnormality were reduced with the prescription of erythromycin. In contrast, the use of co-amoxiclav was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Prophylactic antibiotics can play a role in preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes in reducing infant morbidity.

  12. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: A pilot study

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    Sally Ann Skewes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group Schema Therapy (ST-g with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, behavioural, and experiential techniques. Specific schema-based strategies were chosen for a diagnostically mixed group of personality disorder clients. Six participants attended until end of treatment and two dropped-out before mid-treatment. All outcome measures showed changes with large effect sizes in avoidant personality disorder symptom severity, depression and anxiety levels between pre-therapy and follow-up. Four participants achieved a loss of personality disorder diagnosis at the end of therapy. By follow-up, five participants had achieved a loss of diagnosis, suggesting that participants derived ongoing benefits from the group even after treatment ended. Six participants no longer met criteria for depression at the end of treatment and this was maintained for all participants at six-month follow-up. At follow-up, the majority of participants showed clinically significant change on the GSI. For the SMI maladaptive modes, the majority of participants showed improvement at follow-up. At follow-up 40% of participants showed clinically significant change on the SMI adaptive modes. Qualitative feedback indicates that the group helps to normalize participants’ psychological experiences and difficulties and promotes self-expression and self-disclosure, while reducing disinhibition. Preliminary results suggest that short-term ST-g may benefit those with mixed personality disorders, but generalizability is limited by the small sample size and lack

  13. Short-term vs long-term calcium hydroxide therapy after immediate tooth replantation: a histomorphometric study in monkey's teeth.

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    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Gulinelli, Jéssica Lemos; Saito, Célia T M H; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Américo de Oliveira, José; Melo, Moriel Evangelista; de Souza Gomes, Weglis Dyanne

    2012-06-01

    Endodontic treatment is an important step of tooth replantation protocols, but the ideal moment for definitive obturation of replanted teeth has not yet been established. In this study, a histomorphometric analysis was undertaken to evaluate the repair process on immediate replantation of monkey's teeth after calcium hydroxide (CH) therapy for 1 and 6 months followed by root canal filling with a CH-based sealer (Sealapex(®) ). The maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors of five female Cebus apella monkeys were extracted, kept in sterile saline for 15 min, replanted and splinted with stainless steel orthodontic wire and composite resin for 10 days. In Group I (control), definitive root canal filling was performed before tooth extraction. In Groups II and III, CH therapy started after removal of splint, and definitive root canal filling was performed 1 and 6 months later, respectively. The animals were euthanized 9 months after replantation, and specimens were processed for histomorphometric analysis. In all groups, epithelial attachment occurred at the cementoenamel junction or very close to this region; the areas of resorption on root surface had small extension and depth and were repaired by newly formed cementum; and the periodontal ligament was organized. Statistical analysis of the scores obtained for the histomorphometric parameters did not show any statistically significant difference (P = 0.1221) among the groups. The results suggests that when endodontic treatment is initiated 10 days after immediate replantation and an antibiotic regimen is associated, definitive root canal filling can be performed after a short-term CH therapy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome

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    Jakobsson, H.; Jernberg, C.; Andersson, A.F.; Sjolund-Karlsson, M.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2010-01-15

    Antibiotic administration is the standard treatment for the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the long-term consequences of this treatment on the human indigenous microbiota are relatively unexplored. Here we studied short- and long-term effects of clarithromycin and metronidazole treatment, a commonly used therapy regimen against H. pylori, on the indigenous microbiota in the throat and in the lower intestine. The bacterial compositions in samples collected over a four year period were monitored by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene using 454-based pyrosequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). While the microbial communities of untreated control subjects were relatively stable over time, dramatic shifts were observed one week after antibiotic treatment with reduced bacterial diversity in all treated subjects in both locations. While the microbiota of the different subjects responded uniquely to the antibiotic treatment some general trends could be observed; such as a dramatic decline in Actinobacteria in both throat and feces immediately after treatment. Although the diversity of the microbiota subsequently recovered to resemble the pre treatment states, the microbiota remained perturbed in some cases for up to four years post treatment. In addition, four years after treatment high levels of the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) were found, indicating that antibiotic resistance, once selected for, can persist for longer periods of time than previously recognized. This highlights the importance of a restrictive antibiotic usage in order to prevent subsequent treatment failure and potential spread of antibiotic resistance.

  15. Short term oxygen therapy effects in hypoxemic patients measured by drawing analysis.

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    Fiz, José Antonio; Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Monte-Moreno, Enrique; Alcobé, Josep Roure; Andreo, Felipe; Gomez, Rosa; Manzano, Juan Ruiz

    2015-03-01

    Chronic hypoxemia has deleterious effects on psychomotor function that can affect daily life. There are no clear results regarding short term therapy with low concentrations of O2 in hypoxemic patients. We seek to demonstrate, by measuring the characteristics of drawing, these effects on psychomotor function of hypoxemic patients treated with O2. Eight patients (7/1) M/F, age 69.5 (9.9) yr, mean (SD) with hypoxemia (Pa O2 62.2 (6.9) mmHg) performed two drawings of pictures. Tests were performed before and after 30 min breathing with O2. Stroke velocity increased after O2 for the house drawing (i.e. velocity 27.6 (5.5) mm/s basal, 30.9 (7.1) mm/s with O2, mean (SD), pdrawing time 'down' or fraction time the pen is touching the paper during the drawing phase decreased (i.e. time down 20.7 (6.6) s basal, 17.4 (6.3) s with O2, pdrawing analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Music in the mountains: creating sustainable therapy programs from short-term missions

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    Rachel Foxell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This field report describes the experiences of a Registered Music Therapist (RMT living, working, and musicking1 during a short-term health mission to Northern India. Using a sustainability approach, collaboration with several local and global health organisations resulted in the development of a therapeutic music program for children with disabilities. Disability is a complex phenomenon, and in rural areas of India, disability is viewed as a foundation for shame and exclusion. The Community-based project, Samvedna, oversees the therapy, healthcare, and education of over 100 children with a disability in remote villages and is heavily involved in disability advocacy in the area. Sustainable programs are more effective for individuals and communities in both the short and long term. RMTs and other health professionals can be instrumental in setting up sustainable programs, such as teaching specific skills and knowledge to local teams, provided there is thorough preparation and ongoing collaboration to determine the priorities and expectations of the program.

  17. Case report: Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia aobensis from Lao PDR with favourable outcome after short-term antibiotic treatment.

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    Inthanomchanh Vongphoumy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, localized, progressively destructive, granulomatous infection caused either by fungi (eumycetoma or by aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma. It is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous mass, multiple sinuses and discharge containing grains. Mycetoma commonly affects young men aged between 20 and 40 years with low socioeconomic status, particularly farmers and herdsmen.A 30 year-old male farmer from an ethnic minority in Phin District, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR (Laos developed a painless swelling with multiple draining sinuses of his right foot over a period of approximately 3 years. X-ray of the right foot showed osteolysis of tarsals and metatarsals. Aerobic culture of sinus discharge yielded large numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and a slow growing Gram-positive rod. The organism was subsequently identified as Nocardia aobensis by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The patient received antimicrobial treatment with amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole according to consensus treatment guidelines. Although slight improvement was noted the patient left the hospital after 14 days and did not take any more antibiotics. Over the following 22 weeks the swelling of his foot subsequently diminished together with healing of discharging sinuses.This is the first published case of Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia aobensis and the second case of Actinomycetoma from Laos. A treatment course of only 14 days with amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was apparently sufficient to cure the infection, although long-term treatment up to one year is currently recommended. Treatment trials or prospective descriptions of outcome for actinomycetoma should investigate treatment efficacy for the different members of Actinomycetales, particularly Nocardia spp., with short-term and long-term treatment courses.

  18. Short-term outcome of fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy of lumber facet cyst-induced radicular pain

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    Kwon, Mi Ri; Kwon, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Seo; Kim, Eu Sang [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To determine the short-term effect of fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy of lumbar facet cyst-induced radicular pain. Seventeen patients with radiculopathy due to lumbar synovial cysts, who were treated with fluoroscopically guided injection, were retrospectively evaluated. All plain radiographic images and MR images before the therapy were reviewed. Five patients underwent only the facet joint injection, whereas twelve patients underwent the facet joint injection with perineural injection therapy. The clinical course of pain was evaluated on the first follow-up after therapy. Effective pain relief was achieved in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients. Among 12 patients who underwent facet joint injection with perineural injection, 9 patients (75%) had an effective pain relief. Of 5 patients, 2 (40%) patients only took the facet joint injection and had an effective pain relief. Fluoroscopic-guided steroid injection therapy shows a good short-term effect in patients with symptomatic lumbar facet joint synovial cysts.

  19. Functional hoarseness in children: short-term play therapy with family dynamic counseling as therapy of choice.

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    Kollbrunner, Jürg; Seifert, Eberhard

    2013-09-01

    Children with nonorganic voice disorders (NVDs) are treated mainly using direct voice therapy techniques such as the accent method or glottal attack changes and indirect methods such as vocal hygiene and voice education. However, both approaches tackle only the symptoms and not etiological factors in the family dynamics and therefore often enjoy little success. The aim of the "Bernese Brief Dynamic Intervention" (BBDI) for children with NVD was to extend the effectiveness of pediatric voice therapies with a psychosomatic concept combining short-term play therapy with the child and family dynamic counseling of the parents. This study compares the therapeutic changes in three groups where different procedures were used, before intervention and 1 year afterward: counseling of parents (one to two consultations; n = 24), Brief Dynamic Intervention on the lines of the BBDI (three to five play therapy sessions with the child plus two to four sessions with the parents; n = 20), and traditional voice therapy (n = 22). A Voice Questionnaire for Parents developed by us with 59 questions to be answered on a four-point Likert scale was used to measure the change. According to the parents' assessment, a significant improvement in voice quality was achieved in all three methods. Counseling of parents (A) appears to have led parents to give their child more latitude, for example, they stopped nagging the child or demanding that he/she should behave strictly by the rules. After BBDI (B), the mothers were more responsive to their children's wishes and the children were more relaxed and their speech became livelier. At home, they called out to them less often at a distance, which probably improved parent-child dialog. Traditional voice therapy (C) seems to have had a positive effect on the children's social competence. BBDI seems to have the deepest, widest, and therefore probably the most enduring therapeutic effect on children with NVD. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation

  20. Photodynamic therapy in non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: short term randomized clinical trial study

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    Russo, C.; Palaia, G.; Loskutova, E.; Libotte, F.; Kornblit, R.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease due to exposition to plaque and tartar. Conventional treatments consist of scaling and root planing (SRP) and antibiotics administration. Among them encouraging results have been obtained using alternative protocols, like the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT). Aim of the Study: Evaluation of PDT effects added to conventional methods. Materials and Methods: 11 patients (4M/7F, 37-67 years aged, non-smoking) affected by untreated chronic periodontal disease, with >3mm pockets in at least 4 teeth were divided in two groups, test and control group. Each patient had to made full-intraoral before and after the treatment. The test group received SRP+PDT, while the control group was subjected to SRP. The PDT was performed through the HELBO®TheraLite (Bredent Medical), diode laser battery powered 670nm with an output of 75mW/cm2. The Helbo Blue photosensitizer, containing methylene blue, was used. The exposure time to the laser effect was of 10'' for each site, for a total of 60'' at 3J/cm2. Results: Both groups had a significant improvement in the reduction of pocket depth (PD), above all in the test group. Statistical analysis was performed through the T-test, evaluating PD between the two groups p=0.96 (p> 0.05), resulting not statistically significant. Conclusion: PDT is a promising support to SRP, achieving a significant reduction in the pocket depth, but more cases are needed to confirm the validity of the used protocol.

  1. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) : prognostic factors affecting short-term follow-up results

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    Kim, Ah Young; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Yun, Eun Joo; Lee, Ki Yeol; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of various parameters used in PEIT on the short-term results of this procedure for the treatment of small HCC. Among 76 lesions in 63 patients with HCCs, 66 were diagnosed by tissue biopsy (n=30) or according to clinical features, tumor marker, and the results of angiography and other diagnostic imagings (n=36). These patients underwent PEIT between November 1993 and October 1996; the indications for PEIT were nodular lesions less than 3 cm in size, less than three in number, and unsuitable for surgical resection or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization therapy. The effect of PEIT was evaluated by two phase spiral CT one month later (64 lesions) or by serial ultrasound for 6 months. We analyzed and graded the short-term effect of PEIT on HCCs as complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR) or no change/aggravation (NC/AG). We also evaluated the correlation between the short-term results of PEIT and variable parameters such as size of the lesion, frequency of PEI per session, child classification of the patient, the ratio of amount of injected ethanol per volume of the lesion, and {alpha}-fetoprotein level before the procedure. The therapeutic effect of PEIT was CR in 45 lesions (59.2%), PR in 18 (23.7%) and NC/AG in 13 (17.1%). The size of the tumor, child-pugh class, number of injections per session and ratio of injected volume of ethanol to tumor volume were factors affecting the therapeutic result (p < 0.05). Sufficient knowledge of prognostic factors affecting the short-term results of PEIT might help improve the effects of therapy in patients its small HCCs. (author). 19 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review

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    Diederik C Bervoets

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Design: Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal disorders. Interventions: Massage therapy (manual manipulation of the soft tissues as a stand-alone intervention. Outcome: The primary outcomes were pain and function. Results: The 26 eligible randomised trials involved 2565 participants. The mean sample size was 95 participants (range 16 to 579 per study; 10 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias. Overall, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage reduces pain in the short term compared to no treatment in people with shoulder pain and osteoarthritis of the knee, but not in those with low back pain or neck pain. Furthermore, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage improves function in the short term compared to no treatment in people with low back pain, knee arthritis or shoulder pain. Low-to-very-low-level evidence from single studies indicated no clear benefits of massage over acupuncture, joint mobilisation, manipulation or relaxation therapy in people with fibromyalgia, low back pain and general musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions: Massage therapy, as a stand-alone treatment, reduces pain and improves function compared to no treatment in some musculoskeletal conditions. When massage is compared to another active treatment, no clear benefit was evident. [Bervoets DC, Luijsterburg PAJ, Alessie JJN, Buijs MJ, Verhagen AP (2015 Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 106–116

  3. Short-term chemical pretreatment cannot replace curettage in photodynamic therapy

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    Nissen, Christoffer V; Wiegell, Stine Regin; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2016-01-01

    pretreatment with curettage and two combination ointments containing calcipotriol/betamethasone and salicylic acid/betamethasone affect PpIX fluorescence after the application of methyl aminolevulinate MAL and 5-aminolevulinic acid (BF-200 ALA). METHODS: Four fields on the forearms of 30 healthy volunteers...... were pretreated with curettage or short-term application of calcipotriol/betamethasone or salicylic acid/betamethasone for 20 min. Two fields were not pretreated, thus serving as reference. After pretreatment, MAL or BF-200 ALA was applied for 24 h, and PpIX fluorescence was measured hourly from 1 to 5...... h and after 18, 21 and 24 h. RESULTS: Curettage significantly enhanced PpIX fluorescence for MAL from 1 to 21 h (P salicylic acid...

  4. Lung uptake on I-131 therapy and short-term outcome in patients with lung metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Manabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to assess I-131 lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy because of strong artifacts from I-131 uptake in the thyroid bed. The aim of this study was to analyze the lung uptake at the second I-131 therapy for lung metastasis in patients who did not have lung uptake at the initial therapy from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Then, we also analyzed the relationship between the initial lung uptake and short-term outcome after I-131 therapies. This study included 62 DTC patients with lung metastasis. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy such as patients with lung uptake (positive uptake group n=31) and those without lung uptake (negative uptake group n=31). The lung uptake was analyzed at the second therapy in both groups. The short-term outcome was also analyzed based on the CT findings of lung metastasis size and serum thyroglobulin level between the two groups. The positive uptake group showed positive lung uptake at the second therapy in 23 patients (74%), whereas none of negative uptake group showed any lung uptake at the second therapy (P < 0.01). The positive uptake group significantly decreased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (20.0 ± 11.7 to 16.6 ± 9.6 mm, P < 0.01) with further decrease after the second therapy (P < 0.05). The serum thyroglobulin level was also significantly decreased from the initial therapy to the second therapy (4348 ± 7011 to 2931 ± 4484 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In contrast, the negative uptake group significantly increased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (17.3 ± 12.2 to 19.9 ± 14.3 mm, P < 0.01) with further increase after the second therapy (P < 0.01). No patients without lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy showed lung uptake at the second therapy, or showed treatment effect. Therefore, second I-131 therapy for these patients with initially

  5. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Diederik C; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Alessie, Jeroen J N; Buijs, Martijn J; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2015-07-01

    Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. People with musculoskeletal disorders. Massage therapy (manual manipulation of the soft tissues) as a stand-alone intervention. The primary outcomes were pain and function. The 26 eligible randomised trials involved 2565 participants. The mean sample size was 95 participants (range 16 to 579) per study; 10 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias. Overall, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage reduces pain in the short term compared to no treatment in people with shoulder pain and osteoarthritis of the knee, but not in those with low back pain or neck pain. Furthermore, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage improves function in the short term compared to no treatment in people with low back pain, knee arthritis or shoulder pain. Low-to-very-low-level evidence from single studies indicated no clear benefits of massage over acupuncture, joint mobilisation, manipulation or relaxation therapy in people with fibromyalgia, low back pain and general musculoskeletal pain. Massage therapy, as a stand-alone treatment, reduces pain and improves function compared to no treatment in some musculoskeletal conditions. When massage is compared to another active treatment, no clear benefit was evident. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of short-term effects between interventional embolization treatment and iodine-131 therapy for graves'hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Gaohong; Zhao Wei; Yuan Weihong; Wang Bailing; Yi Gengfa; Yang Shumin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the short-term effects between interventional arterial embolization and iodine-131 therapy in treating Graves' disease. Methods: A total of 84 patients with Graves' disease (GD), confirmed by clinical data and laboratory tests, were divided into two groups: interventional group (n = 42) receiving arterial embolization and iodine-131 group (n = 42)receiving iodine-131 therapy. Before and after the treatment thyroid angiography and SPECT / CT imaging were performed to determine the shape and size of the thyroid, and radioimmunoassay method was used to measure serum levels of FT3, FT4, TSH and TRAb at 3, 6 and 12 months after the therapy. The results were compared and statistically analyzed. The occurrence of complications was observed. Results: No statistically significant difference in short-term therapeutic effects was found between interventional group and iodine-131 group. The occurrence of early severe complication was much higher in interventional group than that in iodine-131 group, while the occurrence of hypothyroidism was obviously higher in iodine-131 group than that in interventional group. Conclusion: Both interventional embolization and iodine-131 therapy have reliable effect for the treatment of Graves' disease. Iodine-131 therapy may be used in patients who plan to receive initial treatment or in patients who failed to effectively respond to other kinds of therapies, while interventional embolization may be employed in patients who are not able to receive surgery or in patients who have failed to respond to anti-thyroid drug treatment, or in patients whose iodine-131 intake rate is too low to undergo iodine-131 therapy, especially in patients with refractory and intractable hyperthyroidism. Interventional embolization can be regarded as an alternative treatment for Graves' disease. (authors)

  7. A Preliminary Report of Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Inpatients With Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPRINGER, TAMAR; LOHR, NAOMI E.; BUCHTEL, HENRY A.; SILK, KENNETH R.

    1996-01-01

    A randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy group, based on Linehan’s dialectical behavior therapy, for inpatients with personality disorders. The treatment, a problem-solving skills group focused on parasuicidality, was compared with a discussion control group. Change was assessed by self-report measures and behavioral observations on the unit. Subjects in both groups improved significantly on most change measures, although no significant between-group differences were found. However, the treatment group patients viewed the intervention as more beneficial to them in their lives outside the hospital. The usefulness of this type of group on a short-term unit is discussed. PMID:22700265

  8. Short-Term Choriocapillaris Changes in Patients with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy after Half-Dose Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nassisi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although photodynamic therapy (PDT has become the standard treatment for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC, its mechanism of action remains unclear. It is assumed that PDT induces short-term choriocapillaris (CC occlusion and long-term choroidal vascular remodeling. In this paper, we describe the short-term CC changes induced by Half-Dose PDT (HD-PDT in chronic CSC using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA. Methods: This is a prospective interventional case series. Chronic CSC eyes underwent Spectral-Domain OCT, Fundus Autofluorescence, FA, ICGA (Heidelberg Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany and OCTA (RTVue XR Avanti with AngioVue; Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA before HD-PDT, with follow-up after one hour, one week, and one month. Vascular changes after PDT were analyzed within the CC layer. The CC vessel density was defined as the percentage of an area occupied by flow pixels, using Image J software to obtain measurements by applying a grey level threshold. All pixels with a grey level above the threshold were considered as indicators of blood flow. Results: 20 eyes of 19 patients were included. At baseline the mean CC vessel density was 94.87 ± 2.32%. It significantly differed from the density at 1 week and 1 month (92.79 ± 3.16% and 95.55 ± 2.05%, p < 0.001, respectively, but not with values at 1 h (94.8 ± 2.28%, p = 0.516. Conclusions: CC vessel density was significantly reduced at 1 week as compared with baseline, suggesting a possible short-term effect of PDT on CC perfusion. After 1 month however, the CC vessel density was even higher than the baseline, probably due to a CC recovery. OCTA seems to be useful in the visualization of CC vessels and in confirming the mechanism of action of PDT treatment in eyes with chronic CSC.

  9. Cyclosporine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: short-term and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudu, S R; Griffel, L H; Gialanella, R J; Das, K M

    1999-09-01

    Intravenous cyclosporine therapy followed by oral cyclosporine therapy reduce the need for urgent surgery in steroid-refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our objective is to report short- and long-term results of cyclosporine therapy in IBD patients. Thirteen patients with steroid-refractory IBD, seven patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and six patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were treated with intravenous cyclosporine (4 mg/kg/day) for a mean period of 11.4+/-2.8 days (range, 4-15 days). Subsequently the patients were started on oral cyclosporine (8 mg/kg/day) and followed for a mean of 10.3+/-10 months (range, 1-30 months). Twelve patients responded to intravenous cyclosporine therapy. One patient with UC developed sepsis on the fourth day of intravenous cyclosporine therapy and needed urgent colectomy. Nine of 12 initial responders (6 patients with UC and 3 patients with CD) relapsed during follow-up despite oral cyclosporine and underwent elective surgery. One patient with CD relapsed 3 months after discontinuation of oral cyclosporine. Only two patients with CD are in long-term remission. There were no long-term side effects in any of the 13 treated patients. In conclusion, intravenous cyclosporine was effective in inducing remission or significant improvement in 12 of 13 patients with steroid-refractory IBD. However, with subsequent oral cyclosporine the remission could be maintained only for a short while. Each of the six patients with UC needed colectomy and three of the five patients with CD had intestinal resection within 12 months despite oral cyclosporine therapy.

  10. SCL-90-R Symptom Profiles and Outcome of Short-Term Psychodynamic Group Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy may not be an optimal treatment for anxiety and agoraphobic symptoms. We explore remission of SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and target symptoms in 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy. Methods. SCL-90-R “target symptom” profile a...

  11. Hormone replacement therapy: short-term versus long-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Mary Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Midwives manage health care of women throughout the life cycle including prescribing hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This article presents a history of research on the use of HRT, as well as risks and benefits. Older research on the effects of HRT on heart disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer is included. The results and recommendations of the Women's Health Initiative are examined.

  12. Predictors of short term treatment outcome in patients with achalasia following endoscopic or surgical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Bancila, Ion; Tutuian, Radu; Iacob, Razvan; Tomulescu, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic balloon dilation and surgical myotomy are the most effective treatments for achalasia. While there is controversy which method is best, the aim of the current study was to identify predictors of symptom recurrence after endoscopic or surgical therapy. Patients undergoing pneumatic balloon dilatation (30mm) or laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor fundoplication were included in the study. Analyzed parameters include total symptom score (sum of 0-5 point intensity for dysphagia, regurgitation and chest pain), width and height of esophageal column at 2 and 5 minutes after oral barium ingestion, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) length, resting (LESP) and residual pressure (LESRP) before and 3 months after intervention. Patients with symptoms score surgical group were symptom-free 3 months after intervention. Therapies improved LESP (24.4±8.2mmHg pre- vs. 15.4±10.3mmHg post-therapy; p=0.003) and mean LESRP (7.9±4.3mmHg pre- vs. 5.3±6.7mmHg post-therapy; p=0.03). Univariate linear regression analysis identified barium contrast column width >5cm at 2 minutes (p=0.04), LES length 10mmHg (p=0.02) as predictors for persistent symptoms. While >85% of achalasia patients responded well to 30mm pneumatic balloon dilation, patients with elevated LES pressure, short LES and wide esophagus should be considered as primary surgical candidates.

  13. Cold-Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy: No Improvement of Short-Term Recovery After Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Christos K; Broatch, James R; Petersen, Aaron C; Polman, Remco; Bishop, David J; Halson, Shona

    2017-08-01

    An athlete's ability to recover quickly is important when there is limited time between training and competition. As such, recovery strategies are commonly used to expedite the recovery process. To determine the effectiveness of both cold-water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) compared with control on short-term recovery (<4 h) after a single full-body resistance-training session. Thirteen men (age 26 ± 5 y, weight 79 ± 7 kg, height 177 ± 5 cm) were assessed for perceptual (fatigue and soreness) and performance measures (maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVC] of the knee extensors, weighted and unweighted countermovement jumps) before and immediately after the training session. Subjects then completed 1 of three 14-min recovery strategies (CWI, CWT, or passive sitting [CON]), with the perceptual and performance measures reassessed immediately, 2 h, and 4 h postrecovery. Peak torque during MVC and jump performance were significantly decreased (P < .05) after the resistance-training session and remained depressed for at least 4 h postrecovery in all conditions. Neither CWI nor CWT had any effect on perceptual or performance measures over the 4-h recovery period. CWI and CWT did not improve short-term (<4-h) recovery after a conventional resistance-training session.

  14. Overgeneral memory predicts stability of short-term outcome of electroconvulsive therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Sienaert, Pascal; Demyttenaere, Koen; Peuskens, Joseph; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the predictive value of overgeneral memory (OGM) for outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression. The Autobiographical Memory Test was used to measure OGM in 25 patients with depression before ECT. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) was administered weekly to 1 week posttreatment. Overgeneral memory did not predict HRSD scores from the last ECT treatment, but did predict HRSD change scores from the last treatment to 1-week follow-up: patients high in OGM experienced a relatively greater increase in HRSD scores after the last treatment. Results further extend the status of OGM as a predictor of an unfavorable course of depression to a previously unstudied ECT population.

  15. Chemoradiation therapy and resection for carcinoma of the esophagus: short-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.F.; Marks, R.D. Jr.; Kratz, J.M.; Chaikhouni, A.; Warren, E.T.; Bartles, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to record the results of a treatment protocol for patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. In May, 1980, the authors initiated a program of chemoradiation therapy preliminary to resection in patients in whom the protocol was applicable. The chemotherapy consisted of mitomycin-C, 10 mg as a bolus intravenous injection on day 1, and 5-fluorouracil, 1,000 mg per square meter of body surface area given intravenously on each of days 1 through 4. The radiation therapy consisted of 3,000 rads in three weeks using cobalt 60 or 6 MeV or greater, with ports to cover the tumor and mediastinum. Among the patients treated according to the protocol, the operability rate was increased. The resectability rate remained about the same as in our previous experience. The operative mortality was lessened appreciably. The percentage of resected specimens of the esophagus showing residual tumor decreased. However, the absence of any residual tumor in the surgical specimen has not conferred any improved chance of long-term survival to date

  16. Endometrial changes from short-term therapy with CDB-4124, a selective progesterone receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, Olga B; Zaino, Richard J; Mutter, George L

    2009-03-01

    Selective progesterone receptor modulators are a class of drugs with progesterone antagonist activity that may confer therapeutic benefit for reproductive disorders in premenopausal women. Endometrial structure, which is dynamically controlled by circulating sex hormones, is likely to be perturbed by progesterone receptor modulators through their progesterone antagonist properties. We examined endometrial histology in 58 premenopausal women treated with the progesterone receptor modulator CDB-4124 (also known as Proellex) for endometriosis or uterine leiomyomata in two clinical trials. Endometrial biopsies obtained after 3 or 6 months with doses of 12.5, 25, or 50 mg daily oral CDB-4124 were reviewed independently by three pathologists. Consensus diagnoses using the World Health Organization hyperplasia scoring system, comments on specific histologic features, and clinical annotation were collected and analyzed. The majority of the endometrial biopsies (103 of 174 biopsies) contained histologic changes that are not seen during normal menstrual cycles. The histology of CDB-4124-treated patients was generally inactive or atrophic, and less frequently, proliferative or secretory, superimposed upon which were novel changes including formation of cystically dilated glands, and secretory changes coexisting with mitoses and apoptotic bodies. With increasing treatment dose and duration, the cysts became predominant and their lining inactive or atrophic. Cystic glands in the CDB-4124-treated subjects correlated with increased endometrial thickness by ultrasound. None of the CDB-4124-treated patients developed endometrial carcinoma or hyperplasia while on therapy. CDB-4124 therapy for 3-6 months produces histologic changes that are sufficiently novel that they might easily be misinterpreted by pathologists, particularly as disordered proliferative or hyperplastic endometrium. Knowledge of the constellation of endometrial changes associated with this agent and other

  17. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP, can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.

  18. Octreotide Is Ineffective in Treating Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia: Results of a Short-Term Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Diana; El-Maouche, Diala; Brillante, Beth A; Khosravi, Azar; Gafni, Rachel I; Collins, Michael T

    2017-08-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in which unregulated hypersecretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMT) causes renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and osteomalacia. The resulting mineral homeostasis abnormalities and skeletal manifestations can be reversed with surgical resection of the tumor. Unfortunately, PMTs are often difficult to locate, and medical treatment with oral phosphate and vitamin D analogues is either insufficient to manage the disease or not tolerated. Octreotide has been proposed as a potential treatment for TIO due to the presence of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) on PMTs; however, the role of somatostatin signaling in PMTs and the efficacy of treatment of TIOs with somatostatin analogues is not clear. In an effort to evaluate the efficacy of octreotide therapy in TIO, five subjects with TIO were treated with octreotide for 3 days. Blood intact FGF23, phosphate, and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , and tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP) were measured at frequent time points during treatment. Octreotide's effects were assessed by comparing group means of the biochemical parameters at each time-point to mean baseline values. There were no significant changes in blood phosphate, FGF23, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , or TRP during octreotide treatment, consistent with a lack of efficacy of octreotide in treating TIO. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Short-term therapeutic effects of combined therapy with metformin hydrochloride for aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-chun LU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen and select new drugs for aplastic anemia (AA and evaluate their clinical efficacy by clinical bioinformatics methods. Methods First, we established genome expression profiles of AA patients, and conducted similarity analyses with the pharmacogenomics database to screen and select drugs with possible efficacy. Intractable AA patients who received immunosuppressors and/or androgen for more than six months showing no clinical efficacy were enrolled in the study to evaluate therapeutic effects of the therapeutic regime. Clinical efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated after six months. Results The clinical bioinformatics results showed therapeutic effects of metformin hydrochloride on AA. Forty-three intractable AA patients (15 with severe AA were treated with metformin hydrochloride combined with cyclosporin A (CsA and stanozolol. Twenty-seven transfusion-dependent patients (100% became transfusion independent after a 6-month therapy. The hemoglobin level completely returned to normal in 37 out of 40 anemia patients (92.5%. In the 40 patients with platelet count lower than 20×109/L, the platelet count of 28 patients (90.3% increased to higher than 50×109/L. The white cell count increased to higher than 3.5×109/L in 30 out of 35 patients (88.6% with white cell count lower than 2.5×109/L. Among 40 anemic patients, 1 was found to have abnormal renal function, but it recovered to the normal range after ending CsA treatment. Eighteen patients were found to have elevated transaminase levels which were lowered to normal range after using liver protectants and reducing the dosage of stanozolol. There were no instances of hypoglycemia in all patients throughout the treatment. Conclusion Combination of metformin hydrochloride, CsA and stanozolol is effective in refractory aplastic anemia with acceptable toxicity.

  20. Short-term intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Caroline Kaercher; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that, when implemented early in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment with intensive insulin therapy for 2-3 weeks can induce a glycaemic remission, wherein patients are able to maintain normoglycaemia without any anti-diabetic medication. We thus did a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies to assess the effect of short-term intensive insulin therapy on the pathophysiological defects underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance) and identify clinical predictors of remission. We identified studies published between 1950 and Nov 19, 2012, which assessed the effect of intensive insulin therapy on β-cell function or insulin resistance, or both, or assessed long-term drug-free glycaemic remission in adults aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. We calculated pooled estimates by random-effects model. This study is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, number CRD42012002829. We identified 1645 studies of which seven fulfilled inclusion criteria (n=839 participants). Five studies were non-randomised. A pooled analysis of the seven studies showed a post-intensive insulin therapy increase in Homeostasis Model Assessment of β-cell function as compared with baseline (1·13, 95% CI 1·02 to 1·25) and a decrease in Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (-0·57, -0·84 to -0·29). In the four studies that assessed glycaemic remission (n=559 participants), the proportion of participants in drug-free remission was about 66·2% (292 of 441 patients) after 3 months of follow-up, about 58·9% (222 of 377 patients) after 6 months, about 46·3% (229 of 495 patients) after 12 months, and about 42·1% (53 of 126 patients) after 24 months. Patients who achieved remission had higher body-mass index than those who did not achieve remission (1·06 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0·55 to 1·58) and lower fasting plasma glucose

  1. Description of Common Clinical Presentations and Associated Short-Term Physical Therapy Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Maggie E; Brennan, Gerard P; George, Steven Z; Harman, Jeffrey S; Bishop, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    To determine the effect of clinical presentations of neck pain on short-term physical therapy outcomes. Retrospective analysis of pair-matched groups from a clinical cohort. Thirteen outpatient physical therapy clinics in 1 health care system. Patients (N=1069) grouped by common clinical presentations of neck pain: nonspecific neck pain (NSNP) with duration 4 weeks; neck pain with arm pain; neck pain with headache; and neck pain from whiplash. Conservative interventions provided by physical therapists. Neck Disability Index (NDI) and numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) recorded at the initial and last visits. The main outcome of interest was achieving recovery status on the NDI. Changes in NDI and NPRS were compared between clinical presentation groups. Compared with patients presenting with NSNP >4 weeks, patients with NSNP neck pain and arm pain demonstrated an increased odds of achieving recovery status on the NDI (P=.04) compared with patients presenting with NSNP >4 weeks. Treating patients with NSNP within <4 weeks of onset of symptoms may lead to improved clinical outcomes from physical therapy compared with other common clinical presentations. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents who have a child with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M; Walker, Sue; Abad, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The positive relationship between parent-child interactions and optimal child development is well established. Families of children with disabilities may face unique challenges in establishing positive parent-child relationships; yet, there are few studies examining the effectiveness of music therapy interventions to address these issues. In particular, these studies have been limited by small sample size and the use of measures of limited reliability and validity. This study examined the effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents of children with disabilities and explored factors associated with better outcomes for participating families. Participants were 201 mother-child dyads, where the child had a disability. Pre- and post-intervention parental questionnaires and clinician observation measures were completed to examine outcomes of parental wellbeing, parenting behaviors, and child development. Descriptive data, t-tests for repeated measures and a predictive model tested via logistic regression are presented. Significant improvements pre to post intervention were found for parent mental health, child communication and social skills, parenting sensitivity, parental engagement with child and acceptance of child, child responsiveness to parent, and child interest and participation in program activities. There was also evidence for high parental satisfaction and that the program brought social benefits to families. Reliable change on six or more indicators of parent or child functioning was predicted by attendance and parent education. This study provides positive evidence for the effectiveness of group music therapy in promoting improved parental mental health, positive parenting and key child developmental areas.

  3. The effects of short-term relaxation therapy on indices of heart rate variability and blood pressure in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gopal Krushna; Ganesh, Venkata; Karthik, Shanmugavel; Nanda, Nivedita; Pal, Pravati

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of short-term practice of relaxation therapy on autonomic and cardiovascular functions in first-year medical students. Case-control, interventional study. Medical college laboratory. Sixty-seven medical students, divided into two groups: study group (n = 35) and control group (n = 32). Study group subjects practiced relaxation therapy (shavasana with a soothing background music) daily 1 hour for 6 weeks. Control group did not practice relaxation techniques. Cardiovascular parameters and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded before and after the 6-week practice of relaxation therapy. The data between the groups and the data before and after practice of relaxation techniques were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Student t-test. In the study group, prediction of low-frequency to high-frequency ratio (LF-HF) of HRV, the marker of sympathovagal balance, to blood pressure (BP) status was assessed by logistic regression. In the study group, there was significant reduction in heart rate (p = .0001), systolic (p = .0010) and diastolic (p = .0021) pressure, and rate pressure product (p linked to BP status in these individuals.

  4. Preoperative biological therapy and short-term outcomes of abdominal surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Matti; Xu, Wei; Dinani, Amreen; Steinhart, A Hillary; Croitoru, Kenneth; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; McLeod, Robin S; Greenberg, Gordon R; Cohen, Zane; Silverberg, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Previous investigations of short-term outcomes after preoperative exposure to biological therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were conflicting. The authors aimed to assess postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent abdominal surgery with recent exposure to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. A retrospective case-control study with detailed matching was performed for subjects with IBD with and without exposure to biologics within 180 days of abdominal surgery. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the groups. 473 procedures were reviewed consisting of 195 patients with exposure to biologics and 278 matched controls. There were no significant differences in most postoperative outcomes such as: length of stay, fever (≥ 38.5°C), urinary tract infection, pneumonia, bacteraemia, readmission, reoperations and mortality. On univariate analysis, procedures on biologics had more wound infections compared with controls (19% vs 11%; p=0.008), but this was not significant in multivariate analysis. Concomitant therapy with biologics and thiopurines was associated with increased frequencies of urinary tract infections (p=0.0007) and wound infections (p=0.0045). Operations performed ≤ 14 days from last biologic dose had similar rates of infections and other outcomes when compared with those performed within 15-30 days or 31-180 days. Patients with detectable preoperative infliximab levels had similar rates of wound infection compared with those with undetectable levels (3/10 vs 0/9; p=0.21). Preoperative treatment with TNF-α antagonists in patients with IBD is not associated with most early postoperative complications. A shorter time interval from last biological dose is not associated with increased postoperative complications. In most cases, surgery should not be delayed, and appropriate biological therapy may be continued perioperatively.

  5. Predictors of the short-term responder rate of Electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders - a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordenskjöld Axel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study is to investigate the responder rate of Electroconvulsive therapy, ECT, in clinical routine work and to define clinical characteristics predictive of response to ECT. The main hypothesis is that the responder rate of ECT might be lower in clinical routine than in controlled trials. Methods This is a population-based study of all patients (N = 990 treated with ECT for depressive disorders, between 2008–2010 in eight hospitals in Sweden. Patients with Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores of 1 or 2 (much improved within one week after ECT were considered responders to ECT. The predictive values of single clinical variables were tested by means of chi-squared tests and the relative importance was tested in a logistic regression analysis. Results The responder rate was 80.1%. A higher proportion of older patients (>50 years responded (84.3% vs. 74.2%, p  Conclusions This study focuses exclusively on the short term responder rate with ECT in clinical practice. Similarly to results from controlled trials a high responder rate is reported. Older patients, more severely ill patients, psychotically ill patients and patients without personality disorders had the highest responder rates. Inpatients may have better outcome with ECT than outpatients.

  6. [Short-term effects of a cognitive-behavioural group therapy in social phobia: evaluation of sixty patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camart, N; André, C; Trybou, V; Bourdel, M-C

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the short term effects of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy with 60 patients suffering from social phobia according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM IV. The therapeutic program is based on 12 sessions of 2 hours (for 6 to 9 subjects) and includes exposure, cognitive restructuring and social skills training. The sample included 34 women and 26 men, with an average age of 34.8 years (SD=9.3). Most patients presented generalized social phobia (n=42; not generalized social phobia: n=18), and 24 received at least one comorbid axis I diagnosis. Subjects were evaluated before and after the therapy with instruments measuring the intensity of social phobia (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the assertiveness (Rathus Assertiveness Schedule), the disability associated with the disorder (Sheehan Disability Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Beck shortened Depression Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The results show significant differences (pScale, total score) to 0.51 (Sheehan item 3), exhibiting patients' improvement on all variables. The highest effect sizes are observed with the instruments specifically designed for the assessment of social phobia (Liebowitz, Rathus and Sheehan scales). Our patients show the major improvements in the Liebowitz Scale (ES=1.29), the best indicator for social phobia, concerning the intensity of anxiety in social situations (ES=1.28) and concerning the frequency of avoidance (ES=1.16). Logically, the effect sizes are somehow lower on Sheehan (ES=1.06) and Rathus (ES=1.00) scales, which are less specifically centered on the score symptoms of social phobia. The improvement is also significant but less remarkable in the other measurements. The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale reveals a reduction in the level of anxiety and depression, however more significant for anxiety (ES=0.88) than for depression (ES=0.60), that is consistent with the fact that social

  7. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Sziklavari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC techniques. Methods We investigated 43 consecutive (preseptic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 % and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC, and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill. Results The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5–48 days. Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days was significantly shorter (p = 0.001 than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days. No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026. Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS was 21 days (median 18, 6–51 days. LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027 in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8 than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5. Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43 and 9.3 % (4/43, and none of the deaths was related to infection. Conclusions For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  8. Short-term and long-term outcomes of intrathoracic vacuum therapy of empyema in debilitated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklavari, Zsolt; Ried, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Grosser, Christian; Szöke, Tamas; Neu, Reiner; Schemm, Rudolf; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-10-21

    This retrospective study analyzed the effectiveness of intrathoracic negative pressure therapy for debilitated patients with empyema and compared the short-term and long-term outcomes of three different intrapleural vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) techniques. We investigated 43 consecutive (pre)septic patients with poor general condition (Karnofsky index ≤ 50 %) and multimorbidity (≥ 3 organ diseases) or immunosuppression, who had been treated for primary, postoperative, or recurrent pleural empyema with VAC in combination with open window thoracostomy (OWT-VAC) with minimally invasive technique (Mini-VAC), and instillation (Mini-VAC-Instill). The overall duration of intrathoracic vacuum therapy was 14 days (5-48 days). Vacuum duration in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups (12.4 ± 5.7 and 10.4 ± 5.4 days) was significantly shorter (p = 0.001) than in the group treated with open window thoracostomy (OWT)-VAC (20.3 ± 9.4 days). No major complication was related to intrathoracic VAC therapy. Chest wall closure rates were significantly higher in the Mini-VAC and Mini-VAC-Instill groups than in the OWT-VAC group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.026). Overall, the mean postoperative length of stay in hospital (LOS) was 21 days (median 18, 6-51 days). LOS was significantly shorter (p = 0.027) in the Mini-VAC-Instill group (15.1 ± 4.8) than in the other two groups (23.8 ± 12.3 and 22.7 ± 1.5). Overall, the 30-day and 60-day mortality rates were 4.7 % (2/43) and 9.3 % (4/43), and none of the deaths was related to infection. For debilitated patients, immediate minimally invasive intrathoracic vacuum therapy is a safe and viable alternative to OWT. Mini-VAC-Instill may have the fastest clearance and healing rates of empyema.

  9. Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugavero, Michael J; May, Margaret; Harris, Ross; Saag, Michael S; Costagliola, Dominique; Egger, Matthias; Phillips, Andrew; Günthard, Huldrych F; Dabis, Francois; Hogg, Robert; de Wolf, Frank; Fatkenheuer, Gerd; Gill, M John; Justice, Amy; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Lampe, Fiona; Miró, Jose M; Staszewski, Schlomo; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Niesters, Bert

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in short-term virologic failure among commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens translate to differences in clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating ART. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients initiating ART between

  10. Short-term effect of short, intensive speech therapy on articulation and resonance in Ugandan patients with cleft (lip and) palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke Luyten; H. Vermeersch; A. Hodges; K. Bettens; K. van Lierde; G. Galiwango

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to assess the short-term effectiveness of short and intensive speech therapy provided to patients with cleft (lip and) palate (C(L)P) in terms of articulation and resonance. Methods: Five Ugandan patients (age: 7.3-19.6 years) with non-syndromic C(L)P

  11. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  12. Is there any influence of personality disorder on the short term intensive group cognitive behavioral therapy of social phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Novak, Tomas; Pohlova, Libuse

    2011-03-01

    The treatment of personality disorder is repeatedly reported as less successful than the treatment of patients without personality disorder. Most clinicians believe that anxiety disorder in tandem with a personality disorder often leads to longer treatment, worsens the prognosis, and thus increases treatment costs. Our study was designed to compare the short-term effectiveness of therapy in patients suffering from social phobia with and without personality disorder. The specific aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a 6 week therapeutic program designed for social phobia (SSRIs and CBT) in patients suffering from social phobia with comorbid personality disorder (17 patients) and social phobia without comorbid personality disorder (18 patients). The patients were regularly assessed in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 using the CGI (Clinical Global Improvement) for severity, LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and in self-assessments BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory) and BDI (Beck Depression Inventory). Patients in both groups improved their scores in most of the assessment instruments used. A combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy proved to be the most effective treatment for patients suffering with social phobia with or without comorbid personality disorder. Treatment efficacy in patients with social phobia without personality disorder was significantly better than in the group with social phobia comorbid with personality disorder for CGI and specific inventory for social phobia - LSAS. The scores on the subjective depression inventory (BDI) also showed significantly greater decrease over the treatment in the group without personality disorder. The treatment effect between groups did not differ in subjective general anxiety scales BAI. Our study showed that patients suffering from social phobia and comorbid personality disorder showed a smaller decrease in specific social phobia symptomatology during treatment compared than patients with social phobia without personality

  13. Effect of short-term estrogen therapy on endothelial function: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, R; Celani, M; Geber, S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial over 3 years. Randomization was performed using computer-generated sorting. All participants were blinded to the use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo and FMD was assessed by a blinded examiner, before and after 28 days of medication. A total of 64 healthy postmenopausal women were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of treatment: 0.625 mg of CEE or placebo. FMD values were statistically different between the groups (p = 0.025): the group receiving CEE showed a FMD value of 0.011 compared to the placebo group (FMD = -0.082). The two groups were additionally evaluated for homogeneity through the Shapiro-Wilk test in respect to variables that could interfere with endothelial function such as age (p = 0.729), body mass index (p = 0.891), and time since menopause (p = 0.724). Other variables were excluded during selection of the participants such as chronic vascular conditions, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Our results demonstrate that the administration of 0.625 mg CEE for 28 days is effective in improving vascular nitric oxide-dependent dilation assessed by FMD of the brachial artery in postmenopausal women. NCT01482416.

  14. Patterns of Change in Interpersonal Problems During and After Short-term and Long-term Psychodynamic Group Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Anette; Høglend, Per; Lorentzen, Steinar

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we compared the patterns of change in interpersonal problems between short-term and long-term psychodynamic group therapy. A total of 167 outpatients with mixed diagnoses were randomized to 20 or 80 weekly sessions of group therapy. Interpersonal problems were assessed with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems at six time points during the 3-year study period. Using linear mixed models, change was linearly modelled in two steps. Earlier (within the first 6 months) and later (during the last 2.5 years) changes in five subscales were estimated. Contrary to what we expected, short-term therapy induced a significantly larger early change than long-term therapy on the cold subscale and there was a trend on the socially avoidant subscale, using a Bonferroni-adjusted alpha. There was no significant difference between short-term and long-term group therapy for improving problems in the areas cold, socially avoidant, nonassertive, exploitable, and overly nurturant over the 3 years.

  15. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham; Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy

  16. Factors influencing the short-term prognosis of interventional therapy for malignant obstructive jaundice: a multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueqiang; Zhai Renyou

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the correlative factors affecting the short-term prognosis in treating malignant obstructive jaundice with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and/or percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS). Methods: During the period of December 2008-June 2009, PTBD and/or PTBS were performed in 67 patients. The clinical date were reviewed and analyzed. According to the reduction degree of serum bilirubin and survival condition in 30 days, the patients were divided into effective group (54 cases) and ineffective group (13 cases). Single factor affecting the short-term prognosis was analyzed by using χ 2 test and multi-factors were analyzed by using non-conditional logistic regression mode. Results: Single variable analysis showed that time of obstruction, way of drainage, preoperative biliary infection, Child-Pugh grade, TBIL, HGB and Cr level were of statistical significance. The logistic regression analysis showed that there were obvious correlation among preoperative biliary infection, Child-grade ≥11 and Cr >115 μmol/L. Conclusion: The infection of the bile duct before operation, Child-grade ≥11 and Cr >115μmol/L carry a close relationship with the short-term prognosis of PTBD and PTBS. Therefore, an overall preoperative evaluation for malignant obstructive jaundice is of great importance. (authors)

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy hasn’t negative effects on short-term memory function, as assessed using a bedside hand-held device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge H.O. Müller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is effective in the treatment of treatment-resistant major depression. The fear of cognitive impairment after ECT often deters patients from choosing this treatment option. There is little reliable information regarding the effects of ECT on overall cognitive performance, while short-term memory deficits are well known but not easy to measure within clinical routines. In this pilot study, we examined ECT recipients’ pre- and posttreatment performances on a digital ascending number tapping test. We found that cognitive performance measures exhibited good reproducibility in individual patients and that ECT did not significantly alter cognitive performance up to 2 hours after this therapy was applied. Our results can help patients and physicians make decisions regarding the administration of ECT. Digital measurements are recommended, especially when screening for the most common side effects on cognitive performance and short-term memory.

  18. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  19. [Health economics and antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, P; Bigdéli, M

    1995-01-01

    In the field of antibiotic therapy, particularly the methods of economic evaluation hold one's attention within the wide range of health economics' applications. Several tools allow a comparison of the outcomes of alternative strategies and thereby guide choices to the most appropriate solutions. After a brief recall of the methods classically used to evaluate health care strategy, the authors stress the importance and difficulty of fixing and applying a correct and satisfactory procedure for evaluation. An evaluation example of antibiotic therapy allows to illustrate the application of the principles confronting a field in which competition is intense and economic stakes stay large--a fact which naturally yields to seek after objective decision making criteria. The health care policies drawn by public authorities as well as the marketing strategies of the health sector trade are partly based on such evaluations. If these techniques are not intended for the practitioner in the first place, they should not be indifferent to him since they influence health authorities and thereby indirectly affect the therapeutic freedom of the physician.

  20. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  1. Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Mugavero, Michael J; May, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    , nevirapine, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, or abacavir as third drugs in combination with a zidovudine and lamivudine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Short-term (24-week) virologic failure (>500 copies/ml) and clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation.......58-2.22), lopinavir/ritonavir (1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.57), nelfinavir (3.20, 95% CI = 2.74-3.74), and abacavir (2.13, 95% CI = 1.82-2.50). However, the rate of clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation appeared higher only with nevirapine (adjusted hazard ratio for composite outcome measure 1.27, 95% CI = 1......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in short-term virologic failure among commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens translate to differences in clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating ART. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients initiating ART between...

  2. [Antibiotic therapy in patients with renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, H; Rose, K G

    1985-06-01

    For the otolaryngologist (ENT specialist), too, antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. This article gives the essential fundamentals for the antibiotic treatment of patients with restricted kidney functions, as well as advice for antibiotic therapy in clinics and in medical practice.

  3. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Bervoets (Diederik C.); P.A.J. Luijsterburg (Pim); J.J.N. Alessie (Jeroen J.N.); M.J. Buijs (Martijn J.); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractQuestion: Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Design: Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal disorders. Interventions: Massage therapy (manual

  4. Short-term oestrogen replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, lipids and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women with NIDDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, H.E.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Frölich, M.; Kluft, C.; Krans, H.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Patients with non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have an increased cardiovascular risk. However, oestrogen replacement therapy is only reluctantly prescribed for

  5. Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexander R; Mueller, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. The aim of this study was to determine if continuous renal replacement therapy effluent flow rate impacts attaining appropriate antibiotic concentrations when conventional continuous renal replacement therapy antibiotic doses were used. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effect of effluent flow rate variance on pharmacodynamic target attainment for cefepime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam. Published demographic and pharmacokinetic parameters for each antibiotic were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. Monte Carlo simulations of 5000 patients were evaluated for each antibiotic dosing regimen at the extremes of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended effluent flow rates (20 and 35 mL/kg/h). The probability of target attainment was calculated using antibiotic-specific pharmacodynamic targets assessed over the first 72 hours of therapy. Most conventional published antibiotic dosing recommendations, except for levofloxacin, reach acceptable probability of target attainment rates when effluent rates of 20 or 35 mL/kg/h are used. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioural therapy versus short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy versus no intervention for patients with hypochondriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per; Birket-Smith, M; Wattar, U

    2011-01-01

    Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim of this ......Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim...... of this study was to test CBT for hypochondriasis in a centre that was not involved in its development and compare both CBT and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) to a waiting-list control and to each other. CBT was modified by including mindfulness and group therapy sessions, reducing the therapist...

  7. Short-term and long-term effects of psychosocial therapy for people after deliberate self-harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Lind, Bertel Dam; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although deliberate self-harm is a strong predictor of suicide, evidence for effective interventions is missing. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychosocial therapy after self-harm was linked to lower risks of repeated self-harm, suicide, and general mortality. METHODS......: In this matched cohort study all people who, after deliberate self-harm, received a psychosocial therapy intervention at suicide prevention clinics in Denmark during 1992-2010 were compared with people who did not receive the psychosocial therapy intervention after deliberate self-harm. We applied propensity...... score matching with a 1:3 ratio and 31 matching factors, and calculated odds ratios for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years of follow-up. The primary endpoints were repeated self-harm, death by suicide, and death by any cause. FINDINGS: 5678 recipients of psychosocial therapy (followed up for 42·828 person...

  8. Growth hormone therapy for children born small for gestational age: height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 3% of children are born small for gestational age (SGA), and approximately 10% of SGA children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life. Among short SGA children, growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner; experience with long-term therapy is limited. To delineate the dose dependency of long-term height gain among short SGA children receiving GH therapy. We performed an epianalysis of the first adult height data for SGA children (n = 28) enrolled in 3 randomized trials comparing the growth-promoting efficacy of 2 continuous GH regimens (33 or 67 microg/kg per day for approximately 10 years, starting at approximately 5 years of age); in addition, we performed a meta-analysis of the adult height results published previously and those presented here. Epianalysis outcomes (n = 28) suggested that adult height increased more with a higher-dose regimen than with a lower-dose regimen. In the meta-analysis (n = 82), the higher-dose regimen was found to elicit a long-term height gain superior to that achieved with the lower-dose regimen by a mean of 0.4 SD (approximately 1 inch). Children who were shorter at the start of therapy experienced more long-term height gain. These findings confirm GH therapy as an effective and safe approach to reduce the adult height deficit that short SGA children otherwise face. In addition, the first meta-analysis indicated that height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term, at least within the dose range explored to date. For SGA children whose stature is not extremely short, current data support the use of a GH dose of approximately 33 microg/kg per day from start to adult height, particularly if treatment starts at a young age; shorter children (for example, height below -3 SD) might benefit from an approach in which short-term catch-up growth is achieved with a higher dose (> or =50 microg/kg per day) and long-term growth

  9. Do Subjects with Whiplash-Associated Disorders Respond Differently in the Short-Term to Manual Therapy and Exercise than Those with Mechanical Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability ( P  = 0.021), larger pain area ( P  = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle ( P  = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P  > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P   0.222). The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Pharmacokinetics of and short-term virologic response to low-dose 400-milligram once-daily raltegravir maintenance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananworanich, J.; Gorowara, M.; Avihingsanon, A.; Kerr, S.J.; Heesch, N. van; Khongpetch, C.; Uanithirat, A.; Hill, A.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Burger, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because studies showed similar viral suppression with lower raltegravir doses and because Asians usually have high antiretroviral concentrations, we explored low-dose raltegravir therapy in Thais. Nineteen adults on raltegravir at 400 mg twice daily (BID) with HIV RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were

  11. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  12. Short-Term Therapy with High Dose Atorvastatin in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Can Reduce Inflammatory Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Nesar Hossein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability in adults. The association between acute coronary syndrom (ACS and elevated serum high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP suggests that chronic inflammation of the coronary arterial wall may play an important role. A number of drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease reduce serum CRP. It* is therefore possible that reduced inflammation contributes to the beneficial effects of these medications. This was a double blind randomized clinical trial on 52 patients were admitted because of ACS at the Mazandaran Heart Center, Iran in 2007. The patients were divided to three randomized groups which received 20, 40, 80* mg Atorvastatin daily for 6 months. At the time of study enrollment and 1, 3 and 6 months after initiation hsCRP were measured. 1 and 3 month after 20mg atorvastatin therapy the median serum concentration of hsCRP did not decrease significantly, but at the end of 6th month it was* significant difference. At 40mg dosage from 3th month to 6th month versus 1st month to 3th month it was significant decrease, at the end of 1th month and 3rd month it was not significant. At 80mg dose at the end of 1th month it was not significant but at the* end of 3th month and end of 6th month it was significant. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with high-dose atorvastatin therapy relative to moderate lipid-lowering therapy with low-dose atorvastatin reduces hsCRP better. We found that treatment with greater dose of atorvastatin might decrease greater in plasma level of hsCRP.

  13. Sexual dysfunctions in men affected by autoimmune Addison's disease before and after short-term gluco- and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Pugni, Valeria; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Boscaro, Marco; Carani, Cesare; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence suggesting that autoimmune Addison's disease (AD) could be associated with sexual dysfunctions probably caused by gluco- and mineralocorticoid deficiency; however, no study has yet treated this subject in males. To evaluate male sexuality and psychological correlates in autoimmune AD before and after gluco- and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy. Twelve subjects with a first diagnosis of autoimmune AD were studied before (baseline) and 2 months after (recovery phase) initiating hormone replacement therapy. Erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), intercourse satisfaction (IS), overall satisfaction (OS), depression, and anxiety were studied using a number of questionnaires (International Index of Erectile Function, Beck Depression Inventory, and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory); clinical, biochemical, and hormone data were included in the analysis. At baseline, low values were found for EF, OF, SD, IS, and OS and high values for depression and anxiety; all of these parameters improved significantly in the recovery phase compared with baseline. EF variation between the two phases correlated significantly and positively with the variation of serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure and inversely with that of upright plasma renin activity. Multiple linear regression analysis using EF variation as dependent variable confirmed the relationship of the latter with variation of serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol, and upright plasma renin activity but not with variation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Our study showed that onset of autoimmune AD in males is associated with a number of sexual dysfunctions, all reversible after initiating replacement hormone therapy; cortisol and aldosterone deficiency seems to play an important role in the genesis of erectile dysfunction although the mechanism of their activity is not clear. © 2012 International Society

  14. Short-Term Prognosis of Mechanically Ventilated Patients With Guillain-Barré Syndrome Is Worsened by Corticosteroids as an Add-On Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiujuan; Zhang, Bing; Li, Chunrong; Shen, Donghui; Liu, Kangding; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Liang

    2015-10-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been proven most effective in treating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Corticosteroids as an add-on therapy have been prescribed in severe GBS cases. However, the efficacy of intravenous corticosteroids combined with IVIg in dealing with severe GBS remains unclear. We explored the therapeutic effects of different therapeutic regimens on the short-term prognosis of GBS patients, especially the severe cases.We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 527 adult patients with GBS who were prescribed to different treatments from 2003 to 2014. The therapeutic effect of a treatment was evaluated by the improvement of Hughes Functional Grading Scale (HFGS) and Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score.With comparable incidence of infectious complications (P > 0.05), more mechanically ventilated patients were found improvement after IVIg treatment than combination IVIg with intravenous corticosteroids (MRC: 97% vs. 72.4%, P bedridden patients without mechanical ventilation, incidence of infectious complications (P > 0.05) and ratio of patients who were improved after IVIg were insignificantly different from the combination therapy (MRC: 89.6% vs. 86.5%; HFGS: 69.6% vs. 61.5%; both P > 0.05), even if the intravenous corticosteroids were initiated within 7 days after onset (P > 0.05). In addition, supportive treatment was sufficient for patients who were able to walk with help (HFGS = 3) and mildly affected (HFGS  3), while corticosteroids are detrimental for short-term prognosis in mechanically ventilated patients when used in combination with IVIg. Further prospective and randomized studies are warranted to validate this finding.

  15. Short-Term Prognosis of Mechanically Ventilated Patients With Guillain–Barré Syndrome Is Worsened by Corticosteroids as an Add-On Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiujuan; Zhang, Bing; Li, Chunrong; Shen, Donghui; Liu, Kangding; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been proven most effective in treating Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS). Corticosteroids as an add-on therapy have been prescribed in severe GBS cases. However, the efficacy of intravenous corticosteroids combined with IVIg in dealing with severe GBS remains unclear. We explored the therapeutic effects of different therapeutic regimens on the short-term prognosis of GBS patients, especially the severe cases. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 527 adult patients with GBS who were prescribed to different treatments from 2003 to 2014. The therapeutic effect of a treatment was evaluated by the improvement of Hughes Functional Grading Scale (HFGS) and Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score. With comparable incidence of infectious complications (P > 0.05), more mechanically ventilated patients were found improvement after IVIg treatment than combination IVIg with intravenous corticosteroids (MRC: 97% vs. 72.4%, P bedridden patients without mechanical ventilation, incidence of infectious complications (P > 0.05) and ratio of patients who were improved after IVIg were insignificantly different from the combination therapy (MRC: 89.6% vs. 86.5%; HFGS: 69.6% vs. 61.5%; both P > 0.05), even if the intravenous corticosteroids were initiated within 7 days after onset (P > 0.05). In addition, supportive treatment was sufficient for patients who were able to walk with help (HFGS = 3) and mildly affected (HFGS  3), while corticosteroids are detrimental for short-term prognosis in mechanically ventilated patients when used in combination with IVIg. Further prospective and randomized studies are warranted to validate this finding. PMID:26512609

  16. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer in ethanol improves oxidative status and gingival collagen in a short-term in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillusky, Fernanda Maia; Barcelos, Raquel Cristine Silva; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Barin, Luisa Machado; de Mello Palma, Victor; Maciel, Roberto Marinho; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) effects using the methylene blue (MB) in ethanol 20% on systemic oxidative status and collagen content from gingiva of rats with periodontitis. Rats were divided into five experimental groups: NC (negative control; no periodontitis); PC (positive control; periodontitis without any treatment); SRP (periodontitis and scaling and root planing), aPDT I (periodontitis and SRP+aPDT+MB solubilized in water), and aPDT II (periodontitis and SRP+aPDT+MB solubilized in ethanol 20%). After 7days of removal of the ligature, the periodontal treatments were performed. At 7/15/30days, gingival tissue was removed for morphometric analysis. The erythrocytes were used to evaluate systemic oxidative status. PC group showed higher lipoperoxidation levels at 7/15/30days. aPDT indicated a protective influence in erythrocytes at 15days observed by the elevation in levels of systemic antioxidant defense. aPDT II group was the only one that restored the total collagen area in 15days, and recovered the type I collagen area at the same time point. aPDT as an adjunct to the SRP can induce the systemic protective response against oxidative stress periodontitis-induced and recover the gingival collagen, thus promoting the healing periodontal, particularly when the MB is dissolved in ethanol 20%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful recovery of infective endocarditis-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis by steroid therapy combined with antibiotics: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikkawa Ryuichi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mortality rate among patients with infective endocarditis, especially associated with the presence of complications or coexisting conditions such as renal failure and the use of combined medical and surgical therapy remains still high. Prolonged parenteral administration of a bactericidal antimicrobial agent or combination of agents is usually recommended, however, the optimal therapy for infective endocarditis associated with renal injury is not adequately defined. Case presentation Patient was a 24-years old man who presented to our hospital with fever, fatigue, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He had a history of ventricular septum defect (VSD. A renal biopsy specimen revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis and echocardiogram revealed VSD with vegetation on the tricuspid valve. Specimens of blood demonstrated Propionibacterium Acnes. The intensive antibiotic therapy with penicillin G was started without clinical improvement of renal function or resolution of fever over the next 7 days. After the short-term treatment of low dose of corticosteroid combined with continuous antibiotics, high fever and renal insufficiency were dramatically improved. Conclusion Although renal function in our case worsened despite therapy with antibiotics, a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid therapy with antibiotics was able to recover renal function and the patient finally underwent tricuspid valve-plasty and VSD closure. We suggest that the patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with infective endocarditis might be treated with a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid successfully.

  18. The effects of short-term preoperative physical therapy and education on early functional recovery of patients younger than 70 undergoing total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanović Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hip arthroplasty is a routine operation which relieves pain in patients with osteoarthritis. The role of physical therapy after hip arthroplasty was recognized, but the importance of preoperative physical therapy and education is still to be judged. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term preoperative program of education and physical therapy on patients' early functional recovery immediately after total hip arthroplasty (THA. Methods. This prospective study included 45 patients with hip osteoarthritis scheduled to undergo primary THA and admitted to the Department of Orthopedics of Military Medical Academy. They were randomized into 2 groups: study and control one (with and without preoperative education and physical therapy. Preoperative education was conducted through conversation (1 appointment with physiatrist and brochure. The study group was instructed to perform exercises and basic activities from the postoperative rehabilitation program (2 practical classes with physiotherapist. Effects were measured with questionnaires (Harris, Oxford and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA hip scores, range of motion and visual analog scale of pain. Marks showing ability to perform basic activities and endurance were from 0 (did not perform activity to 5 (independent and secure. Analyses examined differences between the groups over the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods and 15 months after the operation. Results. There were no differences between the groups at discharge according to pain, range of motion, Harris hip score and JOA hip score. Oxford hip score did not differ between the groups 15 months after the operation. The groups started to walk at the same time, but the study group walked up and down stairs (3.7±1.66 vs 5.37±1.46, p ≤ 0.002, used toilet (2.3±0.92 vs 3.2±1.24, p ≤ 0.02 and chair (2.2±1.01 vs 3.25±1.21, p ≤ 0.006 significantly earlier than the control group. On the

  19. [Proper antibiotic therapy. From penicillin to pharmacogenomic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G; Ruffini, E

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics have always been considered one of the wonder discoveries of the 20th century. The use of penicillin by Flaming, opened up the golden era of antibiotics and now is hard to imagine the practice of medicine without antibiotics. Life-threatening infections, such as meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremic pneumonia sepsis, would again prove fatal. Also aggressive chemotherapy and transplant procedures would prove impossible. Another real wonder has been the rise of antibiotic resistance soon after the clinical use of penicillin in hospitals and communities. Several study demonstrated an excessive amount of antibiotic prescribing for communities patients and inpatients and in some hospital up to 50% of antibiotic usage is inappropriate: the benefits of antibiotic treatment come with the risk of antibiotic resistance development. In hospitals, infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are associated with higher mortality, morbidity and prolonged hospital stay compared with infections caused by antibiotic-susceptible bacteria. A variety of strategies has been proposed to reduce the cost and improve the quality of medication use. Education, guidelines and evidence based recommendations are considered to be essential elements of any program designed to influence prescribing behavior and can provide a foundation of knowledge that will enhance and increase the acceptance of stewardship strategies. Evidence-based recommendations, an approach to clinical practice helping to make decisions based on clinical expertise and on intimate knowledge of the individual patient's situations, beliefs, and priorities, enhance antimicrobial stewardship, that include appropriate selection, dosing, route, and duration of antimicrobial therapy can maximize clinical cure or prevention of infection while limiting the unintended consequences, such as the emergence of resistance, adverse drug events, and cost. These evidence-based guidelines are not a substitute for clinical

  20. Moderation of the Alliance-Outcome Association by Prior Depressive Episodes: Differential Effects in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Short-Term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Driessen, Ellen; DeRubeis, Robert J; Van, Henricus L; Keefe, John R; Hendriksen, Mariëlle; Dekker, Jack

    2017-09-01

    Prior studies have suggested that the association between the alliance and depression improvement varies as a function of prior history of depression. We sought to replicate these findings and extend them to short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy (SPSP) in a sample of patients who were randomized to one of these treatments and were administered the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (N=282) at Week 5 of treatment. Overall, the alliance was a predictor of symptom change (d=0.33). In SPSP, the alliance was a modest but robust predictor of change, irrespective of prior episodes (d=0.25-0.33). By contrast, in CBT, the effects of the alliance on symptom change were large for patients with 0 prior episodes (d=0.86), moderate for those with 1 prior episode (d=0.49), and small for those with 2+ prior episodes (d=0.12). These findings suggest a complex interaction between patient features and common vs. specific therapy processes. In CBT, the alliance relates to change for patients with less recurrent depression whereas other CBT-specific processes may account for change for patients with more recurrent depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparison of short-term effects between face mask and skeletal anchorage therapy with intermaxillary elastics in patients with maxillary retrognathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Esenlik, Elçin; Fındık, Yavuz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term dental and skeletal effects of a face mask (FM) with those of skeletal anchorage (SA) therapy with intermaxillary elastics in prepubertal patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Fifty patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency were divided into two groups. In the FM group, an FM was applied by a bite plate with a force of 400g for each side. In the SA group, mini-plates were placed between mandibular lateral incisors and canines, and mini-implants were inserted between maxillary second premolars and first molars. A bite plate was inserted into the upper arch, and Class III elastics were applied with a force of 200g between each mini-plate and mini-implant. Mean treatment durations were 0.52±0.09 years for FM and 0.76±0.09 years for SA. After the treatment, statistically significant increases in SNA°, ANB°, A-y, 1-NA, SnGoGn°, Co-A, Co-Gn, and A-Nperp, and reductions in SNB° and FH┴N-Pg were observed in both groups, and these changes were similar in both groups. In the FM group, 1-NB decreased significantly, and in the SA group, it increased significantly (P journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Short-term intensive insulin therapy could be the preferred option for new onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with HbA1c > 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous disease. Currently, the typical clinical therapeutic pathway for the disease consists of the stepwise addition of antihyperglycemic preparations over time, followed lastly by insulin therapy when functional β-cell capacity is severely deteriorated. Recognizing the complexity of disease management, personalized (precision) medicine approaches may enable the physician to tailor diabetes treatment based on HbA1c levels, body mass index (BMI), efficacy, risk of hypoglycemia, risk of weight gain, age, safety, cost, and even genetic characteristics. Although insulin therapy has traditionally been recommended as the last option in the sequential treatment algorithm of T2DM, it is notable that several guidelines and consensus statements suggest consideration of insulin as part of a first-line regimen. In the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) comprehensive T2DM 2017 management algorithm, insulin is recommended for T2DM patients presenting with symptoms and an HbA1c >9.0%. In addition, the American Diabetes Association (ADA)/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) consensus statement recommends initial insulin therapy as an option when HbA1c ≥9%, and definite consideration with HbA1c ≥10-12%, and mentions that it may be possible to taper off insulin once initial glucotoxicity is reversed and to consider transfer to other types of non-insulin therapies. Based on accumulating evidence, an expert group has endorsed the concept of short-term intensive insulin (STII) therapy as an option for some patients with T2DM at the time of diagnosis. Notably, the latest Israeli guidelines suggest considering immediate, sometimes short-term, insulin treatment for patients with HbA1c >9% or with symptoms. It has been reported that nearly one-quarter (23%) of newly diagnosed T2DM patients in the US had an HbA1c ≥9.0% prior to initiation of treatment. For such

  3. The effect of short-term treatment with lithium carbonate on the outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with long-lasting Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulić, Vladan; Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Kojić, Marko

    2017-12-01

    The outcome of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) mainly depends on radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake and the effective half-life of 131 I in the gland. Studies have shown that lithium carbonate (LiCO 3 ) enhances the 131 I half-life and increases the applied thyroid radiation dose without affecting the thyroid 131 I uptake. We investigated the effect of short-term treatment with LiCO 3 on the outcome of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH, its influence on the thyroid hormones levels 7 days after RIT, and possible side effects. Study prospectively included 30 patients treated with LiCO 3 and 131 I (RI-Li group) and 30 patients only with 131 I (RI group). Treatment with LiCO 3 (900 mg/day) started 1 day before RIT and continued 6 days after. Anti-thyroid drugs withdrawal was 7 days before RIT. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We defined a success of RIT as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and a failure as persistent hyperthyroidism. In RI-Li group, a serum level of Li was 0.571 ± 0.156 mmol/l before RIT. Serum levels of TT 4 and FT 4 increased while TSH decreased only in RI group 7 days after RIT. No toxic effects were noticed during LiCO 3 treatment. After 12 months, a success of RIT was 73.3% in RI and 90.0% in RI-Li group (P treatment with LiCO 3 as an adjunct to 131 I improves efficacy of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH. A success of RIT achieves faster in lithium-treated than in RI group. Treatment with LiCO 3 for 7 days prevents transient worsening of hyperthyroidism after RIT. Short-term use of LiCO 3 shows no toxic side effects.

  4. Insulin requirement profiles of short-term intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its association with long-term glycemic remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liehua; Ke, Weijian; Wan, Xuesi; Zhang, Pengyuan; Cao, Xiaopei; Deng, Wanping; Li, Yanbing

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the insulin requirement profiles during short-term intensive continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its relationship with long-term glycemic remission. CSII was applied in 104 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Daily insulin doses were titrated and recorded to achieve and maintain euglycemia for 2 weeks. Measurements of blood glucose, lipid profiles as well as intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after the therapy. Afterwards, patients were followed up for 1 year. Total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 56.6±16.1IU at the first day when euglycemia was achieved (TDD-1). Thereafter, TDD progressively decreased at a rate of 1.4±1.0IU/day to 36.2±16.5IU at the end of the therapy. TDD-1 could be estimated with body weight, FPG, triglyceride and waist circumference in a multiple linear regression model. Decrement of TDD after euglycemia was achieved (ΔTDD) was associated with reduction of HOMA-IR (r=0.27, P=0.008) but not with improvement in β cell function. Patients in the lower tertile of ΔTDD had a significantly higher risk of hyperglycemia relapse than those in the upper tertile within 1 year (HR 3.4, 95%CI [1.4, 8.4], P=0.008). There is a steady decline of TDD after euglycemia is achieved in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes treated with CSII, and ΔTDD is associated with a better long-term glycemic outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of short-term rosuvastatin therapy on heart and kidney function in patients with acute coronary syndrome combining diabetes mellitus and concomitant chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng WU

    2014-08-01

    4.2%; P=0.025. Conclusions Perioperative short-term rosuvastatin therapy may have a certain protective effect on renal function of ACS patients with DM and concomitant CKD, and reduce the postoperative cardiovascular events. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.07

  6. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh; Mohammad-Kazem Sabzehei; Seyyed-Ali-Reza Fahimzad; Farideh Shiva; Ahmad-Reza Shamshiri; Fatemeh Esmaili

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. ...

  7. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J. Maselli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  8. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  9. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an experimental short-term inpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Louisa M C; Sinnaeve, Roland; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; van Furth, Eric F

    2014-05-01

    outpatient patients can pose a dilemma for mental health care professionals. Although hospitalization seems inevitable under some circumstances, it has proven to be harmful in its own right. This paper outlines the background and methods of a randomized trial evaluating the possible surplus value of a short-term inpatient DBT program.

  10. Evaluation of client progress in music therapy : An illustration of an N-of-1 design in individual short-term improvisational music therapy with clients with depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Spreen, Marinus; Bosveld-van Haandel, Linda; Bogaerts, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces music therapy clinicians to a research design that can be easily implemented in clinical practice to evaluate and monitor the impact of interventions on individual clients: the systemic N-of-1 design. In this single-case design, the client’s network, consisting of

  11. The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results: I. Effects on antibiotic use, milk withholding time, and short-term clinical and bacteriological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; Godden, S M; Bey, R; Ruegg, P L; Leslie, K

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this multi-state, multi-herd clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of using an on-farm culture system to guide strategic treatment decisions in cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted in 8 commercial dairy farms ranging in size from 144 to 1,795 cows from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Ontario, Canada. A total of 422 cows affected with mild or moderate clinical mastitis in 449 quarters were randomly assigned to either (1) a positive-control treatment program or (2) an on-farm, culture-based treatment program. Quarter cases assigned to the positive-control group received immediate on-label intramammary treatment with cephapirin sodium. Quarters assigned to the culture-based treatment program were cultured on-farm and treated with cephapirin sodium after 18 to 24h of incubation if they had gram-positive growth or a mixed infection. Quarters with gram-negative or no growth did not receive intramammary therapy. The proportion of quarter cases assigned to positive-control and culture-based treatments that received intramammary antibiotic therapy because of study assignment was 100 and 44%, respectively; the proportion of cases that received secondary antibiotic therapy was 36 and 19%, respectively; and the proportion of cases that received intramammary antibiotic therapy because of study assignment or secondary therapy was 100 and 51%, respectively. A tendency existed for a decrease in the number of days in which milk was discarded from cows assigned to the culture-based treatment program versus cows assigned to the positive-control group (5.9 vs. 5.2 d). No statistically significant differences existed between cases assigned to the positive-control and cases assigned to the culture-based treatment program in days to clinical cure (2.7 vs. 3.2 d), bacteriological cure risk within 21 d of enrollment (71 vs. 60%), new intramammary infection risk within 21 d of enrollment (50 vs. 50%), and treatment failure risk (presence of infection

  12. Multifactorial analysis on the short-term side effects occurring within 96 hours after radioiodine-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to clarify factors that might influence short-term side effects occurring within 96 hours after administration of 131 I for patients with thyroid carcinoma. In 71 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, short-term side effects including gastrointestinal complaints, salivary gland swelling with pain, change in taste and headache were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were given domperidone for prevention of gastrointestinal complaints and advised to consume sour foods to promote discharge of radioiodine from the salivary glands. Selected factors possibly affecting the incidence of side effects were dose per body weight, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), effective half-life of 131 I, sex, age, 131 I accumulation into the stomach and salivary glands, and edema prior to radioiodine administration. The factors were evaluated by multivariate analyses. Incidence of gastrointestinal complaints, salivary gland swelling with pain, change in taste and headache was 65.2%, 50.0%, 9.8% and 4.4%, respectively. In gastrointestinal complaints, the incidence of appetite loss, nausea and vomiting was 60.9%, 40.2% and 7.6%, respectively. The gastrointestinal complaints increased significantly in the patients dosed above 55.5 MBq/kg and with TSH elevation. For salivary gland swelling with pain, female patients displayed a significantly higher incidence than males. No statistically significant factors were detected for change in taste or headache. Significant factors influencing short-term side effects were dose per body weight and TSH values for gastrointestinal complaints, and female sex for salivary gland swelling with pain. Our preliminary experience suggests that the most frequent gastrointestinal complaints can be prevented with ramosetron. (author)

  13. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar; de Godoi, Vanessa; Mancalossi, José Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; De Marchi, Thiago; Parente, Márcio; Grosselli, Douglas; Generosi, Rafael Abeche; Basso, Maira; Frigo, Lucio; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5°C of temperature [SD ±1°]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850 nm, 10/30 mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7 J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5 min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p > 0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p < 0.05) after the three exercise tests, but only active LEDT decreased blood lactate levels (p = 0.0065) and CK activity (p = 0.0044) significantly after treatment. There were no significant differences in CRP values after treatments. We concluded that treating the leg muscles with LEDT 5 min after the Wingate cycle test seemed to inhibit the expected post-exercise increase in blood lactate levels and CK activity. This suggests that LEDT has better potential than 5 min of CWIT for improving short-term post-exercise recovery.

  14. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  15. Toyota production system quality improvement initiative improves perioperative antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Kelly H; Mor, Maria K; Jain, Rajiv; Kruszewski, Matthew S; McCray, Ellesha E; Moreland, Michael E; Muder, Robert R; Obrosky, David Scott; Sevick, Mary Ann; Wilson, Mark A; Fine, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    To assess the role of a Toyota production system (TPS) quality improvement (QI) intervention on appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic therapy and in length of hospital stay (LOS) among surgical patients. Pre-post quasi-experimental study using local and national retrospective cohorts. We used TPS methods to implement a multifaceted intervention to reduce nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections on a Veterans Affairs surgical unit, which led to a QI intervention targeting appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy was defined as selection of the recommended antibiotic agents for a duration not exceeding 24 hours from the time of the operation. The local computerized medical record system was used to identify patients undergoing the 25 most common surgical procedures and to examine changes in appropriate antibiotic therapy and LOS over time. Overall, 2550 surgical admissions were identified from the local computerized medical records. The proportion of surgical admissions receiving appropriate perioperative antibiotics was significantly higher (P <.01) in 2004 after initiation of the TPS intervention (44.0%) compared with the previous 4 years (range, 23.4%-29.8%) primarily because of improvements in compliance with antibiotic therapy duration rather than appropriate antibiotic selection. There was no statistically significant decrease in LOS over time. The use of TPS methods resulted in a QI intervention that was associated with an increase in appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy among surgical patients, without affecting LOS.

  16. What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults' occupational performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2016-01-01

    critically appraised 13 of 995 detected papers. Extracted data were presented and summarised descriptively. Results Eight high-quality papers showed that occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy using cognitive, behavioural and environmental strategies may significantly improve......Abstract Title What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults’ occupational performance? A systematic review Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home......-based occupational therapy for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. Aim This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy for older adults at home. Material and methods Peer...

  17. Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral therapy in the intensive care unit, general medical wards and outpatient HIV clinics at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

  18. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Fahimzad, Seyyed-Ali-Reza; Shiva, Farideh; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W) and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days); duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3%) newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality. PMID:27307961

  19. Robotic versus laparoscopic surgery for mid or low rectal cancer in male patients after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy: comparison of short-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Kursat Rahmi; Gultekin, Fatma Ayca; Batman, Burçin; Ay, Serden; Kapran, Yersu; Saglam, Sezer; Asoglu, Oktar

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to compare short-term outcomes of robotic and laparoscopic sphincter-saving total mesorectal excision (TME) in male patients with mid-low rectal cancer (RC) after neadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). The study was conducted as a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database, and we analyzed 14 robotic and 65 laparoscopic sphincter saving TME (R-TME and L-TME, respectively) performed by one surgeon between 2005 and 2013. Patient characteristics, perioperative recovery, postoperative complications and and pathology results were compared between the two groups. The patient characteristics did not differ significantly between the two groups. Median operating time was longer in the R-TME than in the L-TME group (182 min versus 140 min). Only two conversions occurred in the L-TME group. No difference was found between groups regarding perioperative recovery and postoperative complication rates. The median number of harvested lymph nodes was higher in the RTME than in the L-TME group (32 versus 23, p = 0.008). The median circumferential margin (CRM) was 10 mm in the R-TME group, 6.5 mm in the L-TME group (p = 0.047. The median distal resection margin (DRM) was 27.5 mm in the R-TME, 15 mm in the L-TME group (p = 0.014). Macroscopic grading of the specimen in the R-TME group was complete in all patients. In the L-TME group, grading was complete in 52 (80%) and incomplete in 13 (20%) cases (p = 0.109). R-TME is a safe and feasible procedure that facilitates performing of TME in male patients with mid-low RC after NCRT.

  20. Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-07-29

    Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following

  1. Pros and cons of antibiotic therapy for pouchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Shen, Bo

    2009-10-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical treatment of choice for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis with dysplasia and for the majority of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, pouchitis and other pouch-associated complications frequently occur following surgery. Pouchitis is the most common long-term complication of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis, with a cumulative prevalence of up to 50%. The pathogenesis of pouchitis is probably associated with alterations in commensal bacterial flora, and most patients with pouchitis respond favorably to antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for active pouchitis, with ciprofloxacin or metronidazole traditionally being first-line agents. Some patients may develop dependency on antibiotics, thus requiring long-term maintenance therapy. In a subset of patients, the disease course may be refractory to antibiotic therapy, which is one of the common causes of pouch failure, requiring permanent ileostomy or pouch excision. On the other hand, long-term antibiotic use is expensive and can be associated with adverse effects and bacterial resistance. There may also be the risk of secondary infections, such as Clostridium difficile and fungal infections. The risks and benefits should be carefully balanced in patients who require long-term antibiotic therapy, and safe, efficacious, non-antibiotic-based agents are needed.

  2. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy versus exercise program in patients with low back pain: short-term results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Gallone, M F; Mastromauro, L; Rifino, F; Pesce, V; Covelli, I; Moretti, B

    2018-01-01

    The physiotherapy treatment of low back pain (LBP) with physical stimulation offers different possibilities of application. Until now, the physical therapies used in LBP are laser therapy, ultrasonotherapy and currents. We conducted a clinical trial in order to verify whether shockwave therapy, which is very effective in treating tendinopathies and fracture consolidation delays, leads to clinical and electromyographic improvement in patients affected by LBP. We randomized thirty patients affected by LBP treated with shock waves (shockwave group) or a standard protocol characterized by rehabilitative exercises (control group). At one and three months, the patients treated with shockwave therapy showed clinical improvement measured by VAS scales (p=0.002; p= 0.02), and disability evaluated with Roland scales (p=0.002; p=0.002) and Oswestry (p=0.002; p=0.002). At three months, the patients treated with shock waves, showed a significant improvement in terms of values of amplitude of the sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of the plantar medialis nerve (left: p=0.007; right: p=0.04), the motor nerve muscular conduction (MNCV) of the deep peroneal nerve (left: p=0.28; right: p=0.01) and recruitment of motor units of finger brevis extensor (left: p = 0.02; right: p=0.006). In the control group, there was a trend to increase the clinical and electromyographic results without statistical significance. The preliminary results suggest a good applicability of shockwave therapy in the treatment of LBP, in accordance with the antiinflammatory, antalgic, decontracting effects and remodeling of the nerve fiber damage verified in previous studies conducted on other pathological models. Future research will allow us to verify the integration of this therapy into a rehabilitation protocol combined with other physical therapies.

  3. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2018-07-01

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected by pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Rehabilitation experts should consider the risk of gross motor delays of patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery and the early postoperative physical therapy to promote their gross motor recovery.

  4. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H C; Kim, M J; Lee, B H

    2017-12-01

    Uncomplicated appendicitis may resolve spontaneously or require treatment with antibiotics or appendicectomy. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the outcome of a non-antibiotic management strategy with that of antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated appendicitis. Patients presenting to a university teaching hospital with CT-verified uncomplicated simple appendicitis (appendiceal diameter no larger than 11 mm and without any signs of perforation) were randomized to management with a no-antibiotic regimen with supportive care (intravenous fluids, analgesia and antipyretics as necessary) or a 4-day course of antibiotics with supportive care. The primary endpoint was rate of total treatment failure, defined as initial treatment failure within 1 month and recurrence of appendicitis during the follow-up period. Some 245 patients were randomized within the trial, and followed up for a median of 19 months. The duration of hospital stay was shorter (mean 3·1 versus 3·7 days; P antibiotics. There was no difference in total treatment failure rate between the groups: 29 of 124 (23·4 per cent) in the no-antibiotic group and 25 of 121 (20·7 per cent) in the antibiotic group (P = 0·609). Eighteen patients (9 in each group) had initial treatment failure, 15 of whom underwent appendicectomy and three received additional antibiotics. Thirty-six patients (20 in the no-antibiotic group, 16 in the antibiotic group) experienced recurrence, of whom 30 underwent appendicectomy and six received further antibiotics. Treatment failure rates in patients presenting with CT-confirmed uncomplicated appendicitis appeared similar among those receiving supportive care with either a no-antibiotic regimen or a 4-day course of antibiotics. Registration number: KCT0000124 ( http://cris.nih.go.kr). © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Stephen, Charles; Paul, Thomas V; Thomas, Nihal; Oommen, Regi; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, (131)therapy for Graves' disease followed by an iodine restricted diet for a period of six months. Consecutive adult patients with Graves' disease planned for I(131) therapy were randomized either to receive instructions regarding dietary iodine restriction or no advice prior to fixed dose (5mCi) I(131) administration. Thyroid functions and urinary iodine indices were evaluated at 3(rd) and 6(th) month subsequently. Forty seven patients (13M and 34F) were assessed, 2 were excluded, 45 were randomized (Cases 24 and Controls 21) and 39 patients completed the study. Baseline data was comparable. Median urinary iodine concentration was 115 and 273 μg/gm creat (p = 0.00) among cases and controls respectively. Outcomes at the 3(rd) month were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 6: P = 0.24), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 8: P = 0.64). Outcomes at the end of six months were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 5: P = 0.12), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 9: P = 0.43). Of the hypothyroid patients 5 (cases 1 and controls 4: P = 0.13) required thyroxine replacement. There was no statistical significant difference in the outcome of patients with dietary iodine restriction following I(131) therapy for Graves' disease.

  6. Central sensitization does not identify patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who are likely to achieve short-term success with physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de-la-Llave-Rincon, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Pareja, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify whether hyperexcitability of the central nervous system is a prognostic factor for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) likely to experience rapid and clinical self-reported improvement following a physical therapy program including soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic interventions. Women presenting with clinical and electrophysiological findings of CTS were involved in a prospective single-arm trial. Participants underwent a standardized examination and then a physical therapy session. The physical therapy sessions included both soft tissue mobilization directed at the anatomical sites of potential median nerve entrapment and a passive nerve slider neurodynamic technique targeted to the median nerve. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the median, radial and ulnar nerves, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, carpal tunnel and tibialis anterior muscle were assessed bilaterally. Additionally, thermal detection and pain thresholds were measured over the carpal tunnel and thenar eminence bilaterally to evaluate central nervous system excitability. Subjects were classified as responders (having achieved a successful outcome) or non-responders based on self-perceived recovery. Variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate variables for determining prognosis. Data from 72 women were included in the analysis, of which 35 experienced a successful outcome (48.6%). Three variables including PPT over the C5-C6 joint affected side 66 points were identified. If 2 out of 3 variables were present (LR + 14.8), the likelihood of success increased from 48.6 to 93.3%. We identified 3 factors that may be associated with a rapid clinical response to both soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic techniques targeted to the median nerve in women presenting with CTS. Our results support that widespread central sensitization may not be present in women with CTS who

  7. Immunostimulation asa method limiting unnecessary antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczukocka-Zych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurring respiratory tract infections are typical of childhood. This results from the fact that children are exposed to pathogens, usually in groups of people, and from the immaturity of the immune system. Most upper and lower respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses. Nevertheless, antibiotics, which target bacteria, are often prescribed. Antibiotic overuse leads to increased microbial resistance to these drugs, resulting in their inefficacy. Improper treatment of respiratory infections with antibiotics ultimately leads to treatment failure. An increase in antibiotic resistance of many bacterial strains is becoming a serious global problem and makes treatment much more difficult. It is a responsibility of each physician to use antibiotics properly and implement adequate prevention of recurring respiratory tract infections. For many years, it has been attempted to find effective agents that improve immunity in children. The pharmaceutical market offers various preparations advertised as immunostimulants, such as bacterial lysates, vitamins, dietary supplements, probiotics or herbal, animal and homeopathic products. The role of immunomodulatory substances is to promote the immune system to fight pathogens, reduce the frequency of infections and decrease the demand for antibiotics. Unfortunately, most immunomodulators do not have sufficiently reliable clinical trials that would confirm their efficacy.

  8. Short-term effects of extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field and pulsed low-level laser therapy on rabbit model of corneal alkali burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Tabeie, Faraj; Sahebjam, Farzin; Poursani, Nima; Jahanbakhsh, Nazanin; Paymanpour, Pouya; AfsarAski, Sasha

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of combining extremely low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on alkali-burned rabbit corneas. Fifty alkali-burned corneas of 50 rabbits were categorized into five groups: ELF-PEMF therapy with 2 mT intensity (ELF 2) for 2 h daily; LLLT for 30 min twice daily; combined ELF-PEMF and LLLT (ELF + LLLT); medical therapy (MT); and control (i.e., no treatment). Clinical examination and digital photography of the corneas were performed on days 0, 2, 7, and 14. After euthanizing the rabbits, the affected eyes were evaluated by histopathology. The clinical and histopathologic results were compared between the groups. On days 7 and 14, no significant difference in the corneal defect area was evident between the ELF, LLLT, ELF + LLLT, and MT groups. Excluding the controls, none of the study groups demonstrated a significant corneal neovascularization in both routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry for CD31. Keratocyte loss was significantly higher in the MT group than in the ELF, LLLT, and ELF + LLLT groups. Moderate to severe stromal inflammation in the LLLT group was comparable with that in the MT group and was significantly lower than that in the other groups. In conclusion, combining LLLT and ELF was not superior to ELF alone or LLLT alone in healing corneal alkali burns. However, given the lower intensity of corneal inflammation and the lower rate of keratocytes loss with LLLT, this treatment may be superior to other proposed treatment modalities for healing alkali-burned corneas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Antibiotic therapy of hospital-acquired pneumonia and its pharmacoeconomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, Milan; Htoutou Sedláková, Miroslava; Urbánek, Karel; Uvízl, Radomír; Adamus, Milan; Imwensi, O P

    2016-03-01

    Important hospital-acquired infections include pneumonia, mainly because of the increasing resistance of bacterial pathogens to antimicrobials and the associated potential failure of antibiotic therapy. The present study aimed at determining the most frequent etiological agents of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and assessing the relationship between 30-day mortality and adequacy of antibiotic therapy. Based on the obtained information, optimal patterns of antibiotic therapy were to be defined, including a pharmacoeconomic perspective. In patients with clinically confirmed HAP, bacterial etiological agents were identified, their susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined and statistical methods were used to assess the relationship between adequacy of antibiotic therapy and 30-day mortality. The study comprised 68 patients with clinically confirmed HAP. The most common etiological agents were strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.8 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.1 %) and Burkholderia cepacia complex (15.4 %). Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 86.5 % of all bacterial pathogens. The overall mortality reached 42.5 %. In the subgroup of patients with inadequate antibiotic therapy, 30-day mortality was significantly higher (83.3 %) than in the subgroup with adequate therapy (30.0 %; p = 0.002). The risk for 30-day mortality was 2.78 times higher in case of inadequate antibiotic therapy (95%CI: 1.52-5.07). The proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with inadequate antibiotic therapy than in those with adequate therapy (67 % vs. 27 %; p = 0.032). Results of the present study suggest a significant relationship between mortality of patients with HAP and ineffective antibiotic therapy due to resistance of the bacterial pathogen. Thus, it is clear that initial antibiotic therapy must be based on qualified assumption of sufficient activity against the most common bacterial pathogens and results of surveillance

  10. Utilisation of antibiotic therapy in community practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, B

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to identify outpatient antibiotic consumption between Jan 2000 and Dec 2005 through analysis of the HSE-Primary Care Reimbursement Services (PCRS) database as part of the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Ireland (SARI) project. Total antibiotic consumption on the PCRS scheme between January 2000 and December 2005 expressed in Defined Daily Dose per 1000 PCRS inhabitants per day increased by 26%. The penicillin group represents the highest consumption accounting for approximately 50% of the total outpatient antibiotic use. Total DIDs for this group increased by 25% between 2000 and 2005. Co-amoxiclav and amoxicillin account for 80% of the total consumption of this group of anti-infectives. With the exception of aminoglycosides and sulfonamides which demonstrated a decrease in DID consumption of 47% and 8% respectively, all other groups of anti-infectives had an increase in DID consumption of greater than 25% during the study period. Antibiotic prescribing data is a valuable tool for assessing public health strategies aiming to optimise antibiotic prescribing.

  11. The short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the circulating levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Annie Kitty; Janam, Prasanthila

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that periodontal infection is a risk factor for a number of systemic diseases and conditions. In addition to the conventional risk factors, chronic infection and the subsequent generation of a systemic inflammatory response may be associated with this increased risk. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of chronic periodontitis and subsequent non-surgical periodontal therapy could influence the serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with severe chronic generalized periodontitis. Participants were selected from subjects who attended the Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantololgy, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram. Sera were obtained from 25 patients with periodontitis for baseline examination and reassessment after completion of treatment. As a control, sera were also obtained from 20 subjects without periodontitis. Interleukin-6 was determined by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) was measured using latex turbidometric immunoassay. Data were analyzed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10. The level of interleukin-6 and hsCRP in the sera of periodontitis patients was seen to be higher than those of healthy controls. Interleukin-6 level tended to decrease with improvement of the periodontal condition following treatment and approached that of control subjects, and this decline was statistically significant. The hsCRP levels also showed a decreasing trend following periodontal treatment. In this study, we were able to show that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of systemic inflammatory markers and that non-surgical periodontal therapy could bring about a decrease in the levels of these inflammatory markers.

  12. The short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the circulating levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Annie Kitty; Janam, Prasanthila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that periodontal infection is a risk factor for a number of systemic diseases and conditions. In addition to the conventional risk factors, chronic infection and the subsequent generation of a systemic inflammatory response may be associated with this increased risk. Aims: This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of chronic periodontitis and subsequent non-surgical periodontal therapy could influence the serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with severe chronic generalized periodontitis. Settings and Design: Participants were selected from subjects who attended the Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantololgy, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram. Materials and Methods: Sera were obtained from 25 patients with periodontitis for baseline examination and reassessment after completion of treatment. As a control, sera were also obtained from 20 subjects without periodontitis. Interleukin-6 was determined by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) was measured using latex turbidometric immunoassay. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10. Results: The level of interleukin-6 and hsCRP in the sera of periodontitis patients was seen to be higher than those of healthy controls. Interleukin-6 level tended to decrease with improvement of the periodontal condition following treatment and approached that of control subjects, and this decline was statistically significant. The hsCRP levels also showed a decreasing trend following periodontal treatment. Conclusions: In this study, we were able to show that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of systemic inflammatory markers and that non-surgical periodontal therapy could bring about a decrease in the levels of these inflammatory markers. PMID:23633770

  13. The short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the circulating levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Kitty George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that periodontal infection is a risk factor for a number of systemic diseases and conditions. In addition to the conventional risk factors, chronic infection and the subsequent generation of a systemic inflammatory response may be associated with this increased risk. Aims: This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of chronic periodontitis and subsequent non-surgical periodontal therapy could influence the serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients with severe chronic generalized periodontitis. Settings and Design: Participants were selected from subjects who attended the Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantololgy, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram. Materials and Methods: Sera were obtained from 25 patients with periodontitis for baseline examination and reassessment after completion of treatment. As a control, sera were also obtained from 20 subjects without periodontitis. Interleukin-6 was determined by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP was measured using latex turbidometric immunoassay. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 10. Results: The level of interleukin-6 and hsCRP in the sera of periodontitis patients was seen to be higher than those of healthy controls. Interleukin-6 level tended to decrease with improvement of the periodontal condition following treatment and approached that of control subjects, and this decline was statistically significant. The hsCRP levels also showed a decreasing trend following periodontal treatment. Conclusions: In this study, we were able to show that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of systemic inflammatory markers and that non-surgical periodontal therapy could bring about a decrease in the levels of these inflammatory markers.

  14. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  15. Comparative outcomes of β-lactam antibiotics in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy: treatment success, readmissions and antibiotic switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boeun; Tam, Idy; Weigel, Bernard; Breeze, Janis L; Paulus, Jessica K; Nelson, Jason; Allison, Genève M

    2015-08-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics are commonly used in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT), but data regarding outcomes of long-term therapy are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare treatment success, readmission and antibiotic switch rates in patients treated with β-lactam antibiotics as OPAT. We carried out a retrospective review of all patients, discharged from Tufts Medical Center with cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem or oxacillin, between January 2009 and June 2013. A competing risks analysis was used to compare the cumulative incidence of first occurrence of treatment success, antibiotic switch and 30 day readmission for each drug. Four hundred patients were identified (cefazolin n = 38, ceftriaxone n = 104, ertapenem n = 128 and oxacillin n = 130). Baseline demographics were similar. Treatment success rates were higher for ceftriaxone and ertapenem (cefazolin 61%, ceftriaxone 81%, ertapenem 73% and oxacillin 58%; P antibiotic switches were accomplished without readmission. Adverse drug events (ADEs) were the most common reason for outpatient antibiotic switches (31/37, 84%). The ADE rate was higher for the oxacillin group (cefazolin 2.0 versus ceftriaxone 1.5 versus ertapenem 2.9 versus oxacillin 8.4 per 1000 OPAT days; P antibiotics is effective, but antibiotic switches for adverse events were more frequent with oxacillin use. Clinicians should be cognizant of the risk of readmissions and ADEs in OPAT patients, as the value of OPAT lies in reducing patient morbidity and readmissions by managing ADEs and preventing clinical failures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Antibiotic Desensitization Therapy in Secondary Syphilis and Listeria Infection: Case Reports and Review of Desensitization Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magpantay, Gil; Madar, Cristian S; Hsue, Gunther; Belnap, Conrad

    2011-01-01

    Two adult cases, one of secondary syphilis and one of Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia, in which antibiotic desensitization therapy was utilized to assist treatment of active infection in the face of severe penicillin allergy. Clinical considerations are discussed that led to the decision to employ a formal desensitization procedure. Antibiotic desensitization protocols can facilitate optimal and safe antibiotic therapy in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:22187514

  17. Impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease before and after short-term potent acid suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Jonsson, Andreas; Denison, Hans; Wernersson, Börje; Hughes, Nesta; Howden, Colin W

    2014-05-01

    Limited data exist on the impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). We assessed the relationship between regurgitation frequency and HRQOL before and after acid suppression therapy in GORD. We used data from two randomised trials of AZD0865 25-75 mg/day versus esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg/day in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=1415) or reflux oesophagitis (RO) (n=1460). The Reflux Disease Questionnaire was used to select patients with frequent and intense heartburn for inclusion and to assess treatment response. The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL. At baseline, 93% of patients in both the NERD and RO groups experienced regurgitation. Mean QOLRAD scores were similar for NERD and RO at baseline and at week 4 and disclosed decremental HRQOL with increasing frequency of regurgitation; a clinically relevant difference of >0.5 in mean QOLRAD scores was seen with regurgitation ≥4 days/week versus <4 days/week. The prevalence of frequent, persistent regurgitation (≥4 days/week) at week 4 among heartburn responders (≤1 day/week of mild heartburn) was 28% in NERD and 23% in RO. QOLRAD scores were higher among heartburn responders. There was a similar pattern of impact related to regurgitation frequency in heartburn responders compared with the group as a whole. Frequent regurgitation was associated with a clinically relevant, incremental decline in HRQOL beyond that associated with heartburn before and after potent acid suppression in both NERD and RO. NCT00206284 and NCT00206245.

  18. Short-term Effect of Radical Hysterectomy with or without Adjuvant Radiation Therapy on Urodynamic Parameters in Patients with Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyu Oh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Lower urinary tract dysfunction is the most common complication after radical pelvic surgery. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of radical hysterectomy (RH on the storage function of the lower urinary tract and to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT on postoperative urodynamic parameters. Methods This was a retrospective review of preoperative and postoperative urodynamic variables, which were prospectively collected. All women from 2006 to 2008, who underwent RH for uterine cervical cancer with a stage of 1A to 2B with or without adjuvant RT were enrolled. All patients were divided into two groups: group 1, without RT, and group 2, with adjuvant RT. Urodynamic studies were performed before, 10 days after, and 6 months after RH. Results A total of 42 patients with a mean (±standard error age of 51.9 (±12.3 years were analyzed. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index or clinical stage between the two groups. On the 10th postoperative day, all parameters were decreased except postvoid residual volume. In comparison with group 2 (n=14, group 1 (n=28 showed a significant increase in bladder compliance. At 6 months postoperatively, bladder compliance in group 1 had increased four times or more compared with that on postoperative 10 days. However, it had increased only 2.5 times in group 2 at the same time point (P<0.001. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that adjuvant RT after RH might result in a deterioration of bladder compliance. It is highly suggested that practitioners pay attention to low bladder compliance, especially in patients who have adjuvant RT after RH.

  19. Home iv antibiotic therapy through a medical day care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Gourdeau, Marie; Deschênes, Louise; Caron, Martine; Desmarais, Marc

    1993-01-01

    An out-patient parenteral antibiotic therapy program provided through a medical day care unit was evaluated in a tertiary care hospital. From July 11, 1988 to December 31, 1990, 122 patients were treated either on site at the unit or at home with self-administered intravenous antibiotics. In all, 142 courses of parenteral antibiotics (mostly cephalosporins and clindamycin) were given for a total of 124 infections, mostly bone and soft tissue infections (67 of 124, 54%). The duration of out-pa...

  20. Short-term additional enfuvirtide therapy is associated with a greater immunological recovery in HIV very late presenters: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, S; Calcagno, A; Cometto, C; Fontana, S; Aguilar, D; D'Avolio, A; Gonzalez de Requena, D; Maiello, A; Dal Conte, I; Lucchini, A; Di Perri, G

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate whether the addition of enfuvirtide to standard highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could confer immunovirological benefits in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected very late presenters. The current study is an open comparative therapeutic trial of standard protease inhibitor (PI)-based HAART ± additional enfuvirtide in treatment-naïve deeply immunologically impaired HIV-positive patients. Very late presenters (CD4 HIV RNA was intensively monitored in the first month, and, thereafter, monthly, as for CD4+ cell count and percentage, clinical data, and plasma drug concentrations. Of 22 enrolled patients (11 per arm), 19 completed the study (10 in the ENF arm). Baseline CD4+ cell counts and % were comparable, with 20 CD4+/mm(3) (12-37) and a percentage of 3.3 (1.7-7.1) in the ENF arm, and 16 CD4+/mm(3) (9-29) and a percentage of 3.1 (2.3-3.8) in the CO arm, respectively. The baseline viral load was also comparable between the two arms, with 5.77 log10 (5.42-6) and 5.39 log10 (5.06-6) in the ENF and CO arms, respectively. Enfuvirtide recipients had higher CD4+ percentage at week 8 (7.6 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.02) and at week 24 (10.7 vs. 5.9%, p = 0.02), and a greater CD4+ increase at week 24 (207 vs. 134 cells/mm(3), p = 0.04), with 70% of enfuvirtide intakers versus 12.5% of controls who achieved a CD4+ cell count >200/mm(3) (p = 0.01). At 48 weeks, patients in the ENF arm had CD4+ cell counts higher than controls (251 vs. 153cells/mm(3), p = 0.04) and were also found to be faster in reaching a CD4 cell count over 200/mm(3): 18 (8-24) versus 48 (36-108) weeks (p = 0.01). Viral load decay at week 4 was greater in the ENF arm (-3 vs. -2.2 log, p = 0.04), while the proportion of patients with viral load discovered HIV-positive patients with very low CD4+ cell counts. Induction strategies using an enfuvirtide-based approach in such subjects warrant further investigation.

  1. Antibiotic and Anti-Inflammatory Therapies for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, James F.; Konstan, Michael W.; Elborn, J. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by chronic bacterial infection and an unremitting inflammatory response, which are responsible for most of CF morbidity and mortality. The median expected survival has increased from 38 yr now. This dramatic improvement, although not great enough, is due to the development of therapies directed at secondary disease pathologies, especially antibiotics. The importance of developing treatments directed against the vigorous inflammatory response was realized in the 1990s. New therapies directed toward the basic defect are now visible on the horizon. However, the impact of these drugs on downstream pathological consequences is unknown. It is likely that antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs will remain an important part of the maintenance regimen for CF in the foreseeable future. Current and future antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies for CF are reviewed. PMID:23880054

  2. Antibiotic Therapy in Pyogenic Meningitis in Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajdin, F.; Rasheed, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Khan, G.J.; Rasheed, H.; Ejaz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and identify the causative pathogen, antibiotic sensitivity testing and success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy in pyogenic meningitis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to July 2012. Methodology: The study was performed on 72 culture positive meningitis cases in children less than 15 years of age. This therapy was evaluated by monitoring the patient's clinical picture for 14 - 21 days. The collected data was analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Seventeen different bacteria were isolated. The most commonly occurring bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococci (25%), E. coli (12.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (8.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.3%). All the bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin (96.7%), meropenem (76.7%), amikacin (75%), ciprofloxacin (65.3%), chloramphenicol (46.5%), ceftazidime (44.2%), cefepime (41.9%), co-amoxiclav (38.0%), oxacillin (34.8%), cefotaxime (21.4%), penicillin (20.7%), ceftriaxone (18.6%), cefuroxime (14%) and ampicillin (6.9%). The combination of sulbactam and cefoperazone showed antimicrobial sensitivity of 81.4%. The success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy was 91.7%. Conclusion: It was found that Gram negative bacteria were the major cause of pyogenic meningitis. Mostly there were resistant strains against all commonly used antibiotics except vancomycin. All empirical antibiotic therapies were found to be most successful. (author)

  3. Time to initial antibiotic administration, and short-term mortality among patients admitted with community-acquired severe infections with and without the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (SIRS) at arrival, and to ascertain whether the presence of SIRS might affect the timing of antibiotic administration. METHODS: In this retrospective follow-up study, we included all adult patients (≥15 years) presenting to a medical emergency department in the period between September 2010 and August...... Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) definitions. Cases were identified by manual chart review using predefined criteria of infection. Data on vital signs, laboratory values and antibiotic treatment were obtained electronically. RESULTS: We included 1169 patients with infection and organ dysfunction, treated...

  4. An increased rectal maximum tolerable volume and long anal canal are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback therapy for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, P L; Choi, M S; Kim, Y H; Son, H J; Kim, J J; Koh, K C; Paik, S W; Rhee, J C; Choi, K W

    2000-10-01

    Biofeedback is an effective therapy for a majority of patients with anismus. However, a significant proportion of patients still failed to respond to biofeedback, and little has been known about the factors that predict response to biofeedback. We evaluated the factors associated with poor response to biofeedback. Biofeedback therapy was offered to 45 patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency (less than three times per week) and normal colonic transit time. Any differences in demographics, symptoms, and parameters of anorectal physiologic tests were sought between responders (in whom bowel frequency increased up to three times or more per week after biofeedback) and nonresponders (in whom bowel frequency remained less than three times per week). Thirty-one patients (68.9 percent) responded to biofeedback and 14 patients (31.1 percent) did not. Anal canal length was longer in nonresponders than in responders (4.53 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.08 +/- 0.56 cm; P = 0.02), and rectal maximum tolerable volume was larger in nonresponders than in responders. (361 +/- 87 vs. 302 +/- 69 ml; P = 0.02). Anal canal length and rectal maximum tolerable volume showed significant differences between responders and nonresponders on multivariate analysis (P = 0.027 and P = 0.034, respectively). This study showed that a long anal canal and increased rectal maximum tolerable volume are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

  5. Successful treatment of recurrent cholangitis with antibiotic maintenance therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hazel, S. J.; Speelman, P.; Tytgat, G. N.; van Leeuwen, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of antibiotic maintenance therapy on the incidence of biliary tract infection was evaluated in patients with recurrent cholangitis after resection of a malignancy at the hepatic confluence. Thirty-eight of 54 patients (70%) experienced episodes of cholangitis. In 14 of the 38 patients

  6. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve

  7. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in patients with acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Vermeij, Frederique; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke is the main cause of disability in high income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce infections and improve outcome.

  8. The Demonstration of Short-Term Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)

  9. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  10. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  11. Development of a clinical prediction rule for identifying women with tension-type headache who are likely to achieve short-term success with joint mobilization and muscle trigger point therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Palomeque-del-Cerro, Luis; Caminero, Ana Belén; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2011-02-01

    successful outcome (48%). Eight prognostic variables were retained in the regression model: mean age 69°, total tenderness score 42.23. The current clinical prediction rule may allow clinicians to make an a priori identification of women with TTH who are likely to experience short-term self-report improvement with a multimodal session including joint mobilizations and TrP therapies. Future studies are necessary to validate these findings. © 2010 American Headache Society.

  12. Comparison of costs and outcomes of dapagliflozin with other glucose-lowering therapy classes added to metformin using a short-term cost-effectiveness model in the US setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Abhiroop; Rastogi, Mohini; Dhankhar, Praveen; Bell, Kelly F

    2018-05-01

    To compare 1-year costs and benefits of dapagliflozin (DAPA), a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, with those of other treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D), such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), sulfonylureas (SUs), thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), all combined with metformin. A short-term decision-analytic model with a 1-year time horizon was developed from a payer's perspective in the United States setting. Costs and benefits associated with four clinical end-points (glycated hemoglobin [A1C], body weight, systolic blood pressure [SBP], and risk of hypoglycemia) were evaluated in the analysis. The impact of DAPA and other glucose-lowering therapy classes on these clinical end-points was estimated from a network meta-analysis (NMA). Data for costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with a per-unit change in these clinical end-points were taken from published literature. Drug prices were taken from an annual wholesale price list. All costs were inflation-adjusted to December 2016 costs using the medical care component of the consumer price index. Total costs (both medical and drug costs), total QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated. Sensitivity analyses (SA) were performed to explore uncertainty in the inputs. To assess face validity, results from the short-term model were compared with long-term models published for these drugs. The total annual medical cost for DAPA was less than that for GLP-1RA ($186 less), DPP-4i ($1,142 less), SU ($2,474 less), and TZD ($1,640 less). Treatment with DAPA resulted in an average QALY gain of 0.0107, 0.0587, 0.1137, and 0.0715 per treated patient when compared with GLP-1RA, DPP-4i, SU, and TZD, respectively. ICERs for DAPA vs SU and TZD were $19,005 and $25,835, respectively. DAPA was a cost-saving option when compared with GLP-1RAs and DPP-4is. Among all four clinical end-points, change in weight

  13. VARIAR Study: Assessment of short-term efficacy and safety of rituximab compared to an tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists as second-line drug therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to a first tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Acosta Pereira, Asunción; Morla, Rosa; Ruiz, José Miguel; Clavaguera, Teresa; Figuls, Ramon; Corominas, Hector; Geli, Carme; Roselló, Rosa; de Agustín, Juan José; Alegre, Cayetano; Pérez, Carolina; García, Angel; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo

    to compare the short-term efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) therapy versus anti-TNF in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients after discontinuation of a first anti-TNF agent. prospective observational multicenter study in the clinical practice setting, involving patients with severe RA refractory to a first anti-TNF agent, who received either RTX or a second anti-TNF (2TNF), comparing the efficacy endpoints, EULAR response (Good/Moderate) and safety at 6 months. 103 patients enrolled, 82 completed 6-month follow-up, 73.7% women. Baseline data for RTX and 2TNF groups, respectively: TJC, 8.6 and 6.6; SJC, 8.8 and 7.5; DAS28 score, 5.45 (±1.28) and 5.18 (±1.21) (p=0.048), ESR, 41 and 38.7mmHg; and HAQ, 1.2 and 1.0. Improvement was observed in all parameters, with no significant differences (except for a more marked reduction in ESR with RTX). There were no serious adverse events. RTX use as second-line therapy after anti-TNF failure led to improvements in the efficacy and functional variables at 6 months, with no serious adverse events. These results were comparable to those observed in patients who used a second anti-TNF agent in the same clinical scenario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  14. Short term memory in echo state networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, H.

    2001-01-01

    The report investigates the short-term memory capacity of echo state recurrent neural networks. A quantitative measure MC of short-term memory capacity is introduced. The main result is that MC 5 N for networks with linear Output units and i.i.d. input, where N is network size. Conditions under which these maximal memory capacities are realized are described. Several theoretical and practical examples demonstrate how the short-term memory capacities of echo state networks can be exploited for...

  15. Streamlining antibiotic therapy with procalcitonin protocols: consensus and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence supports procalcitonin (PCT) as an accurate surrogate biomarker for likelihood and severity of bacterial infections. In community-acquired pneumonia and other respiratory infections, PCT-guided antibiotic therapy algorithms resulted in reduced antibiotic exposure while maintaining a similar or even better level of safety compared with standard care. Reductions in antibiotic use translate into lower treatment costs, decreased risk of side effects and decreased bacterial multiresistance. This is especially important, as acute respiratory infections represent the most frequent reason for antibiotic prescriptions worldwide. Still, there is some controversy about the benefits of PCT measurement in sepsis patients in the intensive care unit and for nonrespiratory infections. Highly sensitive PCT assays are readily available in many hospitals today, and point-of-care assays with high enough sensitivity for antibiotic guidance are expected to be available soon. Herein, the authors provide an overview of recent studies evaluating PCT in different clinical situations and an outlook of currently enrolling or upcoming interventional trials.

  16. Short-term toxicity assessments of an antibiotic metabolite in Wistar rats and its metabonomics analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongxing; Xiao, Hailong; Lu, Zhenmei

    2016-02-15

    4-Epi-oxytetracycline (4-EOTC), one of main oxytetracycline (OTC) metabolites, can be commonly detected in food and environment. The toxicity and effects of OTC on animals have been well characterized; however, its metabolites have never been studied systemically. This study aims to investigate 15-day oral dose toxicity and urine metabonomics changes of 4-EOTC after repeated administration in Wistar rats at daily doses of 0.5, 5.0 and 50.0mg/kg bw (bodyweight). Hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, including white blood cell count, red blood cell count, total protein, globulin and albumin/globulin, were obviously altered in rats of 5.0 and 50.0mg/kg bw. Histopathology changes of kidney and liver tissues were also observed in high-dose groups. Urinary metabolites from all groups were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Seventeen metabolites contributing to the clusters were identified as potential biomarkers from multivariate analysis, including aminoadipic acid, 6-phosphogluconate, sebacic acid, pipecolic acid, etc. The significant changes of these biomarkers demonstrated metabonomic variations in treated rats, especially lysine and purine metabolism. For the first time in this paper, we combined the results of toxicity and metabonomics induced by 4-EOTC for the serious reconsideration of the safety and potential risks of antibiotics and its degradation metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Samantha C; Poole, Phillippa

    2013-11-28

    an exacerbation was reduced (odds ratio (OR) 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.77, 3 studies, 1262 participants, high quality). This represented a reduction from 69% of participants in the control group compared to 54% in the treatment group (95% CI 46% to 63%) and the number needed to treat to prevent one exacerbation (NNTb) was therefore 8 (95% CI 5 to 18). The frequency of exacerbations was also reduced with continuous prophylactic antibiotic treatment (rate ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.91).Use of pulsed antibiotic treatment showed a non-significant reduction in the number of people with exacerbations (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.09, 1 study, 1149 participants, moderate quality) and the test for interaction showed that this result was significantly different from the effect on exacerbations with continuous antibiotics.There was a statistically significant improvement in quality of life with both continuous and pulsed antibiotic treatment but this was smaller than the four unit improvement that is regarded as being clinically significant (MD -1.78; 95% CI -2.95 to -0.61, 2 studies, 1962 participants, moderate quality).Neither pulsed nor continuous antibiotics showed a significant effect on the secondary outcomes of frequency of hospital admissions, change in lung function, serious adverse events or all-cause mortality (moderate quality evidence).The adverse events that were recorded varied among the trials depending on the different antibiotics used. Azithromycin was associated with a significant hearing loss in the treatment group. The moxifloxacin pulsed study reported a significantly higher number of adverse events in the treatment arm due to the marked increase in gastrointestinal adverse events (P antibiotic resistance in the community is of major concern. One study found newly colonised patients to have higher rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients colonised with moxifloxacin-sensitive pseudomonas at initiation of therapy rapidly became resistant

  18. Fast Weight Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...

  19. Short-term toxicity assessments of an antibiotic metabolite in Wistar rats and its metabonomics analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hongxing; Xiao, Hailong; Lu, Zhenmei

    2016-01-01

    4-Epi-oxytetracycline (4-EOTC), one of main oxytetracycline (OTC) metabolites, can be commonly detected in food and environment. The toxicity and effects of OTC on animals have been well characterized; however, its metabolites have never been studied systemically. This study aims to investigate 15-day oral dose toxicity and urine metabonomics changes of 4-EOTC after repeated administration in Wistar rats at daily doses of 0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw (bodyweight). Hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, including white blood cell count, red blood cell count, total protein, globulin and albumin/globulin, were obviously altered in rats of 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw. Histopathology changes of kidney and liver tissues were also observed in high-dose groups. Urinary metabolites from all groups were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Seventeen metabolites contributing to the clusters were identified as potential biomarkers from multivariate analysis, including aminoadipic acid, 6-phosphogluconate, sebacic acid, pipecolic acid, etc. The significant changes of these biomarkers demonstrated metabonomic variations in treated rats, especially lysine and purine metabolism. For the first time in this paper, we combined the results of toxicity and metabonomics induced by 4-EOTC for the serious reconsideration of the safety and potential risks of antibiotics and its degradation metabolites. - Highlights: • 4-Epioxytetracycline (4-EOTC) induced damages in liver and kidney. • Metabonomics changes especially amino acid and purine metabolism were observed. • Security of OTC metabolite 4-EOTC should be taken into serious reconsideration.

  20. Short-term toxicity assessments of an antibiotic metabolite in Wistar rats and its metabonomics analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hongxing [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xiao, Hailong [Hangzhou Institute for Food and Drug Control, Hangzhou 310004 (China); Lu, Zhenmei, E-mail: lzhenmei@zju.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-02-15

    4-Epi-oxytetracycline (4-EOTC), one of main oxytetracycline (OTC) metabolites, can be commonly detected in food and environment. The toxicity and effects of OTC on animals have been well characterized; however, its metabolites have never been studied systemically. This study aims to investigate 15-day oral dose toxicity and urine metabonomics changes of 4-EOTC after repeated administration in Wistar rats at daily doses of 0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw (bodyweight). Hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, including white blood cell count, red blood cell count, total protein, globulin and albumin/globulin, were obviously altered in rats of 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw. Histopathology changes of kidney and liver tissues were also observed in high-dose groups. Urinary metabolites from all groups were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Seventeen metabolites contributing to the clusters were identified as potential biomarkers from multivariate analysis, including aminoadipic acid, 6-phosphogluconate, sebacic acid, pipecolic acid, etc. The significant changes of these biomarkers demonstrated metabonomic variations in treated rats, especially lysine and purine metabolism. For the first time in this paper, we combined the results of toxicity and metabonomics induced by 4-EOTC for the serious reconsideration of the safety and potential risks of antibiotics and its degradation metabolites. - Highlights: • 4-Epioxytetracycline (4-EOTC) induced damages in liver and kidney. • Metabonomics changes especially amino acid and purine metabolism were observed. • Security of OTC metabolite 4-EOTC should be taken into serious reconsideration.

  1. Home iv Antibiotic Therapy through a Medical Day Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Gourdeau

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An out-patient parenteral antibiotic therapy program provided through a medical day care unit was evaluated in a tertiary care hospital. From July 11, 1988 to December 31, 1990, 122 patients were treated either on site at the unit or at home with self-administered intravenous antibiotics. In all, 142 courses of parenteral antibiotics (mostly cephalosporins and clindamycin were given for a total of 124 infections, mostly bone and soft tissue infections (67 of 124, 54%. The duration of out-patient therapy ranged from two to 62 days with a mean duration of 9.4 days if treated at the unit, or 13.2 days in the home care model (1476 patient-days. Vein access was peripheral and catheters remained functional for an average of 4.9 days (range 0.5 to 22 days. Only two patients experienced adverse drug reactions that necessitated modification of treatment. One other case was readmitted to the hospital for surgical debridement. The average cost per patient-day was $66 compared with $375 for in-hospital therapy. This program proved to be safe, efficient, and cost-effective.

  2. Short-term effect of add on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular functions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasukeerthi, Padakandla; Mooventhan, A; Manjunath, N K

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. Though various studies have reported the beneficial effect of Yoga in patient with T2DM, there is a lack of study in combination with bell pepper and yoga. Hence, the present study aims at evaluating short-term effect of add on bell pepper juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular variables in patients with T2DM. Fifty T2DM subjects with the age varied from 34 to 69-years were recruited and randomly divided into either study group or control group. The study group received 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT while the control group received only IAYT for 4-consecutive days. Baseline and post-test assessments were taken before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for the social sciences, version-16. Results of this study showed no significant difference in overall (fasting and post prandial) blood glucose level in the study group compared with control group. However, a significant reduction in Post prandial blood glucose (PPBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), rate pressure product (RPP) and Double product (Do-P) was observed in the study group compared with control group. Results of this study suggest that though an addition of 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT is not more effective in reducing fasting blood glucose, it may be more effective in reducing PPBG, SBP, PP, RPP and Do-P than IAYT alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  4. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2018-01-22

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve outcome. In the previous version of this Cochrane Review, published in 2012, we found that antibiotics did reduce the risk of infection but did not reduce the number of dependent or deceased patients. However, included studies were small and heterogeneous. In 2015, two large clinical trials were published, warranting an update of this Review. To assess the effectiveness and safety of preventive antibiotic therapy in people with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. We wished to determine whether preventive antibiotic therapy in people with acute stroke:• reduces the risk of a poor functional outcome (dependency and/or death) at follow-up;• reduces the occurrence of infections in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces the occurrence of elevated body temperature (temperature ≥ 38° C) in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces length of hospital stay; or• leads to an increased rate of serious adverse events, such as anaphylactic shock, skin rash, or colonisation with antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (25 June 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5; 25 June 2017) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid (1950 to 11 May 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 11 May 2017). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we searched trials and research registers, scanned reference lists, and contacted trial authors, colleagues, and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive antibiotic therapy versus control (placebo or open control) in people with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Two review authors independently selected

  5. The Efficacy of Perioperative Antibiotic Therapy in Tonsillectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Grażyna; Misiołek, Hanna; Paluch, Zbigniew; Misiołek, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    While the results of early research suggested that perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in tonsillectomy patients is associated with many benefits, these data were not confirmed by further studies and meta-analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness and efficacy of antibiotic monotherapy in the healing of surgical wounds of patients undergoing bilateral resection of the palatine tonsils, based on an analysis of selected objective and subjective characteristics of wound healing during the postoperative period. The study included 50 men and women who underwent routine resection of the palatine tonsils. The patients were randomized into two groups: Group I, undergoing tonsillectomy with cefuroxime prophylaxis (n = 25), and Group II, who were not given perioperative antibiotic therapy (n = 25). The severity of signs and complaints recorded on postoperative days 1-10 was scored on 3- and 10-item scales. The only significant intergroup differences pertained to problems with swallowing food and fluids on postoperative days 4-6, 8 and 9 (less prevalent in Group II), postoperative use of analgesics on postoperative day 9 (less frequent in Group II), the degree of mucosal swelling in the operated area on postoperative days 3 and 7 (less severe in Group II), and the amount of fibrin covering the tonsillar niches on the third postoperative day (significantly higher in Group I). The administration of antibiotics for prevention or control of infection should be preceded by a comprehensive analysis of the potential benefits and risks. Perioperative use of antibiotics is justified only in selected cases, i.e. in individuals with comorbidities.

  6. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Rodrigues Querido

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.

  7. Effect of short-term hyperglycemia on cerebral function in neurooncological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loginov, V.M.; Gnezditskij, V.V.; Emulyushina, O.N.; Mukhamedzhanov, N.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of investigation of the effect of short-term hyperglycemia on main cerebral functions in 13 neurooncological patients. Taking into account good tolerance of short-term hyperglycemia and the results of its effective use in general oncology, one can recommend it as a modifier in radiation therapy of brain gliomas

  8. Can inflammatory bowel disease be permanently treated with short-term interventions on the microbiome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Dana; Clemente, Jose C; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    2015-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic, relapsing and remitting set of conditions characterized by an excessive inflammatory response leading to the destruction of the gastrointestinal tract. While the exact etiology of inflammatory bowel disease remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that the human gastrointestinal microbiome plays a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Manipulation of the gut microbiome has therefore emerged as an attractive alternative for both prophylactic and therapeutic intervention against inflammation. Despite its growing popularity among patients, review of the current literature suggests that the adult microbiome is a highly stable structure resilient to short-term interventions. In fact, most evidence to date demonstrates that therapeutic agents targeting the microflora trigger rapid changes in the microbiome, which then reverts to its pre-treatment state once the therapy is completed. Based on these findings, our ability to treat inflammatory bowel disease through short-term manipulations of the human microbiome may only have a transient effect. Thus, this review is intended to highlight the use of various therapeutic options, including diet, pre- and probiotics, antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplant, to manipulate the microbiome, with specific attention to the alterations made to the microflora along with the duration of impact.

  9. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Li, Yingchuan; Sheng, Xiaohua; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Dongsheng; Jian, Guihua; Li, Yongguang; Feng, Liang; Wang, Niansong

    2018-03-29

    Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR) can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012). Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372), APACHE II score (OR = 1.187), age (OR = 1.028) and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Methods: Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012. Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372, APACHE II score (OR = 1.187, age (OR = 1.028 and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130 were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion: Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI.

  11. Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...

  12. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  13. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AMONG CHILDREN AND THERAPY SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.A. Kornienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the low therapy efficiency of many gastrobduodenal diseases is the increasing resistance to the antibiotics helicobacter pylori (Н. pylori, which is conditioned by the mutations of its various genes. The most practical importance is attributed to the 23s RRNA mutations, underlying resistance to claritromicin. According to the international consensus maastrichtb3, the scheme of treatment with the inhibitor of the proton pump, claritromicin and metronidasol is recommended as the 1st line therapy. The present work assesses the resistance of Н. pylori to claritromicin aided by pcrbdiagnostics of the 23s RRNA mutation of rna in the biopsy material of the mucous coat of stomach and standard treatment scheme efficiency if compared with the onebantibiotic scheme – amoxicillin, bismuth and inhibitor of the proton pump. 68 children with Н. pylori bassociated diseases have been examined. The frequency of resistance of Н. pylori to claritromicin made up 28%. The standard 10bday long scheme of treatment was efficient among 14% of the patients, the 7bday long schemes with amoxicillin, bismuth and omeprazole were efficient among 40% of the patients, the 10bday long schemes with amoxicillin, bismuth and omeprazole were efficient among 75% of the patients; with omeprazole replaced by esomeprazole the efficiency was observed among 83% of the patients along with the good treatment tolerance.Key words: helicobacter pylori, antibiotic resistance, eradication.

  14. Clinical phase I/II trial to investigate neoadjuvant intensity-modulated short term radiation therapy (5 × 5 gy) and intraoperative radiation therapy (15 gy) in patients with primarily resectable pancreatic cancer - NEOPANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E; Werner, Jens; Timke, Carmen; Saleh-Ebrahimi, Ladan; Schneider, Lutz; Hackert, Thilo; Hartwig, Werner; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hensley, Frank W; Buechler, Markus W

    2012-01-01

    The current standard treatment, at least in Europe, for patients with primarily resectable tumors, consists of surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. But even in this prognostic favourable group, long term survival is disappointing because of high local and distant failure rates. Postoperative chemoradiation has shown improved local control and overalls survival compared to surgery alone but the value of additional radiation has been questioned in case of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there remains a strong rationale for the addition of radiation therapy considering the high rates of microscopically incomplete resections after surgery. As postoperative administration of radiation therapy has some general disadvantages, neoadjuvant and intraoperative approaches theoretically offer benefits in terms of dose escalation, reduction of toxicity and patients comfort especially if hypofractionated regimens with highly conformal techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy are considered. The NEOPANC trial is a prospective, one armed, single center phase I/II study investigating a combination of neoadjuvant short course intensity-modulated radiation therapy (5 × 5 Gy) in combination with surgery and intraoperative radiation therapy (15 Gy), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy according to the german treatment guidelines, in patients with primarily resectable pancreatic cancer. The aim of accrual is 46 patients. The primary objectives of the NEOPANC trial are to evaluate the general feasibility of this approach and the local recurrence rate after one year. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, overall survival, acute and late toxicity, postoperative morbidity and mortality and quality of life. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01372735

  15. Short-term Memory of Deep RNN

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The extension of deep learning towards temporal data processing is gaining an increasing research interest. In this paper we investigate the properties of state dynamics developed in successive levels of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in terms of short-term memory abilities. Our results reveal interesting insights that shed light on the nature of layering as a factor of RNN design. Noticeably, higher layers in a hierarchically organized RNN architecture results to be inherently biased ...

  16. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  17. A short-term neural network memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.J.T.; Wong, W.S.

    1988-12-01

    Neural network memories with storage prescriptions based on Hebb's rule are known to collapse as more words are stored. By requiring that the most recently stored word be remembered precisely, a new simple short-term neutral network memory is obtained and its steady state capacity analyzed and simulated. Comparisons are drawn with Hopfield's method, the delta method of Widrow and Hoff, and the revised marginalist model of Mezard, Nadal, and Toulouse.

  18. [Rational antibiotic therapy in the dental office: Practical guidelines for decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadik, Y

    2016-04-01

    Although most dental and periodontal diseases are caused by bacteria, the usual therapy is mechanical/surgical rather than antimicrobial medications. However, sometimes antibiotic administration may be necessary in addition to or as an alternative to the surgical/mechanical treatment. Many studies have shown that the misuse of antibiotics by dentists may be mostly attributed to unnecessity or inefficient regimen, and could contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The article presents practical guidelines to the administration of antibiotics in the dental office.

  19. Some problems of antibiotic therapy in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalnova, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Data on the application of antibiotics and the mechanism of their action in radiation sickness are reviewed. Questions are discussed, such as the effect of antibiotics on the course and outcome of radiation sickness, the development of dysbacteriosis following irradiation, the effect of antibiotics on endogenic infection, the development of resistance of autoflora microbes to antibiotics in an irradiated organism and various aspects of the mechanism of action of antibiotics in radiation sickness. (author)

  20. A Multicenter Evaluation of Prolonged Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Adult ICUs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zachariah; Bandali, Farooq; Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Reardon, Tom; Olsen, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in adult ICUs in the United States. Our secondary objective is to examine the relationship between the prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate and certain ICU characteristics. Multicenter, prospective, observational, 72-hour snapshot study. Sixty-seven ICUs from 32 hospitals in the United States. Nine hundred ninety-eight patients admitted to the ICU between midnight on June 20, 2011, and June 21, 2011, were included in the study. None. Antibiotic orders were categorized as prophylactic, definitive, empiric, or prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy. Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy was defined as empiric antibiotics that continued for at least 72 hours in the absence of adjudicated infection. Standard definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to determine infection. Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate was determined as the ratio of the total number of empiric antibiotics continued for at least 72 hours divided by the total number of empiric antibiotics. Univariate analysis of factors associated with the ICU prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate was conducted using Student t test. A total of 660 unique antibiotics were prescribed as empiric therapy to 364 patients. Of the empiric antibiotics, 333 of 660 (50%) were continued for at least 72 hours in instances where Centers for Disease Control and Prevention infection criteria were not met. Suspected pneumonia accounted for approximately 60% of empiric antibiotic use. The most frequently prescribed empiric antibiotics were vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam. ICUs that utilized invasive techniques for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia had lower rates of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy than those that did not, 45.1% versus 59.5% (p = 0.03). No other institutional factor was significantly associated with prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate. Half of all

  1. Optimising the duration of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chastre

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP has traditionally been treated with a 14–21-day course of antibiotics. However, prolonged antibiotic therapy is associated with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, as well as higher toxicity and costs. In a large, randomised, controlled trial in patients with microbiologically confirmed VAP who received appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy, an 8-day antibiotic regimen was not associated with excess mortality or more episodes of recurrent pulmonary infection compared with a 15-day regimen. Amongst patients who developed recurrent infection, multidrug-resistant pathogens emerged less frequently in the group receiving 8 days of antibiotic therapy. The 8-day regimen was also not associated with excess mortality in the subgroup with VAP caused by nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli, mostly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, although recurrent infections occurred more often. Pending confirmatory studies, an 8-day course of antibiotic therapy may be appropriate for many patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, providing that initial antibiotic therapy is appropriate, the clinical course is favourable and extreme vigilance is maintained after stopping antibiotics. Patients whose initial treatment regimen was inappropriate, those infected with difficult-to-treat pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and immunocompromised patients and others at high risk for relapse are likely to require a longer duration of antibiotic therapy.

  2. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L; Joensen, A; Giebel, G [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  3. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  5. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  8. Practical Considerations and the Intestinal Microbiome in Disease: Antibiotics for IBD Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N; Ismond, Kathleen P

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's and ulcerative colitis, have been treated with a range of antibiotics for inducing and maintaining remission, as well as the prevention of post-operative symptoms. To date, many studies have been performed assessing the efficacy of antibiotics when used alone, in combination with other antibiotics, or as an adjunctive therapy to other pharmaceutical treatments. Literature evidence supporting the use of antibiotics in IBD can be ambiguous, especially when considering the potential role of dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract. The review considers the systemic effect of antibiotics and the evidence base for their efficacy in the treatment of IBD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. [Peripherally inserted central catheter antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betegnie, A-L; Cracowski, C; Bedouch, P; Segond, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Allenet, B

    2014-11-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are more and more used for intravenous antibiotic infusions in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in the Grenoble area (France). The aim of this study was to assess the use of this technique in this indication. 1. Retrospective evaluation of 102 consecutive PICC insertions over 3years and the incidence of adverse events during the therapy. 2. Prospective evaluation of 12 patient's satisfaction and their nurses over a 3-month period. 3. Comparative analysis of single domiciliary treatment costs using PICC versus peripheral catheter (PC). 102 PICC insertions were attempted in 31 patients. Seven failures and 7 complications occurred during the treatment requiring removal of the PICC, i.e. an overall success rate of 86.2% (88/102). Pain during PICC introduction was 4.2/10 (visual analogical scale). Mean satisfaction levels during therapy were 9.3/10 for patients and 8.7/10 for nurses. Compared with PC, all the patients said that PICC was "more comfortable". Differential costs of treatment with PC and with PICC at home were estimated at 57.15€ and 590.16€ respectively. PICC is an alternative to CP for intravenous antibiotherapy in CF patients, providing better safety and comfort. PICC use should be promoted in this indication. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclic antibiotic therapy for diverticular disease: a critical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Maconi, Giovanni; Manes, Gianpiero; Tammaro, Gianfranco; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Annibale, Bruno; Ficano, Leonardo; Buri, Luigi; Gatto, Giovanni; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Campo, Salvatore M; Ierardi, Enzo; Pace, Fabio; Morini, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Different symptoms have been attributed to uncomplicated diverticular disease (DD). Poor absorbable antibiotics are largely used for uncomplicated DD, mainly for symptom treatment and prevention of diverticulitis onset. Controlled trials on cyclic administration of rifaximin in DD patients were evaluated. Four controlled, including 1 double-blind and 3 open-label, randomized studies were available. Following a long-term cyclic therapy, a significant difference emerged in the global symptoms score (range: 0-18) between rifaximin plus fibers (from 6-6.5 to 1-2) and fibers alone (from 6.7 to 2-3.8), although the actual clinically relevance of such a very small difference remains to be ascertained. Moreover, a similar global symptom score reduction (from 6 to 2.4) can be achieved by simply recommending an inexpensive high-fiber diet. Current data suggest that cyclic rifaximin plus fibers significantly reduce the incidence of the first episode of acute diverticulitis as compared to fibers alone (1.03% vs 2.75%), but a cost-efficacy analysis is needed before this treatment can be routinely recommended. The available studies have been hampered by some limitations, and definite conclusions could not be drawn. The cost of a long-life, cyclic rifaximin therapy administered to all symptomatic DD patients would appear prohibitive.

  11. Duration of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Wendy L; Taddonio, Michael A; Arbabi, Saman; Hemmila, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Shorter compared with longer courses of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mixed medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) have been reported to produce equivalent outcomes. There have been few studies on the duration of antibiotic therapy for VAP in the burn population. We hypothesized that a shorter duration of antibiotic therapy for VAP would produce similar outcomes in our burn ICU. All burn patients from July 2001 to December 2006 admitted to the burn ICU requiring mechanical ventilation were studied. VAP was diagnosed prospectively by our Infection Control Liaison using bronchoalveolar lavage for cultures. Patients were cohorted into two groups: before July 1, 2004, antibiotic therapy duration was directed by the discretion of the attending physician (preprotocol), and after, the goal was 8 days of appropriate therapy or longer based on physician discretion (postprotocol). There were 98 patients treated for VAP with similar rates of inhalation injury, %TBSA burn size, age, and need for mechanical ventilation between the groups. The incidence of recurrent VAP was the same: 17% for the preprotocol and 15% for the postprotocol periods. The overall duration of antibiotic therapy did not change from 11 +/- 4 to 12 +/- 6 days. For patients treated longer than the target of 8 days, 66% had positive respiratory cultures at 4 days after initiation of antibiotic therapy. For the majority of patients with aspiration-type organisms or nonvirulent strains, there were fewer antibiotic days overall at 10 +/- 5 days (P VAP with the same bacteria. Despite a focused effort to decrease antibiotic usage for VAP in burn patients, the overall duration of therapy did not change. The majority of patients with virulent organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or nonfermenting Gram-negative rods still had clinical signs of pneumonia and positive cultures, leading clinicians to continue antibiotics. In patients without virulent

  12. The effect of systemic antibiotics administered during the active phase of non-surgical periodontal therapy or after the healing phase: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretuza FRITOLI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this systematic review was to compare the clinical effectiveness of systemic antibiotics administered in the active stage of periodontal treatment or after the healing phase. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA statement. A manual search of the reference list of selected studies and of review articles was also performed up to November 2013. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT that evaluated the systemic administration of antibiotics as adjuvants to scaling and root planning (SRP at different phases of periodontal treatment were included. Systematic reviews and studies that evaluated subjects with systemic diseases and those that used subantimicrobial doses of antibiotics were excluded. Results The initial search identified 1,039 articles, of which seven were selected, and only one met the inclusion criteria. This study showed that subjects taking metronidazole and amoxicillin at the initial phase of treatment exhibited statistically significantly greater reduction in pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level in initially deep sites (PD≥7 mm than subjects taking antibiotics after healing (p<0.05. This comparison was conducted 2 months after antibiotic intake, at the healing phase. Conclusion To date, only one short-term RCT has directly compared different moments of systemic antibiotics administration, as adjuncts to SRP, in the treatment of periodontitis. Although the results of this study suggested some benefits for antibiotics intake during the active phase of therapy, these findings need to be confirmed by larger placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials with longer follow-up periods.

  13. Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma Cb; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine Mb; Bergman, Hanna; Heyderman, Robert S; Garner, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Background Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. Objectives To evaluate the effects of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults on mortality, deafness and neurological disability. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to 17 February 2017), Embase (1974 to 17 February 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 17 February 2017), LILACS (1982 to 17 February 2017) and registers of ongoing clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.com, WHO ICTRP) (21 February 2017). We also searched conference abstracts and contacted researchers in the field (up to 12 December 2015). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials testing any osmotic therapy in adults or children with acute bacterial meningitis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened the search results and selected trials for inclusion. Results are presented using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and grouped according to whether the participants received steroids or not. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. Main results We included five trials with 1451 participants. Four trials evaluated glycerol against placebo, and one evaluated glycerol against 50% dextrose; in addition three trials evaluated dexamethasone and one trial evaluated acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a factorial design. Stratified analysis shows no effect modification with steroids; we present aggregate effect estimates. Compared to placebo, glycerol probably has little or no effect on death in people with bacterial meningitis (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30; 5 studies, 1272

  14. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies...... that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...

  15. Short-term forecasting of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frees, E W

    1993-11-01

    A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt

  16. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  17. Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2007-12-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.

  18. Short-term memory loss associated with rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatti, Laura; Polimeni, Giovanni; Salvo, Francesco; Romani, Marcello; Sessa, Aurelio; Spina, Edoardo

    2006-08-01

    Memory loss and cognitive impairment have been reported in the literature in association with several 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), but we found no published case reports associated with rosuvastatin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rosuvastatin-related short-term memory loss. A 53-year-old Caucasian man with hypercholesterolemia experienced memory loss after being treated with rosuvastatin 10 mg/day. He had no other concomitant conditions or drug therapies. After discontinuation of rosuvastatin, the neuropsychiatric adverse reaction resolved gradually, suggesting a probable drug association. During the following year, the patient remained free from neuropsychiatric disturbances. Clinicians should be aware of possible adverse cognitive reactions during statin therapy, including rosuvastatin.

  19. [Nosocomial Clostridium difficile diarrhea--adverse effect of antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeni, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    C. difficile is recognised as the main cause for colitis in hospitalised patients which are treated with antibiotics, chemotherapics or other drugs that disturb intestinal microbiota. Thus, a rapid and correct diagnostic of Clostridium difficile infections is essential for preventing nosocomial infection spread. Empiric therapy, regardless of the laboratory investigation results, is inadequate, especially in epidemic situations, as not all the cases of diarrhoea are due to C. difficile infection. Other risk factors for CDAD (Clostridiumn difficile Associated Diseases might be: prolonged hospitalization or residency in an asylum, age, existence of a severe chronic disease in the background nasogastric intubation, anti-ulcer drugs, at less extent gastrointestinal surgery, other immunosuppresive compounds etc. In our country, C. difficile infection is rather frequent in adults, though it is not always reported by clinicians. The circulation of endemic rybotype 027 in Romania is not well documented, the rybotype being extremely virulent and spread in other European countries. Hence the importance of extending the diagnostic capacity of C. difficile infection in order to allow detection of this rybotype among the strains isolated in our country.

  20. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    OpenAIRE

    Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK

    2016-01-01

    Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...

  1. Frequency of microbiologically correct antibiotic therapy increased by infectious disease consultations and microbiological results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kerremans (Jos); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective observational study of bacteremic patients we ascertained the influence of different parts of culture results on the correctness of empirical antibiotic therapy. Ninety-three bacteremic patients requiring antibiotic treatment were included. Patients who had consultations

  2. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  3. ESTHETIC OUTCOME OF SURGICAL EXCISION VERSUS ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIAL CERVICOFACIAL LYMPHADENITIS IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A.; Lindeboom, Robert; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Elisabeth S.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Tuk, Jacco; Prins, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred children with microbiologically proven nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis were randomly assigned to excision of the involved lymph nodes, or antibiotic therapy consisting of clarithromycin and rifabutin. The esthetic outcome was rated using a revised and weighted

  4. Esthetic outcome of surgical excision versus antibiotic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Lindeboom, R.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E.S.; Kuijper, E.J.; Tuk, J.; Prins, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred children with microbiologically proven nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis were randomly assigned to excision of the involved lymph nodes, or antibiotic therapy consisting of clarithromycin and rifabutin. The esthetic outcome was rated using a revised and weighted

  5. Conservative Wait-and-See Therapy Versus Antibiotic Treatment for Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Cervicofacial Lymphadenitis in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In this explorative study, 50 children with microbiologically confirmed nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis were randomized to either receive antibiotic therapy or follow a conservative wait-and-see approach. Our primary objective was to assess the time for all

  6. Does appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy modify intensive care unit-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia mortality and discharge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, K B; Van Kleef, E; Vansteelandt, S; Batra, R; Edgeworth, J D; Smieszek, T; Robotham, J V

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting results have been found regarding outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the potentially modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. AIM: To evaluate these associations while adjusting for potential time-varying

  7. The effect of systemic antibiotics administered during the active phase of non-surgical periodontal therapy or after the healing phase: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritoli, Aretuza; Gonçalves, Cristiane; Faveri, Marcelo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Pérez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; Fermiano, Daiane; Feres, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to compare the clinical effectiveness of systemic antibiotics administered in the active stage of periodontal treatment or after the healing phase. An electronic search was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. A manual search of the reference list of selected studies and of review articles was also performed up to November 2013. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) that evaluated the systemic administration of antibiotics as adjuvants to scaling and root planning (SRP) at different phases of periodontal treatment were included. Systematic reviews and studies that evaluated subjects with systemic diseases and those that used subantimicrobial doses of antibiotics were excluded. The initial search identified 1,039 articles, of which seven were selected, and only one met the inclusion criteria. This study showed that subjects taking metronidazole and amoxicillin at the initial phase of treatment exhibited statistically significantly greater reduction in pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level in initially deep sites (PD≥7 mm) than subjects taking antibiotics after healing (pantibiotic intake, at the healing phase. To date, only one short-term RCT has directly compared different moments of systemic antibiotics administration, as adjuncts to SRP, in the treatment of periodontitis. Although the results of this study suggested some benefits for antibiotics intake during the active phase of therapy, these findings need to be confirmed by larger placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials with longer follow-up periods.

  8. The effect of systemic antibiotics administered during the active phase of non-surgical periodontal therapy or after the healing phase: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRITOLI, Aretuza; GONÇALVES, Cristiane; FAVERI, Marcelo; FIGUEIREDO, Luciene Cristina; PÉREZ-CHAPARRO, Paula Juliana; FERMIANO, Daiane; FERES, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to compare the clinical effectiveness of systemic antibiotics administered in the active stage of periodontal treatment or after the healing phase. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. A manual search of the reference list of selected studies and of review articles was also performed up to November 2013. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) that evaluated the systemic administration of antibiotics as adjuvants to scaling and root planning (SRP) at different phases of periodontal treatment were included. Systematic reviews and studies that evaluated subjects with systemic diseases and those that used subantimicrobial doses of antibiotics were excluded. Results The initial search identified 1,039 articles, of which seven were selected, and only one met the inclusion criteria. This study showed that subjects taking metronidazole and amoxicillin at the initial phase of treatment exhibited statistically significantly greater reduction in pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level in initially deep sites (PD≥7 mm) than subjects taking antibiotics after healing (pantibiotic intake, at the healing phase. Conclusion To date, only one short-term RCT has directly compared different moments of systemic antibiotics administration, as adjuncts to SRP, in the treatment of periodontitis. Although the results of this study suggested some benefits for antibiotics intake during the active phase of therapy, these findings need to be confirmed by larger placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials with longer follow-up periods. PMID:26221918

  9. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  10. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  11. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  13. Fuzzy approach for short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)

  14. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  15. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the health......Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...

  16. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the sensitivity of indium-111-labeled leukocyte scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although 111 In-labeled leukocytes have been shown to be a useful technique for detecting infection, it has been postulated that antibiotic therapy may reduce the sensitivity of the leukocyte scan. Many patients with suspected bacterial infections are placed on antibiotics before a definite site of infection has been identified. Three hundred twelve leukocyte scans on 271 patients were retrospectively reviewed and classified as positive or negative, and as to whether or not they were being treated with antibiotics at the time the leukocyte scan was performed. The overall sensitivity, considering all 312 studies, was 90%. One hundred sixty-nine patient studies were on patients receiving antibiotics; 143 studies were on patients not on antibiotics. The sensitivity of the leukocyte scan was 88.7% in patients on antibiotic therapy; it was 92.1% in those who were not receiving antibiotics. The differences in sensitivity between the two groups were not significantly different (p less than 0.05). We conclude that antibiotic therapy does not affect the sensitivity of the 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan

  17. Short-term and long-term effects of psychosocial therapy for people after deliberate self-harm: a register-based, nationwide multicentre study using propensity score matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Bertel; Erlangsen, Anette; Stuart, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Although deliberate self-harm is a strong predictor of suicide, evidence for effective interventions is missing. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychosocial therapy after self-harm was linked to lower risks of repeated self-harm, suicide, and general mortality. Methods...... In this matched cohort study all people who, after deliberate self-harm, received a psychosocial therapy intervention at suicide prevention clinics in Denmark during 1992—2010 were compared with people who did not receive the psychosocial therapy intervention after deliberate self-harm. We applied propensity...... score matching with a 1:3 ratio and 31 matching factors, and calculated odds ratios for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years of follow-up. The primary endpoints were repeated self-harm, death by suicide, and death by any cause. Findings 5678 recipients of psychosocial therapy (followed up for 42·828 person...

  18. Short term benefits for laparoscopic colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Neudecker, J; Müller, J M

    2005-07-20

    Colorectal resections are common surgical procedures all over the world. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is technically feasible in a considerable amount of patients under elective conditions. Several short-term benefits of the laparoscopic approach to colorectal resection (less pain, less morbidity, improved reconvalescence and better quality of life) have been proposed. This review compares laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection with regards to possible benefits of the laparoscopic method in the short-term postoperative period (up to 3 months post surgery). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1991 to 2004. We also handsearched the following journals from 1991 to 2004: British Journal of Surgery, Archives of Surgery, Annals of Surgery, Surgery, World Journal of Surgery, Disease of Colon and Rectum, Surgical Endoscopy, International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, Der Chirurg, Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Aktuelle Chirurgie/Viszeralchirurgie. Handsearch of abstracts from the following society meetings from 1991 to 2004: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons, Royal Society of Surgeons, British Assocation of Coloproctology, Surgical Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Asian Society of Endoscopic Surgeons. All randomised-controlled trial were included regardless of the language of publication. No- or pseudorandomised trials as well as studies that followed patient's preferences towards one of the two interventions were excluded, but listed separately. RCT presented as only an abstract were excluded. Results were extracted from papers by three observers independently on a predefined data sheet. Disagreements were solved by discussion. 'REVMAN 4.2' was used for statistical analysis. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals) were used for analysing continuous variables. If

  19. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: Associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; van Goor, M.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Arntz, A.; Butz, B.; Bernstein, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the

  20. [Simple parameters of antibiotic utilization and diagnostic background of antimicrobial therapy in Hungarian hospitals in 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almási, I; Ternák, G

    1997-02-23

    This paper is published as second part of a survey on antibiotic utilisation of 8 Hungarian hospitals in January, 1995. The length of hospital stay of the patients receiving systemic antibiotic treatment was significantly higher (P profilaxis 32.7%, pneumonia 13.3% of the 753 diagnoses) and drugs (metronidazol 26.3%, aminoglycosides 20% of the 1455 antibiotics) most frequently found in cases of combined antibiotic therapy it was concluded that parallel treatment with two or more antibiotic was often unjustified. Only 11% of antibiotics was used as directed against known bacteria. It was found that the rate of the achieved microbiological examinations and targeted therapy was low even if microbiological samples were easy to obtain. It was not the main purpose of the survey to get data of the clinical diagnostic background of antibiotic therapy, but indirect signs showed that these drugs were often used without sufficient clinical evidences (anamnesis, physical status, labor, X-ray and other tests) of infection. Authors recommend further survey in order to find out the causes of insufficiency of diagnoses. They also propose elaboration of diagnostic protocols.

  1. Antibiotic therapy versus appendicectomy in uncomplicated acute appendicitis in terms of efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.A.; Nazeer, T.B.; Aziz, O.B.A.; Asad, T.; Dar, Z.S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare antibiotic therapy and appendectomy in uncomplicated acute appendicitis in terms of efficacy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Ward Forward Treatment Centre (FTC), 5 Mountain Medical Battalion Forward Kahuta Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK), from Oct 2011 to Mar 2013. Material and Methods: A total of 103 patients with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) were admitted during the duration of study and divided into two groups by consecutive sampling. The antibiotic group consisted of 51 patients who received intravenous antibiotics for 48 hours and oral antibiotics for another 8 days. The appendectomy group comprised of 52 patients who all underwent standard appendectomy. All the patients were followed up at 1 month and 1 year for assessing efficacy and post treatment complications. Results: The efficacy of antibiotic treatment is 90.625 percent as compared to appendectomy which was 88.46 percent (p=0.759) at 1 month follow up after treatment. At one year post treatment, the comparison between the efficacy of antibiotic therapy (71.87 percent) and appendectomy (87.14 percent) remains statistically insignificant (p=0.055). Conclusion: Antibiotic therapy is comparable to appendectomy in AA in terms of efficacy at 1 month and 1 year post treatment. (author)

  2. Is there an improvement of antibiotic use in China? Evidence from the usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Juan; Luo, Zhen-Ni; Tang, Chang-Min; Zou, Xiao-Xu; Zhao, Lu; Fang, Peng-Qian

    2016-10-01

    The improvement of antibiotic rational use in China was studied by usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals. Five kinds of hospitals, including general hospital, maternity hospital, children's hospital, stomatological hospital and cancer hospital, from 30 provinces were surveyed. A systematic random sampling strategy was employed to select outpatient prescriptions and inpatient cases in 2011 and 2012. A total of 29 280 outpatient prescriptions and 73 200 inpatient cases from 244 hospitals in each year were analyzed. Data were collected with regards to the implementation of the national antibiotic stewardship program (NASP), the overall usage and the prophylactic use of antibiotic for type I incisions. Univariate analysis was used for microbiological diagnosis rate before antimicrobial therapy, prophylactic use of antibiotics for type I incision operation, and so on. For multivariate analysis, the use of antibiotics was dichotomized according to the guidelines, and entered as binary values into logistic regression analysis. The results were compared with the corresponding criteria given by the guidelines of this campaign. The antibiotic stewardship in China was effective in that more than 80% of each kind of hospitals achieved the criteria of recommended antibiotics varieties. Hospital type appeared to be a factor statistically associated with stewardship outcome. The prophylactic use of antibiotics on type I incision operations decreased by 16.22% (Pbench marking. More efforts addressing the root cause of antibiotics abuse would continue to improve the rational use of antibiotics in China.

  3. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, K; de Boisblanc, B P; Karam, G; Nelson, S; Haponik, E; Summer, W

    1998-08-01

    Our objective was to compare therapeutic outcome and analyse cost-benefit of a 'conventional' (7-day course of i.v. antibiotic therapy) vs. an abbreviated (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by 'switch' to oral antibiotics) therapy for in-patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used a multicenter prospective, randomized, parallel group with a 28 day follow-up, at the University-based teaching hospitals: The Medical Center of Louisiana in New Orleans, LA and hospitals listed in the acknowledgement. Ninety-five patients were randomized to receive either a 'conventional' course of intravenous antibiotic therapy with cefamandole 1 g i.v. every 6 h for 7 days (n = 37), or an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy with cefamandole (1 g i.v. every 6 h for 2 days) followed by oral therapy with cefaclor (500 mg every 8 h for 5 days). No difference was found in the clinical courses, cure rates, survival or the resolution of the chest radiograph abnormalities among the two groups. The mean duration of therapy (6.88 days for the conventional group compared to 7-30 days for the early oral therapy group) and the frequencies of overall symptomatic improvement (97% vs. 95%, respectively) were similar in both groups. Patients who received early oral therapy had shorter hospital stays (7.3 vs. 9.71 days, P = 0.01), and a lower total cost of care ($2953 vs. $5002, P < 0.05). It was concluded that early transition to an oral antibiotic after an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy in CAP is substantially less expensive and has comparable efficacy to conventional intravenous therapy. Altering physicians' customary management of hospitalized patients with CAP can reduce costs with no appreciable additional risk of adverse patient outcome.

  4. The effects of Snoezelen (multi-sensory behavior therapy) and psychiatric care on agitation, apathy, and activities of daily living in dementia patients on a short term geriatric psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Jason A; Sacks, Amanda; Matheis, Robert; Collier, Lesley; Calia, Tina; Hanif, Henry; Kofman, Eugene S

    2007-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, single-blinded, between group study of 24 participants with moderate to severe dementia was conducted on a geriatric psychiatric unit. All participants received pharmacological therapy, occupational therapy, structured hospital environment, and were randomized to receive multi sensory behavior therapy (MSBT) or a structured activity session. Greater independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) was observed for the group treated with MSBT and standard psychiatric inpatient care on the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (KI-ADL; P = 0.05) than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone. The combination treatment of MSBT and standard psychiatric care also reduced agitation and apathy greater than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone as measured with the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease (P = 0.05). Multiple regression analysis predicted that within the multi-sensory group, activities of daily living (KI-ADL) increased as apathy and agitation reduced (R2 = 0.42; p = 0.03). These data suggest that utilizing MSBT with standard psychiatric inpatient care may reduce apathy and agitation and additionally improve activities of daily living in hospitalized people with moderate to severe dementia more than standard care alone.

  5. The Role of Short-term Consolidation in Memory Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Ricker

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into s...

  6. Antibiotic therapy for stable non-CF bronchiectasis in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaellegaard, Katrine; Sin, Melda Dönmez; Browatzki, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update on efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatments for stable non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis (BE). Systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was done. Twenty-six studies (1.898 patients) fulfilled......, exacerbations and QoL, whereas studies on aztreonam revealed no significant clinical improvements in the outcomes of interest, including exacerbation rate. Adverse events, including bronchospasm, have been reported in association with tobramycin and aztreonam. Several antibiotic treatment regimens have been...... shown to improve QoL and exacerbation rate, whereas findings regarding sputum production, lung function and admissions have been conflicting. Evidence-based treatment algorithms for antibiotic treatment of stable non-CF BE will have to await large-scale, long-term controlled studies....

  7. Pediatric laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in Turkey: Short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ufuk; Ergun, Ergun; Gollu, Gulnur; Sozduyar, Sumeyye; Can, Ozlem Selvi; Yagmurlu, Aydin

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is one of the most rapidly increasing health problems in children. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the best treatment options and is feasible and safe in children. The aim of this study was to present the short-term results of a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy series in children. Children who underwent LSG in 2014-2017 were included in the study. Charts were investigated retrospectively and short-term weight loss was analyzed. Patients who had surgery in 2014-2017 were included in the study. There were six girls and two boys, and the median age was 15 years (range, 11-18 years). Mean weight was 159.25 ± 19.78 kg, and mean body mass index was 61.05 ± 8.5 kg/m 2 . Mean operation time was 70 min (range, 65-90 min), mean hospital stay was 5.1 days (range, 3-7 days), and mean follow up was 19.2 months (range, 1-43 months). Of these patients, five had hypertension and were under medication and two of these five also had hyperinsulinemia. One of the five children had Bardet-Biedl syndrome and one had bronchial asthma. After operation, medication was stopped in four of the eight children. At the time of writing, six patients were doing well without postoperative complications, or the need for reoperation. Even though the follow-up period was short and the number of patients was small, LSG was a feasible and promising surgical method for morbidly obese children. A multidisciplinary approach and lifelong behavior therapy are key steps for success. © 2018 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, w...

  10. Synergistic antimicrobial therapy using nanoparticles and antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Saleh, Neveen M.; Das, Riddha; Landis, Ryan F.; Bigdeli, Arafeh; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Rosa Campos, Alexandre; Pomeroy, Kenneth; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2017-06-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria pose a serious global burden of mortality, causing thousands of deaths each year. Antibiotic treatment of resistant infections further contributes to the rapidly increasing number of antibiotic-resistant species and strains. Synthetic macromolecules such as nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit broad-spectrum activity against MDR species, however lack of specificity towards bacteria relative to their mammalian hosts limits their widespread therapeutic application. Here, we demonstrate synergistic antimicrobial therapy using hydrophobically functionalized NPs and fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treatment of MDR bacterial strains. An 8-16-fold decrease in antibiotic dosage is achieved in presence of engineered NPs to combat MDR strains. This strategy demonstrates the potential of using NPs to ‘revive’ antibiotics that have been rendered ineffective due to the development of resistance by pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Antibiotic polymeric nanoparticles for biofilm-associated infection therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are highly attractive as drug delivery vehicles due to their high structural integrity, stability during storage, ease of preparation and functionalization, and controlled release capability. Similarly, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, which retain the benefits of polymeric nanoparticles plus the enhanced biocompatibility and prolonged circulation time owed to the lipids, have recently emerged as a superior alternative to polymeric nanoparticles. Drug nanoparticle complex prepared by electrostatic interaction of oppositely charged drug and polyelectrolytes represents another type of polymeric nanoparticle. This chapter details the preparation, characterization, and antibiofilm efficacy testing of antibiotic-loaded polymeric and hybrid nanoparticles and antibiotic nanoparticle complex.

  12. ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY OF ABSCESS OF THE LUNG AND BRONCHIECTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, William L.

    1952-01-01

    Since the fusospirochetal group of bacteria are the commonest etiologic agents in abscess of the lung, aqueous crystalline penicillin is the agent of first choice in the majority of cases. Streptomycin is indicated for a small group of cases in which Klebsiella is the etiologic agent. Aureomycin, chloramphenicol or terramycin may produce an excellent therapeutic response either initially or after therapeutic failure with penicillin. Administration of antibiotics by inhalation should be carried out in conjunction with systemic forms of treatment. In the treatment of bronchiectasis, the antibiotics are most useful in the control of acute exacerbations of pulmonary infection which punctuate the course of this disease. PMID:14935877

  13. Antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Mark H; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Eyk, Nancy Van

    2009-09-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on the use of antibiotics in preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). Outcomes evaluated include the effect of antibiotic treatment on maternal infection, chorioamnionitis, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (PPROM, infection, and antibiotics). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and new material incorporated in the guideline to July 2008. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an approach to the use of antibiotics in women with PPROM. Patients will benefit from appropriate management of this condition. This guideline has been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Diseases Committee and the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee of the SOGC, and approved by the Executive and Council of the SOGC. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. 1. Following PPROM at 32 weeks' gestation, administration of antibiotics to prolong pregnancy is recommended if fetal lung maturity can not be proven and/or delivery is not planned. (I-A) 4

  14. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Shira R; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances.

  15. Protocol for extended antibiotic therapy after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis (Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial, CHART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Pablo; Campana, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, Agustín; Goransky, Jeremías; Glinka, Juan; Giunta, Diego; Barcan, Laura; Alvarez, Fernando; Mazza, Oscar; Sánchez Claria, Rodrigo; Palavecino, Martin; Arbues, Guillermo; Ardiles, Victoria; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Pekolj, Juan; de Santibañes, Martin

    2015-11-18

    Acute calculous cholecystitis represents one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment in mild and moderate forms, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery remains undefined. The aim of the randomised controlled Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial (CHART) is therefore to assess if there are benefits in the use of postoperative antibiotics in patients with mild or moderate acute cholecystitis in whom a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed. A single-centre, double-blind, randomised trial. After screening for eligibility and informed consent, 300 patients admitted for acute calculus cholecystitis will be randomised into two groups of treatment, either receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or placebo for 5 consecutive days. Postoperative evaluation will take place during the first 30 days. Postoperative infectious complications are the primary end point. Secondary end points are length of hospital stay, readmissions, need of reintervention (percutaneous or surgical reinterventions) and overall mortality. The results of this trial will provide strong evidence to either support or abandon the use of antibiotics after surgery, impacting directly in the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics, the emergence of bacterial resistance and treatment costs. This study and informed consent sheets have been approved by the Research Projects Evaluating Committee (CEPI) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (protocol N° 2111). The results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. NCT02057679. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. An assessment of antibiotic therapy of urinary tract infection in elderly, hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, D J; Stewart, D; Harvey, Y; Downie, G; Scott, C J

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the antibiotic treatment actually received by elderly, hospitalised patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) with 'optimal' therapy (as gauged by compliance with antibiotic policy, infecting organism, sensitivity data, patient renal function and cost). UTI was more common in females and in catheterised patients and E.Coli was the commonest pathogen. Trimethoprim and co-amoxiclav were the drugs used most frequently for either empirical or sensitivity data-based treatment. In 96% of infections a drug with appropriate action was administered. Often, however, treatment could have been optimised by substituting a cheaper suitable antibiotic, by standardising duration of therapy and ensuring that doses were adjusted for renal impairment. Savings from the use of 'optimal' therapy were estimated at 17%. There is clearly considerable scope for positive input from the clinical pharmacist in this area.

  17. Short-term Preoperative Octreotide for Thyrotropin-secreting Pituitary Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Fang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: OCT can control hormone levels and damage the ultrastructure of tumor cells and organelles. Short-term response to OCT may be related to SSTR5 expression. Preoperative SST analog treatment for TSHoma could be considered as a combination therapy.

  18. Short-term memories with a stochastic perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Jose C.A. de; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate short-term memories in linear and weakly nonlinear coupled map lattices with a periodic external input. We use locally coupled maps to present numerical results about short-term memory formation adding a stochastic perturbation in the maps and in the external input

  19. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  20. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  1. Comparison of Sugammadex and Neostigmine in Short Term Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the efficacy and cost effectivines of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for short term elective surgery. Material and Method: After written informed consent, 33 patients aged 18%u201365, ASA I-III, who were undergoing short term surgery (

  2. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  3. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of

  4. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  5. Developing New Antimicrobial Therapies: Are Synergistic Combinations of Plant Extracts/Compounds with Conventional Antibiotics the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Matthew J.; Ilanko, Aishwarya; Blonk, Baxter; Cock, Ian E.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin nearly 90 years ago revolutionized the treatment of bacterial disease. Since that time, numerous other antibiotics have been discovered from bacteria and fungi, or developed by chemical synthesis and have become effective chemotherapeutic options. However, the misuse of antibiotics has lessened the efficacy of many commonly used antibiotics. The emergence of resistant strains of bacteria has seriously limited our ability to treat bacterial illness, and new antibiotics are desperately needed. Since the discovery of penicillin, most antibiotic development has focused on the discovery of new antibiotics derived from microbial sources, or on the synthesis of new compounds using existing antibiotic scaffolds to the detriment of other lines of discovery. Both of these methods have been fruitful. However, for a number of reasons discussed in this review, these strategies are unlikely to provide the same wealth of new antibiotics in the future. Indeed, the number of newly developed antibiotics has decreased dramatically in recent years. Instead, a reexamination of traditional medicines has become more common and has already provided several new antibiotics. Traditional medicine plants are likely to provide further new antibiotics in the future. However, the use of plant extracts or pure natural compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics may hold greater promise for rapidly providing affordable treatment options. Indeed, some combinational antibiotic therapies are already clinically available. This study reviews the recent literature on combinational antibiotic therapies to highlight their potential and to guide future research in this field. PMID:28989242

  6. How to measure the impacts of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development on empiric therapy: new composite indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Josie S; Hurford, Amy; Finley, Rita L; Patrick, David M; Wu, Jianhong; Morris, Andrew M

    2016-12-16

    We aimed to construct widely useable summary measures of the net impact of antibiotic resistance on empiric therapy. Summary measures are needed to communicate the importance of resistance, plan and evaluate interventions, and direct policy and investment. As an example, we retrospectively summarised the 2011 cumulative antibiogram from a Toronto academic intensive care unit. We developed two complementary indices to summarise the clinical impact of antibiotic resistance and drug availability on empiric therapy. The Empiric Coverage Index (ECI) measures susceptibility of common bacterial infections to available empiric antibiotics as a percentage. The Empiric Options Index (EOI) varies from 0 to 'the number of treatment options available', and measures the empiric value of the current stock of antibiotics as a depletable resource. The indices account for drug availability and the relative clinical importance of pathogens. We demonstrate meaning and use by examining the potential impact of new drugs and threatening bacterial strains. In our intensive care unit coverage of device-associated infections measured by the ECI remains high (98%), but 37-44% of treatment potential measured by the EOI has been lost. Without reserved drugs, the ECI is 86-88%. New cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations could increase the EOI, but no single drug can compensate for losses. Increasing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence would have little overall impact (ECI=98%, EOI=4.8-5.2) because many Gram-positives are already resistant to β-lactams. Aminoglycoside resistance, however, could have substantial clinical impact because they are among the few drugs that provide coverage of Gram-negative infections (ECI=97%, EOI=3.8-4.5). Our proposed indices summarise the local impact of antibiotic resistance on empiric coverage (ECI) and available empiric treatment options (EOI) using readily available data. Policymakers and drug developers can use the

  7. Clinical efficacy of cycling empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Hideto; Koga, Yuhki; Nishio, Hisanori; Kato, Wakako; Ono, Hiroaki; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Kentaro; Takada, Hidetoshi

    2017-07-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study. Retrospective and prospective data collection were performed before and after antibiotic cycling, respectively. Between September 2011 and November 2012 (before antibiotic cycling was implemented), intravenous cefpirome was used as the empirical therapy for FN. Between December 2012 and February 2014 (after antibiotic cycling was implemented), the monthly antibiotic cycling involved intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ), intravenous meropenem or ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and intravenous cefepime in that order. For children aged ≥13 years, the monthly cycling involved intravenous PIPC/TAZ, and CPFX was administered. The detection rates for extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers in blood and stool culture samples decreased significantly after the implementation of antibiotic cycling (0.33/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p = 0.03; 1.00/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p Antibiotic cycling was associated with a decreased emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  9. Increase in interleukin-8 production from circulating neutrophils upon antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Pasqualina; Mariggiò, Maria A; Barbuti, Giovanna; Cassano, Amalia; Vincenti, Alessandra; Serio, Gabriella; Guerra, Lorenzo; Diana, Anna; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela; Fumarulo, Ruggiero; Casavola, Valeria; Manca, Antonio; Conese, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    It is not known whether antibiotic therapy for lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) has an influence on circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) function and apoptosis. Blood PMNs were obtained from 14 CF patients before and after antibiotic treatment for an acute exacerbation, and from 10 healthy controls. PMNs were evaluated for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spectrophotometry, of cytokines in the conditioned medium by ELISA, and apoptotic response by cytofluorimetry. ROS and interleukin (IL)-8 were produced at higher levels by CF PMNs pre-therapy than control PMNs under basal conditions. IL-8 levels further increased after therapy. Early apoptotic response was higher in CF PMNs pre-therapy than in control PMNs, and this pattern did not change after antibiotic treatment. Circulating PMNs are primed in CF acute patients. Further studies are needed to consider PMN-produced IL-8 as a biomarker to evaluate response to antibiotic therapy in CF patients. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Steering Evolution with Sequential Therapy to Prevent the Emergence of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nichol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rate of antibiotic resistance and slowing discovery of novel antibiotic treatments presents a growing threat to public health. Here, we consider a simple model of evolution in asexually reproducing populations which considers adaptation as a biased random walk on a fitness landscape. This model associates the global properties of the fitness landscape with the algebraic properties of a Markov chain transition matrix and allows us to derive general results on the non-commutativity and irreversibility of natural selection as well as antibiotic cycling strategies. Using this formalism, we analyze 15 empirical fitness landscapes of E. coli under selection by different β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrate that the emergence of resistance to a given antibiotic can be either hindered or promoted by different sequences of drug application. Specifically, we demonstrate that the majority, approximately 70%, of sequential drug treatments with 2-4 drugs promote resistance to the final antibiotic. Further, we derive optimal drug application sequences with which we can probabilistically 'steer' the population through genotype space to avoid the emergence of resistance. This suggests a new strategy in the war against antibiotic-resistant organisms: drug sequencing to shepherd evolution through genotype space to states from which resistance cannot emerge and by which to maximize the chance of successful therapy.

  11. Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibiotic Therapy: From Peptides to Phages Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi M. Mandal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are raising serious concern across the globe. The effectiveness of conventional antibiotics is decreasing due to global emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR bacterial pathogens. This process seems to be primarily caused by an indiscriminate and inappropriate use of antibiotics in non-infected patients and in the food industry. New classes of antibiotics with different actions against MDR pathogens need to be developed urgently. In this context, this review focuses on several ways and future directions to search for the next generation of safe and effective antibiotics compounds including antimicrobial peptides, phage therapy, phytochemicals, metalloantibiotics, LPS and efflux pump inhibitors to control the infections caused by MDR pathogens.

  12. Dry cow therapy with a non-antibiotic intramammary teat seal - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispie Fiona

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Dry cow antibiotic therapy is used to eliminate existing intramammary infections and to prevent new infections in the dry period. It is implemented as part of a total management system known as the 'Five-Point Plan' for mastitis control. Recent public concerns over the widespread prophylactic use of antibiotics, coupled with an increasing interest in organic farming, have lead to a re-evaluation of the treatment of cows at drying-off. As a result, attention has focussed on the use of novel alternatives to antibiotic therapy at the end of lactation. One such therapy involves the application of a non-antibiotic bismuth-based intramammary teat seal designed for use in cows with low cell counts at the end of lactation. Like the keratin plug that forms naturally in teats of cows that have been dried-off, teat seal forms a physical barrier to invading pathogens. To date, a number of independent studies have shown that teat seal is as effective as traditional dry cow antibiotic products in preventing the occurrence of new infection during the dry period in cows with somatic cell counts of ≤200,000 cells ml-1 at drying-off. This paper reviews the efficacy of teat seal in preventing dry period mastitis in both conventional and organic dairying systems.

  13. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERGÜL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.

  14. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  15. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Nesterenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate. 

  16. Treatment failures after antibiotic therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Dessau, Ram B; Hallas, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of sulfamethizole and pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) has been questioned because of an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains. The aim of this study was to describe the risk of treatment failures over the last 10 years. DESIGN......: Retrospective cohort study. MATERIAL: Data were retrieved from Odense Pharmaco Epidemiological Database and consisted of women receiving sulfamethizole (n = 44,716) or pivmecillinam (n = 3093) during the period 1990-99. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescription of a new antibiotic drug appropriate for UTI within 4...

  17. Effectiveness of oral antibiotics for definitive therapy of Gram-negative bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutob, Leila F; Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon; Kohn, Joseph; Albrecht, Helmut; Al-Hasan, Majdi N

    2016-11-01

    There is paucity of data evaluating intravenous-to-oral antibiotic switch options for Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs). This retrospective cohort study examined the effectiveness of oral antibiotics for definitive treatment of Gram-negative BSI. Patients with Gram-negative BSI hospitalised for antibiotics were included in this study. The cohort was stratified into three groups based on bioavailability of oral antibiotics prescribed (high, ≥95%; moderate, 75-94%; and low, antibiotics were prescribed to 106, 179 and 77 patients, respectively, for definitive therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Mean patient age was 63 years, 217 (59.9%) were women and 254 (70.2%) had a urinary source of infection. Treatment failure rates were 2%, 12% and 14% in patients receiving oral antibiotics with high, moderate and low bioavailability, respectively (P = 0.02). Risk of treatment failure in the multivariate Cox model was higher in patients receiving antibiotics with moderate [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 5.9, 95% CI 1.6-38.5; P = 0.005] and low bioavailability (aHR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.9-51.5; P = 0.003) compared with those receiving oral antimicrobial agents with high bioavailability. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of oral antibiotics with high bioavailability for definitive therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Risk of treatment failure increases as bioavailability of the oral regimen declines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Triple combination antibiotic therapy for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David M; Safir, M Courtney; Huang, Dennis; Minhaj, Faisal; Parker, Adam; Rao, Gauri G

    2017-11-25

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CPKP) has become a significant problem worldwide. Combination therapy for CPKP is encouraging, but polymyxin resistance to many antibiotics is hampering effective treatment. Combination therapy with three or more antibiotics is being increasingly reported, therefore we performed a systematic review of triple combination cases in an effort to evaluate their clinical effectiveness for CPKP infections. The PubMed database was searched to identify all published clinical outcomes of CPKP infections treated with triple combination therapy. Articles were stratified into two tiers depending on the level of clinical detail provided. A tier 1 study included: antibiotic regimen, regimen-specific outcome, patient status at onset of infection, and source of infection. Articles not reaching these criteria were considered tier 2. Thirty-three studies were eligible, 23 tier 1 and ten tier 2. Among tier 1 studies, 53 cases were included in this analysis. The most common infection was pneumonia (31%) followed by primary or catheter-related bacteremia (21%) and urinary tract infection (17%). Different combinations of antibiotic classes were utilized in triple combinations, the most common being a polymyxin (colistin or polymyxin B, 86.8%), tigecycline (73.6%), aminoglycoside (43.4%), or carbapenem (43.4%). Clinical and microbiological failure occurred in 14/39 patients (35.9%) and 22/42 patients (52.4%), respectively. Overall mortality for patients treated with triple combination therapy was 35.8% (19/53 patients). Triple combination therapy is being considered as a treatment option for CPKP. Polymyxin-based therapy is the backbone antibiotic in these regimens, but its effectiveness needs establishing in prospective clinical trials.

  19. Case series: Two cases of eyeball tattoos with short-term complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Gonzalo; Cheja, Rashel; Pachón, Diana; Ramírez, Carolina; Arellanes, Lourdes

    2017-04-01

    To report two cases of eyeball tattoos with short-term post procedural complications. Case 1 is a 26-year-old Mexican man that developed orbital cellulitis and posterior scleritis 2 h after an eyeball tattoo. Patient responded satisfactorily to systemic antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment. Case 2 is a 17-year-old Mexican man that developed two sub-episcleral nodules in the ink injection sites immediately after the procedure. Eyeball tattoos are performed by non-ophthalmic trained personnel. There are a substantial number of short-term risks associated with this procedure. Long-term effects on the eyes and vision are still unknown, but in a worst case scenario could include loss of vision or permanent damage to the eyes.

  20. The effect of artesunate on short-term memory in Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, B K; Hakkarainen-Smith, J S; Monro, J A

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is associated with memory deficits. While this may be related to cerebral infection by Borrelia bacteria, it may also be caused by concomitant co-infection by Babesia protozoa. The anti-malarial artemisinin-derivative artesunate has been shown to be effective against a number of Babesia species and to have efficacy against human cerebral malaria. We hypothesised that concomitant administration of artesunate in Lyme borreliosis patients would help alleviate the severity of self-reported short-term memory impairment. This hypothesis was tested in a small pilot study in which patients were treated with both an intravenous antibiotic and oral artesunate (20mg four times per day); treatment was associated with a reduction in the severity of short-term memory difficulties (P≃0.08). In light of these findings, we recommend that a formal randomised, placebo-controlled study be carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Visscher

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches; the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples. Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1 the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity, and (2 the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity. A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  2. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Kristina M; Kaplan, Elina; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches); the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples). Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1) the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity), and (2) the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity). A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  3. Improvements in Behavioral Symptoms following Antibiotic Therapy in a 14-Year-Old Male with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lucas Ramirez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the benefits of antibiotic and antifungal therapy on behavior in a child with autism undergoing treatment for encopresis. Over the course of treatment, the child exhibited a reduction in aberrant behaviors, increased gastrointestinal function, and improved quality of life.

  4. Improvements in Behavioral Symptoms following Antibiotic Therapy in a 14-Year-Old Male with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, P. Lucas; Barnhill, Kelly; Gutierrez, Alan; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the benefits of antibiotic and antifungal therapy on behavior in a child with autism undergoing treatment for encopresis. Over the course of treatment, the child exhibited a reduction in aberrant behaviors, increased gastrointestinal function, and improved quality of life.

  5. Implementation of treatment guidelines to support judicious use of antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, S; Roten, I; Muehlebach, S

    2010-02-01

    Judicious use of antibiotics is essential considering the growth of antimicrobial resistance and escalating costs in health care. This intervention study used treatment guidelines to improve antibiotic therapy by changing prescribing practice. A before-after intervention study was performed in a 550-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Switzerland, with an additional follow-up analysis 1 year later. The pre-intervention phase included chart analysis of current antibiotic use in 100 consecutive patients from the representative medical and surgical wards included in the study. Treatment guidelines were defined, taking into account published guidelines, the local antibacterial sensitivity of the pathogens, and the hospital antibiotic formulary defined by the drug and therapeutics committee. The guidelines were presented to the medical residents on a pocket card. They were informed and educated by the pharmacist (intervention). In the post-intervention phase immediately after the instruction, and in the follow-up phase 1 year later, a prospective analysis of antibiotic prescription was performed by chart review of 100 antibacterial treatments in consecutive patients to detect changes in antibiotic prescribing (treatment) and to determine whether these changes were sustained. The pre-intervention review of antibiotic use showed the need for therapy improvements in urinary tract infections (UTI) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). In the post-intervention phase 100% of UTI were treated as recommended, compared to 30% before the intervention (P UTI. Before implementation of the clinical guidelines, HAP was inappropriately treated like community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Immediately after the intervention, 50% of HAP patients were treated as recommended, and 1 year later (follow-up phase) 56% of HAP patients received the recommended antibiotic medication. This change in prescription practice was significant (P < 0.05). Antibiotic treatment guidelines for the

  6. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Now in a thoroughly revised and updated second edition, this volume presents a variety of play approaches that facilitate children's healing in a shorter time frame. Invaluable for clinicians working within managed care and all those seeking to optimize limited time with clients, the book describes effective methods for individual, family, and…

  7. Long-term macrolide antibiotics in asthma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Takekoshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrolide antibiotics drew worldwide attention when their use was dramatically successful in the treatment of diffuse panbronchiolitis in 1980s. The success was attributed to their immunomodulatory effects, rather than their antimicrobial properties. Since then, studies have shown that macrolides exert their immunomodulatory effects through several mechanisms, including suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, promoting apoptosis of inflammatory cells, improving phagocytic function, ameliorating airway hypersecretion, and inhibiting production of reactive oxygen species. Macrolides have also been studied in the treatment of asthma. This review highlights the role of macrolides in the treatment of asthma, presenting an overview of the main clinical trials. Despite favourable preclinical data and reports of anecdotal successes, the results of clinical trials are conflicting. This may be due to the heterogeneous nature of asthma. Further studies are needed to identify particular subgroup of asthma that will respond to macrolides.

  8. Short-term effects of simultaneous cardiovascular workout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMD), has become a growing public health concern, as it may potentially result in the development of hearing difficulties. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the differential impact and short-term effects of simultaneous ...

  9. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  10. Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral shaft fracture treated with locking intramedullary sign nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Tanzania. Billy T. Haonga, Felix S. Mrita, Edmundo E. Ndalama, Jackline E. Makupa ...

  11. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  12. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss

  13. The nature of forgetting from short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Muter, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Memory and forgetting are inextricably intertwined. Any account of short-term memory (STM) should address the following question: If three, four, or five chunks are being held in STM, what happens after attention is diverted?

  14. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  15. Short-term Consumer Benefits of Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Benjamin; De Jonghe, Cedric; Kessels, Kris; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Consumer benefits of dynamic pricing depend on a variety of factors. Consumer characteristics and climatic circumstances widely differ, which forces a regional comparison. This paper presents a general overview of demand response programs and focuses on the short-term benefits of dynamic pricing for an average Flemish residential consumer. It reaches a methodology to develop a cost reflective dynamic pricing program and to estimate short-term bill savings. Participating in a dynamic pricing p...

  16. Behavioural Models of Motor Control and Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Imanaka, Kuniyasu; Funase, Kozo; Yamauchi, Masaki

    1995-01-01

    We examined in this review article the behavioural and conceptual models of motor control and short-term memory which have intensively been investigated since the 1970s. First, we reviewed both the dual-storage model of short-term memory in which movement information is stored and a typical model of motor control which emphasizes the importance of efferent factors. We then examined two models of preselection effects: a cognitive model and a cognitive/ efferent model. Following this we reviewe...

  17. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...

  18. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention. Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals. Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context. Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed. Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention. Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  19. Short-term mechanisms influencing volumetric brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Dieleman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and brain analysis tools, it has become possible to measure brain volume changes up to around 0.5%. Besides long-term brain changes caused by atrophy in aging or neurodegenerative disease, short-term mechanisms that influence brain volume may exist. When we focus on short-term changes of the brain, changes may be either physiological or pathological. As such determining the cause of volumetric dynamics of the brain is essential. Additionally for an accurate interpretation of longitudinal brain volume measures by means of neurodegeneration, knowledge about the short-term changes is needed. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms influencing brain volumes on a short-term basis and set-out a framework of MRI techniques to be used for volumetric changes as well as the used analysis tools. 3D T1-weighted images are the images of choice when it comes to MRI of brain volume. These images are excellent to determine brain volume and can be used together with an analysis tool to determine the degree of volume change. Mechanisms that decrease global brain volume are: fluid restriction, evening MRI measurements, corticosteroids, antipsychotics and short-term effects of pathological processes like Alzheimer's disease, hypertension and Diabetes mellitus type II. Mechanisms increasing the brain volume include fluid intake, morning MRI measurements, surgical revascularization and probably medications like anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-hypertensive medication. Exercise was found to have no effect on brain volume on a short-term basis, which may imply that dehydration caused by exercise differs from dehydration by fluid restriction. In the upcoming years, attention should be directed towards studies investigating physiological short-term changes within the light of long-term pathological changes. Ultimately this may lead to a better understanding of the physiological short-term effects of

  20. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-01-01

    We provided novel evidence of a frequency-specific effect by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the left posterior parietal cortex on short-term memory, during a digit span task. the effect was prominent with stimulation at beta frequency for young and not for middle-aged adults and correlated with age. Our findings highlighted a short-term memory capacity improvement by tACS application.

  1. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content

    OpenAIRE

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: Higher aro...

  2. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....

  3. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  4. Managing an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy team: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilovic, Jenana; Christensen, Cinda L; Nguyen, Hien H

    2014-01-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs should strive to deliver safe, cost effective, and high quality care. One of the keys to developing and sustaining a high quality OPAT program is to understand the common challenges or barriers to OPAT delivery. We review the most common challenges to starting and managing an OPAT program and give practical advice on addressing these issues.

  5. Synergistic Interaction Between Phage Therapy and Antibiotics Clears Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection in Endocarditis and Reduces Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Frank; Piccardi, Philippe; Mancini, Stefano; Gabard, Jérôme; Moreillon, Philippe; Entenza, José M; Resch, Gregory; Que, Yok-Ai

    2017-03-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance warrants therapeutic alternatives. Here we investigated the efficacy of bacteriophage-therapy (phage) alone or combined with antibiotics against experimental endocarditis (EE) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an archetype of difficult-to-treat infection. In vitro fibrin clots and rats with aortic EE were treated with an antipseudomonas phage cocktail alone or combined with ciprofloxacin. Phage pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy, and resistance were determined. In vitro, single-dose phage therapy killed 7 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/g of fibrin clots in 6 hours. Phage-resistant mutants regrew after 24 hours but were prevented by combination with ciprofloxacin (2.5 × minimum inhibitory concentration). In vivo, single-dose phage therapy killed 2.5 log CFUs/g of vegetations in 6 hours (P 6 log CFUs/g of vegetations in 6 hours and successfully treating 64% (n = 7/11) of rats. Phage-resistant mutants emerged in vitro but not in vivo, most likely because resistant mutations affected bacterial surface determinants important for infectivity (eg, the pilT and galU genes involved in pilus motility and LPS formation). Single-dose phage therapy was active against P. aeruginosa EE and highly synergistic with ciprofloxacin. Phage-resistant mutants had impaired infectivity. Phage-therapy alone or combined with antibiotics merits further clinical consideration. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Managing an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy team: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hien; Halilovic,Jenana; Christensen,Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Jenana Halilovic,1 Cinda L Christensen,2 Hien H Nguyen31University of the Pacific Thomas J Long School of Pharmacy, Stockton, CA, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Services, University of California, Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Section of Hospital Medicine, University of California, Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs should strive to deliver safe, cost effective, and hig...

  7. TACTICS OF BIOCENOSIS-SAVING THERAPY BY USE ANTIBIOTICS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 50 children aged from 3 to 67 months with acute intestinal infections receiving antibiotic therapy, were clinically and microbiologically examined using gas-liquid chromatographic test with the measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs in coprofiltrates. The influence on the biocenosis is assessed upon treatment with an-tidiarrhoeal medication Gelatin tannat (Adiarin, which acts by forming a protective film on the surface of intestinal mucosa preventing loss of body fluids and microbial toxins. 20 children in the control group received antibiotics, sorbents, probiotics. The study has proved the clinical effect of Gelatin tannat, resulting in reduction of time to normalization of diarrhea and intoxication for 2 days, and data on the probiotic effect of the drug, similar to that of probiotics in the control group which expands the indications for the use of Gelatin tannat for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  

  8. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789

  9. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Circadian modulation of short-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C; Roman, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks are widespread regulators of behavior and physiology, allowing for a more efficient allocation of efforts and resources over the course of a day. The extent that different processes are regulated by circadian oscillators, however, is not fully understood. We investigated the role of the circadian clock on short-term associative memory formation using a negatively reinforced olfactory-learning paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that memory formation was regulated in a circadian manner. The peak performance in short-term memory (STM) occurred during the early subjective night with a twofold performance amplitude after a single pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. This rhythm in memory is eliminated in both timeless and period mutants and is absent during constant light conditions. Circadian gating of sensory perception does not appear to underlie the rhythm in short-term memory as evidenced by the nonrhythmic shock avoidance and olfactory avoidance behaviors. Moreover, central brain oscillators appear to be responsible for the modulation as cryptochrome mutants, in which the antennal circadian oscillators are nonfunctional, demonstrate robust circadian rhythms in short-term memory. Together these data suggest that central, rather than peripheral, circadian oscillators modulate the formation of short-term associative memory and not the perception of the stimuli.

  11. LANGUAGE REPETITION AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY: AN INTEGRATIVE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eMajerus

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the nonword-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.

  12. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.

  13. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund T Rolls

    Full Text Available Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  14. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  15. Brain oscillatory substrates of visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauseng, Paul; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Heise, Kirstin F; Gruber, Walter R; Holz, Elisa; Karim, Ahmed A; Glennon, Mark; Gerloff, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2009-11-17

    The amount of information that can be stored in visual short-term memory is strictly limited to about four items. Therefore, memory capacity relies not only on the successful retention of relevant information but also on efficient suppression of distracting information, visual attention, and executive functions. However, completely separable neural signatures for these memory capacity-limiting factors remain to be identified. Because of its functional diversity, oscillatory brain activity may offer a utile solution. In the present study, we show that capacity-determining mechanisms, namely retention of relevant information and suppression of distracting information, are based on neural substrates independent of each other: the successful maintenance of relevant material in short-term memory is associated with cross-frequency phase synchronization between theta (rhythmical neural activity around 5 Hz) and gamma (> 50 Hz) oscillations at posterior parietal recording sites. On the other hand, electroencephalographic alpha activity (around 10 Hz) predicts memory capacity based on efficient suppression of irrelevant information in short-term memory. Moreover, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at alpha frequency can modulate short-term memory capacity by influencing the ability to suppress distracting information. Taken together, the current study provides evidence for a double dissociation of brain oscillatory correlates of visual short-term memory capacity.

  16. Rapid resolution of cellulitis in patients managed with combination antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Lawrence; Peterson, Sandford; Simmons, Tom; Dall, Amy

    2005-03-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that host inflammatory response has some effect on the clinical manifestations of cellulitis. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the addition of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) therapy to antibiotic treatment hastens resolution of cellulitis-related inflammation. Patients presenting in the emergency department with signs and symptoms of class II cellulitis were assigned to receive treatment with either antibiotic therapy alone (intravenous, supplemented with oral cephalexin or an equivalent) for 10 days (n = 33) or antibiotic therapy for 10 days plus an oral anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen 400 mg every 6 hours) for 5 days (n = 31). Patients were discharged as soon as possible to complete their therapy on an outpatient basis. The addition of an oral anti-inflammatory agent significantly (P < .05) shortened the time to regression of inflammation and complete resolution of cellulitis. Twenty-four of 29 evaluable patients (82.8%) who received supplemental anti-inflammatory treatment showed regression of inflammation within 1 to 2 days compared with only 3 of 33 patients (9.1%) treated without an anti-inflammatory in the same time frame. All patients receiving adjunctive anti-inflammatory treatment experienced complete resolution of cellulitis in 4 to 5 days or less, while 24.2% (8/33) of patients treated with antibiotic alone required 6 to 7 days, and 6.1% (2/33) required 7 days or more (P < .05). This small preliminary study provides some promising data, suggesting that the supplemental use of anti-inflammatory therapy may hasten the time to regression of inflammation and complete resolution of cellulitis.

  17. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Gökçe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. Aims: To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (- bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2 in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1. Results: Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (- urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy. The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2. Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, p0.05. Conclusion: In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results

  18. Appropriate antibiotic therapy improves Ureaplasma sepsis outcome in the neonatal mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Leonard E; Leeming, Angela H; Kong, Lingkun

    2012-11-01

    Ureaplasma causes sepsis in human neonates. Although erythromycin has been the standard treatment, it is not always effective. No published reports have evaluated Ureaplasma sepsis in a neonatal model. We hypothesized that appropriate antibiotic treatment improves Ureaplasma sepsis in a neonatal mouse model. Two ATCC strains and two clinical strains of Ureaplasma were evaluated in vitro for antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, FVB albino mice pups infected with Ureaplasma were randomly assigned to saline, erythromycin, or azithromycin therapy and survival, quantitative blood culture, and growth were evaluated. MICs ranged from 0.125 to 62.5 µg/ml and 0.25 to 1.0 µg/ml for erythromycin and azithromycin, respectively. The infecting strain and antibiotic selected for treatment appeared to affect survival and bacteremia, but only the infecting strain affected growth. Azithromycin improved survival and bacteremia against each strain, whereas erythromycin was effective against only one of four strains. We have established a neonatal model of Ureaplasma sepsis and observed that treatment outcome is related to infecting strain and antibiotic treatment. We speculate that appropriate antibiotic selection and dosing are required for effective treatment of Ureaplasma sepsis in neonates, and this model could be used to further evaluate these relationships.

  19. International experts' practice in the antibiotic therapy of infective endocarditis is not following the guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot-Dupont, H; Casalta, J P; Gouriet, F; Hubert, S; Salaun, E; Habib, G; Fernandez-Gerlinger, M P; Mainardi, J L; Tattevin, P; Revest, M; Lucht, F; Botelho-Nevers, E; Gagneux-Brunon, A; Snygg-Martin, U; Chan, K L; Bishara, J; Vilacosta, I; Olmos, C; San Román, J A; López, J; Tornos, P; Fernández-Hidalgo, N; Durante-Mangoni, E; Utili, R; Paul, M; Baddour, L M; DeSimone, D C; Sohail, M R; Steckelberg, J M; Wilson, W R; Raoult, D

    2017-10-01

    The management of infective endocarditis (IE) may differ from international guidelines, even in reference centres. This is probably because most recommendations are not based on hard evidence, so the consensus obtained for the guidelines does not represent actual practices. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate this question in the particular field of antibiotic therapy. Thirteen international centres specialized in the management of IE were selected, according to their reputation, clinical results, original research publications and quotations. They were asked to detail their actual practice in terms of IE antibiotic treatment in various bacteriological and clinical situations. They were also asked to declare their IE-related in-hospital mortality for the year 2015. The global compliance with guidelines concerning antibiotic therapy was 58%, revealing the differences between theoretical 'consensus', local recommendations and actual practice. Some conflicts of interest were also probably expressed. The adherence to guidelines was 100% when the protocol was simple, and decreased with the seriousness of the situation (Staphylococus spp. 54%-62%) or in blood-culture-negative endocarditis (0%-15%) that requires adaptation to clinical and epidemiological data. Worldwide experts in IE management, although the majority of them were involved and co-signed the guidelines, do not follow international consensus guidelines on the particular point of the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Penicillin improves the milt quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during short-term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Halimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of antibiotic (5000 units of penicillin on sperm quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during 9 days in vitro storage of milt. For this purpose, the milt samples were stored in the presence and absence of 5000 units of penicillin. Freshwater was used as sperm activator. The milt samples were stored at 4°C and the motility indices were measured 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after storage. The sperm duration and percentage of sperm motility decreased after 6 days of storage both in the presence and absence of antibiotic, although this decrease was more significant in the absence of antibiotic. After 9 days of storage, the lowest values of sperm motility indices was recorded for antibiotic receiving milt samples while no motile spermatozoa observed for antibiotic-free milt samples. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that 5000 units of penicillin improve the Persian sturgeon milt quality during short-term storage.

  1. Managing an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy team: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilovic J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jenana Halilovic,1 Cinda L Christensen,2 Hien H Nguyen31University of the Pacific Thomas J Long School of Pharmacy, Stockton, CA, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Services, University of California, Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Section of Hospital Medicine, University of California, Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT programs should strive to deliver safe, cost effective, and high quality care. One of the keys to developing and sustaining a high quality OPAT program is to understand the common challenges or barriers to OPAT delivery. We review the most common challenges to starting and managing an OPAT program and give practical advice on addressing these issues.Keywords: OPAT, quality, safety, program management

  2. Short-term and working memory impairments in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potagas, Constantin; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate short-term memory and working memory deficits in aphasics in relation to the severity of their language impairment. Fifty-eight aphasic patients participated in this study. Based on language assessment, an aphasia score was calculated for each patient. Memory was assessed in two modalities, verbal and spatial. Mean scores for all memory tasks were lower than normal. Aphasia score was significantly correlated with performance on all memory tasks. Correlation coefficients for short-term memory and working memory were approximately of the same magnitude. According to our findings, severity of aphasia is related with both verbal and spatial memory deficits. Moreover, while aphasia score correlated with lower scores in both short-term memory and working memory tasks, the lack of substantial difference between corresponding correlation coefficients suggests a possible primary deficit in information retention rather than impairment in working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  4. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook

  5. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages.

  6. Antibiotic Therapy vs Appendectomy for Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis: The APPAC Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Paulina; Paajanen, Hannu; Rautio, Tero; Nordström, Pia; Aarnio, Markku; Rantanen, Tuomo; Tuominen, Risto; Hurme, Saija; Virtanen, Johanna; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Sand, Juhani; Jartti, Airi; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Grönroos, Juha M

    2015-06-16

    An increasing amount of evidence supports the use of antibiotics instead of surgery for treating patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis. To compare antibiotic therapy with appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis confirmed by computed tomography (CT). The Appendicitis Acuta (APPAC) multicenter, open-label, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2009 until June 2012 in Finland. The trial enrolled 530 patients aged 18 to 60 years with uncomplicated acute appendicitis confirmed by a CT scan. Patients were randomly assigned to early appendectomy or antibiotic treatment with a 1-year follow-up period. Patients randomized to antibiotic therapy received intravenous ertapenem (1 g/d) for 3 days followed by 7 days of oral levofloxacin (500 mg once daily) and metronidazole (500 mg 3 times per day). Patients randomized to the surgical treatment group were assigned to undergo standard open appendectomy. The primary end point for the surgical intervention was the successful completion of an appendectomy. The primary end point for antibiotic-treated patients was discharge from the hospital without the need for surgery and no recurrent appendicitis during a 1-year follow-up period. There were 273 patients in the surgical group and 257 in the antibiotic group. Of 273 patients in the surgical group, all but 1 underwent successful appendectomy, resulting in a success rate of 99.6% (95% CI, 98.0% to 100.0%). In the antibiotic group, 70 patients (27.3%; 95% CI, 22.0% to 33.2%) underwent appendectomy within 1 year of initial presentation for appendicitis. Of the 256 patients available for follow-up in the antibiotic group, 186 (72.7%; 95% CI, 66.8% to 78.0%) did not require surgery. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded a difference in treatment efficacy between groups of -27.0% (95% CI, -31.6% to ∞) (P = .89). Given the prespecified noninferiority margin of 24%, we were unable to demonstrate noninferiority of

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia among Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients: Relation to Initial Antibiotic Therapy and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migiyama, Yohei; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kaku, Norihito; Harada, Yosuke; Yamada, Koichi; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Matsuda, Junichi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, P. aeruginosa bacteremia in immunocompetent patients has also been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of P. aeruginosa bacteremia in relation to the immune status of the patients. The medical records of 126 adult patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia in Nagasaki University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 126 patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia, 60 patients (47.6%) were classified as immunocompetent. Mortality in immunocompetent patients tended to be lower than in immunocompromised patients (7-day mortality, 8% vs. 30%, P antibiotic therapy (HR: 0.21, P immunocompromised, but not immunocompetent patients, initial appropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with lower mortality (30-day mortality 20.5% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.01 by log-rank test).

  8. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in patients with suspected inflammation after failed antibiotic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Reiko; Akagi, Kiyoshi; Murata, Takashi; Uokawa, Kyousuke; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Itagaki, Yasushi

    1998-01-01

    In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigrapy (In-111 WBC scan) was performed in 16 patients with inflammation suspected on the basis of laboratory findings, symptoms, and diagnostic imaging, but who had failed antibiotic therapy. In-111 WBC scans revealed an abnormal focus of radiotracer activity (positive scans) in five of 16 patients. No correlation was found between the peripheral WBC count and accumulation of In-111 WBC. Inflammatory disease suspected on the basis of the CRP level should be considered when In-111 WBC scanning results in negative findings. Our results indicated that In-111 WBC scanning has low sensitivity after antibiotic therapy. Selection of patients on the basis of persistent elevation of CRP may be valuable. (author)

  9. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re-search...... of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in the dataset...

  10. [Impulsiveness Among Short-Term Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  12. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Mario; Abrahams, S.; Fabi, K.; Logie, R.; Luzzi, S.; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or ‘binding’ deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1 : 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants...

  13. Low antibiotic resistance among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria in periodontitis 5 years following metronidazole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, G; Preus, H R

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination. E-tests against metronidazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and clindamycin were employed. The 73/85 strains were Gram-negative rods (21 Porphyromonas spp., 22 Prevotella/Bacteroides spp., 23 Fusobacterium/Filifactor spp., 3 Campylobacter spp. and 4 Tannerella forsythia). These were all isolated from the treated patients irrespective of therapy procedures (+/-metronidazole) 5 years prior. Three strains (Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium propionicum, Parvimonas micra) showed MIC values for metronidazole over the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing break point of >4 μg/mL. All Porphyromonas and Tannerella strains were highly susceptible. Metronidazole resistant Gram-negative strains were not found, while a few showed resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. In this population of 161 patients who had been subject to mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunct metronidazole 5 years prior, no cultivable antibiotic resistant anaerobes were found in the predominant subgingival microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy modify intensive care unit-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia mortality and discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, K B; Van Kleef, E; Vansteelandt, S; Batra, R; Edgeworth, J D; Smieszek, T; Robotham, J V

    2017-05-01

    Conflicting results have been found regarding outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the potentially modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. To evaluate these associations while adjusting for potential time-varying confounding using methods from the causal inference literature. Patients who stayed more than two days in two general ICUs in England between 2002 and 2006 were included in this cohort study. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting were used to estimate the mortality and discharge associated with Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the impact of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy on these outcomes. Among 3411 ICU admissions, 195 (5.7%) ICU-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia cases occurred. Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia was associated with an increased daily risk of ICU death [cause-specific hazard ratio (HR): 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.99] and a reduced daily risk of ICU discharge (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54-0.80). Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy did not significantly modify ICU mortality (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.59-1.97) or discharge (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.63-1.32). ICU-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia was associated with an increased daily risk of ICU mortality. Furthermore, the daily discharge rate was also lower after acquiring infection, even when adjusting for time-varying confounding using appropriate methodology. No evidence was found for a beneficial modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy on ICU mortality and discharge. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner C. Albrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 14 randomized controlled studies to date, a procalcitonin (PCT-based algorithm has been proven to markedly reduce the use of antibiotics along with an unimpaired high safety and low complication rates in patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. However, compliance with the algorithm and safety out of controlled study conditions has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We performed a prospective international multicenter observational post-study surveillance of consecutive adults with community-acquired LRTI in 14 centers (Switzerland (n = 10, France (n = 3 and the United States (n = 1. Results: Between September 2009 and November 2010, 1,759 patients were enrolled (median age 71; female sex 44.4%. 1,520 (86.4% patients had a final diagnosis of LRTI (community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, 53.7%; acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, 17.1%; and acute bronchitis, 14.4%. Compliance with the PCT-guided therapy (overall 68.2% was highest in patients with bronchitis (81.0% vs. AECOPD, 70.1%; CAP, 63.7%; p < 0.001, outpatients (86.1% vs. inpatients, 65.9%; p < 0.001 and algorithm-experienced centers (82.5% vs. algorithm-naive, 60.1%; p < 0.001 and showed significant geographical differences. The initial decision about the antibiotic therapy was based on PCT value in 72.4%. In another 8.6% of patients, antibiotics were administered despite low PCT values but according to predefined criteria. Thus, the algorithm was followed in 81.0% of patients. In a multivariable Cox hazard ratio model, longer antibiotic therapy duration was associated with algorithm-non-compliance, country, hospitalization, CAP vs. bronchitis, renal failure and algorithm-naïvety of the study center. In a multivariable logistic regression complications (death, empyema, ICU treatment, mechanical ventilation, relapse, and antibiotic-associated side effects were significantly associated with increasing CURB65-Score, CAP

  16. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: towards the development of novel anti-biofilm therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick K; Yeung, Amy T Y; Hancock, Robert E W

    2014-12-10

    The growth of bacteria as structured aggregates termed biofilms leads to their protection from harsh environmental conditions such as physical and chemical stresses, shearing forces, and limited nutrient availability. Because of this highly adapted ability to survive adverse environmental conditions, bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapies and immune clearance. This is particularly problematic in hospital settings where biofilms are a frequent cause of chronic and device-related infections and constitute a significant burden on the health-care system. The major therapeutic strategy against infections is the use of antibiotics, which, due to adaptive resistance, are often insufficient to clear biofilm infections. Thus, novel biofilm-specific therapies are required. Specific features of biofilm development, such as surface adherence, extracellular matrix formation, quorum sensing, and highly regulated biofilm maturation and dispersal are currently being studied as targets to be exploited in the development of novel biofilm-specific treatments. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa for illustrative purposes, this review highlights the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of biofilms, and discusses current research into novel biofilm-specific therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Value of Prophylactic Postoperative Antibiotic Therapy after Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshghpour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic therapy before or after orthognathic surgery is commonly recommended by surgeons to minimize the risk of wound infection. This article evaluates the value of Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in order to diminish the incidence of postoperative wound infection after orthognathic surgery.   Materials and Methods: Fifty candidates for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were divided into cases and controls. Cefazolin (1g was administered intravenously to all participants 30 mins prior to surgery followed by a similar dose 4 hours later. Case-group patients ingested amoxicillin (500 mg orally for 7 days after surgery. Postoperative wound infection was assessed using clinical features, and the P-value significance was set at P  Results: Both groups were similar according to gender, age, and operating time. During the follow-up period no infection was observed in either the case or control group.   Conclusion:  The results of this study suggest that long-term postoperative antibiotic therapy is not essential for the prevention of postoperative infection, and that application of aseptic surgical technique and hygiene instruction after surgery are sufficient.

  18. [Domiciliary parenteral antibiotic therapy: a prospective analysis of the last 12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez Cantero, M J; Madrid Rodríguez, A; Urda Cardona, A L; Jurado Ortiz, A

    2014-08-01

    Parenteral antibiotic treatment has been classically developed in hospitals and is considered as a hospital procedure. The development of Hospital at Home Units (HHU) has led to an increase in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in paediatrics patients. The objective of this study is to describe our experience, as an HHU integrated within a Paediatric Department, in home antimicrobial therapy over a period of 12 years. This prospective and descriptive study included every patient with a disease requiring parenteral antimicrobial therapy who was admitted to our HHU from January 2000 to December 2012. During the study there were 163 cases on OPAT. The mean age of the patients was 11.1 years, and the sample group was comprised of 33 males and 22 feamales. The main sources of the treated infections were respiratory tract (76%), catheter-related bloodstream (9.2%), and urinary tract infections (5.5%). Amikacin was the most widely used antibiotic. Almost all treatments (96.6%) were via an intravenous route. Catheter-associated complications were more common than drug-associated complications. Successful at-home treatment was observed in 90.2% of cases. OPAT is a good and safe alternative in many paediatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. A Good Short-term Outcome in Delayed Decompression of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Klebsiella pneumoniae Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess is a severe, generally pyogenic, infection of the epidural space of spinal cord or cauda equina. The swelling caused by the abscess leads to compression or vascular disruption of neurological structures that requires urgent surgical decompression to avoid significant permanent disability. We share a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae spinal epidural abscess secondary to haematogenous spread of previous lung infection that presented late at our centre with cauda equina syndrome that showed good short-term outcome in delayed decompression. A 50-year old female presented with one-week history of persistent low back pain with progressively worsening bilateral lower limb weakness for seven days and urinary retention associated with saddle anesthesia of 2-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast of the lumbo-sacral region showed an intramuscular collection of abscess at left gluteus maximus and left multifidus muscle with a L3-L5 posteriorly placed extradural lesion enhancing peripherally on contrast, suggestive of epidural abscess that compressed the cauda equina. The pus was drained using the posterior lumbar approach. Tissue and pus culture revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae, suggestive of bacterial infection. The patient made immediate improvement of muscle power over bilateral lower limbs postoperative followed by ability to control micturition and defecation in the 4th post-operative day. A good short-term outcome in delayed decompression of cauda equine syndrome is extremely rare. Aggressive surgical decompression combined with antibiotic therapy led to good short-term outcome in this patient despite delayed decompression of more than 48 hours.

  20. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates.We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt.The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values.We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis after endoscopic therapy prevents rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh; Liu, Tsu-Te; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tieu; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2004-03-01

    Bacterial infection may adversely affect the hemostasis of patients with gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GEVB). Antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent bacterial infection in such patients, but its role in preventing rebleeding is unclear. Over a 25-month period, patients with acute GEVB but without evidence of bacterial infection were randomized to receive prophylactic antibiotics (ofloxacin 200 mg i.v. q12h for 2 days followed by oral ofloxacin 200 mg q12h for 5 days) or receive antibiotics only when infection became evident (on-demand group). Endoscopic therapy for the GEVB was performed immediately after infection work-up and randomization. Fifty-nine patients in the prophylactic group and 61 patients in the on-demand group were analyzed. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics of the gastroesophageal varices, time to endoscopic treatment, and period of follow-up were not different between the two groups. Antibiotic prophylaxis decreased infections (2/59 vs. 16/61; P actuarial probability of rebleeding was higher in patients without prophylactic antibiotics (P =.0029). The difference of rebleeding was mostly due to early rebleeding within 7 days (4/12 vs. 21/27, P =.0221). The relative hazard of rebleeding within 7 days was 5.078 (95% CI: 1.854-13.908, P <.0001). The multivariate Cox regression indicated bacterial infection (relative hazard: 3.85, 95% CI: 1.85-13.90) and association with hepatocellular carcinoma (relative hazard: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.30-4.63) as independent factors predictive of rebleeding. Blood transfusion for rebleeding was also reduced in the prophylactic group (1.40 +/- 0.89 vs. 2.81 +/- 2.29 units, P <.05). There was no difference in survival between the two groups. In conclusion, antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent infection and rebleeding as well as decrease the amount of blood transfused for patients with acute GEVB following endoscopic treatment.

  2. Implementing a short-term loyalty program : case: Bosch Lawn & Garden and the Ventum short-term loyalty program

    OpenAIRE

    Logvinova, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, one of the Bosch Home and Garden divisions, Bosch Lawn and Garden, has made a strategic decision to adopt a points-based short-term loyalty program called Ventum LG in the German supermarkets and petrol stations. It was decided that the base of this program will be completed Ventum PT short-term loyalty program which was managed by another division, Bosch Power Tools, and proved to be successful. This thesis aims to evaluate the worthiness of the Ventum LG loyalty program for Bosch L...

  3. Real-time energy resources scheduling considering short-term and very short-term wind forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita [Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). GECAD - Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes an energy resources management methodology based on three distinct time horizons: day-ahead scheduling, hour-ahead scheduling, and real-time scheduling. In each scheduling process the update of generation and consumption operation and of the storage and electric vehicles storage status are used. Besides the new operation conditions, the most accurate forecast values of wind generation and of consumption using results of short-term and very short-term methods are used. A case study considering a distribution network with intensive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles is presented. (orig.)

  4. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  5. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  6. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  8. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  10. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific... programs, confer on common problems and projects, and promote professional relationships and communications...

  11. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  12. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a

  13. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  14. Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.

  15. Managing Transit Ridership with Short-Term Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    It is the purpose of this booklet to give the reader an overview of the variety, : type, and nature of short-term economic incentive programs that have been : introduced by transit properties over the past few years. 3054k, 55p.

  16. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  17. Stacking Ensemble Learning for Short-Term Electricity Consumption Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Divina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict short-term electric energy demand would provide several benefits, both at the economic and environmental level. For example, it would allow for an efficient use of resources in order to face the actual demand, reducing the costs associated to the production as well as the emission of CO 2 . To this aim, in this paper we propose a strategy based on ensemble learning in order to tackle the short-term load forecasting problem. In particular, our approach is based on a stacking ensemble learning scheme, where the predictions produced by three base learning methods are used by a top level method in order to produce final predictions. We tested the proposed scheme on a dataset reporting the energy consumption in Spain over more than nine years. The obtained experimental results show that an approach for short-term electricity consumption forecasting based on ensemble learning can help in combining predictions produced by weaker learning methods in order to obtain superior results. In particular, the system produces a lower error with respect to the existing state-of-the art techniques used on the same dataset. More importantly, this case study has shown that using an ensemble scheme can achieve very accurate predictions, and thus that it is a suitable approach for addressing the short-term load forecasting problem.

  18. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  19. Scalable data-driven short-term traffic prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friso, K.; Wismans, L. J.J.; Tijink, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Short-term traffic prediction has a lot of potential for traffic management. However, most research has traditionally focused on either traffic models-which do not scale very well to large networks, computationally-or on data-driven methods for freeways, leaving out urban arterials completely. Urban

  20. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  1. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  3. Short-term mechanisms influencing volumetric brain dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Nikki; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    With the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brain analysis tools, it has become possible to measure brain volume changes up to around 0.5%. Besides long-term brain changes caused by atrophy in aging or neurodegenerative disease, short-term mechanisms that influence brain volume may exist.

  4. Short-term variations of radiocarbon during the last century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchuladze, A.A.; Pagava, S.V.; Jurina, V.; Povinec, P.; Usacev, S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiocarbon variations related to the 11-year solar cycle during the last century are discussed. Previous investigations on short term 14 C variations in tree rings are compared with 14 C measurements in Georgian wine samples. The amplitude of 14 C variations as obtained by various authors ranges from 0.2 to about 1%. (author)

  5. Proactive Interference in Short-Term Recognition and Recall Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Richard F.; Petrusic, William M.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of study was to (a) compare the rate of increase of proactive interference over the first few trials under recall and recognition memory test conditions, (2) determine the effects of two types of distractors on short-term recognition, and (3) test memory after proactive interference had reached a stable level under each of three test…

  6. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  7. Short term clinical outcome of children with rotavirus infection at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a high morbidity and mortality in children in Kenya. Objectives: To determine the short term clinical outcome for children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with ...

  8. Short-term effects of radiation in gliolalstoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate the short-term effects of radiation of spheroids containing tumor-initiating stem-like cells. We used a patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell enriched culture (T76) and the standard glioblastoma cell line U87. Primary spheroids were irradiated with doses between 2 and 50 Gy and assessed after two...

  9. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2011-12-01

    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  10. Insulin Resistance Induced by Short term Fructose Feeding may not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fructose feeding causes insulin resistance and invariably Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in rats and genetically predisposed humans. The effect of insulin resistance induced by short term fructose feeding on fertility in female rats was investigated using the following parameters: oestrous phase and ...

  11. Histopathologic characteristics and short-term outcomes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is generally a disease of persons older than 40 years. Concerning younger patients, controversies still exist regarding features and prognosis of CRC. We performed this study to characterise CRC in young patients (≤40 years) as well as to evaluate short-term outcome in ...

  12. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  13. Panorama 2013 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2012-10-01

    The outlook for gas industry development in the short term is clouded by uncertainties (impact of the economic slowdown, competition between energies, price fluctuations, etc.). However, as in 2012, many favorable factors in terms of natural gas supply and demand point to sustained and sustainable growth of this energy. (author)

  14. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide

  15. SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF DIESEL OIL ON PHYTOPLANKTON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EKWEME

    Short-term effect of Nigerian diesel oil was tested on the phytoplankton species in Great Kwa River ... aquatic environment. Plant life is the basis of all food web in nature and hence constitutes the makes this fundamental contribution by photosynthesis, utilizing radiant energy to .... (2 cells/ml) re-colonized the area. The three ...

  16. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps

  17. Short Term Group Counseling of Visually Impaired People by Telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguy, Beth M.; Evans, Ron L.

    1983-01-01

    Short term group counseling via the telephone resulted in marked increases in activities of daily living among 12 legally blind veterans. Many subjects' personal coping goals were met as well, and social involvement also increased. No significant changes in levels of depression or agitation were noted. (CL)

  18. Relationship between short-term sexual strategies and sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-02-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.

  19. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  20. Can Metabolic Factors be used Prognostically for Short.Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be promising short.term mortality markers in HIV patients apart from established factors like low CD4 counts, co.morbid conditions, and opportunistic infections like M. tuberculosis infection. This study warrants further studies with a larger sample size to establish HDL and triglyceride as markers of disease progression and ...

  1. A PCT algorithm for discontinuation of antibiotic therapy is a cost-effective way to reduce antibiotic exposure in adult intensive care patients with sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Michelle Maria Aleida; Kusters, Ron; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a specific marker for differentiating bacterial from non-infective causes of inflammation. It can be used to guide initiation and duration of antibiotic therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with suspected sepsis, and might reduce the duration of hospital

  2. Time to Guideline-Based Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Pneumonia in a Community Hospital: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Beth L; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Allen, Leland N

    2016-08-01

    The 2005 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) stress the importance of initiating prompt appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. This study's purpose was to determine the percentage of patients with HAP, VAP, and HCAP who received guideline-based empiric antibiotic therapy and to determine the average time to receipt of an appropriate empiric regimen. A retrospective chart review of adults with HAP, VAP, or HCAP was conducted at a community hospital in suburban Birmingham, Alabama. The hospital's electronic medical record system utilized International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify patients diagnosed with pneumonia. The percentage of patients who received guideline-based empiric antibiotic therapy was calculated. The mean time from suspected diagnosis of pneumonia to initial administration of the final antibiotic within the empiric regimen was calculated for patients who received guideline-based therapy. Ninety-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall guideline adherence rate for empiric antibiotic therapy was 31.2%. The mean time to guideline-based therapy in hours:minutes was 7:47 for HAP and 28:16 for HCAP. For HAP and HCAP combined, the mean time to appropriate therapy was 21:55. Guideline adherence rates were lower and time to appropriate empiric therapy was greater for patients with HCAP compared to patients with HAP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to dental treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C W; Saad, T F

    1999-01-01

    In the United States, there is a large and growing population of patients undergoing dialysis because of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). These patients present special management considerations for dentists, including antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis (BE). ESRD patients, particularly those with an arteriovenous shunt for hemodialysis access, are predisposed to valvular endocarditis. Thus, BE prevention is the primary goal of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental or other invasive procedures in these patients. Bacteremia may predispose to infection of synthetic vascular access grafts, although this form of endovascular infection in ESRD patients has not been as well-characterized as BE. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be of some benefit for prevention of synthetic graft infections as well as BE. Poor dentist and physician compliance with BE prophylaxis regimens, as well as errors in dosing, timing, or duration of prophylaxis, have been reported. These problems are of particular concern in the treatment of chronically ill patients. In this article, we review the rationale for prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to dental procedures in ESRD patients with vascular access. We also elaborate on the current American Heart Association guidelines for BE prophylaxis, and address special considerations for ESRD patients.

  4. Antibiotic Therapy for Premature Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Labor and Effect on Fetal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelbach-Goebel, B.

    2013-01-01

    In Germany almost 10 % of children are born before the end of 37th week of gestation. In at least one quarter of these cases, ascending infection of the vagina plays a causative role, particularly during the early weeks of gestation. If, in addition to the decidua, the amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid and the umbilical cord are also affected, infection not only triggers uterine contractions and premature rupture of membranes but also initiates a systemic inflammatory reaction on the part of the fetus, which can increase neonatal morbidity. Numerous studies and meta-analyses have found that antibiotic therapy prolongs pregnancy and reduces neonatal morbidity. No general benefit of antibiotic treatment was found for premature uterine contractions. But it is conceivable that a subgroup of pregnant women would benefit from antibiotic treatment. It is important to identify this subgroup of women and offer them targeted treatment. This overview summarizes the current body of evidence on antibiotic treatment for impending preterm birth and the effect on neonatal outcomes. PMID:24771902

  5. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  6. INTRAVENOUS REGIONAL ANTIBIOTIC PERFUSION THERAPY AS AN ADJUNCTIVE TREATMENT FOR DIGITAL LESIONS IN SEABIRDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V

    2017-03-01

    Foot infections are a common problem among seabirds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pododermatitis and digital infections are often challenging to treat because of the presence of suboptimal substrates, abnormal weight-bearing due to injuries, and suboptimal nutritional or health status. Seabirds represent the majority of animals requiring rehabilitation after oil spills, and foot problems are a common reason for euthanasia among these birds. Antibiotic intravenous regional perfusion therapy is frequently used in humans and other species to treat infections of the distal extremities, but it has not been evaluated in seabirds. During the 2015 Refugio oil spill response, four birds with foot lesions (pododermatitis, osteomyelitis, or both) were treated with ampicillin/sulbactam administered intravenously to the affected limb(s) in addition to systemic antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Three of the birds, all brown pelicans ( Pelecanus occidentalis ) recovered rapidly and were released. Two of these birds had acute pododermatitis and were treated once with intravenous regional perfusion. They were released approximately 3 wk after the perfusion therapy. The third pelican had osteomyelitis of a digit. It was treated twice with intravenous regional perfusion and was released about 1 mo after the initial perfusion therapy. The fourth bird, a Pacific loon ( Gavia pacifica ), was treated once with perfusion therapy but did not respond to treatment and was euthanatized. No serious adverse effects were observed. This technique should be explored further in avian species.

  7. Empiric antibiotic therapy in urinary tract infection in patients with risk factors for antibiotic resistance in a German emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Sebastian; Walter, Thomas; Gerigk, Marlis; Ebert, Matthias; Vogelmann, Roger

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for antimicrobial resistances and multidrug resistance (MDR) in urinary tract infections (UTI) in an emergency department in order to improve empirical therapy. UTI cases from an emergency department (ED) during January 2013 and June 2015 were analyzed. Differences between patients with and without resistances towards Ciprofloxacin, Piperacillin with Tazobactam (Pip/taz), Gentamicin, Cefuroxime, Cefpodoxime and Ceftazidime were analyzed with Fisher's exact tests. Results were used to identify risk factors with logistic regression modelling. Susceptibility rates were analyzed in relation to risk factors. One hundred thirty-seven of four hundred sixty-nine patients who met the criteria of UTI had a positive urine culture. An MDR pathogen was found in 36.5% of these. Overall susceptibility was less than 85% for standard antimicrobial agents. Logistic regression identified residence in nursing homes, male gender, hospitalization within the last 30 days, renal transplantation, antibiotic treatment within the last 30 days, indwelling urinary catheter and recurrent UTI as risk factors for MDR or any of these resistances. For patients with no risk factors Ciprofloxacin had 90%, Pip/taz 88%, Gentamicin 95%, Cefuroxime 98%, Cefpodoxime 98% and Ceftazidime 100% susceptibility. For patients with 1 risk factor Ciprofloxacin had 80%, Pip/taz 80%, Gentamicin 88%, Cefuroxime 78%, Cefpodoxime 78% and Ceftazidime 83% susceptibility. For 2 or more risk factors Ciprofloxacin drops its susceptibility to 52%, Cefuroxime to 54% and Cefpodoxime to 61%. Pip/taz, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime remain at 75% and 77%, respectively. We identified several risk factors for resistances and MDR in UTI. Susceptibility towards antimicrobials depends on these risk factors. With no risk factor cephalosporins seem to be the best choice for empiric therapy, but in patients with risk factors the beta-lactam penicillin Piperacillin with Tazobactam

  8. Combination antibiotic therapy for the treatment of infective endocarditis due to enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Sebastiano; Noviello, Silvana; Esposito, Silvano

    2016-06-01

    Enterococci are common causes of infective endocarditis (IE) in both health care and community-based setting. Enterococcal IE requires bactericidal therapy for an optimal outcome. For decades, cell-wall-active antimicrobial agents (penicillins or vancomycin) in combination with aminoglycosides were the cornerstone of the treatment; however, the emergence of antibiotic resistance has significantly reduced the efficacy of these regimens. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE and references from relevant articles on antibiotic combination regimens for the treatment of enterococcal IE. Abstracts presented in scientific conferences were not searched for. New effective and safe combination treatments, including double-β-lactam and daptomycin/β-lactam combination, are proving useful for the management of IE due to enterococci.

  9. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, İbrahim; Çiçek, Neslihan; Güven, Serçin; Altuntaş, Ülger; Bıyıklı, Neşe; Yıldız, Nurdan; Alpay, Harika

    2017-09-29

    The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Retrospective cross-sectional study. We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (-) bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1). Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (-) urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy). The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2). Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, pUrinary pathogens showed a decreasing trend for nitrofurantoin (from 17% to 7%, p=0.0001). No significant trends were detected for ampicillin (from 69% to 71%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (from 44% to 43%), cefazolin (from 39% to 32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 32% to 31%), cefuroxime (from 21% to 18%) and ceftriaxone (from 10% to 14%) between the two periods (p>0.05). In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results.

  10. [Clinical effect of different sequences of debridement-antibiotic therapy in treatment of severe chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Li; Lu, Rui-fang; An, Yue-bang; Wang, Xian-e; Song, Wen-li; Meng, Huan-xi

    2015-02-18

    To evaluate the feasibility of full-mouth debridement (subgingival scaling and root planning, SRP) by 2 times within 1 week and compare the clinical effects of different sequences of debridement-antibiotic usage in patients with severe chronic periodontitis (CP). A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 30 severe CP patients (14 males and 16 females, 40.5 ± 8.4 years old on average from 35 to 60) receiving 3 different sequences of debridement-antibiotictherapy: Group A, antibiotic usage (metronidazole, MTZ, 0.2 g, tid, 7 d; amoxicillin, AMX 0.5 g, tid, 7 d) was started together with SRP (completed by 2 times in 7 d); Group B, antibiotic usage (MTZ 0.2 g, tid, 7 d; AMX 0.5 g, tid, 7 d) was started 1 d after SRP(completed by 2 times in 7 d); Group C, SRP alone[probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI) and tooth mobility] was examined. The average full-mouth probing depth, the average full-mouth proximal probing depth (pPD), the percentage of sites with PD>5 mm (PD>5 mm%), the percentage of sites with proximal PD>5 mm (pPD>5 mm%), the average bleeding index (BI) and the percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP%) were calculated. Clinical examinations were performed at baseline and 2 months post therapy. (1) Compared with baseline conditions, all the subjects showed clinical improvements in all the parameters evaluated 2 months post therapy, Pantibiotic usage at the same time comparing with patients using antibiotics after SRP or SRP alone.

  11. Eficácia a curto prazo do laser de baixa intensidade em pacientes com osteoartrite do joelho: ensaio clínico aleatório, placebo-controlado e duplo-cego Short-term efficacy of low-level laser therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ovanessian Fukuda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo foi designado para avaliar a eficácia a curto prazo da laserterapia de baixa intensidade (LBI na melhora da dor e função em pacientes portadores de osteoartrite (OA do joelho. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste ensaio clínico aleatório, duplo-cego e controlado 47 pacientes (79 joelhos de ambos os sexos portadores de OA do joelho, que foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos; grupo laser com 25 pacientes (41 joelhos e grupo placebo com 22 pacientes (38 joelhos. A LBI foi realizada três vezes por semana totalizando nove sessões, com uso do laser AsGa de 904nm, 60mW de potência média e 0,5cm² de área do feixe, sendo irradiados nove pontos no joelho com energia de 3,0J por ponto. O grupo placebo foi tratado com o mesmo aparelho de laser, porém com uma caneta selada. As avaliações Lequesne, escala visual numérica (EVN, Timed Up and Go (TUG, goniometria e dinamometria foram realizadas antes do início do tratamento e após as nove sessões da LBI. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada melhora significante da dor e função para todas as avaliações aplicadas no grupo laser. Quando comparado o grupo laser ao grupo placebo encontrou-se diferença significante para as avaliações EVN-Repouso e Lequesne. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com a LBI melhora a dor e função a curto prazo de pacientes portadores de OA do joelho.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT for improving pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with knee osteoarthritis (79 knees, of both genders, participated in this randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. They were randomly allocated to two groups: laser group with 25 patients (41 knees and placebo group with 22 patients (38 knees. LLLT was performed three times a week, totaling nine sessions, using a AsGa 904 nm laser with mean power of 60 mW and beam area of 0.5 cm². Nine points were

  12. Visual dot interaction with short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etindele Sosso, Faustin Armel

    2017-06-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning. The findings also suggested the interplay between primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. The properties inside a visual target shape the perception and affect the basic encoding. Using visual cortex, it may be possible to train the memory and improve the recovery of people with cognitive disabilities or memory deficit.

  13. Short-term uranium price formation: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, L.Y.; de Graffenried, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    One of the major problems in analyzing the short-term uranium market is the lack of a well-defined spot market price. The two primary sources of price data covering the US uranium market are the series published by the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) and by the Nuclear Exchange Corporation (NUEXCO), a private brokerage firm. Because of the differences in both definition and coverage, these two series are not directly comparable. In this study, an econometric model was developed for analyzing the interrelationship between short-term uranium price (NUEXCO exchange value), supply, demand, and future price expectations formed by market participants. The validity of this model has been demonstrated by the fact that all simulation statistics derived are highly significant. Three forecasting scenarios were developed in this study

  14. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2012-04-01

    The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.

  15. Short-term fasting protects mice against γ ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengnan; Gu Xiuling; Song Lian; Tong Jian; Li Jianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antagonistic effects of short-term fasting against 60 Co γ ray radiation. Methods: After fasting ICR mice were irradiated for 3 min at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min and then returned to normal diet. General situation, body weight changes, food consumption and toxic status were observed. WBC, organ index and anti-oxidative ability (ROS, SOD, MDA, T-AOC) were analyzed. Results: After 60 Co γ ray radiation, the mice exhibited severe toxic symptoms before death. The survival rates were 0 for control and 12 h group, 12.5% for 48 h group and 50% for 72 h group respectively. ROS production of 72 h group was reduced compared with 0 h group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Short-term fasting may attenuate radiation induced injuries, evidenced by a significant increase in mice survival rate. (authors)

  16. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  17. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry......-linkage cohort study. All cancer patients, diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 from a 470 000 large population, were followed individually from diagnosis to death or until 31 December 2008. Long-term survivors lived five years or more after the time of the cancer diagnosis (TOCD). Short-term survivors died less than...... and sex. Two-year crude cancer survival seems as a clinically relevant cut point for characterizing potential "denominators" for rehabilitation or palliative care programs. From this cohort of incident cancer patients, and using two-year survival as a cut point, it could be estimated that 54% would...

  18. A neuromorphic circuit mimicking biological short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegarjalali, Saeid; Parker, Alice C

    2016-08-01

    Research shows that the way we remember things for a few seconds is a different mechanism from the way we remember things for a longer time. Short-term memory is based on persistently firing neurons, whereas storing information for a longer time is based on strengthening the synapses or even forming new neural connections. Information about location and appearance of an object is segregated and processed by separate neurons. Furthermore neurons can continue firing using different mechanisms. Here, we have designed a biomimetic neuromorphic circuit that mimics short-term memory by firing neurons, using biological mechanisms to remember location and shape of an object. Our neuromorphic circuit has a hybrid architecture. Neurons are designed with CMOS 45nm technology and synapses are designed with carbon nanotubes (CNT).

  19. Short-term depression and transient memory in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillary, Grant; Heydt, Rüdiger von der; Niebur, Ernst

    2017-12-01

    Persistent neuronal activity is usually studied in the context of short-term memory localized in central cortical areas. Recent studies show that early sensory areas also can have persistent representations of stimuli which emerge quickly (over tens of milliseconds) and decay slowly (over seconds). Traditional positive feedback models cannot explain sensory persistence for at least two reasons: (i) They show attractor dynamics, with transient perturbations resulting in a quasi-permanent change of system state, whereas sensory systems return to the original state after a transient. (ii) As we show, those positive feedback models which decay to baseline lose their persistence when their recurrent connections are subject to short-term depression, a common property of excitatory connections in early sensory areas. Dual time constant network behavior has also been implemented by nonlinear afferents producing a large transient input followed by much smaller steady state input. We show that such networks require unphysiologically large onset transients to produce the rise and decay observed in sensory areas. Our study explores how memory and persistence can be implemented in another model class, derivative feedback networks. We show that these networks can operate with two vastly different time courses, changing their state quickly when new information is coming in but retaining it for a long time, and that these capabilities are robust to short-term depression. Specifically, derivative feedback networks with short-term depression that acts differentially on positive and negative feedback projections are capable of dynamically changing their time constant, thus allowing fast onset and slow decay of responses without requiring unrealistically large input transients.

  20. Short-term electric load forecasting using computational intelligence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sergio; Peralta, J.; Nebot, Àngela; Mugica, Francisco; Cortez, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate time series forecasting is a key issue to support individual and organizational decision making. In this paper, we introduce several methods for short-term electric load forecasting. All the presented methods stem from computational intelligence techniques: Random Forest, Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks, Evolutionary Support Vector Machines and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. The performance of the suggested methods is experimentally justified with several experiments carried out...

  1. The Development of Rehearsal in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrold, Christopher; Hall, Debbora

    2013-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory, as indexed by immediate serial recall tasks (in which participants must recall several stimuli in order, immediately after presentation), develops considerably across middle childhood. One explanation for this age-related change is that children's ability to rehearse verbal material increases during this period, and one particularly influential version of this account is that only older children engage in any form of rehearsal. In this article, we critique evidence t...

  2. Short-term Forecasting Tools for Agricultural Nutrient Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Zachary M; Kleinman, Peter J A; Buda, Anthony R; Goering, Dustin; Emberston, Nichole; Reed, Seann; Drohan, Patrick J; Walter, M Todd; Guinan, Pat; Lory, John A; Sommerlot, Andrew R; Sharpley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The advent of real-time, short-term farm management tools is motivated by the need to protect water quality above and beyond the general guidance offered by existing nutrient management plans. Advances in high-performance computing and hydrologic or climate modeling have enabled rapid dissemination of real-time information that can assist landowners and conservation personnel with short-term management planning. This paper reviews short-term decision support tools for agriculture that are under various stages of development and implementation in the United States: (i) Wisconsin's Runoff Risk Advisory Forecast (RRAF) System, (ii) New York's Hydrologically Sensitive Area Prediction Tool, (iii) Virginia's Saturated Area Forecast Model, (iv) Pennsylvania's Fertilizer Forecaster, (v) Washington's Application Risk Management (ARM) System, and (vi) Missouri's Design Storm Notification System. Although these decision support tools differ in their underlying model structure, the resolution at which they are applied, and the hydroclimates to which they are relevant, all provide forecasts (range 24-120 h) of runoff risk or soil moisture saturation derived from National Weather Service Forecast models. Although this review highlights the need for further development of robust and well-supported short-term nutrient management tools, their potential for adoption and ultimate utility requires an understanding of the appropriate context of application, the strategic and operational needs of managers, access to weather forecasts, scales of application (e.g., regional vs. field level), data requirements, and outreach communication structure. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  4. Short-term marginal costs in French agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Latruffe, Laure; LETORT, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates short-term marginal costs in French agriculture for field cropping, beef cattle, and dairy farms during the period 1995-2006. The multi-input multi-output Symmetric Generalised MacFadden cost function is used, with three variable inputs (crop-specific, animal-specific, energy costs), four outputs and three quasi-fixed inputs. Results indicate that marginal costs are on average lower for crop farms than for livestock samples. However, for crop farms, Common Agricultural ...

  5. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ���working memory��� bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive sho...

  6. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquin J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can ??? as a gradual modification of synaptic weights ??? since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining inf...

  7. INCAP - Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding , Hermann; Lohmann , Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  8. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  9. Adult neurogenesis supports short-term olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2010-06-01

    Adult neurogenesis has captivated neuroscientists for decades, with hopes that understanding the programs underlying this phenomenon may provide unique insight toward avenues for brain repair. Interestingly, however, despite intense molecular and cellular investigation, the evolutionary roles and biological functions for ongoing neurogenesis have remained elusive. Here I review recent work published in the Journal of Neuroscience that reveals a functional role for continued neurogenesis toward forming short-term olfactory memories.

  10. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  11. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms.Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  12. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    The digit span is one of the most widely used memory tests in clinical and experimental neuropsychology for reliably measuring short-term memory capacity. In the forward version, sequences of digits of increasing length have to be reproduced in the order in which they are presented, whereas in the backward version items must be reproduced in the reversed order. Here, we assessed whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) increases the memory span for digits of young and midlife adults. Imperceptibly weak electrical currents in the alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), theta (5 Hz), and gamma (40 Hz) range, as well as a sham stimulation, were delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex, a cortical region thought to sustain maintenance processes in short-term memory through oscillatory brain activity in the beta range. We showed a frequency-specific effect of beta-tACS that robustly increased the forward memory span of young, but not middle-aged, healthy individuals. The effect correlated with age: the younger the subjects, the greater the benefit arising from parietal beta stimulation. Our results provide evidence of a short-term memory capacity improvement in young adults by online frequency-specific tACS application. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J; Wilson, Hugh R; Sekuler, Robert

    2009-12-01

    For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory for emotional expression. In Experiment 2, subjects' similarity/dissimilarity judgments were transformed by multidimensional scaling (MDS) into a 2-D description of the faces' perceptual representations. Distances among stimuli in the MDS representation, which showed a strong linkage of emotional expression and facial identity, were good predictors of correct and false recognitions obtained previously in Experiment 1. The convergence of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggests that the overall structure and configuration of faces' perceptual representations may parallel their representation in short-term memory and that facial identity modulates the representation of facial emotion, both in perception and in memory. The stimuli from this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  14. Reinsurance by short-term reinsurers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernhout, C. L. R.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The short-term reinsurance process usually involves three parties, namely the insurer, the reinsurer and the original policyholder, as the insurer cedes a part of the covered risk of the policyholder to the reinsurer. This research however addresses the perceptions of reinsurers regarding their reinsurance activities, where the reinsurer sells reinsurance to other insurance entities (viz. insurers and reinsurers, as well as buys reinsurance from other insurance entities. The crux of short-term reinsurance is therefore mutually loss sharing between the various insurance entities. The objective of this research focuses on the improvement of financial decision-making regarding the reinsurance operations of the reinsurers. To achieve this objective a literature study was undertaken to provide adequate background to compile a questionnaire for the empirical survey. The primary study embodies the perceptions of the South African short-term reinsurers regarding the following aspects: the various reasons why reinsurance occurs; the contracts / methods of reinsurance; the bases / forms of reinsurance; and the factors which determine the retention levels of a reinsurer. South Africa is classified as a developing economy, is a member of the BRICS countries and has an emerging market economy. The empirical results should therefore also be valuable to other countries which are classified similarly

  15. Short-term indicators. Intensities as a proxy for savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Services Directive and the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive. Because the underlying data become available only after some time, the savings figures are not always timely available. This is especially true for the ODEX efficiency indices per sector that rely on a number of indicators. Therefore, there is a need for so-called short-term indicators that become available shortly after the year has passed for which data are needed. The short term indicators do not replace the savings indicators but function as a proxy for the savings in the most recent year. This proxy value is faster available, but will be less accurate than the saving indicators themselves. The short term indicators have to be checked regularly with the ODEX indicators in order to see whether they can function still as a proxy.

  16. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-06

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. FFT transformed quantitative EEG analysis of short term memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Singh, Jayvardhan; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2015-07-01

    The EEG is considered as building block of functional signaling in the brain. The role of EEG oscillations in human information processing has been intensively investigated. To study the quantitative EEG correlates of short term memory load as assessed through Sternberg memory test. The study was conducted on 34 healthy male student volunteers. The intervention consisted of Sternberg memory test, which runs on a version of the Sternberg memory scanning paradigm software on a computer. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 19 scalp locations according to 10-20 international system of electrode placement. EEG signals were analyzed offline. To overcome the problems of fixed band system, individual alpha frequency (IAF) based frequency band selection method was adopted. The outcome measures were FFT transformed absolute powers in the six bands at 19 electrode positions. Sternberg memory test served as model of short term memory load. Correlation analysis of EEG during memory task was reflected as decreased absolute power in Upper alpha band in nearly all the electrode positions; increased power in Theta band at Fronto-Temporal region and Lower 1 alpha band at Fronto-Central region. Lower 2 alpha, Beta and Gamma band power remained unchanged. Short term memory load has distinct electroencephalographic correlates resembling the mentally stressed state. This is evident from decreased power in Upper alpha band (corresponding to Alpha band of traditional EEG system) which is representative band of relaxed mental state. Fronto-temporal Theta power changes may reflect the encoding and execution of memory task.

  18. Short-term memory in networks of dissociated cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranias, Mark R; Ju, Han; Rajaram, Ezhilarasan; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2013-01-30

    Short-term memory refers to the ability to store small amounts of stimulus-specific information for a short period of time. It is supported by both fading and hidden memory processes. Fading memory relies on recurrent activity patterns in a neuronal network, whereas hidden memory is encoded using synaptic mechanisms, such as facilitation, which persist even when neurons fall silent. We have used a novel computational and optogenetic approach to investigate whether these same memory processes hypothesized to support pattern recognition and short-term memory in vivo, exist in vitro. Electrophysiological activity was recorded from primary cultures of dissociated rat cortical neurons plated on multielectrode arrays. Cultures were transfected with ChannelRhodopsin-2 and optically stimulated using random dot stimuli. The pattern of neuronal activity resulting from this stimulation was analyzed using classification algorithms that enabled the identification of stimulus-specific memories. Fading memories for different stimuli, encoded in ongoing neural activity, persisted and could be distinguished from each other for as long as 1 s after stimulation was terminated. Hidden memories were detected by altered responses of neurons to additional stimulation, and this effect persisted longer than 1 s. Interestingly, network bursts seem to eliminate hidden memories. These results are similar to those that have been reported from similar experiments in vivo and demonstrate that mechanisms of information processing and short-term memory can be studied using cultured neuronal networks, thereby setting the stage for therapeutic applications using this platform.

  19. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  20. Short-term forecasting model for aggregated regional hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Claudio; Ramirez-Rosado, Ignacio J.; Fernandez-Jimenez, L. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Original short-term forecasting model for the hourly hydropower generation. • The use of NWP forecasts allows horizons of several days. • New variable to represent the capacity level for generating hydroelectric energy. • The proposed model significantly outperforms the persistence model. - Abstract: This paper presents an original short-term forecasting model of the hourly electric power production for aggregated regional hydropower generation. The inputs of the model are previously recorded values of the aggregated hourly production of hydropower plants and hourly water precipitation forecasts using Numerical Weather Prediction tools, as well as other hourly data (load demand and wind generation). This model is composed of three modules: the first one gives the prediction of the “monthly” hourly power production of the hydropower plants; the second module gives the prediction of hourly power deviation values, which are added to that obtained by the first module to achieve the final forecast of the hourly hydropower generation; the third module allows a periodic adjustment of the prediction of the first module to improve its BIAS error. The model has been applied successfully to the real-life case study of the short-term forecasting of the aggregated hydropower generation in Spain and Portugal (Iberian Peninsula Power System), achieving satisfactory results for the next-day forecasts. The model can be valuable for agents involved in electricity markets and useful for power system operations

  1. Therapies aimed at the gut microbiota and inflammation: antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, anti-inflammatory therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2011-03-01

    Several recent observations have raised the possibility that disturbances in the gut microbiota and\\/or a low-grade inflammatory state may contribute to symptomatology and the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Consequent on these hypotheses, several therapeutic categories have found their way into the armamentarium of those who care for IBS sufferers. These agents include probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents.

  2. Antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux receiving prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Su, Lin-Hui; Tsau, Yong-Kwei; Lin, Chi-Jen; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2008-12-01

    The goal was to examine bacterial antimicrobial resistance of recurrent urinary tract infections in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis because of primary vesicoureteral reflux. We reviewed data retrospectively for children with documented vesicoureteral reflux in 2 hospitals during a 5-year follow-up period. The patients were receiving co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, or cefaclor prophylaxis or prophylaxis with a sequence of different antibiotics (alternative monotherapy). Demographic data, degree of vesicoureteral reflux, prophylactic antibiotics prescribed, and antibiotic sensitivity results of first urinary tract infections and breakthrough urinary tract infections were recorded. Three hundred twenty-four patients underwent antibiotic prophylaxis (109 with co-trimoxazole, 100 with cephalexin, 44 with cefaclor, and 71 with alternative monotherapy) in one hospital and 96 children underwent co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in the other hospital. Breakthrough urinary tract infections occurred in patients from both hospitals (20.4% and 25%, respectively). Escherichia coli infection was significantly less common in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis, compared with their initial episodes of urinary tract infection, at both hospitals. Children receiving cephalosporin prophylaxis were more likely to have an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organism for breakthrough urinary tract infections, compared with children with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to almost all antibiotics decreased with cephalosporin prophylaxis when recurrent urinary tract infections developed. The extent of decreased susceptibilities was also severe for prophylaxis with a sequence of different antibiotics. However, antimicrobial susceptibilities decreased minimally in co-trimoxazole prophylaxis groups. Children receiving cephalosporin prophylaxis are more likely to have extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria or multidrug-resistant uropathogens

  3. Short-term azithromycin treatment promotes cornea allograft survival in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Katrin; Denker, Sophy; Hildebrand, Antonia; Eberwein, Philipp; Reinhard, Thomas; Schwartzkopff, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Any inflammatory response following corneal transplantation may induce rejection and irreversible graft failure. The purpose of this study is to analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of azithromycin (AZM) following experimental keratoplasty in rats. Corneal transplants were performed between Fisher-donor and Lewis-recipient rats. Recipients were postoperatively treated three times daily with AZM, miglyol, ofloxacin or dexamethasone eye drops. As an additional control, AZM was applied following syngeneic keratoplasty. Furthermore, short-term treatments with AZM for seven days perioperatively or with AZM only three days prior to the transplantation were compared to appropriate controls. All transplants were monitored clinically for opacity, edema, and vascularization. Infiltrating CD45(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD25(+), CD161(+) and CD163(+) cells were quantified via immunohistochemistry. AZM significantly promoted corneal graft survival compared with miglyol or ofloxacin treatment. This effect was comparable to topical dexamethasone. No adverse AZM effect was observed. Histology confirmed a significant reduction of infiltrating leukocytes. The short-term application of AZM for three days prior to transplantation or for seven days perioperatively reduced corneal graft rejection significantly compared with the controls. Along with antibiotic properties, topical AZM has a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Following keratoplasty, this effect is comparable to topical dexamethasone without the risk of steroid-induced adverse effects. Short-term treatment with AZM three days prior to the transplantation was sufficient to promote graft survival in the rat keratoplasty model. We therefore suggest further assessing the anti-inflammatory function of topical AZM following keratoplasty in humans.

  4. Short-term azithromycin treatment promotes cornea allograft survival in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Wacker

    Full Text Available Any inflammatory response following corneal transplantation may induce rejection and irreversible graft failure. The purpose of this study is to analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of azithromycin (AZM following experimental keratoplasty in rats.Corneal transplants were performed between Fisher-donor and Lewis-recipient rats. Recipients were postoperatively treated three times daily with AZM, miglyol, ofloxacin or dexamethasone eye drops. As an additional control, AZM was applied following syngeneic keratoplasty. Furthermore, short-term treatments with AZM for seven days perioperatively or with AZM only three days prior to the transplantation were compared to appropriate controls. All transplants were monitored clinically for opacity, edema, and vascularization. Infiltrating CD45(+, CD4(+, CD8(+, CD25(+, CD161(+ and CD163(+ cells were quantified via immunohistochemistry.AZM significantly promoted corneal graft survival compared with miglyol or ofloxacin treatment. This effect was comparable to topical dexamethasone. No adverse AZM effect was observed. Histology confirmed a significant reduction of infiltrating leukocytes. The short-term application of AZM for three days prior to transplantation or for seven days perioperatively reduced corneal graft rejection significantly compared with the controls.Along with antibiotic properties, topical AZM has a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Following keratoplasty, this effect is comparable to topical dexamethasone without the risk of steroid-induced adverse effects. Short-term treatment with AZM three days prior to the transplantation was sufficient to promote graft survival in the rat keratoplasty model. We therefore suggest further assessing the anti-inflammatory function of topical AZM following keratoplasty in humans.

  5. Ordered short-term memory differs in signers and speakers: Implications for models of short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers (Boutla, Supalla, Newport, & Bavelier, 2004). Here, we test the hypothesis that this population difference reflects differences in the way speakers and signers maintain temporal order information in short-te...

  6. Comparative study of the efficacy of topical steroid and antibiotic combination therapy versus oral antibiotic alone when treating acute rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hennawi, D M; Ahmed, M R; Farid, A M; Al Murtadah, A M

    2015-05-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis arises as a consequence of viral rhinitis, and bacterial infection can subsequently occur. Intranasal antibiotics as an adjunct to corticosteroids usually demonstrate the greatest symptom relief. We wanted to clinically evaluate the effects of a topical antibiotic and steroid combination administered intranasally, versus an oral antibiotic alone when treating acute rhinosinusitis. Forty patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis were divided into two groups. Group A received an antibiotic and steroid combination (ofloxacin 0.26 per cent and dexamethasone 0.053 per cent nasal drops) for 10 days, administered intranasally (5 drops in each nostril/8 hours). Group B, the control group, received an oral antibiotic alone (amoxicillin 90 mg/kg). Eight hours after commencing treatment, facial pain was more severe in group B and nasal obstruction was reduced in both groups. Ten days after commencing treatment, anterior nasal discharge was 0.15 per cent in group A and absent in group B. The application of a topical antibiotic and steroid combination into the nasal cavity is an effective way of treating uncomplicated, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis with the theoretical advantages of easy administration, high local drug concentration and minimal systemic adverse effects.

  7. Photodynamic and antibiotic therapy impair the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a whole animal insect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Chibebe Junior

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS. PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth caterpillar fatally infected with E. faecium to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics. In the establishment of infection by E. faecium in G. mellonella, we found that the G. mellonella death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all E. faecium strains tested were capable of infecting and killing G. mellonella. Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by E. faecium (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively. In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192. Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095 or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025, suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, G. mellonella provides an invertebrate model host to

  8. Posterior reversible encephalopathy with late postpartum eclampsia and short-term memory loss: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimovsky, Martin L; Guzman, Guillermo M; Koscica, Karen L; Nazir, Munir A; Ross, Diane E

    2010-01-01

    Late postpartum eclampsia is more frequently recognized than past reports indicate. This report describes the association of a reversible encephalopathy in a woman with late postpartum eclampsia. A woman with lupus nephritis presented 7 days postpartum with eclampsia. Postseizure findings included dramatic short-term memory loss. Although a computed tomography scan was negative, subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated vascular changes associated with a reversible encephalopathy. Conservative treatment with analeptic and antihypertensive therapy allowed a rapid resolution of all symptomatology. In women with eclampsia and unusual neurologic findings, an MRI/MRA may be useful even in the presence of a negative computed tomography scan.

  9. Predicting the short-term risk of diabetes in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W; Fontas, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-positive patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) frequently experience metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, as well as lipodystrophy, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Rates of DM and other...... glucose-associated disorders among HIV-positive patients have been reported to range between 2 and 14%, and in an ageing HIV-positive population, the prevalence of DM is expected to continue to increase. This study aims to develop a model to predict the short-term (six-month) risk of DM in HIV...

  10. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Fabi, Katia; Logie, Robert; Luzzi, Simona; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or 'binding' deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1: 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants studied visual arrays of objects (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), colours (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), unbound objects and colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients in each of the two categories), or objects bound with colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients). They were then asked to recall the items verbally. The memory of patients with Alzheimer's disease for objects bound with colours was significantly worse than for single or unbound features whereas healthy elderly's memory for bound and unbound features did not differ. Experiment 2: 21 Alzheimer's disease patients and 20 matched healthy elderly were recruited. Memory load was increased for the healthy elderly group to eight items in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features and to four items in the condition assessing memory for the binding of these features. For Alzheimer's disease patients the task remained the same. This manipulation permitted the performance to be equated across groups in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features. The impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients in recalling bound objects reported in Experiment 1 was replicated. The binding cost was greater than that observed in the healthy elderly group, who did not differ in their performance for bound and unbound features. Alzheimer's disease grossly impairs the

  12. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  13. Attentional priorities and access to short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2012-01-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance......, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and distracter set size in IPS could not be accounted for by a simple explanation in terms of number of items accessing VSTM. Instead, it led us to a model where items accessing VSTM receive differential...

  14. Short-term memory, executive control, and children's route learning

    OpenAIRE

    Purser, H. R.; Farran, E. K.; Courbois, Y.; Lemahieu, A.; Mellier, D.; Sockeel, P.; Blades, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and visuospatial long-term memory; the route-learning task was conducted using a maze in a virtual environment. In contrast to previous research, correlation...

  15. A Simple Hybrid Model for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suseelatha Annamareddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple hybrid model to forecast the electrical load data based on the wavelet transform technique and double exponential smoothing. The historical noisy load series data is decomposed into deterministic and fluctuation components using suitable wavelet coefficient thresholds and wavelet reconstruction method. The variation characteristics of the resulting series are analyzed to arrive at reasonable thresholds that yield good denoising results. The constitutive series are then forecasted using appropriate exponential adaptive smoothing models. A case study performed on California energy market data demonstrates that the proposed method can offer high forecasting precision for very short-term forecasts, considering a time horizon of two weeks.

  16. Short-Term Memory and Its Biophysical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Tang, Xiao-wei

    1996-12-01

    The capacity of short-term memory has been studied using an integrate-and-fire neuronal network model. It is found that the storage of events depend on the manner of the correlation between the events, and the capacity is dominated by the value of after-depolarization potential. There is a monotonic increasing relationship between the value of after-depolarization potential and the memory numbers. The biophysics relevance of the network model is discussed and different kinds of the information processes are studied too.

  17. Overwriting and intrusion in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Jones, Jeffery A; Ensor, Tyler M; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Studies of interference in working and short-term memory suggest that irrelevant information may overwrite the contents of memory or intrude into memory. While some previous studies have reported greater interference when irrelevant information is similar to the contents of memory than when it is dissimilar, other studies have reported greater interference for dissimilar distractors than for similar distractors. In the present study, we find the latter effect in a paradigm that uses auditory tones as stimuli. We suggest that the effects of distractor similarity to memory contents are mediated by the type of information held in memory, particularly the complexity or simplicity of information.

  18. Short-term memory for spatial, sequential and duration information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2017-10-01

    Space and time appear to play key roles in the way that information is organized in short-term memory (STM). Some argue that they are crucial contexts within which other stored features are embedded, allowing binding of information that belongs together within STM. Here we review recent behavioral, neurophysiological and imaging studies that have sought to investigate the nature of spatial, sequential and duration representations in STM, and how these might break down in disease. Findings from these studies point to an important role of the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures in aspects of STM, challenging conventional accounts of involvement of these regions in only long-term memory.

  19. Music Learning with Long Short Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Florian François

    2015-01-01

    Humans are able to learn and compose complex, yet beautiful, pieces of music as seen in e.g. the highly complicated works of J.S. Bach. However, how our brain is able to store and produce these very long temporal sequences is still an open question. Long short-term memory (LSTM) artificial neural networks have been shown to be efficient in sequence learning tasks thanks to their inherent ability to bridge long time lags between input events and their target signals. Here, I investigate the po...

  20. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

    2008-01-01

    -term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and water must be allocated among the reservoirs in order to strike a balance between current profits and expected......Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short...

  2. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10 −26 ∼10 −27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  3. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh

  4. Short-Term Treatment of Children With Encopresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FIREMAN, GARY; KOPLEWICZ, HAROLD S.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a short-term behavioral treatment of encopresis, 52 encopretic children were evaluated and treated according to a standardized protocol. The treatment was highly effective, with a significant decrease in soiling during the first month (P < 0.01). Of the children who began treatment, 84.6% successfully reached the criterion of 2 consecutive weeks with no soiling accidents in a mean time of 28 days, and 78.8% successfully completed an additional 7-week phaseout period. The evaluations provided rich descriptive information regarding the characteristics of encopretic children. In agreement with the literature, no specific pattern of behavioral pathology was apparent. PMID:22700057

  5. Short-term load forecasting with increment regression tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jingfei; Stenzel, Juergen [Darmstadt University of Techonology, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents a new regression tree method for short-term load forecasting. Both increment and non-increment tree are built according to the historical data to provide the data space partition and input variable selection. Support vector machine is employed to the samples of regression tree nodes for further fine regression. Results of different tree nodes are integrated through weighted average method to obtain the comprehensive forecasting result. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through its application to an actual system. (author)

  6. Influence of antibiotic therapy prior to admission on the efficacy of classical methods for the diagnosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemescu, Roxana Elena; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of preadmission antibiotic therapy on the results of the classical methods for bacteriological confirmation of meningococcal disease (MD). Retrospective study of the MD cases diagnosed in the "St. Parascheva" Universitary Clinical Infectious Diseases Iaşi between 1994 and 2011. The etiological diagnosis was made by identifying the meningococcus in the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in 71.9% of the 323 patients and by blood culture in 8%. Preadmission antibiotic therapy received 39% of the patients, thus the sensitivity of test was significantly reduced: direct examination from 64.6% to 43.2% (p antibiotic therapy significantly increased the ratio of cases in which meningococcus was not detected in CSF by any of the classical methods (44% compared to 17.9% in the cases without prior treatment). The proportion of cases in which meningococcal isolation was done by two methods decreased from 38.5% to 19.2%, and of those by all three methods from 16.9% to 5.6% (p antibiotic therapy also decreased the rate of positive blood cultures from 14.7% to 3.5% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.009). Antibiotic treatment prior to admission significantly decreases the percentage of patients with MD in which meningococcal isolation can be done; this requires the use of a more sensitive diagnosis method (ex. qPCR).

  7. [Economic Short-Term Cost Model for Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Neovascular AMD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, A S; Reznicek, L; Minartz, C; Ziemssen, F

    2016-08-01

    Stereotactic radiation therapy (Oraya, OT) is available as a second line therapy for patients who, despite intensive anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular AMD, do not show an improvement in CNV. As OT is expensive (5,308 €), the short term economics for starting this therapy were investigated. A short-term cost model was set up in MS Excel with a two year time horizon. On the basis of the data of the randomised, controlled INTREPID pivotal trial and current treatment practice in Germany, the costs were compared of conventional anti-VEGF therapy, with or without a single OT treatment. Patients with an active lesion after initial anti-VEGF therapy and a maximum lesion diameter ≤ 4 mm were included. Modeled cost components/aspects were direct savings from injection number, control follow-up examinations and aids, as well as anti-VEGF switches. Costs for Germany were employed and a univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to address the existing uncertainty. For the patients with a maximum AMD lesion diameter ≤ 4 mm and a macula volume > 7.4 mm(3), the INTREPID trial showed a mean reduction of 3.68 intravitreal injections for 16 Gy radiation versus sham over a time period of 2 years. These 3.68 IVM result in ~ 4,500 € direct cost savings. Moreover, due to the higher response rate with 16 Gy radiation, the number of follow-up visits and aids can be reduced, which results in savings between 207 € and 1,224 € over 2 years. After radiation, fewer anti-VEGF switches for low or non-responders are expected, which is modeled to result in ~ 1.7 fewer injections over 2 years. Due to overall fewer injections, fewer endophthalmitis cases would be expected. However, endophthalmitis and microvascular abnormalities, which can be observed in a few cases, are associated with low or non-quantifiable costs in this cost-cost comparison model. In summary, cost reductions of between 6,400 and 8,500 € are predicted in the model over two years

  8. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements, slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry. This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  9. An accident diagnosis algorithm using long short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemin Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accident diagnosis is one of the complex tasks for nuclear power plant (NPP operators. In abnormal or emergency situations, the diagnostic activity of the NPP states is burdensome though necessary. Numerous computer-based methods and operator support systems have been suggested to address this problem. Among them, the recurrent neural network (RNN has performed well at analyzing time series data. This study proposes an algorithm for accident diagnosis using long short-term memory (LSTM, which is a kind of RNN, which improves the limitation for time reflection. The algorithm consists of preprocessing, the LSTM network, and postprocessing. In the LSTM-based algorithm, preprocessed input variables are calculated to output the accident diagnosis results. The outputs are also postprocessed using softmax to determine the ranking of accident diagnosis results with probabilities. This algorithm was trained using a compact nuclear simulator for several accidents: a loss of coolant accident, a steam generator tube rupture, and a main steam line break. The trained algorithm was also tested to demonstrate the feasibility of diagnosing NPP accidents. Keywords: Accident Diagnosis, Long Short-term Memory, Recurrent Neural Network, Softmax

  10. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  11. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Johnson

    Full Text Available Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds. The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  12. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J; Torres, Joaquín J

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  13. Short-Term Lifestyle Strategies for Sustaining Cognitive Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John N.; Steel, Knight; Strout, Kelley A.; Fries, Brant E.; Moore, Alice; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one's status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being. PMID:27891520

  14. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qvenild Torgunn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET. The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03. The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.

  15. Short-term memory for emotional faces in dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Saima; Ridout, Nathan

    2010-07-01

    The study aimed to determine if the memory bias for negative faces previously demonstrated in depression and dysphoria generalises from long- to short-term memory. A total of 29 dysphoric (DP) and 22 non-dysphoric (ND) participants were presented with a series of faces and asked to identify the emotion portrayed (happiness, sadness, anger, or neutral affect). Following a delay, four faces were presented (the original plus three distractors) and participants were asked to identify the target face. Half of the trials assessed memory for facial emotion, and the remaining trials examined memory for facial identity. At encoding, no group differences were apparent. At memory testing, relative to ND participants, DP participants exhibited impaired memory for all types of facial emotion and for facial identity when the faces featured happiness, anger, or neutral affect, but not sadness. DP participants exhibited impaired identity memory for happy faces relative to angry, sad, and neutral, whereas ND participants exhibited enhanced facial identity memory when faces were angry. In general, memory for faces was not related to performance at encoding. However, in DP participants only, memory for sad faces was related to sadness recognition at encoding. The results suggest that the negative memory bias for faces in dysphoria does not generalise from long- to short-term memory.

  16. Similarity as an organising principle in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCompte, D C; Watkins, M J

    1993-03-01

    The role of stimulus similarity as an organising principle in short-term memory was explored in a series of seven experiments. Each experiment involved the presentation of a short sequence of items that were drawn from two distinct physical classes and arranged such that item class changed after every second item. Following presentation, one item was re-presented as a probe for the 'target' item that had directly followed it in the sequence. Memory for the sequence was considered organised by class if probability of recall was higher when the probe and target were from the same class than when they were from different classes. Such organisation was found when one class was auditory and the other was visual (spoken vs. written words, and sounds vs. pictures). It was also found when both classes were auditory (words spoken in a male voice vs. words spoken in a female voice) and when both classes were visual (digits shown in one location vs. digits shown in another). It is concluded that short-term memory can be organised on the basis of sensory modality and on the basis of certain features within both the auditory and visual modalities.

  17. Short-Term Lifestyle Strategies for Sustaining Cognitive Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Howard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one’s status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being.

  18. Short-term effects of playing computer games on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-05-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour. The TBAG form of the Stroop task was administered to all participants twice, before playing and immediately after playing the game. Participants with improved posttest scores, compared to their pretest scores, used the computer on average 0.67 +/- 1.1 hr/day, while the average administered was measured at 1.6 +/- 1.4 hr/day and 1.3 +/- 0.9 hr/day computer use for participants with worse or unaltered scores, respectively. According to the regression model, male gender, younger ages, duration of daily computer use, and ADHD inattention type were found to be independent risk factors for worsened posttest scores. Time spent playing computer games can exert a short-term effect on attention as measured by the Stroop test.

  19. Morphological processing with deficient phonological short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Ze'ev, Hagit Bar; Lev, Anita

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the processing of Hebrew derivational morphology in an individual (S.E.) with deficient phonological short-term memory. In comparison to 10 age- and education-matched men, S.E. was impaired on digit span tasks and demonstrated no recency effect in word list recall. S.E. had low word retention span, but he exhibited phonological similarity and word length effects. His ability to make lexical decisions was intact. In a paired-associate test S.E. successfully learned semantically and morphologically related pairs but not phonologically related pairs, and his learning of nonwords was facilitated by the presence of Hebrew consonant roots. Semantic and morphological similarity enhanced immediate word recall. Results show that S.E. is capable of conducting morphological decomposition of Hebrew-derived words despite his phonological deficit, suggesting that transient maintenance of morphological constituents is independent of temporary storage and rehearsal of phonological codes, and that each is processed separately within short-term memory.

  20. Temporal grouping effects in musical short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Simon; Mengal, Pierre; Majerus, Steve

    2018-07-01

    Recent theoretical accounts of verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory (STM) have proposed the existence of domain-general mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order information. These accounts are based on the observation of similar behavioural effects across several modalities, such as temporal grouping effects. Across two experiments, the present study aimed at extending these findings, by exploring a STM modality that has received little interest so far, STM for musical information. Given its inherent rhythmic, temporal and serial organisation, the musical domain is of interest for investigating serial order STM processes such as temporal grouping. In Experiment 1, the data did not allow to determine the presence or the absence of temporal grouping effects. In Experiment 2, we observed that temporal grouping of tone sequences during encoding improves short-term recognition for serially presented probe tones. Furthermore, the serial position curves included micro-primacy and micro-recency effects, which are the hallmark characteristic of temporal grouping. Our results suggest that the encoding of serial order information in musical STM may be supported by temporal positional coding mechanisms similar to those reported in the verbal domain.

  1. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V.; Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J.; Antila, E.

    1998-01-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  2. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G; Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M; Kekkonen, V [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E; Haekli, J [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  3. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  4. Short term assays for risk evaluate of α irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Beauvallet, M.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    The genetic effects induced by α irradiation were examined using short term assays in Procaryotes and Eucaryotes. Irradiation was produced by 239 Pu dissolved as a DTPA equimolar complex in the culture medium. Induced mutagenesis was not observed with Ames' test or when test for ouabain resistance in CHO cells was used: GTG resistance and chromosome aberrations in Eucaryote cells were increased at dose rate exposure down to 5 R.day -1 . Until an optimal delivered dose, these two biological effects have shown a linear increase as a function of the dose. In our experimental conditions α irradiation has appeared to be much more lethal than mutagenic. Using lower dose rate, corresponding to 1 and 3 R a day we could also demonstrate a linear increase with dose of the induced TG resistant cells. Efficiency per unit dose was 3 to 5 times superior to what was observed at 5 R.day -1 . This phenomenon could correspond to an induced cell sensitivity, and clearly pointed out that for chronic and low delivered doses, informations deduced from flash or short term α exposure are not valuable

  5. Short-term cortical plasticity induced by conditioning pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Buchgreitz, Line; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical stimulat......To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical......, and after homotopic and heterotopic CPM versus control. Peak latencies at N100, P200, and P300 were extracted and the location/strength of corresponding dipole current sources and multiple dipoles were estimated. Homotopic CPM caused hypoalgesia (P = 0.032, 30.6% compared to baseline) to electrical...... stimulation. No cortical changes were found for homotopic CPM. A positive correlation at P200 between electrical pain threshold after tonic pain and the z coordinate after tonic pain (P = 0.032) was found for homotopic CPM. For heterotopic CPM, no significant hypoalgesia was found and a dipole shift of the P...

  6. A fuzzy inference model for short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamlook, Rustum; Badran, Omar; Abdulhadi, Emad

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the short-term load forecasting (STLF) in power system operations. It provides load prediction for generation scheduling and unit commitment decisions, and therefore precise load forecasting plays an important role in reducing the generation cost and the spinning reserve capacity. Short-term electricity demand forecasting (i.e., the prediction of hourly loads (demand)) is one of the most important tools by which an electric utility/company plans, dispatches the loading of generating units in order to meet system demand. The accuracy of the dispatching system, which is derived from the accuracy of the forecasting algorithm used, will determine the economics of the operation of the power system. The inaccuracy or large error in the forecast simply means that load matching is not optimized and consequently the generation and transmission systems are not being operated in an efficient manner. In the present study, a proposed methodology has been introduced to decrease the forecasted error and the processing time by using fuzzy logic controller on an hourly base. Therefore, it predicts the effect of different conditional parameters (i.e., weather, time, historical data, and random disturbances) on load forecasting in terms of fuzzy sets during the generation process. These parameters are chosen with respect to their priority and importance. The forecasted values obtained by fuzzy method were compared with the conventionally forecasted ones. The results showed that the STLF of the fuzzy implementation have more accuracy and better outcomes

  7. Use of Short-term Circulatory Support as a Bridge in Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Canêo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart transplantation is considered the gold standard therapy for the advanced heart failure, but donor shortage, especially in pediatric patients, is the main limitation for this procedure, so most sick patients die while waiting for the procedure. Objective: To evaluate the use of short-term circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in end-stage cardiomyopathy. Methods: Retrospective clinical study. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 40 patients with cardiomyopathy were admitted in our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, with a mean age of 4.5 years. Twenty patients evolved during hospitalization with clinical deterioration and were classified as Intermacs 1 and 2. One patient died within 24 hours and 19 could be stabilized and were listed. They were divided into 2 groups: A, clinical support alone and B, implantation of short-term circulatory support as bridge to transplantation additionally to clinical therapy. Results: We used short-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in 9. In group A (n=10, eight died waiting and 2 patients (20% were transplanted, but none was discharged. In group B (n=9, 6 patients (66.7% were transplanted and three were discharged.The mean support time was 21,8 days (6 to 984h. The mean transplant waiting list time was 33,8 days. Renal failure and sepsis were the main complication and causeof death in group A while neurologic complications were more prevalent en group B. Conclusion: Mechanical circulatory support increases survival on the pediatric heart transplantation waiting list in patients classified as Intermacs 1 and 2.

  8. The effect of perioperative probiotics treatment for colorectal cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongzhi; Xia, Yang; Chen, Hongqi; Hong, Leiming; Feng, Junlan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Shi, Chenzhang; Wu, Wen; Gao, Renyuan; Wei, Qing; Qin, Huanlong; Ma, Yanlei

    2016-02-16

    This study was designed to mainly evaluate the anti-infective effects of perioperative probiotic treatment in patients receiving confined colorectal cancer (CRC) respective surgery. From November 2011 to September 2012, a total of 60 patients diagnosed with CRC were randomly assigned to receive probiotic (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) treatment. The operative and post-operative clinical results including intestinal cleanliness, days to first - flatus, defecation, fluid diet, solid diet, duration of pyrexia, average heart rate, length of intraperitoneal drainage, length of antibiotic therapy, blood index changes, rate of infectious and non-infectious complications, postoperative hospital stay, and mortality were investigated. The patient demographics were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the probiotic treated and the placebo groups. The days to first flatus (3.63 versus 3.27, p = 0.0274) and the days to first defecation (4.53 versus 3.87, p = 0.0268) were significantly improved in the probiotic treated patients. The incidence of diarrhea was significantly lower (p = 0.0352) in probiotics group (26.67%, 8/30) compared to the placebo group (53.33%, 16/30). There were no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in other infectious and non-infectious complication rates including wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, anastomotic leakage, and abdominal distension. In conclusion, for those patients undergoing confined CRC resection, perioperative probiotic administration significantly influenced the recovery of bowel function, and such improvement may be of important clinical significance in reducing the short-term infectious complications such as bacteremia.

  9. Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Mueller, Beat

    2018-03-06

    Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care? Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.

  10. Prospective testing of Coulomb short-term earthquake forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Schorlemmer, D.; Zechar, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Wong, K.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake induced Coulomb stresses, whether static or dynamic, suddenly change the probability of future earthquakes. Models to estimate stress and the resulting seismicity changes could help to illuminate earthquake physics and guide appropriate precautionary response. But do these models have improved forecasting power compared to empirical statistical models? The best answer lies in prospective testing in which a fully specified model, with no subsequent parameter adjustments, is evaluated against future earthquakes. The Center of Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) facilitates such prospective testing of earthquake forecasts, including several short term forecasts. Formulating Coulomb stress models for formal testing involves several practical problems, mostly shared with other short-term models. First, earthquake probabilities must be calculated after each “perpetrator” earthquake but before the triggered earthquakes, or “victims”. The time interval between a perpetrator and its victims may be very short, as characterized by the Omori law for aftershocks. CSEP evaluates short term models daily, and allows daily updates of the models. However, lots can happen in a day. An alternative is to test and update models on the occurrence of each earthquake over a certain magnitude. To make such updates rapidly enough and to qualify as prospective, earthquake focal mechanisms, slip distributions, stress patterns, and earthquake probabilities would have to be made by computer without human intervention. This scheme would be more appropriate for evaluating scientific ideas, but it may be less useful for practical applications than daily updates. Second, triggered earthquakes are imperfectly recorded following larger events because their seismic waves are buried in the coda of the earlier event. To solve this problem, testing methods need to allow for “censoring” of early aftershock data, and a quantitative model for detection threshold as a function of

  11. Pressing Issues of Rational Antibiotic Therapy for Inflammatory Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.N. Okhotnikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, high incidence of acute lower respiratory tract infections of bacterial origin, primarily pneumonia and bronchitis, treatment of which under the spread of antibiotic resistance is often a difficult task, cause alarm. Bronchitis — one of the most common respiratory diseases in childhood after acute respiratory viral infections. Application of antibiotics for acute bronchitis in children is not recommended, but they are prescribed for severe intoxication and prolonged hyperthermia (over 3 days, especially in infants, children with poor premorbid background and high risk of pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy is considered as the only science-based treatment of pneumonia. Taking into account the broad spectrum of modern antibiotics, monotherapy is most suitable. If it is necessary to extend their effect, combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate with macrolides, to which all the major respiratory pathogens are sensitive, is preferred.

  12. Changes of Proteases, Antiproteases, and Pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis Patients’ Upper and Lower Airways after IV-Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In cystic fibrosis (CF the upper (UAW and lower airways (LAW are reservoirs for pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The consecutive hosts’ release of proteolytic enzymes contributes to inflammation and progressive pulmonary destruction. Objectives were to assess dynamics of protease : antiprotease ratios and pathogens in CF-UAW and LAW sampled by nasal lavage (NL and sputum before and after intravenous- (IV- antibiotic therapy. Methods. From 19 IV-antibiotic courses of 17 CF patients NL (10 mL/nostril and sputum were collected before and after treatment. Microbiological colonization and concentrations of NE/SLPI/CTSS (ELISA and MMP-9/TIMP-1 (multiplex bead array were determined. Additionally, changes of sinonasal symptoms were assessed (SNOT-20. Results. IV-antibiotic treatment had more pronounced effects on inflammatory markers in LAW, whereas trends to decrease were also found in UAW. Ratios of MMP-9/TIMP-1 were higher in sputum, and ratios of NE/SLPI were higher in NL. Remarkably, NE/SLPI ratio was 10-fold higher in NL compared to healthy controls. SNOT-20 scores decreased significantly during therapy (P=0.001. Conclusion. For the first time, changes in microbiological patterns in UAW and LAW after IV-antibiotic treatments were assessed, together with changes of protease/antiprotease imbalances. Delayed responses of proteases and antiproteases to IV-antibiotic therapy were found in UAW compared to LAW.

  13. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Boulvain, Michel; Neilson, James P

    2013-12-02

    antibiotics seemed to have little effect on the health of children. Routine prescription of antibiotics for women with preterm rupture of the membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and improvements in a number of short-term neonatal morbidities, but no significant reduction in perinatal mortality. Despite lack of evidence of longer-term benefit in childhood, the advantages on short-term morbidities are such that we would recommend antibiotics are routinely prescribed. The antibiotic of choice is not clear but co-amoxiclav should be avoided in women due to increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis.

  14. Comparing short to standard duration of antibiotic therapy for patients hospitalized with cellulitis (DANCE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranendonk, Duncan R.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Prins, Jan M.; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2014-01-01

    Recommended therapy duration for patients hospitalized with cellulitis is 10-14 days. Unnecessary use of antibiotics is one of the key factors driving resistance. Recent studies have shown that antibiotic therapy for cellulitis in outpatients can safely be shortened, despite residual inflammation.

  15. REAL TIME PCR IDENTIFICATION FOR TARGET ADJUNCTIVE ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY OF SEVERE CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS. PART II - MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic use in chronic periodontitis may result in improvement in periodontal status, although many questions regarding the indications for this therapy remain unanswered. The polymicrobial etiology of the periodontal infection hinders the choice of the proper antibiotic agent. Furthermore the indiscriminate use of antibiotics could lead to high levels of resistance and to various adverse reactions. In the recent years a various molecular diagnostics protocols were proposed in order to facilitate the decision for adjunctive antibiotic administration. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the microbiological effectiveness of adjunctive antibiotic administration with the mechanical periodontal therapy. METHODS: 30 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were enrolled in this study and were divided in 3 groups: Control group – with mechanical debridement only. Test group 1 – with combined adjunctive antibiotic administration using Amoxicillin+ Metronidazole. Test group 2 – with target antibiotic administration according to the resuts from the Real Time PCR identification. RESULTS: The prevalence of all the isolated microorganisms (exept. E.nodatum and C.gingivalis in Test Group 2 demonstrates statistically significant reduction compared with the other treatment approaches. Almost complete elimination was registered for the consensus pathogens from the red and orange complexes (above 99% and 100% for P.intemedia. CONCLUSION: The adjunct antibiotic treatment targeted with Real-Time PCR identification demonstrates almost complete elimination of the putative periodontal pathogens in the deep periodontal pockets in patients with severe chronic periodontitis. This result suggests slower recolonisation of these habitats thus limiting the risk for progression of the periodontal destruction.

  16. Economic evaluation of antibiotic therapy versus appendicectomy for the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis from the APPAC randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippola, S; Grönroos, J; Tuominen, R; Paajanen, H; Rautio, T; Nordström, P; Aarnio, M; Rantanen, T; Hurme, S; Salminen, P

    2017-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence supports antibiotic therapy for treating uncomplicated acute appendicitis. The objective of this study was to compare the costs of antibiotics alone versus appendicectomy in treating uncomplicated acute appendicitis within the randomized controlled APPAC (APPendicitis ACuta) trial. The APPAC multicentre, non-inferiority RCT was conducted on patients with CT-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Patients were assigned randomly to appendicectomy or antibiotic treatment. All costs were recorded, whether generated by the initial visit and subsequent treatment or possible recurrent appendicitis during the 1-year follow-up. The cost estimates were based on cost levels for the year 2012. Some 273 patients were assigned to the appendicectomy group and 257 to antibiotic treatment. Most patients randomized to antibiotic treatment did not require appendicectomy during the 1-year follow-up. In the operative group, overall societal costs (€5989·2, 95 per cent c.i. 5787·3 to 6191·1) were 1·6 times higher (€2244·8, 1940·5 to 2549·1) than those in the antibiotic group (€3744·4, 3514·6 to 3974·2). In both groups, productivity losses represented a slightly higher proportion of overall societal costs than all treatment costs together, with diagnostics and medicines having a minor role. Those in the operative group were prescribed significantly more sick leave than those in the antibiotic group (mean(s.d.) 17·0(8·3) (95 per cent c.i. 16·0 to 18·0) versus 9·2(6·9) (8·3 to 10·0) days respectively; P antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis incurred lower costs than those who had surgery. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Decision and cost analysis of empirical antibiotic therapy of acute sinusitis in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance: do we have an additional tool for antibiotic policy decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babela, Robert; Jarcuska, Pavol; Uraz, Vladimir; Krčméry, Vladimír; Jadud, Branislav; Stevlik, Jan; Gould, Ian M

    2017-11-01

    No previous analyses have attempted to determine optimal therapy for upper respiratory tract infections on the basis of cost-minimization models and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Slovakia. This investigation compares macrolides and cephalosporines for empirical therapy and look at this new tool from the aspect of potential antibiotic policy decision-making process. We employed a decision tree model to determine the threshold level of macrolides and cephalosporines resistance among community respiratory pathogens that would make cephalosporines or macrolides cost-minimising. To obtain information on clinical outcomes and cost of URTIs, a systematic review of the literature was performed. The cost-minimization model of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) treatment was derived from the review of literature and published models. We found that the mean cost of empirical treatment with macrolides for an URTIs was €93.27 when the percentage of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the community was 0%; at 5%, the mean cost was €96.45; at 10%, €99.63; at 20%, €105.99, and at 30%, €112.36. Our model demonstrated that when the percentage of macrolide resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae exceeds 13.8%, use of empirical cephalosporines rather than macrolides minimizes the treatment cost of URTIs. Empirical macrolide therapy is less expensive than cephalosporines therapy for URTIs unless macrolide resistance exceeds 13.8% in the community. Results have important antibiotic policy implications, since presented model can be use as an additional decision-making tool for new guidelines and reimbursement processes by local authorities in the era of continual increase in antibiotic resistance.

  18. Analysis of short-term reactor cavity transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.C.; Fischer, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    Following the transient of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear reactor, peak pressures are reached within the first 0.03 s at different locations inside the reactor cavity. Due to the complicated multidimensional nature of the reactor cavity, the short-term analysis of the LOCA transient cannot be performed by using traditional containment codes, such as CONTEMPT. The advanced containment code, BEACON/MOD3, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), can be adapted for such analysis. This code provides Eulerian, one and two-dimensional, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium flow modeling as well as lumped parameter, homogeneous, equilibrium flow modeling for the solution of two-component, two-phase flow problems. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the BEACON code to analyze complex containment geometry such as a reactor cavity

  19. Short-term contracts: Descending the career ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Elizabeth Griffin brings a personal insight to the hurdles that women seeking a scientific career face, arguing that the only gender differences are those of attitude, tradition and style. The policy of employing some but not all academic researchers through short-term contracts is highly divisive, in that it creates a two-tier system not only of opportunities and expectations but also of personal worth and value. Far more women than men are trapped in these career cul-de-sacs, and a seriously large fraction is unable to stay in research until retirement. It is the employment policy that is at fault, not the potential of the researchers or the quality of their research.

  20. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  1. Short-term memory impairment and arithmetical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, B; Cipolotti, L; Warrington, E K

    1996-02-01

    We document the dissociation of preserved calculation skills in a patient with impaired auditory short-term memory. The patient (MRF) had a memory span of three digits. Furthermore, he showed rapid decrement in performance of single digits and letters with both auditory and visual presentation in the Brown-Peterson forgetting task. Analysis of his calculation skills revealed a normal ability to solve auditorily presented multidigit addition and subtraction problems such as 173 + 68 and to execute the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (Sampson, 1956, 1958; Gronwall, 1977). In addition, his performance on other tests, including arithmetic manipulation of natural numbers, decimals and fractions, approximation, magnitude, ratio, and percentage, appeared to be normal (Hitch, 1978b). It is argued that these findings require a revision of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) concept of the function of working memory.

  2. Short-term Power Load Forecasting Based on Balanced KNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianlong; Cheng, Xingong; YanShuang; Tang, Yan-mei

    2018-03-01

    To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, a short-term load forecasting model based on balanced KNN algorithm is proposed; According to the load characteristics, the historical data of massive power load are divided into scenes by the K-means algorithm; In view of unbalanced load scenes, the balanced KNN algorithm is proposed to classify the scene accurately; The local weighted linear regression algorithm is used to fitting and predict the load; Adopting the Apache Hadoop programming framework of cloud computing, the proposed algorithm model is parallelized and improved to enhance its ability of dealing with massive and high-dimension data. The analysis of the household electricity consumption data for a residential district is done by 23-nodes cloud computing cluster, and experimental results show that the load forecasting accuracy and execution time by the proposed model are the better than those of traditional forecasting algorithm.

  3. Short-term capture of the Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; de Ruiter, Anton

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the short-term capture (STC) of an asteroid in the Earth-Moon system is proposed and investigated. First, the space condition of STC is analysed and five subsets of the feasible region are defined and discussed. Then, the time condition of STC is studied by parameter scanning in the Sun-Earth-Moon-asteroid restricted four-body problem. Numerical results indicate that there is a clear association between the distributions of the time probability of STC and the five subsets. Next, the influence of the Jacobi constant on STC is examined using the space and time probabilities of STC. Combining the space and time probabilities of STC, we propose a STC index to evaluate the probability of STC comprehensively. Finally, three potential STC asteroids are found and analysed.

  4. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eItskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  5. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems.

  6. Short-Term Market Risks Implied by Weekly Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    a direct way to study volatility and jump risks. Unlike longer-dated options, they are largely insensitive to the risk of intertemporal shifts in the economic environment. Adopting a novel semi-nonparametric approach, we uncover variation in the negative jump tail risk which is not spanned by market......We study short-term market risks implied by weekly S&P 500 index options. The introduction of weekly options has dramatically shifted the maturity profile of traded options over the last five years, with a substantial proportion now having expiry within one week. Such short-dated options provide......" by the level of market volatility and elude standard asset pricing models....

  7. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2011-01-01

    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  8. The Delicate Analysis of Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changwei; Zheng, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new method for short-term load forecasting based on the similar day method, correlation coefficient and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to achieve the precision analysis of load variation from three aspects (typical day, correlation coefficient, spectral analysis) and three dimensions (time dimension, industry dimensions, the main factors influencing the load characteristic such as national policies, regional economic, holidays, electricity and so on). First, the branch algorithm one-class-SVM is adopted to selection the typical day. Second, correlation coefficient method is used to obtain the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, which can reflect the influence caused by the customer macro policy and the scale of production to the electricity price. Third, Fourier transform residual error correction model is proposed to reflect the nature of load extracting from the residual error. Finally, simulation result indicates the validity and engineering practicability of the proposed method.

  9. Visual short-term memory for sequential arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arjun; Jiang, Yuhong

    2005-04-01

    The capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for a single visual display has been investigated in past research, but VSTM for multiple sequential arrays has been explored only recently. In this study, we investigate the capacity of VSTM across two sequential arrays separated by a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). VSTM for spatial locations (Experiment 1), colors (Experiments 2-4), orientations (Experiments 3 and 4), and conjunction of color and orientation (Experiment 4) were tested, with the SOA across the two sequential arrays varying from 100 to 1,500 msec. We find that VSTM for the trailing array is much better than VSTM for the leading array, but when averaged across the two arrays VSTM has a constant capacity independent of the SOA. We suggest that multiple displays compete for retention in VSTM and that separating information into two temporally discrete groups does not enhance the overall capacity of VSTM.

  10. Attention restores discrete items to visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexandra M; Nobre, Anna C; Clark, Ian A; Cravo, André M; Stokes, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    When a memory is forgotten, is it lost forever? Our study shows that selective attention can restore forgotten items to visual short-term memory (VSTM). In our two experiments, all stimuli presented in a memory array were designed to be equally task relevant during encoding. During the retention interval, however, participants were sometimes given a cue predicting which of the memory items would be probed at the end of the delay. This shift in task relevance improved recall for that item. We found that this type of cuing improved recall for items that otherwise would have been irretrievable, providing critical evidence that attention can restore forgotten information to VSTM. Psychophysical modeling of memory performance has confirmed that restoration of information in VSTM increases the probability that the cued item is available for recall but does not improve the representational quality of the memory. We further suggest that attention can restore discrete items to VSTM.

  11. Implementing a short-term family support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, E; Cox, D; Hastings, S

    1991-05-01

    1. Although family involvement has been increasingly recognized as a vital component in the treatment and care of the mentally ill, little has been written about efforts to provide education and support to the families of patients hospitalized for short-term evaluation and treatment. 2. The family education and support group provided emotional support and critical information to increase family members' coping and problem solving abilities, and enabled them to return to a pre-crisis or higher level of functioning. 3. The family education and support group not only enhances the assessment and planning phases of the nursing process, but it also can serve as a useful intervention for strengthening the patient's major support system.

  12. Pro short-term procurement - U.S. utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The author expresses the opinion that rather than focusing market discussions around short-term versus long-term procurement strategies, the parties need to be focusing on how long it is going to take to get to a predominantly market-based price both in uranium and enrichment. Long-term contracts are going to be around and will always be an important part of buyers' and sellers' strategies. It is evident that the annual term contract price renegotiations around the world are resulting in continually lower prices. When these price negotiations finally arrive in the range of the market price, a commodity market that resembles other energy commodity markets can be obtained

  13. Pro short-term procurement - Broker/trader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoellen, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his opinion on the issue of short-term versus long-term procurement of uranium and enrichment and the impact on reliability of supply. The progression of the market has been one of increasing commoditization. Utility buyers have moved towards purchasing uranium on the spot market and linking long-term contracts to spot-market pricing. There is some logic to the argument that utilities and the industry in general would be best served by this approach. Inventories would be worked off much more quickly, and unnecessary supply would be shut off until prices recovered to profitable levels. The result would be a healthier market with no detriment to the reliability of supply

  14. Mark I containment, short term program. Safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Presented is a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation addressing the Short Term Program (STP) reassessment of the containment systems of operating Boiler Water Reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark I containment system design. The information presented in this SER establishes the basis for the NRC staff's conclusion that licensed Mark I BWR facilities can continue to operate safely, without undue risk to the health and safety of the public, during an interim period of approximately two years while a methodical, comprehensive Long Term Program (LTP) is conducted. This SER also provides one of the basic foundations for the NRC staff review of the Mark I containment systems for facilities not yet licensed for operation

  15. Persistent long-term facilitation at an identified synapse becomes labile with activation of short-term heterosynaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang-Yuan; Schacher, Samuel

    2014-04-02

    Short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity are cellular correlates of learning and memory of different durations. Little is known, however, how these two forms of plasticity interact at the same synaptic connection. We examined the reciprocal impact of short-term heterosynaptic or homosynaptic plasticity at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia in cell culture when expressing persistent long-term facilitation (P-LTF) evoked by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Short-term heterosynaptic plasticity induced by 5-HT (facilitation) or the neuropeptide FMRFa (depression) and short-term homosynaptic plasticity induced by tetanus [post-tetanic potentiation (PTP)] or low-frequency stimulation [homosynaptic depression (HSD)] of the sensory neuron were expressed in both control synapses and synapses expressing P-LTF in the absence or presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. All forms of short-term plasticity failed to significantly affect ongoing P-LTF in the absence of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, P-LTF reversed to control levels when either 5-HT or FMRFa was applied in the presence of rapamycin. In contrast, P-LTF was unaffected when either PTP or HSD was evoked in the presence of either rapamycin or anisomycin. These results indicate that synapses expressing persistent plasticity acquire a "new" baseline and functionally express short-term changes as naive synapses, but the new baseline becomes labile following selective activations-heterosynaptic stimuli that evoke opposite forms of plasticity-such that when presented in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors produce a rapid reversal of the persistent plasticity. Activity-selective induction of a labile state at synapses expressing persistent plasticity may facilitate the development of therapies for reversing inappropriate memories.

  16. Short-term variability of Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Doi, K.; Ogawara, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The short-term X-ray variability distinguishes Cyg X-1, which is the most likely candidate for a black hole, from other X-ray sources. The present status of our knowledge on this short-term variation, mainly from the UHURU, the MIT and the GSFC observations, is reviewed. The nature of impulsive variations which compose the time variation exceeding the statistical fluctuation is discussed. There are indications that the energy spectrum of large pulses is harder than the average spectrum, or that the large pulses are the characteristics of the hard component of the spectrum if it is composed of two, soft and hard, components. Features of the variations may be partly simulated by the superposition of random shot-noise pulses with a fraction of a second duration. However, the autocorrelation analysis and the dynamic spectrum analysis indicate that the correlation lasts for several seconds and in the variation are buried some regularities which exhibit power concentrations in several frequency bands; 0.2-0.3, 0.4-0.5, 0.8, 1.2-1.5 Hz. There are several possible interpretations of these results in terms of; e.g. (a) a mixture of shot-noise pulses with two or more constant durations, (b) the shape of the basic shot-noise pulse, (c) bunching of the pulses, (d) superposition of wave-packets or temporal oscillations. But we have not yet reached any definite understandings in the nature of the variabilities. The substructure of the fluctuations on a time scale of milliseconds suggested by two investigations is also discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Short-term variability of CYG X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Doi, K.; Ogawara, Y.; Takagishi, K.; Wada, M.

    1975-01-01

    The short-term X-ray variability distinguishes Cyg X-1, which is the most likely candidate of the black hole, from other X-ray sources. Present status of our knowledge on this short-term variation mainly from the Uhuru, the MIT and the GSFC observations is reviewed. The nature of impulsive variations which compose the time variation exceeding the statistical fluctuation is discussed. There are indications that the energy spectrum of large pulses is harder than the average spectrum or the large pulses are the characteristics of the hard component of the spectrum if it is composed of two, soft and hard, components. Features of the variations may be partly simulated by the superposition of random short-noise pulses with a fraction of a second duration. However, the autocorrelation analysis and the dynamic spectrum analysis indicate that the correlation lasts for several seconds and in the variation buried are some regularities which exhibit power concentrations in several frequency bands; 0.2 -- 0.3, 0.4 -- 0.5, 0.8, 1.2 -- 1.5 Hz. There are several possible interpretation of these results in terms of: e.g. a) a mixture of short-noise pulses with two or more constant durations, b) the shape of the basic shot-noise pulse, c) bunching of the pulses, d) superposition of wave-packets or temporal oscillations. But we have not yet reached any definite understandings in the nature of the variabilities. The sub-structure of the fluctuations on a time scale of milli-second suggested by two investigations is also discussed. (auth.)

  18. Short-term Variability of Vitamin D-Related Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Parrinello, Christina M; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Hoofnagle, Andy N; Henderson, Clark M; Laha, Thomas J; Michos, Erin D; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the variability of biomarkers is important, as high within-person variability can lead to misclassification of individuals. Short-term variability of important markers of vitamin D metabolism is relatively unknown. A repeatability study was conducted in 160 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants (60% female, 28% black, mean age 76 years). Fasting serum was drawn at 2 time points, a median of 6 (range 3-13) weeks apart. Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured by LC-MS, fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and calcium and phosphorus by Roche Cobas 6000. Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated. We calculated the within-person CV (CV W ), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r), and percent reclassified. The CV W was lowest for calcium (2.0%), albumin (3.6%), 25(OH)D (6.9%), VDBP (7.0%) and phosphorus (7.6%); intermediate for free 25(OH)D (9.0%) and bioavailable 25(OH)D (9.9%); and highest for PTH (16.7%) and FGF23 (17.8%). Reclassification was highest for PTH, VDBP, and phosphorus (all 7.5%). The ICC and r were highest (≥0.80) for 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and PTH, but somewhat lower (approximately 0.60-0.75) for the other biomarkers. Six-week short-term variability, as assessed by CV W , was quite low for VDBP, calcium and phosphorus, but fairly high for FGF23 and PTH. As such, multiple measurements of FGF23 and PTH may be needed to minimize misclassification. These results provide insight into the extent of potential misclassification of vitamin D markers in research and clinical settings. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  19. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Short-term risk of falling after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Madelyn N; Baudhuin, Jacqueline E; Hullar, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is a highly effective intervention for hearing loss, but insertion of an implant into the cochlea is often accompanied by loss of residual hearing function. Sometimes, postoperative testing also shows loss of function in the semicircular canals or otolith organs. The effect of this loss on equilibrium, particularly in the short term following surgery, and the risk of falling due to this loss is unknown. We prospectively measured balance in 16 consecutive adult cochlear implant patients before and 2 weeks after surgery. Subjects stood on a foam pad with eyes closed, feet together and arms at the side. The length of time over which this posture could be maintained was recorded up to a maximum value of 30 s indicating normal performance. Ten of 16 subjects reached a maximal time on preoperative testing. Nine of 16 subjects lost balance function after surgery. Four of the 10 subjects with normal preoperative balance function lost function. Subjects older than the age of 60 were more likely to lose balance function than younger subjects. We used previously published values relating balance performance on foam to risk of falling to calculate the fall risk among our subjects. The relative risk of falling increased after surgery by more than threefold in some patients. Imbalance after cochlear implantation may be much more common, particularly in the short term, than previously appreciated. This imbalance is accompanied by an increased risk of falling in many patients. Careful preoperative counseling before implantation and postoperative therapeutic intervention to improve comfort and reduce the chance of falling may be warranted, particularly in patients at a risk for injuries from falls (level of evidence: 2b). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Human short-term spatial memory: precision predicts capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Boujon, Valérie; Ndarugendamwo, Angélique; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Here, we aimed to determine the capacity of human short-term memory for allocentric spatial information in a real-world setting. Young adults were tested on their ability to learn, on a trial-unique basis, and remember over a 1-min interval the location(s) of 1, 3, 5, or 7 illuminating pads, among 23 pads distributed in a 4m×4m arena surrounded by curtains on three sides. Participants had to walk to and touch the pads with their foot to illuminate the goal locations. In contrast to the predictions from classical slot models of working memory capacity limited to a fixed number of items, i.e., Miller's magical number 7 or Cowan's magical number 4, we found that the number of visited locations to find the goals was consistently about 1.6 times the number of goals, whereas the number of correct choices before erring and the number of errorless trials varied with memory load even when memory load was below the hypothetical memory capacity. In contrast to resource models of visual working memory, we found no evidence that memory resources were evenly distributed among unlimited numbers of items to be remembered. Instead, we found that memory for even one individual location was imprecise, and that memory performance for one location could be used to predict memory performance for multiple locations. Our findings are consistent with a theoretical model suggesting that the precision of the memory for individual locations might determine the capacity of human short-term memory for spatial information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  3. International Short-Term Countermeasures Survey - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear emergency planning, preparedness, response, and management, in general, are essential elements of any country's nuclear power programme. Part of nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is the implementation of national emergency plans, including detailed procedures for the implementation of short-term countermeasures, before during, and after the release of radioactive substances. The timely and appropriate implementation of short-term countermeasures, such as sheltering, evacuation, and iodine prophylaxis, can, in case of a nuclear emergency with a release of radioactive material, considerably reduce the doses to the public in the vicinity of the nuclear installation. Although international guidelines exist, national procedures and practices may differ due to different national habits, cultural specificity, and societal needs. Different national procedures and practices may, however, in the case of a radioactive release affecting two neighbouring countries, lead to different decisions in the implementation of countermeasures. In order to better understand existing approaches and to facilitate the comparison of national practices, the NEA decided to launch a questionnaire on current practices regarding short-term countermeasures, updating a similar survey performed in 1994 and 2003, as countries' practices have since evolved and been modified. In 2012, it was decided to reevaluate the country approaches in light of the early lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The information collected may be used to understand the basis for decisions in various countries, and, if deemed appropriate, as a basis for international harmonisation. This may also assist member countries to explain to the public affected by an emergency why the decisions in neighbouring countries may vary. This report summarises the information given by member countries and includes nine sections to explore the different aspects, covering the following topics: member

  4. Efficacy of Antibiotic Suppressive Therapy in Patients with a Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Nijman, Jasperina M; Kampinga, Greetje A; van Assen, Sander; Jutte, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be treated with antibiotic suppressive therapy (AST) to suppress the infection. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST. Methods: We retrospectively collected data (period 2009-2015) from patients with a PJI (of hip, knee or shoulder) who were treated with AST at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. AST was defined as antibiotic treatment for PJI that was started after the usual 3 months of antibiotic treatment. The time of follow-up was defined from the time point AST was started. Treatment was considered as failed, when the patient still experienced joint pain, when surgical intervention (debridement, removal, arthrodesis or amputation) was needed to control the infection and/or when death occurred due to the infection. Results: We included 21 patients with a median age of 67 years (range 21 - 88) and with a median follow-up of 21 months (range 3 - 81). Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (n=6), S. aureus (n=6) and polymicrobial flora (n=4) were the most frequently found causative pathogens. Most patients with CNS and S. aureus were treated with minocycline (67%) and clindamycin (83%) as AST, respectively. Overall, treatment was successful in 67% of patients. Failure was due to persistent joint pain (n=1), surgical intervention because of an uncontrolled infection (n=3), and death due the infection (n=3). We observed a treatment success of 90% in patients with a 'standard' prosthesis (n=11), compared to only 50% in patients with a tumor-prosthesis (n=10). Also, treatment was successful in 83% of patients with a CNS as causative microorganism for the infection, compared to 50% in patients with a S. aureus . Patients who failed on AST had a

  5. Use of nasopharyngeal culture to determine appropriateness of antibiotic therapy in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stella; Woodbury, Kristin; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2013-04-01

    Rhinosinusitis is one of the top 5 diagnoses for which an antibiotic is prescribed, often without a clear bacterial etiology. This study evaluated whether nasopharyngeal culture and gram stain could serve as a surrogate for endoscopically obtained middle meatal cultures in directing appropriate therapy for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS). This study also investigated the utility of a rapid sinus test screen in differentiating bacterial from nonbacterial rhinosinusitis. Thirty-one adult patients met inclusion criteria for ABRS. Samples were obtained from both the middle meatus and nasopharynx for Gram stain and culture. Nasal mucous samples were tested with a rapid sinus test strip measuring pH, levels of protein, nitrites, and leukocyte esterase. Sixty-one percent (61%) of nasopharyngeal and 48% of middle meatal samples grew pathogenic bacteria. The concordance rate was 84% between the 2 sites (p = 0.0006). The following pathogenic organisms were detected: Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. For nasopharyngeal samples, reliance on Gram stain alone exhibited a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 100% and, similarly, for middle meatus samples, 47% and 93%, respectively. The rapid sinus test revealed a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 7%. Nasopharyngeal and middle meatal cultures exhibited high concordance for pathogenic bacteria. Gram stain exhibited moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity. Nasopharyngeal cultures could provide a viable method, especially in a primary care setting, for determining the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy. The rapid sinus test's lack of specificity precluded its utility in the differentiation between bacterial and nonbacterial rhinosinusitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. Neonatal Escherichia coli Bloodstream Infections: Clinical Outcomes and Impact of Initial Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Stephen P; Thaden, Joshua T; Ericson, Jessica E; Cross, Heather; Messina, Julia; Clark, Reese H; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-09-01

    Escherichia coli is a common cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity among survivors. The clinical significance of antibiotic resistance and timing of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in this population is poorly understood. We identified all infants with E. coli BSIs discharged from 77 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group in 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between 30-day mortality and ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSI, as well as the number of active empiric antimicrobial agents administered, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, early-onset versus late-onset BSI, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day of the first positive blood culture. We identified 258 episodes of E. coli BSI, including 123 (48%) ampicillin-resistant isolates. Unadjusted 30-day mortality did not significantly differ between infants with ampicillin-resistant versus ampicillin-susceptible E. coli BSI [11 of 123 (9%) vs. 7 of 135 (5%); P = 0.33; adjusted odds ratio = 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 4.77)]. Among ampicillin-resistant E. coli BSIs, 30-day mortality was not significantly lower for infants treated with at least one empiric antimicrobial active against ampicillin-resistant E. coli versus infants receiving no active empiric agent [adjusted odds ratio = 1.50 (0.07, 33.6)]. In this population of infants with E. coli BSI, ampicillin resistance was not associated with significantly increased mortality. Among the subset of infants with ampicillin-resistant E. coli, appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with lower mortality.

  7. Cycling empirical antibiotic therapy in hospitals: meta-analysis and models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Abel zur Wiesch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of resistance together with the shortage of new broad-spectrum antibiotics underlines the urgency of optimizing the use of available drugs to minimize disease burden. Theoretical studies suggest that coordinating empirical usage of antibiotics in a hospital ward can contain the spread of resistance. However, theoretical and clinical studies came to different conclusions regarding the usefulness of rotating first-line therapy (cycling. Here, we performed a quantitative pathogen-specific meta-analysis of clinical studies comparing cycling to standard practice. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar and identified 46 clinical studies addressing the effect of cycling on nosocomial infections, of which 11 met our selection criteria. We employed a method for multivariate meta-analysis using incidence rates as endpoints and find that cycling reduced the incidence rate/1000 patient days of both total infections by 4.95 [9.43-0.48] and resistant infections by 7.2 [14.00-0.44]. This positive effect was observed in most pathogens despite a large variance between individual species. Our findings remain robust in uni- and multivariate metaregressions. We used theoretical models that reflect various infections and hospital settings to compare cycling to random assignment to different drugs (mixing. We make the realistic assumption that therapy is changed when first line treatment is ineffective, which we call "adjustable cycling/mixing". In concordance with earlier theoretical studies, we find that in strict regimens, cycling is detrimental. However, in adjustable regimens single resistance is suppressed and cycling is successful in most settings. Both a meta-regression and our theoretical model indicate that "adjustable cycling" is especially useful to suppress emergence of multiple resistance. While our model predicts that cycling periods of one month perform well, we expect that too long cycling periods are detrimental. Our results suggest that

  8. Neonatal Pulmonary MRI of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Predicts Short-term Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Nara S; Spielberg, David R; Fleck, Robert J; Schapiro, Andrew H; Walkup, Laura L; Hahn, Andrew D; Tkach, Jean A; Kingma, Paul S; Merhar, Stephanie L; Fain, Sean B; Woods, Jason C

    2018-05-23

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious neonatal pulmonary condition associated with premature birth, but the underlying parenchymal disease and trajectory are poorly characterized. The current NICHD/NHLBI definition of BPD severity is based on degree of prematurity and extent of oxygen requirement. However, no clear link exists between initial diagnosis and clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of structural parenchymal abnormalities will correlate with NICHD-defined BPD disease severity and predict short-term respiratory outcomes. Forty-two neonates (20 severe BPD, 6 moderate, 7 mild, 9 non-BPD controls; 40±3 weeks post-menstrual age) underwent quiet-breathing structural pulmonary MRI (ultrashort echo-time and gradient echo) in a NICU-sited, neonatal-sized 1.5T scanner, without sedation or respiratory support unless already clinically prescribed. Disease severity was scored independently by two radiologists. Mean scores were compared to clinical severity and short-term respiratory outcomes. Outcomes were predicted using univariate and multivariable models including clinical data and scores. MRI scores significantly correlated with severities and predicted respiratory support at NICU discharge (P<0.0001). In multivariable models, MRI scores were by far the strongest predictor of respiratory support duration over clinical data, including birth weight and gestational age. Notably, NICHD severity level was not predictive of discharge support. Quiet-breathing neonatal pulmonary MRI can independently assess structural abnormalities of BPD, describe disease severity, and predict short-term outcomes more accurately than any individual standard clinical measure. Importantly, this non-ionizing technique can be implemented to phenotype disease and has potential to serially assess efficacy of individualized therapies.

  9. Experimental Simulation of the Effects of an Initial Antibiotic Treatment on a Subsequent Treatment after Initial Therapy Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Yanfang; Händel, Nadine; de Groot, Marnix H. P.; Brul, Stanley; Schultsz, Constance; ter Kuile, Benno H.

    2014-01-01

    Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations

  10. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  11. The stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhtaev, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    This book studies the stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation, pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness, action hematosis stimulators in short-term irradiation conditions

  12. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term...

  13. Sequential (as Opposed to Simultaneous) Antibiotic Therapy Improves Helicobacter pylori Eradication in the Pediatric Population: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine S M; Ward, Amanda; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common infection associated with many gastrointestinal diseases. Triple or quadruple therapy is the current recommendation for H pylori eradication in children but is associated with success rates as low as 50%. Recent studies have demonstrated that a 10-day sequential therapy regimen, rather than simultaneous antibiotic administration, achieved eradication rates of nearly 95%. This meta-analysis found that sequential therapy increased eradication rates by 14.2% (relative risk [RR] = 1.142; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.082-1.207; P sequential therapy significantly improved H pylori eradication rates compared to the 7-day standard therapy (RR = 1.182; 95% CI = 1.102-1.269; p sequential therapy is associated with increased H pylori eradication rates in children compared to standard therapy of equal or shorter duration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  15. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  16. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Laureen A.; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M.; van Nierop, F. Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug

  17. The use of inhaled antibiotic therapy in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia and tracheobronchitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher J; Shiroishi, Mark S; Siantz, Elizabeth; Wu, Brian W; Patino, Cecilia M

    2016-03-08

    Ventilator-associated respiratory infections (tracheobronchitis, pneumonia) contribute significant morbidity and mortality to adults receiving care in intensive care units (ICU). Administration of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, the current standard of care, may have systemic adverse effects. The efficacy of aerosolized antibiotics for treatment of ventilator-associated respiratory infections remains unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of aerosolized antibiotics in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and tracheobronchitis (VAT), using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. We conducted a search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Collaboration) for randomized, controlled trials studying the use of nebulized antibiotics in VAP and VAT that measured clinical cure (e.g., change in Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score) as an outcome measurement. We augmented the electronic searches with hand searches of the references for any narrative review articles as well as any article included in the systematic review. Included studies were examined for risk of bias using the Cochrane Handbook's "Risk of Bias" assessment tool. Six studies met full inclusion criteria. For the systemic review's primary outcome (clinical cure), two studies found clinically and statistically significant improvements in measures of VAP cure while four found no statistically significant difference in measurements of cure. No studies found inferiority of aerosolized antibiotics. The included studies had various degrees of biases, particularly in the performance and detection bias domains. Given that outcome measures of clinical cure were not uniform, we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis. There is insufficient evidence for the use of inhaled antibiotic therapy as primary or adjuvant treatment of VAP or VAT. Additional, better-powered randomized-controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of inhaled

  18. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM ART INTERRUPTION ON LEVELS OF INTEGRATED HIV DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, Zachary; Sharaf, Radwa; VanBelzen, D Jake; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Connick, Elizabeth; Volberding, Paul; Skiest, Daniel J; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; O'Doherty, Una; Li, Jonathan Z

    2018-03-28

    Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) studies are required to evaluate strategies aimed at achieving ART-free HIV remission, but the impact of ATI on the viral reservoir remains unclear. We validated a DNA size selection-based assay for measuring levels of integrated HIV DNA and applied it to assess the effects of short-term ATI on the HIV reservoir. Samples from participants from four AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) ATI studies were assayed for integrated HIV DNA levels. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained for 12 participants with available samples pre-ATI and approximately 6 months after ART resumption. Four participants also had samples available during the ATI. The median duration of ATI was 12 weeks. Validation of the HIV Integrated DNA size-Exclusion (HIDE) assay was performed using samples spiked with unintegrated HIV DNA, HIV-infected cell lines, and participant PBMCs. The HIDE assay eliminated 99% of unintegrated HIV DNA species and strongly correlated with the established Alu- gag assay. For the majority of individuals, integrated DNA levels increased during ATI and subsequently declined upon ART resumption. There was no significant difference in levels of integrated HIV DNA between the pre- and post-ATI time points, with the median ratio of post:pre-ATI HIV DNA levels of 0.95. Using a new integrated HIV DNA assay, we found minimal change in the levels of integrated HIV DNA in participants who underwent an ATI followed by 6 months of ART. This suggests that short-term ATI can be conducted without a significant impact on levels of integrated proviral DNA in the peripheral blood. IMPORTANCE Interventions aimed at achieving sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission require treatment interruption trials to assess their efficacy. However, these trials are accompanied by safety concerns related to the expansion of the viral reservoir. We validated an assay that uses an automated DNA size-selection platform for quantifying levels of integrated

  19. [Adequacy of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection in a Medical Department from the university hospital of Lille: A retrospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, L; Maillard, H; Lemaitre, M; Barbottin, E; Bakhache, E; Galperine, T; Puisieux, F; Hatron, P-Y; Lambert, M

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the adequacy of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infections (UTI) in a French hospital medical department. The secondary objective was to identify factors associated with inadequacy of the antibiotic therapy. A retrospective single centre cohort study was performed in the Post-Emergency Medicine Department (PEMD) of the university hospital of Lille. All patients presenting with an UTI from May 2012 to April 2014 were included. Adequacy of antibiotic therapy was assessed with reference to local guidelines. Factors associated with inadequacy of antibiotic prescription were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Two hundred and twenty-eight patients were included. The antibiotic prescription was fully adequate in 173 patients (76%) with appropriate use of a single or a combination antibiotic therapy in 96%, appropriate drug in 80%, appropriate dosage in 89% and appropriate route of administration in 95%. The risk for antibiotic inadequacy was significantly higher in patients with cystitis than in those with pyelonephritis (OR 12.01; 95% CI 4.17-34.65), when antibiotics were prescribed in the Emergency Department (OR 6.84; 95% CI 2.29-20.47) or before hospital admission (OR 382.46; 95% CI 19.61≥999.99) compared to when antibiotics were first administered in the PEMD, and in patients with severe UTI (OR 19.55; 95% CI 2.79-137.01). Adequacy of antibiotic therapy for UTI is relatively high in our study, reflecting the effective dissemination of antibiotic guidelines. However, antibiotic therapy is still inappropriate in cystitis, severe UTI and in case of prescription before the admission in the PEMD. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Circulating sclerostin is elevated in short-term and reduced in long-term SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglino, Ricardo A; Sudhakar, Supreetha; Lazzari, Antonio A; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R

    2012-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes profound bone loss due to muscle paralysis resulting in the inability to walk. Sclerostin, a Wnt signaling pathway antagonist produced by osteocytes, is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Short-term studies in rodent models have demonstrated increased sclerostin in response to mechanical unloading that is reversed with reloading. Although sclerostin inhibition has been proposed as a potential therapy for bone loss, it is not known if sclerostin levels vary with duration of SCI in humans. We analyzed circulating sclerostin in 155 men with varying degrees of SCI who were 1 year or more post-injury. We report that sclerostin levels are greatest in subjects with short-term SCI (≤5 years post-injury) and decrease significantly over the first 5 years post-injury. There was no association between sclerostin and injury duration in subjects with long-term SCI (>5 years post-injury). In subjects with long-term SCI, sclerostin levels were positively associated with lower extremity bone density and bone mineral content. These data suggest that sclerostin levels are initially increased after SCI in response to mechanical unloading. This response is time-limited and as bone loss progresses, circulating sclerostin is lowest in subjects with severe osteoporosis. These findings support a dual role for sclerostin after SCI: a therapeutic target in acute SCI, and a biomarker of osteoporosis severity in chronic SCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical and no-clinical setting specificities in first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2011-03-01

    Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session work with two examined groups: a group of 20 adult women who suffer from mild or moderate forms of unipolar depression and a group of 20 students of the School of Medicine in Zagreb without any psychiatric symptomatology. The results indicate the high importance of having structure in first psychodrama session, of relating it with the previously thoroughly conducted, initial, clinical, interviews, and of the clarity and focus in terms of determining the goals of therapy, especially in a clinical context. This study also confirmed assumptions regarding the need for different approaches of warming-up in psychodrama, both in the clinical and in non-clinical samples. A psychodrama psychotherapist should have good time managing skills and capability to convert the time available into an opportunity for directly boosting the group energy and work on therapeutic alliance.

  2. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies....... This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should...... controlled trials or systematic reviews....

  3. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  4. Short term solar radiation forecasting: Island versus continental sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, John; David, Mathieu; Lauret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Due its intermittency, the large-scale integration of solar energy into electricity grids is an issue and more specifically in an insular context. Thus, forecasting the output of solar energy is a key feature to efficiently manage the supply-demand balance. In this paper, three short term forecasting procedures are applied to island locations in order to see how they perform in situations that are potentially more volatile than continental locations. Two continental locations, one coastal and one inland are chosen for comparison. At the two time scales studied, ten minute and hourly, the island locations prove to be more difficult to forecast, as shown by larger forecast errors. It is found that the three methods, one purely statistical combining Fourier series plus linear ARMA models, one combining clear sky index models plus neural net models, and a third using a clear sky index plus ARMA, give similar forecasting results. It is also suggested that there is great potential of merging modelling approaches on different horizons. - Highlights: • Solar energy forecasting is more difficult for insular than continental sites. • Fourier series plus linear ARMA models are one forecasting method tested. • Clear sky index models plus neural net models are also tested. • Clear sky index models plus linear ARMA is also an option. • All three approaches have similar skill.

  5. Short-term fasting promotes insulin expression in rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakic, Tamara B; Jevdjovic, Tanja V; Peric, Mina I; Bjelobaba, Ivana M; Markelic, Milica B; Milutinovic, Bojana S; Lakic, Iva V; Jasnic, Nebojsa I; Djordjevic, Jelena D; Vujovic, Predrag Z

    2017-07-01

    In the hypothalamus, insulin takes on many roles involved in energy homoeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine hypothalamic insulin expression during the initial phase of the metabolic response to fasting. Hypothalamic insulin content was assessed by both radioimmunoassay and Western blot. The relative expression of insulin mRNA was examined by qPCR. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the distribution of insulin immunopositivity in the hypothalamus. After 6-h fasting, both glucose and insulin levels were decreased in serum but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our study showed for the first time that, while the concentration of circulating glucose and insulin decreased, both insulin mRNA expression and insulin content in the hypothalamic parenchyma were increased after short-term fasting. Increased insulin immunopositivity was detected specifically in the neurons of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus and in the ependymal cells of fasting animals. These novel findings point to the complexity of mechanisms regulating insulin expression in the CNS in general and in the hypothalamus in particular. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tactile short-term memory in sensory-deprived individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Minniti, Giovanna; Mattavelli, Giulia C; Mantovan, Lara; Cecchetto, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on practice or are biologically determined, we investigated 13 deafblind participants, 16 deaf participants, 15 blind participants, and 13 matched normally sighted and hearing controls on a tactile short-term memory task, using checkerboard matrices of increasing length in which half of the squares were made up of a rough texture and half of a smooth one. Time of execution of a fixed matrix, number of correctly reproduced matrices, largest matrix correctly reproduced and tactile span were recorded. The three groups of sensory-deprived individuals did not differ in any measure, while blind and deaf participants outscored controls in all parameters except time of execution; the difference approached significance for deafblind people compared to controls only in one measure, namely correctly reproduced matrices. In blind and deafblind participants, performance negatively correlated with age of Braille acquisition, the older being the subject when acquiring Braille, the lower the performance, suggesting that practice plays a role. However, the fact that deaf participants, who did not share tactile experience, performed similarly to blind participants and significantly better than controls highlights that practice cannot be the only contribution to better tactile memory.

  7. Short-term memory stores organized by information domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Abigail L; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2016-04-01

    Vision and audition have complementary affinities, with vision excelling in spatial resolution and audition excelling in temporal resolution. Here, we investigated the relationships among the visual and auditory modalities and spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM) using change detection tasks. We created short sequences of visual or auditory items, such that each item within a sequence arose at a unique spatial location at a unique time. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations) or time (the sequence of inter item intervals) and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal trials (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal trials (Sequence 1 visual, Sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) for both spatial and temporal tasks. We found a strong interaction between modality and task: Spatial performance was best on unimodal visual trials, whereas temporal performance was best on unimodal auditory trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials also mattered, suggesting that perceptual fidelity at encoding is critical to STM. Critically, no cost was attributable to crossmodal comparison: In both tasks, performance on crossmodal trials was as good as or better than on the weaker unimodal trials. STM representations of space and time can guide change detection in either the visual or the auditory modality, suggesting that the temporal or spatial organization of STM may supersede sensory-specific organization.

  8. Short-term economics of virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, J.K.

    2009-08-01

    The Virtual Power Plant (VPP) has gained an increasing interest over the last few years. A VPP is a flexible representation of a portfolio of Distributed Energy Resources (DER: distributed generation, demand response and electricity storage). One of the key activities of a VPP is the delivery of (near-)real-time balancing services. In order to operate such a (near-)real-time coordination activity optimally, the VPP needs to maintain a dynamic merit-order list of all DER participating in the VPP. In order to make optimal decisions based on this list, the merit order needs to be based on the true marginal cost (or marginal benefit in case of demand response) of the individual DER units. The marginal electricity costs of most types of DER are highly dependent on local context and, hence, change over time. From analysis of the short-term bid strategies of various DER units, the existence of a bid strategy spectrum becomes clear. On one end of the spectrum, bidding strategies are based straightforwardly on true marginal cost or benefit. Further along the spectrum, optimal bidding strategies become less dependent on marginal cost levels and more on the price dynamics in the (VPP) market context. These results are relevant for VPP operations both from business and technical perspectives.

  9. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martín Muñoz, F. J.; Gómez Briceño, D.

    2001-07-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400°C and 600°C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase.

  10. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martin Munoz, F.J.; Gomez Briceno, D.

    2001-01-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400 o C and 600 o C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase

  11. Slave systems in verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

    2012-01-01

    The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the "working memory" model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients' performances on STM tasks.

  12. A New Strategy for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is a special energy which is hard to store, so the electricity demand forecasting remains an important problem. Accurate short-term load forecasting (STLF plays a vital role in power systems because it is the essential part of power system planning and operation, and it is also fundamental in many applications. Considering that an individual forecasting model usually cannot work very well for STLF, a hybrid model based on the seasonal ARIMA model and BP neural network is presented in this paper to improve the forecasting accuracy. Firstly the seasonal ARIMA model is adopted to forecast the electric load demand day ahead; then, by using the residual load demand series obtained in this forecasting process as the original series, the follow-up residual series is forecasted by BP neural network; finally, by summing up the forecasted residual series and the forecasted load demand series got by seasonal ARIMA model, the final load demand forecasting series is obtained. Case studies show that the new strategy is quite useful to improve the accuracy of STLF.

  13. Rhythmic Haptic Stimuli Improve Short-Term Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shusheng; Wang, Dangxiao; Afzal, Naqash; Zhang, Yuru; Wu, Ruilin

    2016-01-01

    Brainwave entrainment using rhythmic visual and/or auditory stimulation has shown its efficacy in modulating neural activities and cognitive ability. In the presented study, we aim to investigate whether rhythmic haptic stimulation could enhance short-term attention. An experiment with sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) increasing protocol was performed in which participants were presented sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulus of 15 Hz on their palm. Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.) was performed before and after the stimulating session. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded across the stimulating session and the two attention test sessions. SMR band power manifested a significant increase after stimulation. Results of T.O.V.A. tests indicated an improvement in the attention of participants who had received the stimulation compared to the control group who had not received the stimulation. The D prime score of T.O.V.A. reveals that participants performed better in perceptual sensitivity and sustaining attention level compared to their baseline performance before the stimulating session. These findings highlight the potential value of using haptics-based brainwave entrainment for cognitive training.

  14. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadren, M.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It's filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter's. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach's and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author)

  15. Short-term memory stores organized by information domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Abigail L.; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Vision and audition have complementary affinities, with vision excelling in spatial resolution and audition excelling in temporal resolution. Here, we investigate the relationships among visual and auditory modalities and spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM) using change detection tasks. We created short sequences of visual or auditory items, such that each item within a sequence arose at a unique spatial location at a unique time. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations), or time (the sequence of inter-item intervals), and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal trials (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal trials (sequence 1 visual and sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) for both spatial and temporal tasks. We found a strong interaction between modality and task: spatial performance was best on unimodal visual trials, while temporal performance was best on unimodal auditory trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials also mattered, suggesting that perceptual fidelity at encoding is critical to STM. Critically, there was no cost attributable to crossmodal comparison: in both tasks, performance on crossmodal trials was as good or better than on the weaker unimodal trials. STM representations of space and time can guide change detection in either the visual or the auditory modality, suggesting that temporal or spatial organization of STM may supersede sensory-specific organization. PMID:26791231

  16. Transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatoma; I. Short-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Heung Suk; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Rhee, Jong Chul; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Anticancer effect and complications were evaluated after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in 12 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma until 2 weeks and 4 weeks after TAE, respectively. The results were as follows; 1. Serum alpha-fetoprotein value decreased in 7 out of 9 patients with high value prior to TAE. 2. Loss of enhancement and better definition on enhanced computed tomography (CT) were seen in the tumors in all caes, and low density areas in 9/10.Gas bubbles were seen in low-density areas in 4/10 and high density areas caused by lipiodol in 6/10. 3. Post-embolization syndrome was developed in most patients but improved clinically within a week after TAE. 4. On laboratory examination, impairment of liver function was developed in most patients but improved within 4 weeks after TAE. 5. Complications on CT included splenic infarction and thickening of wall of the gallbladder, which didn't require specific treatment. The authors conclude that TAE for hepatocellular carcinoma reveals apparent anticancer effect on short-term evaluation, and resultant complications are transient and improved by conservative treatment.

  17. Transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatoma; I. Short-term evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Heung Suk; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Rhee, Jong Chul; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk

    1985-01-01

    Anticancer effect and complications were evaluated after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in 12 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma until 2 weeks and 4 weeks after TAE, respectively. The results were as follows; 1. Serum alpha-fetoprotein value decreased in 7 out of 9 patients with high value prior to TAE. 2. Loss of enhancement and better definition on enhanced computed tomography (CT) were seen in the tumors in all caes, and low density areas in 9/10.Gas bubbles were seen in low-density areas in 4/10 and high density areas caused by lipiodol in 6/10. 3. Post-embolization syndrome was developed in most patients but improved clinically within a week after TAE. 4. On laboratory examination, impairment of liver function was developed in most patients but improved within 4 weeks after TAE. 5. Complications on CT included splenic infarction and thickening of wall of the gallbladder, which didn't require specific treatment. The authors conclude that TAE for hepatocellular carcinoma reveals apparent anticancer effect on short-term evaluation, and resultant complications are transient and improved by conservative treatment

  18. Short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Valentino Raimondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast synaptic inhibition in the brain is mediated by the pre-synaptic release of the neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA and the post-synaptic activation of GABA-sensitive ionotropic receptors. As with excitatory synapses, it is being increasinly appreciated that a variety of plastic processes occur at inhibitory synapses, which operate over a range of timescales. Here we examine a form of activity-dependent plasticity that is somewhat unique to GABAergic transmission. This involves short-lasting changes to the ionic driving force for the postsynaptic receptors, a process referred to as short-term ionic plasticity. These changes are directly related to the history of activity at inhibitory synapses and are influenced by a variety of factors including the location of the synapse and the post-synaptic cell’s ion regulation mechanisms. We explore the processes underlying this form of plasticity, when and where it can occur, and how it is likely to impact network activity.

  19. Slave systems in verbal short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786

  20. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692