Sample records for short-range aviation weather

  1. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.


    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  2. A short-range weather prediction system for South Africa based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accurate prediction of rainfall events, in terms of their timing, location and rainfall depth, is important to a wide range of social and economic applications. At many operational weather prediction centres, as is also the case at the South African Weather Service, forecasters use deterministic model outputs as guidance to ...

  3. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  4. A short-range multi-model ensemble weather prediction system for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S


    Full Text Available prediction system (EPS) at the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are examined. The ensemble consists of different forecasts from the 12-km LAM of the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) and the Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) covering the South...

  5. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolusu


    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  6. Short-Range prediction of a Mediterranean Severe weather event using EnKF: Configuration tests (United States)

    Carrio Carrio, Diego Saul; Homar Santaner, Víctor


    The afternoon of 4th October 2007, severe damaging winds and torrential rainfall affected the Island of Mallorca. This storm produced F2-F3 tornadoes in the vicinity of Palma, with one person killed and estimated damages to property exceeding 10 M€. Several studies have analysed the meteorological context in which this episode unfolded, describing the formation of a train of multiple thunderstorms along a warm front and the evolution of a squall line organized from convective activity initiated offshore Murcia during that morning. Couhet et al. (2011) attributed the correct simulation of the convective system and particularly its organization as a squall line to the correct representation of a convergence line at low-levels over the Alboran Sea during the first hours of the day. The numerical prediction of mesoscale phenomena which initiates, organizes and evolves over the sea is an extremely demanding challenge of great importance for coastal regions. In this study, we investigate the skill of a mesoscale ensemble data assimilation system to predict the severe phenomena occurred on 4th October 2007. We use an Ensemble Kalman Filter which assimilates conventional (surface, radiosonde and AMDAR) data using the DART implementation from (NCAR). On the one hand, we analyse the potential of the assimilation cycle to advect critical observational data towards decisive data-void areas over the sea. Furthermore, we assess the sensitivity of the ensemble products to the ensemble size, grid resolution, assimilation period and physics diversity in the mesoscale model. In particular, we focus on the effect of these numerical configurations on the representation of the convective activity and the precipitation field, as valuable predictands of high impact weather. Results show that the 6-h EnKF assimilation period produces initial fields that successfully represent the environment in which initiation occurred and thus the derived numerical predictions render improved

  7. Portable Weather Applications for General Aviation Pilots. (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Ulf; Ohneiser, Oliver; Caddigan, Eamon


    The objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits and impact on pilot behavior from the use of portable weather applications. Seventy general aviation (GA) pilots participated in the study. Each pilot was randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group and flew a simulated single-engine GA aircraft, initially under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The experimental group was equipped with a portable weather application during flight. We recorded measures for weather situation awareness (WSA), decision making, cognitive engagement, and distance from the aircraft to hazardous weather. We found positive effects from the use of the portable weather application, with an increased WSA for the experimental group, which resulted in credibly larger route deviations and credibly greater distances to hazardous weather (≥30 dBZ cells) compared with the control group. Nevertheless, both groups flew less than 20 statute miles from hazardous weather cells, thus failing to follow current weather-avoidance guidelines. We also found a credibly higher cognitive engagement (prefrontal oxygenation levels) for the experimental group, possibly reflecting increased flight planning and decision making on the part of the pilots. Overall, the study outcome supports our hypothesis that portable weather displays can be used without degrading pilot performance on safety-related flight tasks, actions, and decisions as measured within the constraints of the present study. However, it also shows that an increased WSA does not automatically translate to enhanced flight behavior. The study outcome contributes to our knowledge of the effect of portable weather applications on pilot behavior and decision making. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Measuring weather for aviation safety in the 1980's (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.


    Requirements for an improved aviation weather system are defined and specifically include the need for (1) weather observations at all airports with instrument approaches, (2) more accurate and timely radar detection of weather elements hazardous to aviation, and (3) better methods of timely distribution of both pilot reports and ground weather data. The development of the discrete address beacon system data link, Doppler weather radar network, and various information processing techniques are described.

  9. A short-range weather prediction system for South Africa based on a multi-model approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Landman5_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 44898 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Landman5_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 1 A short... to be skillful. Moreover, the system outscores the forecast skill of the individual models. Keywords: short-range, ensemble, forecasting, precipitation, multi-model, verification Tel: +27 12 367 6054...

  10. Extending to seasonal scales the current usage of short range weather forecasts and climate projections for water management in Spain (United States)

    Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto; Voces, José; Sánchez, Eroteida; Navascues, Beatriz; Pouget, Laurent; Roldan, Tamara; Gómez, Manuel; Cabello, Angels; Comas, Pau; Pastor, Fernando; Concepción García-Gómez, M.°; José Gil, Juan; Gil, Delfina; Galván, Rogelio; Solera, Abel


    This presentation, first, briefly describes the current use of weather forecasts and climate projections delivered by AEMET for water management in Spain. The potential use of seasonal climate predictions for water -in particular dams- management is then discussed more in-depth, using a pilot experience carried out by a multidisciplinary group coordinated by AEMET and DG for Water of Spain. This initiative is being developed in the framework of the national implementation of the GFCS and the European project, EUPORIAS. Among the main components of this experience there are meteorological and hydrological observations, and an empirical seasonal forecasting technique that provides an ensemble of water reservoir inflows. These forecasted inflows feed a prediction model for the dam state that has been adapted for this purpose. The full system is being tested retrospectively, over several decades, for selected water reservoirs located in different Spanish river basins. The assessment includes an objective verification of the probabilistic seasonal forecasts using standard metrics, and the evaluation of the potential social and economic benefits, with special attention to drought and flooding conditions. The methodology of implementation of these seasonal predictions in the decision making process is being developed in close collaboration with final users participating in this pilot experience.

  11. New Technologies for Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., III; Jarrell, Michael A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed technologies to reduce aviation weather-related accidents. New technologies are presented for data-link and display of weather information to aircraft in flight, for detection of turbulence ahead of aircraft in flight, and for automated insitu reporting of atmospheric conditions from aircraft.

  12. Adverse weather impact on aviation safety, investigation and oversight (United States)

    Smith, M. J.


    A brief review of the weather factors that effect aviation safety with respect to U.S. Coast Guard operations is presented. Precise meteorological information is an absolute necessity to the Coast Guard which must conduct life saving and rescue operations under the worst of weather conditions. Many times the weather conditions in which they operate are the cause of or a contributing factor to the predicament from which they must execute a rescue operation.

  13. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) (United States)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)


    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  14. A Meteorological Supersite for Aviation and Cold Weather Applications (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Komar, J.; Elfstrom, G.; Boudala, F.; Zhou, B.


    The goal of this study is to better understand atmospheric boundary layer processes and parameters, and to evaluate physical processes for aviation applications using data from a supersite observing site. Various meteorological sensors, including a weather and environmental unmanned aerial vehicle (WE-UAV), and a fog and snow tower (FSOS) observations are part of the project. The PanAm University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Meteorological Supersite (PUMS) observations are being collected from April 2015 to date. The FSOS tower gathers observations related to rain, snow, fog, and visibility, aerosols, solar radiation, and wind and turbulence, as well as surface and sky temperature. The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. The WE-UAV measurements representing aerosol, wind speed and direction, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are provided during clear weather conditions. Other measurements at the PUMS site include cloud backscattering profiles from CL51 ceilometer, MWR observations of liquid water content (LWC), T, and RH, and Microwave Rain Radar (MRR) reflectivity profile, as well as the present weather type, snow water depth, icing rate, 3D-ultrasonic wind and turbulence, and conventional meteorological observations from compact weather stations, e.g., WXTs. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given. The microphysical parameterizations and analysis processes for each event are provided, but the results should not be generalized for all weather events and be used cautiously. Results suggested that integrated observing systems based on data from a supersite as well as satellite sites can provide better information applicable to aviation meteorology, including PBL weather research, validation of numerical weather model predictions, and

  15. Aviation & Space Weather Policy Research: Integrating Space Weather Observations & Forecasts into Operations (United States)

    Fisher, G.; Jones, B.


    The American Meteorological Society and SolarMetrics Limited are conducting a policy research project leading to recommendations that will increase the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the nation's airline operations through more effective use of space weather forecasts and information. This study, which is funded by a 3-year National Science Foundation grant, also has the support of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) who is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System. A major component involves interviewing and bringing together key people in the aviation industry who deal with space weather information. This research also examines public and industrial strategies and plans to respond to space weather information. The focus is to examine policy issues in implementing effective application of space weather services to the management of the nation's aviation system. The results from this project will provide government and industry leaders with additional tools and information to make effective decisions with respect to investments in space weather research and services. While space weather can impact the entire aviation industry, and this project will address national and international issues, the primary focus will be on developing a U.S. perspective for the airlines.

  16. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors (United States)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas


    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  17. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status (United States)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth


    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  18. Proceedings of the Second NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Review (United States)

    Martzaklis, K. Gus (Compiler)


    The Second NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Annual Project Review held June 5-7, 2001, in Cleveland, Ohio, presented the NASA technical plans and accomplishments to the aviation community. NASA-developed technologies presented included an Aviation Weather Information System with associated digital communications links, electronic atmospheric reporting technologies, forward-looking turbulence warning systems, and turbulence mitigation procedures. The meeting provided feedback and insight from the aviation community of diverse backgrounds and assisted NASA in steering its plans in the direction needed to meet the national safety goal of 80-percent reduction of aircraft accidents by 2007. The proceedings of the review are enclosed.

  19. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron


    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  20. Convection Weather Detection by General Aviation Pilots with Convectional and Data-Linked Graphical Weather Information Sources (United States)

    Chamberlain, James P.; Latorella, Kara A.


    This study compares how well general aviation (GA) pilots detect convective weather in flight with different weather information sources. A flight test was conducted in which GA pilot test subjects were given different in-flight weather information cues and flown toward convective weather of moderate or greater intensity. The test subjects were not actually flying the aircraft, but were given pilot tasks representative of the workload and position awareness requirements of the en route portion of a cross country GA flight. On each flight, one test subject received weather cues typical of a flight in visual meteorological conditions (VMC), another received cues typical of flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), and a third received cues typical of flight in IMC but augmented with a graphical weather information system (GWIS). The GWIS provided the subject with near real time data-linked weather products, including a weather radar mosaic superimposed on a moving map with a symbol depicting the aircraft's present position and direction of track. At several points during each flight, the test subjects completed short questionnaires which included items addressing their weather situation awareness and flight decisions. In particular, test subjects were asked to identify the location of the nearest convective cells. After the point of nearest approach to convective weather, the test subjects were asked to draw the location of convective weather on an aeronautical chart, along with the aircraft's present position. This paper reports preliminary results on how accurately test subjects provided with these different weather sources could identify the nearest cell of moderate or greater intensity along their route of flight. Additional flight tests are currently being conducted to complete the data set.

  1. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios (United States)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.


    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  2. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent


    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  3. Short-range communication system (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)


    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  4. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kin Wong


    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  5. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  6. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.


    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  7. Implications of Automotive and Trucking On-Board Information Systems for General Aviation Cockpit Weather Systems (United States)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin


    In this study, current characteristics and future developments of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the automobile and trucking industry are investigated to identify the possible implications of such systems for General Aviation (GA) cockpit weather systems. First, ITS are explained based on tracing their historical development in various countries. Then, current systems and the enabling communication technologies are discussed. Finally, a market analysis for GA is included.

  8. Modeling the weather impact on aviation in a global air traffic model (United States)

    Himmelsbach, S.; Hauf, T.; Rokitansky, C. H.


    Weather has a strong impact on aviation safety and efficiency. For a better understanding of that impact, especially of thunderstorms and similar other severe hazards, we pursued a modeling approach. We used the detailed simulation software (NAVSIM) of worldwide air traffic, developed by Rokitansky [Eurocontrol, 2005] and implemented a specific weather module. NAVSIM models each aircraft with its specific performance characteristics separately along preplanned and prescribed routes. The specific weather module in its current version simulates a thunderstorm as an impenetrable 3D object, which forces an aircraft to circumvent the latter. We refer to that object in general terms as a weather object. The Cb-weather object, as a specific weather object, is a heuristic model of a real thunderstorm, with its characteristics based on actually observed satellite and precipitation radar data. It is comprised of an upper volume, mostly the anvil, and a bottom volume, the up- and downdrafts and the lower outflow area [Tafferner and Forster, 2009; Kober and Tafferner 2009; Zinner et al, 2008]. The Cb-weather object is already implemented in NAVSIM, other weather objects like icing and turbulence will follow. This combination of NAVSIM with a weather object allows a detailed investigation of situations where conflicts exist between planned flight routes and adverse weather. The first objective is to simulate the observed circum-navigation in NAVSIM. Real occurring routes will be compared with simulated ones. Once this has successfully completed, NAVSIM offers a platform to assess existing rules and develop more efficient strategies to cope with adverse weather. An overview will be given over the implementation status of weather objects within NAVSIM and first results will be presented. Cb-object data provision by A. Tafferner, C. Forster, T. Zinner, K. Kober, M. Hagen (DLR Oberpfaffenhofen) is greatly acknowledged. References: Eurocontrol, VDL Mode 2 Capacity Analysis through

  9. Aviation. (United States)

    Karl, Richard C


    An increased awareness of the need for safety in medicine in general and in surgery in particular has prompted comparisons between the cockpit and the operating room. These comparisons seem to make sense but tend to be oversimplified. Attempts in healthcare to mimic programs that have been credited for the safety of commercial aviation have met with varying results. The risk here is that oversimplified application of an aviation model may result in the abandonment of good ideas in medicine. This paper describes in more depth the differences between medicine and commercial aviation: from the hiring process, through initial operating experience, recurrent training, and the management of emergencies. These programs add up to a cultural difference. Aviation assumes that personnel are subject to mistake making and that systems and culture need to be constructed to catch and mitigate error; medicine is still focused on the perfection of each individual's performance. The implications of these differences are explored.

  10. Sensor performance considerations for aviation weather observations for the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL CT-AWX) (United States)

    Murray, John; Helms, David; Miner, Cecilia


    Airspace system demand is expected to increase as much as 300 percent by the year 2025 and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being developed to accommodate the super-density operations that this will entail. Concomitantly, significant improvements in observations and forecasting are being undertaken to support NextGen which will require greatly improved and more uniformly applied data for aviation weather hazards and constraints which typically comprise storm-scale and microscale observables. Various phenomena are associated with these hazards and constraints such as convective weather, in-flight icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash as well as more mundane aviation parameters such as cloud tops and bases and fuel-freeze temperatures at various flight levels. Emerging problems for aviation in space weather and the environmental impacts of aviation are also occurring at these scales. Until recently, the threshold and objective observational requirements for these observables had not been comprehensively documented in a single, authoritative source. Scientists at NASA and NOAA have recently completed this task and have established baseline observational requirements for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and expanded and updated the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL) for Aviation (CT-AWX) to better inform National Weather Service investments for current and future observing systems. This paper describes the process and results of this effort. These comprehensive aviation observation requirements will now be used to conduct gap analyses for the aviation component of the Integrated Earth Observing System and to inform the investment strategies of the FAA, NASA, and NOAA that are needed to develop the observational architecture to support NextGen and other users of storm and microscale observations.

  11. Magnetic short range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.


    Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate magnetic short range order in Gd for 80 0 K 0 K. Short range order exists throughout this range from well below T/sub C/ = 291 0 K to well above it and can be reasonably well described by an anisotropic Orstein-Zernike form for chi

  12. Short-range correlations with pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.


    Short-range correlations in nuclei are considered on an unitary-model operator approach. Short-range pseudopotentials have been added to achieve healing in the correlated wave functions. With the introduction of the pseudopotentials, correlated basis wave functions are constructed. The matrix element for effective interaction in nuclei is developed. The required pseudopotentials have been calculated for the Hamda-Johnston, Yale and Reid potentials and for the nuclear nucleon-nucleon potential A calculated by us according to meson exchange between nucleons. (Osman, A.)

  13. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy


    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  14. Causes of General Aviation Weather-Related, Non-Fatal Incidents: Analysis Using NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Data (United States)


    first, fol- lowed by detailed analysis, finishing with a recap of the same conclusions. In technical terms, this cognitively primes11 the reader and...lowering ceiling, clouds, fog, rain, rising cloud tops, merging cloud layers) b) icing c) thunderstorms d) turbulence 11 In cognitive priming... stylistic differences in the way pilots tend to handle weather. In fact, each group seems to have problems with the exact worst category of weather with

  15. Short range order of selenite glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neov, S.; Gerasimova, I.; Yordanov, S.; Lakov, L.; Mikula, Pavol; Lukáš, Petr


    Roč. 40, č. 2 (1999), s. 111-112 ISSN 0031-9090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : short range * selenite glasses Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.822, year: 1999

  16. Implementation of Polar WRF for short range prediction of weather ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An inter-comparison of the time series of daily mean sea level pressure and sur- face winds of Maitri ..... face winds are two important parameters from the forecasting point of .... Forecast para- meters considered for this exercise are: (a) mean.

  17. Magnetic short-range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.


    The magnetic short-range order in a ferromagnetic, isotopically enriched 160 Gd metal single crystal has been investigated by quasielastic scattering of 81-meV neutrons. Since Gd behaves as an S-state ion in the metal, little anisotropy is expected in its magnetic behavior. However, the data show that there is anisotropic short-range order present over a large temperature interval both above and below T/sub C/. The data have been analyzed in terms of an Ornstein-Zernike Lorentzian form with anisotropic correlation ranges. These correlation ranges as deduced from the observed data behave normally above T/sub C/ but seem to remain constant over a fairly large interval below T/sub C/ before becoming unobservable at lower temperatures. These observations suggest that the magnetic ordering in Gd may be a more complicated phenomenon than first believed

  18. Brownian motion in short range random potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.H.; Romero, A.H.; Sancho, J.M.


    A numerical study of Brownian motion of noninteracting particles in random potentials is presented. The dynamics are modeled by Langevin equations in the high friction limit. The random potentials are Gaussian distributed and short ranged. The simulations are performed in one and two dimensions. Different dynamical regimes are found and explained. Effective subdiffusive exponents are obtained and commented on. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Nonlocality and short-range wetting phenomena. (United States)

    Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M; Lazarides, A


    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  20. Nonlocality and Short-Range Wetting Phenomena (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Lazarides, A.


    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  1. Short range order in liquid pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, M; Makov, G; Yahel, E; Greenberg, Y


    Liquid pnictides have anomalous physical properties and complex radial distribution functions. The quasi-crystalline model of liquid structure is applied to interpret the three-dimensional structure of liquid pnictides. It is shown that all the column V elements can be characterized by a short range order lattice symmetry similar to that of the underlying solid, the A7 structure, which originates from a Peierls distorted simple cubic lattice. The evolution of the liquid structure down the column as well as its temperature and pressure dependence is interpreted by means of the effect of thermodynamic parameters on the Peierls distortion. Surprisingly, it is found that the Peierls effect increases with temperature and the nearest neighbour distances exhibit negative thermal expansion. (paper)

  2. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Boris A.


    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q 0 | 0 --a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q 0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q 2 (δε) -1 which becomes dominant for δε 3 . Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  3. The Joint Airport Weather Studies Project - Current analysis highlights in the aviation safety context (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.


    The principal objective of the Joint Airport Weather Studies Project was to obtain high-resolution velocity, turbulence, and thermodynamic data on a convective outflow called a microburst, an intense downdraft and resulting horizontal outflow near the surface. Data collection occurred during the summer of 1982 near Denver, CO. Data sensors included three pulsed-microwave Doppler and two pulsed CO2 lidar radars, along with 27 Portable Automated Mesonet surface weather stations, the FAA's low-level-wind-shear alert system (LLWSAS), and five instrumented research aircraft. Convective storms occurred on 75 of 91 operational days, with Doppler data being collected on at least 70 microbursts. Analyses reported included a thorough examination of microburst-climatology statistics, the capability of the LLWSAS to detect adequately and accurately the presence of low-altitude wind shear danger to aircraft, the capability of a terminal Doppler radar system development to provide improved wind-shear detection and warning, and progress toward improved wind-shear training for pilots.

  4. Magnetic short range order and the exchange coupling in magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.P.


    We discuss our recent results of time-dependent density functional simulations of magnetic properties of Fe and Ni at finite temperatures. These results indicated that a strong magnetic short range order is responsible for the magnetic properties of elementary Ni and any itinerant magnet in general. We demonstrated that one can use the value of the magnetic short range order parameter to produce new quantitative classification of magnets. We also discuss the nature of the exchange coupling and its connection with the short range order. The spin-wave like propagating and diffusive excitations in paramagnetic localized systems with small short range order have been predicted while in the itinerant systems the short range order is more complicated. The possible smallness of the quantum factor in the itinerant magnets with short range order is discussed

  5. Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)


    For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.

  6. Combining 2-m temperature nowcasting and short range ensemble forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kann


    Full Text Available During recent years, numerical ensemble prediction systems have become an important tool for estimating the uncertainties of dynamical and physical processes as represented in numerical weather models. The latest generation of limited area ensemble prediction systems (LAM-EPSs allows for probabilistic forecasts at high resolution in both space and time. However, these systems still suffer from systematic deficiencies. Especially for nowcasting (0–6 h applications the ensemble spread is smaller than the actual forecast error. This paper tries to generate probabilistic short range 2-m temperature forecasts by combining a state-of-the-art nowcasting method and a limited area ensemble system, and compares the results with statistical methods. The Integrated Nowcasting Through Comprehensive Analysis (INCA system, which has been in operation at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG since 2006 (Haiden et al., 2011, provides short range deterministic forecasts at high temporal (15 min–60 min and spatial (1 km resolution. An INCA Ensemble (INCA-EPS of 2-m temperature forecasts is constructed by applying a dynamical approach, a statistical approach, and a combined dynamic-statistical method. The dynamical method takes uncertainty information (i.e. ensemble variance from the operational limited area ensemble system ALADIN-LAEF (Aire Limitée Adaptation Dynamique Développement InterNational Limited Area Ensemble Forecasting which is running operationally at ZAMG (Wang et al., 2011. The purely statistical method assumes a well-calibrated spread-skill relation and applies ensemble spread according to the skill of the INCA forecast of the most recent past. The combined dynamic-statistical approach adapts the ensemble variance gained from ALADIN-LAEF with non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR which yields a statistical mbox{correction} of the first and second moment (mean bias and dispersion for Gaussian distributed continuous

  7. Isobar configurations in nuclei and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, H J


    Recent results on short range correlations and isobar configurations are reviewed, and in particular a unitary version of the isobar model, coupling constants and rho -meson transition potentials, a comparison with experiments, the CERN N*-knockout from /sup 4/He, QCD and the NN interaction of short range. (42 refs).

  8. Short-range solar radiation forecasts over Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Landelius


    Full Text Available In this article the performance for short-range solar radiation forecasts by the global deterministic and ensemble models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF is compared with an ensemble of the regional mesoscale model HARMONIE-AROME used by the national meteorological services in Sweden, Norway and Finland. Note however that only the control members and the ensemble means are included in the comparison. The models resolution differs considerably with 18 km for the ECMWF ensemble, 9 km for the ECMWF deterministic model, and 2.5 km for the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble.The models share the same radiation code. It turns out that they all underestimate systematically the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI for clear-sky conditions. Except for this shortcoming, the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble model shows the best agreement with the distribution of observed Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI and DNI values. During mid-day the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble mean performs best. The control member of the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble also scores better than the global deterministic ECMWF model. This is an interesting result since mesoscale models have so far not shown good results when compared to the ECMWF models.Three days with clear, mixed and cloudy skies are used to illustrate the possible added value of a probabilistic forecast. It is shown that in these cases the mesoscale ensemble could provide decision support to a grid operator in terms of forecasts of both the amount of solar power and its probabilities.

  9. Impact of additional surface observation network on short range ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stations (AWS) surface observations (temperature and moisture) on the short range forecast over the Indian ... models, which are able to resolve mesoscale fea- ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. ..... terization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Climate.

  10. Measurements of short-range ordering in Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.K.; Ahn, C.C.


    This paper reports on extended electron energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) that has been used to measure short-range ordering in Ni 3 Al. Films of fcc Ni 3 Al with suppressed short-range order synthesized by vacuum evaporation of Ni 3 Al onto room temperature substrates. EXELFS data were taken from both Al K and Ni L 23 edges. The development of short-range order was observed after the samples were annealed for various times at temperatures below 350 degrees C. Upon comparison with ab initio planewave EXELFS calculations, it was found that the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter a(1nn) changed by about -0.1 after 210 minutes of annealing at 150 degrees C

  11. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian


    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  12. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.


    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  13. Short-range components of nuclear forces: Experiment versus mythology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V. I.; Platonova, M. N.


    The present-day situation around the description of various (central, spin-orbit, and tensor) components of short-range nuclear forces is discussed. A traditional picture of these interactions based on the idea of one-meson exchange is contrasted against numerous results of recent experiments. As is shown in the present study, these results often deviate strongly from the predictions of traditional models. One can therefore state that such models are inapplicable to describing short-range nuclear forces and that it is necessary to go over from a traditional description to some alternative QCD-based (or QCD-motivated) picture. This means that, despite the widespread popularity of traditional concepts of short-range nuclear forces and their applicability in many particular cases, these concepts are not more than scientific myths that show their inconsistency when analyzed from the viewpoint of the modern experiment

  14. A short-range ensemble prediction system for southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Park, R


    Full Text Available system for southern Africa R PARK, WA LANDMAN AND F ENGELBRECHT CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: ? INTRODUCTION This research has been conducted in order to develop a short-range ensemble... stream_source_info Park_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7211 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Park_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 A short-range ensemble prediction...

  15. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten


    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...

  16. High-Capacity Short-Range Optical Communication Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna

    Over the last decade, we have observed a tremendous spread of end-user mobile devices. The user base of a mobile application can grow or shrink by millions per day. This situation creates a pressing need for highly scalable server infrastructure; a need nowadays satisfied through cloud computing...... offered by data centers. As the popularity of cloud computing soars, the demand for high-speed, short-range data center links grows. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multimode fibers (MMF) prove especially well-suited for such scenarios. VCSELs have high modulation bandwidths......, we achieve 10 Gbps over 400 m and then conrm the approach in an optimized system at 25 Gbps over 300 m. The techniques described in this thesis leverage additional degrees of freedom to better utilize the available resources of short-range links. The proposed schemes enable higher speeds and longer...

  17. Schroedinger operators with point interactions and short range expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Oslo Univ.


    We give a survey of recent results concerning Schroedinger operators with point interactions in R 3 . In the case where the point interactions are located at a discrete set of points we discuss results about the resolvent, the spectrum, the resonances and the scattering quantities. We also discuss the approximation of point interactions by short range local potentials (short range or low energy expansions) and the one electron model of a 3-dimensional crystal. Moreover we discuss Schroedinger operators with Coulomb plus point interactions, with applications to the determination of scattering lengths and of level shifts in mesic atoms. Further applications to the multiple well problem, to multiparticle systems, to crystals with random impurities, to polymers and quantum fields are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  18. Thermodynamic properties of short-range square well fluid (United States)

    López-Rendón, R.; Reyes, Y.; Orea, P.


    The interfacial properties of short-range square well fluid with λ =1.15, 1.25, and 1.375 were determined by using single canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations were carried out in the vapor-liquid region. The coexistence curves of these models were calculated and compared to those previously reported in the literature and good agreement was found among them. We found that the surface tension curves for any potential model of short range form a single master curve when we plot γ* vs T /Tc. It is demonstrated that the critical reduced second virial coefficient B2* as a function of interaction range or Tc* is not constant.

  19. Recent results on short-range gravity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Maki; Akiyama, Takashi; Ikeda, Yuki; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Narita, Keigo; Ninomiya, Kazufumi; Ogawa, Naruya; Sato, Toshiaki; Seitaibashi, Etsuko; Sekiguchi, Yuta; Tsutsui, Ryosuke; Yazawa, Kazumasa; Murata, Jiro


    According to the ADD model, deviation from Newton's inverse square law is expected at below sub-millimeter scale. Present study is an experimental investigation of the Newton's gravitational law at a short range scale. We have developed an experimental setup using torsion balance bar, and succeeded to confirm the inverse square law at a centimeter scale. In addition, composition dependence of gravitational constant G is also tested at the centimeter scale, motivated to test the weak equivalence principle.

  20. Chemical and topological short-range order in metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, I.; Schaafsma, A.S.; Van der Woude, F.; Kemeny, T.; Lovas, A.


    Moessbauer spectroscopy is applied to the study of chemical short-range order in (Fe,Ni)B metallic glasses. It is found that the atomic arrangement in melt-quenched glasses closely resembles that of the crystalline counterparts (Fe 3 B is tetragonal, Ni 3 B is orthorombic). The distribution of transition metal atoms is not random at high Ni concentrations: Ni atoms prefer a neighbourhood with a higher boron coordination. (P.L.)

  1. Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemel, Frank


    In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  2. Level shifts induced by a short-range potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnakov, B.M.; Mur, V.D.


    Formulas are derived which express the shifts of levels with energies Esub(n)sup((0)) << rsub(c)sup(-2) in a field Vsub(f)(r) induced by a short-range potential U(r) of radius rsub(c) in terms of the low energy scattering parameters (scattering length and effective radius) with a moment l in the potential. If the interaction between the particle and center is nonresonant, the method developed is identical to perturbation theory on the scattering length. The theory is extended to systems with random degeneracy (Vsub(f) is the Coulomb potential). Formulas describing quasi-intersection of terms are obtained for the case of resonance interaction with the center in a partial wave with l not equal to 0 when energetically close levels are present in both U and Vsub(f). Some features of the level shift are mentioned for the case when the level possesses an anomalously small coupling energy and its coresponding wave function becomes delocalized with decrease of the coupling energy to zero. The problem is discussed of the level shift when the potential Vsub(f) is a potential well surrounded by a weaklyt penetrable barrier. Some applications of the theory to a particle in the field of two short-range potentials or in the field of a short-range and Coulomb centers are considered. Formulas are also obtained for the shifts and widths of the Landau levels and of the shallow level with an arbitrary moment which perturbs the Landau levels

  3. Influence of short range ordering and clustering on transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigier, G.; Pelletier, J.M.


    The influence of short range ordering and clustering phenomena on the electrical resistivity p and the thermopower S is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. According to the considered alloys either increases or decreases of transport properties may be observed when deviations from a random distribution of solute atoms occur. These observations are explained with a model based on free electrons and Born approximations the importance of the potential choice is underlined; two kinds of description of the structure factor are investigated. A good semiquantitative agreement is obtained between computed results and experimental observations

  4. Amorphous photonic crystals with only short-range order. (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Zhan, Tianrong; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian


    Distinct from conventional photonic crystals with both short- and long-range order, amorphous photonic crystals that possess only short-range order show interesting optical responses owing to their unique structural features. Amorphous photonic crystals exhibit unique light scattering and transport, which lead to a variety of interesting phenomena such as isotropic photonic bandgaps or pseudogaps, noniridescent structural colors, and light localization. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the study of amorphous photonic crystals are summarized, focusing on their unique optical properties, artificial fabrication, bionspiration, and potential applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dynamical arrest in dense short-ranged attractive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foffi, G; Sciortino, F; Zaccarelli, E; Tartaglia, P


    We study thermodynamic and dynamic properties of model colloidal systems interacting with a hard core repulsion and a short-range attraction, and provide an overall picture of their phase diagrams which shows a very rich phenomenology. We focus on the slow dynamic properties of this model, investigating in detail the glass transition lines (both repulsive and attractive), the glass-glass transitions and the location of the higher order singularities. We discuss the relative location of the glass lines and of the metastable liquid-gas binodal, an issue relevant for the understanding of low density arrested states of matter

  6. The nuclear contacts and short range correlations in nuclei (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Cruz-Torres, R.; Barnea, N.; Piasetzky, E.; Hen, O.


    Atomic nuclei are complex strongly interacting systems and their exact theoretical description is a long-standing challenge. An approximate description of nuclei can be achieved by separating its short and long range structure. This separation of scales stands at the heart of the nuclear shell model and effective field theories that describe the long-range structure of the nucleus using a mean-field approximation. We present here an effective description of the complementary short-range structure using contact terms and stylized two-body asymptotic wave functions. The possibility to extract the nuclear contacts from experimental data is presented. Regions in the two-body momentum distribution dominated by high-momentum, close-proximity, nucleon pairs are identified and compared to experimental data. The amount of short-range correlated (SRC) nucleon pairs is determined and compared to measurements. Non-combinatorial isospin symmetry for SRC pairs is identified. The obtained one-body momentum distributions indicate dominance of SRC pairs above the nuclear Fermi-momentum.

  7. Unsupervised learning in neural networks with short range synapses (United States)

    Brunnet, L. G.; Agnes, E. J.; Mizusaki, B. E. P.; Erichsen, R., Jr.


    Different areas of the brain are involved in specific aspects of the information being processed both in learning and in memory formation. For example, the hippocampus is important in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, while emotional memory seems to be dealt by the amygdala. On the microscopic scale the underlying structures in these areas differ in the kind of neurons involved, in their connectivity, or in their clustering degree but, at this level, learning and memory are attributed to neuronal synapses mediated by longterm potentiation and long-term depression. In this work we explore the properties of a short range synaptic connection network, a nearest neighbor lattice composed mostly by excitatory neurons and a fraction of inhibitory ones. The mechanism of synaptic modification responsible for the emergence of memory is Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP), a Hebbian-like rule, where potentiation/depression is acquired when causal/non-causal spikes happen in a synapse involving two neurons. The system is intended to store and recognize memories associated to spatial external inputs presented as simple geometrical forms. The synaptic modifications are continuously applied to excitatory connections, including a homeostasis rule and STDP. In this work we explore the different scenarios under which a network with short range connections can accomplish the task of storing and recognizing simple connected patterns.

  8. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Nguyen, L.; Palikonda, R.; Hong, G.; Trepte, Q.; Chee, T.; Scarino, B. R.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Fleeger, C.; Ayers, J. K.; Chang, F. L.; Heck, P. W.


    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  9. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation (United States)

    Grantier, David


    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  10. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Hong, Gang; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chee, Thad; Scarino, Benjamin; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; hide


    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-­-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-­-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-­-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  11. Short range order in FeCo-X alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, B.


    Moessbauer spectrometry was used to study the kinetics of chemical ordering in FeCo and in FeCo alloyed with ternary solutes. With respect to the binary FeCo alloy, the kinetics of B2 ordering were slowed when 2% of 4d- or 5d-series ternary solute atoms were present, but 3p- and 3d-series ternary solutes had little effect on ordering kinetics. The relaxation of order around the ternary solute atoms could be discerned in Moessbauer spectra, and it seems that the development of B2 short range order is influenced by structural relaxations around the ternary solute atoms. Different thermal treatments were shown to cause different relaxations of and correlations, suggesting that Moessbauer spectrometry can be used to identify different kinetic paths of ordering in ternary alloys. (orig.)

  12. Short-range disorder in pseudobinary ionic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cicco, Andrea; Principi, Emiliano; Filipponi, Adriano


    The short-range distribution functions of the RbBr 1-x I x solid and molten ionic alloys have been accurately measured using multiple-edge refinement of the K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra (EXAFS). The local structure is characterized by two well-defined first-neighbor peaks associated with the Rb-I and Rb-Br distributions, both for solid and liquid alloys. The distribution of distances in solid alloys gives experimental evidence to available theoretical models. In the liquid, the two distance distributions are found to be practically independent of the concentration x. The effect of different effective charge screening of the ions is observed in the molten systems for limiting concentrations

  13. Kernel optimization for short-range molecular dynamics (United States)

    Hu, Changjun; Wang, Xianmeng; Li, Jianjiang; He, Xinfu; Li, Shigang; Feng, Yangde; Yang, Shaofeng; Bai, He


    To optimize short-range force computations in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, multi-threading and SIMD optimizations are presented in this paper. With respect to multi-threading optimization, a Partition-and-Separate-Calculation (PSC) method is designed to avoid write conflicts caused by using Newton's third law. Serial bottlenecks are eliminated with no additional memory usage. The method is implemented by using the OpenMP model. Furthermore, the PSC method is employed on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors in both native and offload models. We also evaluate the performance of the PSC method under different thread affinities on the MIC architecture. In the SIMD execution, we explain the performance influence in the PSC method, considering the "if-clause" of the cutoff radius check. The experiment results show that our PSC method is relatively more efficient compared to some traditional methods. In double precision, our 256-bit SIMD implementation is about 3 times faster than the scalar version.

  14. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Multiphase Flow Research, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)


    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff’s law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  15. Impact of additional surface observation network on short range ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has recently deployed a high-density network of. AWS over whole of India ... Weather with Observational Meso-Network and. Atmospheric Modeling .... of data assimilation in cyclic mode. In the cyclic data assimilation, model integrates forward in time and the information content propagates with the model flow. Advection of ...

  16. Pilot Weather Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  17. Land Surface Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  18. Hybrid gesture recognition system for short-range use (United States)

    Minagawa, Akihiro; Fan, Wei; Katsuyama, Yutaka; Takebe, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Noriaki; Hotta, Yoshinobu; Sun, Jun


    In recent years, various gesture recognition systems have been studied for use in television and video games[1]. In such systems, motion areas ranging from 1 to 3 meters deep have been evaluated[2]. However, with the burgeoning popularity of small mobile displays, gesture recognition systems capable of operating at much shorter ranges have become necessary. The problems related to such systems are exacerbated by the fact that the camera's field of view is unknown to the user during operation, which imposes several restrictions on his/her actions. To overcome the restrictions generated from such mobile camera devices, and to create a more flexible gesture recognition interface, we propose a hybrid hand gesture system, in which two types of gesture recognition modules are prepared and with which the most appropriate recognition module is selected by a dedicated switching module. The two recognition modules of this system are shape analysis using a boosting approach (detection-based approach)[3] and motion analysis using image frame differences (motion-based approach)(for example, see[4]). We evaluated this system using sample users and classified the resulting errors into three categories: errors that depend on the recognition module, errors caused by incorrect module identification, and errors resulting from user actions. In this paper, we show the results of our investigations and explain the problems related to short-range gesture recognition systems.

  19. Short-range quantitative precipitation forecasting using Deep Learning approaches (United States)

    Akbari Asanjan, A.; Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.


    Predicting short-range quantitative precipitation is very important for flood forecasting, early flood warning and other hydrometeorological purposes. This study aims to improve the precipitation forecasting skills using a recently developed and advanced machine learning technique named Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). The proposed LSTM learns the changing patterns of clouds from Cloud-Top Brightness Temperature (CTBT) images, retrieved from the infrared channel of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), using a sophisticated and effective learning method. After learning the dynamics of clouds, the LSTM model predicts the upcoming rainy CTBT events. The proposed model is then merged with a precipitation estimation algorithm termed Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) to provide precipitation forecasts. The results of merged LSTM with PERSIANN are compared to the results of an Elman-type Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) merged with PERSIANN and Final Analysis of Global Forecast System model over the states of Oklahoma, Florida and Oregon. The performance of each model is investigated during 3 storm events each located over one of the study regions. The results indicate the outperformance of merged LSTM forecasts comparing to the numerical and statistical baselines in terms of Probability of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Critical Success Index (CSI), RMSE and correlation coefficient especially in convective systems. The proposed method shows superior capabilities in short-term forecasting over compared methods.

  20. Folding of polymer chains with short-range binormal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, A; Terentjev, E M


    We study the structure of chains which have anisotropic short-range contact interactions that depend on the alignment of the binormal vectors of chain segments. This represents a crude model of hydrogen bonding or 'stacking' interactions out of the plane of curvature. The polymers are treated as ribbon-like semi-flexible chains, where the plane of the ribbon is determined by the local binormal. We show that with dipole-dipole interactions between the binormals of contacting chain segments, mean-field theory predicts a first-order transition to a binormally aligned state. We describe the onset of this transition as a function of the temperature-dependent parameters that govern the chain stiffness and the strength of the binormal interaction, as well as the binormal alignment's coupling to chain collapse. We also examine a metastable state governing the folding kinetics. Finally, we discuss the possible mesoscopic structure of the aligned phase, and application of our model to secondary structure motifs like β-sheets and α-helices, as well as composite structures like β-(amyloid) fibrils

  1. Exploiting orbital effects for short-range extravehicular transfers (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    The problem studied in this paper is that of using Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) to carry out efficient short-range transfers from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the vicinity of the underside of the vehicle, for instance for inspection and repair of thermal tiles or umbilical doors. Trajectories are shown to exist, for the shuttle flying noise forward and belly down, that take the astronaut to the vicinity of the underside with no thrusting after the initial push-off. However, these trajectories are too slow to be of practical interest, as they take roughly an hour to execute. Additionally, they are quite sensitive to errors in the initial push-off rates. To overcome both of these difficulties, trajectories are then studied which include a single in-flight impulse of small magnitude ( in the range 0.1 - 0.4 fps). For operational simplicity, this impulse is applied towards the Orbiter at the moment when the line-of -sight of the EVA crewmember is tangential to the underside of the vehicle. These trajectories are considerably faster than the non-impulsive ones: transit times of less than 10 minutes are achievable. Furthermore, the man-in-the-loop feedback scheme used for impulse timing greatly reduces the sensitivity to initial velocity errors. Finally, similar one-impulse trajectories are also shown to exist for the Orbiter in a gravity-gradient attitiude.

  2. Short range spread-spectrum radiolocation system and method (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.


    A short range radiolocation system and associated methods that allow the location of an item, such as equipment, containers, pallets, vehicles, or personnel, within a defined area. A small, battery powered, self-contained tag is provided to an item to be located. The tag includes a spread-spectrum transmitter that transmits a spread-spectrum code and identification information. A plurality of receivers positioned about the area receive signals from a transmitting tag. The position of the tag, and hence the item, is located by triangulation. The system employs three different ranging techniques for providing coarse, intermediate, and fine spatial position resolution. Coarse positioning information is provided by use of direct-sequence code phase transmitted as a spread-spectrum signal. Intermediate positioning information is provided by the use of a difference signal transmitted with the direct-sequence spread-spectrum code. Fine positioning information is provided by use of carrier phase measurements. An algorithm is employed to combine the three data sets to provide accurate location measurements.

  3. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games (United States)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon


    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  4. A short-range weather prediction system for South Africa based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 3, 2012 ... tional high-resolution regional atmospheric models in South Africa. ... have been tested against observed rainfall data over 3 austral summer 6-month periods from 2006/07 to ..... characteristics of a point measurement, making comparison .... metrics give almost a complete diagnostic evaluation of fore-.

  5. The MOLDY short-range molecular dynamics package (United States)

    Ackland, G. J.; D'Mellow, K.; Daraszewicz, S. L.; Hepburn, D. J.; Uhrin, M.; Stratford, K.


    We describe a parallelised version of the MOLDY molecular dynamics program. This Fortran code is aimed at systems which may be described by short-range potentials and specifically those which may be addressed with the embedded atom method. This includes a wide range of transition metals and alloys. MOLDY provides a range of options in terms of the molecular dynamics ensemble used and the boundary conditions which may be applied. A number of standard potentials are provided, and the modular structure of the code allows new potentials to be added easily. The code is parallelised using OpenMP and can therefore be run on shared memory systems, including modern multicore processors. Particular attention is paid to the updates required in the main force loop, where synchronisation is often required in OpenMP implementations of molecular dynamics. We examine the performance of the parallel code in detail and give some examples of applications to realistic problems, including the dynamic compression of copper and carbon migration in an iron-carbon alloy. Program summaryProgram title: MOLDY Catalogue identifier: AEJU_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 382 881 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 705 242 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95/OpenMP Computer: Any Operating system: Any Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes. OpenMP is required for parallel execution RAM: 100 MB or more Classification: 7.7 Nature of problem: Moldy addresses the problem of many atoms (of order 10 6) interacting via a classical interatomic potential on a timescale of microseconds. It is designed for problems where statistics must be gathered over a number of equivalent runs, such as

  6. Meta-heuristic CRPS minimization for the calibration of short-range probabilistic forecasts (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyedeh Atefeh; Rahmani, Morteza; Azadi, Majid


    This paper deals with the probabilistic short-range temperature forecasts over synoptic meteorological stations across Iran using non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR). NGR creates a Gaussian forecast probability density function (PDF) from the ensemble output. The mean of the normal predictive PDF is a bias-corrected weighted average of the ensemble members and its variance is a linear function of the raw ensemble variance. The coefficients for the mean and variance are estimated by minimizing the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) during a training period. CRPS is a scoring rule for distributional forecasts. In the paper of Gneiting et al. (Mon Weather Rev 133:1098-1118, 2005), Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method is used to minimize the CRPS. Since BFGS is a conventional optimization method with its own limitations, we suggest using the particle swarm optimization (PSO), a robust meta-heuristic method, to minimize the CRPS. The ensemble prediction system used in this study consists of nine different configurations of the weather research and forecasting model for 48-h forecasts of temperature during autumn and winter 2011 and 2012. The probabilistic forecasts were evaluated using several common verification scores including Brier score, attribute diagram and rank histogram. Results show that both BFGS and PSO find the optimal solution and show the same evaluation scores, but PSO can do this with a feasible random first guess and much less computational complexity.

  7. A novel nuclear dependence of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Hongkai [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Rong, E-mail: [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Yin [Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xurong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    A linear correlation is found between the magnitude of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations and the nuclear binding energy per nucleon with pairing energy removed. By using this relation, the strengths of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations of some unmeasured nuclei are predicted. Discussions on nucleon–nucleon pairing energy and nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations are made. The found nuclear dependence of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations may shed some lights on the short-range structure of nucleus.

  8. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education [National Aviation Education Workshop]. (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to aviation, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in aviation. (CP)

  9. Short-Range Prediction of Monsoon Precipitation by NCMRWF Regional Unified Model with Explicit Convection (United States)

    Mamgain, Ashu; Rajagopal, E. N.; Mitra, A. K.; Webster, S.


    There are increasing efforts towards the prediction of high-impact weather systems and understanding of related dynamical and physical processes. High-resolution numerical model simulations can be used directly to model the impact at fine-scale details. Improvement in forecast accuracy can help in disaster management planning and execution. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) has implemented high-resolution regional unified modeling system with explicit convection embedded within coarser resolution global model with parameterized convection. The models configurations are based on UK Met Office unified seamless modeling system. Recent land use/land cover data (2012-2013) obtained from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) are also used in model simulations. Results based on short-range forecast of both the global and regional models over India for a month indicate that convection-permitting simulations by the high-resolution regional model is able to reduce the dry bias over southern parts of West Coast and monsoon trough zone with more intense rainfall mainly towards northern parts of monsoon trough zone. Regional model with explicit convection has significantly improved the phase of the diurnal cycle of rainfall as compared to the global model. Results from two monsoon depression cases during study period show substantial improvement in details of rainfall pattern. Many categories in rainfall defined for operational forecast purposes by Indian forecasters are also well represented in case of convection-permitting high-resolution simulations. For the statistics of number of days within a range of rain categories between `No-Rain' and `Heavy Rain', the regional model is outperforming the global model in all the ranges. In the very heavy and extremely heavy categories, the regional simulations show overestimation of rainfall days. Global model with parameterized convection have tendency to overestimate the light rainfall days and

  10. Limited-area short-range ensemble predictions targeted for heavy rain in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sattler


    Full Text Available Inherent uncertainties in short-range quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF from the high-resolution, limited-area numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (LAM are addressed using two different approaches to creating a small ensemble of LAM simulations, with focus on prediction of extreme rainfall events over European river basins. The first ensemble type is designed to represent uncertainty in the atmospheric state of the initial condition and at the lateral LAM boundaries. The global ensemble prediction system (EPS from ECMWF serves as host model to the LAM and provides the state perturbations, from which a small set of significant members is selected. The significance is estimated on the basis of accumulated precipitation over a target area of interest, which contains the river basin(s under consideration. The selected members provide the initial and boundary data for the ensemble integration in the LAM. A second ensemble approach tries to address a portion of the model-inherent uncertainty responsible for errors in the forecasted precipitation field by utilising different parameterisation schemes for condensation and convection in the LAM. Three periods around historical heavy rain events that caused or contributed to disastrous river flooding in Europe are used to study the performance of the LAM ensemble designs. The three cases exhibit different dynamic and synoptic characteristics and provide an indication of the ensemble qualities in different weather situations. Precipitation analyses from the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD are used as the verifying reference and a comparison of daily rainfall amounts is referred to the respective river basins of the historical cases.

  11. On the skill of various ensemble spread estimators for probabilistic short range wind forecasting (United States)

    Kann, A.


    A variety of applications ranging from civil protection associated with severe weather to economical interests are heavily dependent on meteorological information. For example, a precise planning of the energy supply with a high share of renewables requires detailed meteorological information on high temporal and spatial resolution. With respect to wind power, detailed analyses and forecasts of wind speed are of crucial interest for the energy management. Although the applicability and the current skill of state-of-the-art probabilistic short range forecasts has increased during the last years, ensemble systems still show systematic deficiencies which limit its practical use. This paper presents methods to improve the ensemble skill of 10-m wind speed forecasts by combining deterministic information from a nowcasting system on very high horizontal resolution with uncertainty estimates from a limited area ensemble system. It is shown for a one month validation period that a statistical post-processing procedure (a modified non-homogeneous Gaussian regression) adds further skill to the probabilistic forecasts, especially beyond the nowcasting range after +6 h.

  12. Dependability investigation of wireless short range embedded systems: hardware platform oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senouci, B.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Annema, Anne J.; Bentum, Marinus Jan


    A new direction in short-range wireless applications has appeared in the form of high-speed data communication devices for distances of hundreds meters. Behind these embedded applications, a complex heterogeneous architecture is built. Moreover, these short range communications are introduced into

  13. Positional short-range order in the nematic phase of n BABAs (United States)

    Usha Deniz, K.; Pepy, G.; Parette, G.; Keller, P.


    The positional short-range order, SRO ⊥, perpendicular to the nematic director n̂ has been studied in the fibre-type nematics, nBABAs, by neutron diffraction. SRO ⊥ is found to be dependent on other types of nematic short-range order but not on the orientational long-range order.

  14. Short-range airborne transmission of expiratory droplets between two people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Li, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    , ventilation, and breathing mode. Under the specific set of conditions studied, we found a substantial increase in airborne exposure to droplet nuclei exhaled by the source manikin when a susceptible manikin is within about 1.5 m of the source manikin, referred to as the proximity effect. The threshold...... distance of about 1.5 m distinguishes the two basic transmission processes of droplets and droplet nuclei, that is, short-range modes and the long-range airborne route. The short-range modes include both the conventional large droplet route and the newly defined short-range airborne transmission. We thus...... reveal that transmission occurring in close proximity to the source patient includes both droplet-borne (large droplet) and short-range airborne routes, in addition to the direct deposition of large droplets on other body surfaces. The mechanisms of the droplet-borne and short-range airborne routes...

  15. Aviation Neuropsychiatry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, David


    .... A few of the specific objectives include: Elucidating the use of the Adaptability Rating for Military Aviation, providing a general understanding of human factors in aviation, examining concepts regarding pilot personality, covering...

  16. Methods for studying short-range order in solid binary solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, Gerard


    The short range order definition and its characteristic parameters are first recalled. The different methods to study the short range order are then examined: X ray diffusion, electrical resistivity, specific heat and thermoelectric power, neutron diffraction, electron spin resonance, study of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. The theory of the X ray diffraction effects due to short range order and the subsequent experimental method are emphasized. The principal results obtained from binary Systems, by the different experimental techniques, are reported and briefly discussed. The Au-Cu, Li-Mg, Au-Ni and Cu-Zn Systems are moreover described. (author) [fr

  17. The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview (United States)

    Shin, Jaiwon


    In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.

  18. Short Range Air Defense in Army Divisions: Do We Really Need It

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Charles


    Ever since the Soviet threat collapsed, coupled with the demonstrated, overwhelming, capability of our air forces during numerous operations in the 1990s, the relevance of the Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD...

  19. Revision to dedicated short range communication roadside equipment specification - RSU 4.1.Bench Test Plan. (United States)


    The document describes the overall process for evaluating Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Roadside Units (RSU) against USDOT RSU Specification 4.1 in preparation for field evaluation. The Test Cases contained in this document only evaluate...

  20. Magnetism and atomic short-range order in Ni-Rh alloys (United States)

    Carnegie, D. W., Jr.; Claus, H.


    Low-field ac susceptibility measurements of Ni-Rh samples of various concentrations are presented. Giant effects of the metallurgical state on the magnetic ordering temperature are associated with changes in the degree of atomic short-range order. By careful control of this degree of short-range order, it is possible to demonstrate the existence of a spin-glass state in Ni-Rh alloys.

  1. Short-range/Long-range Integrated Target (SLIT) for Video Guidance Sensor Rendezvous and Docking (United States)

    Roe, Fred D. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)


    A laser target reflector assembly for mounting upon spacecraft having a long-range reflector array formed from a plurality of unfiltered light reflectors embedded in an array pattern upon a hemispherical reflector disposed upon a mounting plate. The reflector assembly also includes a short-range reflector array positioned upon the mounting body proximate to the long-range reflector array. The short-range reflector array includes three filtered light reflectors positioned upon extensions from the mounting body. The three filtered light reflectors retro-reflect substantially all incident light rays that are transmissive by their monochromatic filters and received by the three filtered light reflectors. In one embodiment the short-range reflector array is embedded within the hemispherical reflector,

  2. Double scattering of light from Biophotonic Nanostructures with short-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui (Yale)


    We investigate the physical mechanism for color production by isotropic nanostructures with short-range order in bird feather barbs. While the primary peak in optical scattering spectra results from constructive interference of singly-scattered light, many species exhibit secondary peaks with distinct characteristic. Our experimental and numerical studies show that these secondary peaks result from double scattering of light by the correlated structures. Without an analog in periodic or random structures, such a phenomenon is unique for short-range ordered structures, and has been widely used by nature for non-iridescent structural coloration.

  3. Short-range wireless communication fundamentals of RF system design and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bensky, Alan


    The Complete "Tool Kit” for the Hottest Area in RF/Wireless Design!Short-range wireless-communications over distances of less than 100 meters-is the most rapidly growing segment of RF/wireless engineering. Alan Bensky is an internationally recognized expert in short-range wireless, and this new edition of his bestselling book is completely revised to cover the latest developments in this fast moving field.You'll find coverage of such cutting-edge topics as: architectural trends in RF/wireless integrated circuits compatibility and conflict issues between differen

  4. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail:; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  5. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty. (United States)

    Van der Perk, Marcel; de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto; Jeran, Zvonka; Jaćimović, Radojko


    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  6. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  7. Functional framework and hardware platform for dependability study in short range wireless embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senouci, B.; Annema, Anne J.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    A new direction in short-range wireless applications has appeared in the form of high-speed data communication devices for distances of a few meters. Behind these embedded applications, a complex Hardware/Software architecture is built. Dependability is one of the major challenges in these systems.

  8. Short-range clustering and decomposition in copper-nickel and copper-nickel-iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalders, T.J.A.


    The thermodynamic equilibrium state of short-range clustering and the kinetics of short-range clustering and decomposition has been studied for a number of CuNi(Fe)-alloys by means of neutron scattering. The validity of the theories, which are usually applied to describe spinodal decomposition, nucleation and growth, coarsening etc., was investigated. It was shown that for the investigated substances the conventional theory of spinodal decomposition is valid for the relaxation of short-range clustering only for the case that the initial and final states do not differ too much. The dynamical scaling procedure described by Lebowitz et al. did not lead to a time-independent scaled function F(x) for the relaxation of short-range clustering, for the early stages of decomposition and for the case that an alloy, which was already decomposed at the quench temperature T 1 , was annealed at a temperature T 2 (T 1 ). For the later stages of decomposition, however, the scaling procedure was indeed successful. The coarsening of the alloys could, except for the later stages, be described by the Lifshitz-Slyozov theory. (Auth.)

  9. Neutron diffraction study on the medium and short-range order of ternary chalcogenide glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neov, S.; Gerasimova, I.; Skordeva, E.; Arsova, D.; Pamukchieva, V.; Mikula, Pavol; Lukáš, Petr; Sonntag, R.


    Roč. 34, - (1999), s. 3669-3676 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Keywords : neutron diffraction * short-range order * chalcogenide glasses Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.786, year: 1999

  10. EXAFS, Determination of Short Range Order and Local Structures in Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Prins, R.


    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) is a powerful method of determining short range order and local structures in materials using X-ray photons produced by a synchrotron light source, or in-house by a high intensity rotating anode X-ray generator. The technique has provided valuable

  11. Status of the dedicated short-range communications technology and applications : report to Congress. (United States)


    This report responds to a Congressional request for an assessment of the 5.9 Gigahertz (GHz) Dedicated Short Range : Communications (DSRC) in accordance with the requirements provided by Congress in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the : 21st Century...

  12. Electronically driven short-range lattice instability: Possible role in superconductive pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, A.


    A superconducting pairing mechanism is suggested, mediating by collective and coherent cluster fluctuations in the materials. The model, based on a geometrical frustration, proposes a dynamic effect driven by a special short-range electronic instability. Experimental support for this model is discussed

  13. Investigations of multiphoton excitation and ionization in a short range potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, S.M.; Cowley, S.C.; Valeo, E.J.


    We introduce an approach to the study of excitation and ionization for a system with a short range potential. In particular, analytical and numerical results are presented for the multiphoton ionization rate, under strong field conditions, of an electron confined by a δ-function potential. 9 refs., 3 figs

  14. Investigations of multiphoton excitation and ionization in a short range potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, S.M.; Cowley, S.C.; Valeo, E.J.


    We introduce an approach to the study of excitation and ionization for a system with a short range potential. In particular, analytical and numerical results are presented for the multiphoton ionization rate, under strong field conditions, of an electron confined by a delta-function potential. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Fluid–fluid coexistence in colloidal systems with short-ranged strongly directional attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, N.; Frenkel, D.


    We present a systematic numerical study of the phase behavior of square-well fluids with a "patchy" short-ranged attraction. In particular, we study the effect of the size and number of attractive patches on the fluid–fluid coexistence. The model that we use is a generalization of the hard sphere

  16. Fluctuations in substitution type alloys and their analyses. Short-range order structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Ken-ichi


    This article is the fifth of the serial lecture, microstructures and fluctuations, in this magazine. The formula of X-ray diffuse scattering intensity was derived for binary alloys by introducing short-range order parameters. Diffuse scattering intensities for a single crystal Cu 3 Au were measured above critical temperature for ordering. The short-range parameters were obtained by a three-dimensional Fourier analysis. The long-range pair interaction between atoms was originated from the indirect screening interaction due to conduction electrons. A detailed study was made on short-range-order diffuse scattering from Cu 3 Au in the disordered state by electron diffraction. Fourfold splitting of the diffuse scattering was observed at 110 in the reciprocal lattice, and this result was attributed to the reflection of the form of the Fermi surface. The X-ray diffuse scattering intensity was measured at room temperature for disordered Cu-Pd alloys for the six composition of Pd. Twofold and fourfold splitting of diffuse scattering due to the short-range order (SRO) were observed at 100, 110 and equivalent positions respectively from alloys with more than 13.0at% Pd. The SRO parameters were determined from all the six alloys. For Cu-Pt alloys, the diffuse scattering originated from the correlation between Cu and Pt layers in direction was observed in addition to the one due to the reflection of the Fermi surface imaging. (author)

  17. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.


    Short range-ordered (SRO) aluminosilicates (e.g., allophane) and nanophase ferric oxides (npOx) are common SRO minerals derived during aqueous alteration of basaltic materials. NpOx refers to poorly crystalline or amorphous alteration products that can be any combination of superparamagnetic hematite and/or goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, iddingsite, and nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles that pigment palagonitic tephra. Nearly 30 years ago, SRO phases were suggested as alteration phases on Mars based on similar spectral properties for altered basaltic tephra on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Martian bright regions measured by Earth-based telescopes. Detailed characterization of altered basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea have identified a variety of alteration phases including allophane, npOx, hisingerite, jarosite, alunite, hematite, goethite, ferrihydrite, halloysite, kaolinite, smectite, and zeolites. The presence of npOx and other Fe-bearing minerals (jarosite, hematite, goethite) was confirmed by the M ssbauer Spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although the presence of allophane has not been definitely identified on Mars robotic missions, chemical analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and thermal infrared spectral orbital measurements suggest the presence of allophane or allophane-like phases on Mars. SRO phases form under a variety of environmental conditions on Earth ranging from cold and arid to warm and humid, including hydrothermal conditions. The formation of SRO aluminosilicates such as allophane (and crystalline halloysite) from basaltic material is controlled by several key factors including activity of water, extent of leaching, Si activity in solution, and available Al. Generally, a low leaching index (e.g., wet-dry cycles) and slightly acidic to alkaline conditions are necessary. NpOx generally form under aqueous oxidative weathering conditions, although thermal oxidative alteration may occasional be

  18. On the universality of the long-/short-range separation in multiconfigurational density-functional theory (United States)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Toulouse, Julien; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.


    In many cases, the dynamic correlation can be calculated quite accurately and at a fairly low computational cost in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT), using current standard approximate functionals. However, in general, KS-DFT does not treat static correlation effects (near degeneracy) adequately which, on the other hand, can be described in wave-function theory (WFT), for example, with a multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) model. It is therefore of high interest to develop a hybrid model which combines the best of both WFT and DFT approaches. The merge of WFT and DFT can be achieved by splitting the two-electron interaction into long-range and short-range parts. The long-range part is then treated by WFT and the short-range part by DFT. In this work the authors consider the so-called "erf" long-range interaction erf(μr12)/r12, which is based on the standard error function, and where μ is a free parameter which controls the range of the long-/short-range decomposition. In order to formulate a general method, they propose a recipe for the definition of an optimal μopt parameter, which is independent of the approximate short-range functional and the approximate wave function, and they discuss its universality. Calculations on a test set consisting of He, Be, Ne, Mg, H2, N2, and H2O yield μopt≈0.4a.u.. A similar analysis on other types of test systems such as actinide compounds is currently in progress. Using the value of 0.4a.u. for μ, encouraging results are obtained with the hybrid MCSCF-DFT method for the dissociation energies of H2, N2, and H2O, with both short-range local-density approximation and PBE-type functionals.

  19. Toward Improving Short-Range Fog Prediction in Data-Denied Areas Using the Air Force Weather Agency Mesoscale Ensemble (United States)


    hre - del’k:it( K) vitual t~ hre del’k:I:(K) all sl:e-s, a ll rnerrbers (exc l 1 S...2 01 vitual t~ hre del’k:l(K) vitual t~ hre del’k:l(K) all sit~s. atl~(e-xcl1 S& 17) all sit~s. atl~(e-xcl 1 S& 17) vitual t~ hre del’k:l(K) vitual...t~ hre del’k:l(K) all sit~s. a tl~(e-xcl1 S& 17) all sit~s. atl~(e-xcl 1 S& 17) vitual t~ hre del’k:l(K) vitual t~ hre del’k:l(K) 166

  20. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.


    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  1. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  2. KZHU Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  3. KZOA Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  4. KZJX Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  5. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  6. KZFW Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  7. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  8. KZME Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  9. KZDV Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  10. KZNY Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  11. KZDC Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  12. KZAU Center Weather Advisory (CWA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  13. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevy, Juliette, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)] [Laboratoire Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Bastie, Pierre [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)] [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Duval, Paul [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)


    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  14. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevy, Juliette; Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent; Bastie, Pierre; Duval, Paul


    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  15. The short range effective interaction and the spectra of calcium isotopes in (f-p) space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-ying, Z.; Shen-wu, L.; Jian-xin, W.


    In this work, the authors use a new type of extremely short range interaction, the double delta interaction (DDI) to calculate the low-lying spectra of calcium isotopes /sup 41/Ca through /sup 48/Ca. The configuration space (f-p) includes configurations ( f/sub 7/2//sup n/ ) and ( f/sub 7/2//sup n-1/2p/sub 3/2/). The calculated energies are compared with experimental data for 75 levels. For comparison, they also use usual modified surface delta interaction (MSDI) to calculate the same spectra aforementioned. It is clear that the results calculated with DDI are better than with MSDI. Therefore, in the short-range effective interaction the addition of body delta force to the modified surface delta force may improve the agreement with experiment. The authors believe that the conclusion will not be changed if one enlarges the shell model space

  16. Attractive short-range interatomic potential in the lattice dynamics of niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuagba, B.N.; Pal, S.


    It is shown in the framework of the pseudopotential approach that there is a sizable attractive short-range component of the interatomic potential due to the s-d interaction which has the same functional form in real space as the Born-Mayer repulsion due to the overlap of core electron wave functions centred on neighbouring ions. The magnitude of this attractive component is such as to completely cancel the conventional Born-Mayer repulsion, making the resultant short-range interatomic potential attractive rather than repulsive. Numerical calculations show that the attractive interatomics potential, which represents the local-field correction, leads to a better understanding of the occurrence of the soft modes in the phonon dispersion curves of niobium and tantalum

  17. Short-range order in amorphous thin films of indium selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.P.; Poltavtsev, Yu.G.; Sheremet, G.P.


    A structure of the short-range order and a character of interatomic interactions in indium selenides Insub(1-x)Sesub(x) with 0.333 <= x <= 0.75, obtained in the form of amorphous films 0.05-0.80 μm thick are studied using electron diffraction method. It is found out that mostly tetrahedrical coordination of nearest neighbours in the vicinity of indium atoms is characteristic for studied amorphous films, and coordination of selenium atoms is different. Amorphous film with x=0.75 posesses a considereably microheterogeneous structure of the short-range order, which is characterized by the presence of microunclusions of amorphous selenium and atoms of indium, octohedrically coordinated by selenium atoms

  18. Structure of the short-range atomic order of WO3 amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olevskij, S.S.; Sergeev, M.S.; Tolstikhina, A.L.; Avilov, A.S.; Shkornyakov, S.M.; Semiletov, S.A.


    To study the causes of electrochromism manifestation in thin tungsten oxide films, the structure of WO 3 amorphous films has been investigated. The films were obtained by three different methods: by W(CO) 6 tungsten carbonyl pyrolysis, by high-frequency ion-plasma sputtering of a target prepared by WO 3 powder sintering, and by WO 3 powder thermal evaporation. Monocrystalline wafers of silicon and sodium chloride were used as substrates. The structure of short-range order in WO 3 amorphous films varies versus, the method of preparation in compliance with the type of polyhedral elements, (WO 6 , WO 5 ) and with the character of their packing (contacts via edges or vertices). Manifestation of electroc ro mism in WO 3 films prepared by varions methods and having different structure of short-range order is supposed to be realized through various mechanisms. One cannot exclude a potential simultaneous effect of the two coloration mechanisms

  19. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad, E-mail: [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sanyal, Biplab, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Mookerjee, Abhijit, E-mail: [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)


    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments. - Highlights: • The magnetism in FeCr is sensitively depended on the ordering of the atoms : disordered or with short ranged ordering. • This work uses the SQS technique suggested by Zunger has been used to generate various degrees of short range ordering in FeCr. • The electronic structure and pair energies have been obatined from first principles ASR and Lichtenstein methods. • The effect of chemical ordering on magnetic ordering is studied in detail. • Only those situations where the chemical ordering is complete have been studied.

  20. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad; Sanyal, Biplab; Mookerjee, Abhijit


    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments. - Highlights: • The magnetism in FeCr is sensitively depended on the ordering of the atoms : disordered or with short ranged ordering. • This work uses the SQS technique suggested by Zunger has been used to generate various degrees of short range ordering in FeCr. • The electronic structure and pair energies have been obatined from first principles ASR and Lichtenstein methods. • The effect of chemical ordering on magnetic ordering is studied in detail. • Only those situations where the chemical ordering is complete have been studied

  1. Short-Range Noncontact Sensors for Healthcare and Other Emerging Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhan Gu


    Full Text Available Short-range noncontact sensors are capable of remotely detecting the precise movements of the subjects or wirelessly estimating the distance from the sensor to the subject. They find wide applications in our day lives such as noncontact vital sign detection of heart beat and respiration, sleep monitoring, occupancy sensing, and gesture sensing. In recent years, short-range noncontact sensors are attracting more and more efforts from both academia and industry due to their vast applications. Compared to other radar architectures such as pulse radar and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW radar, Doppler radar is gaining more popularity in terms of system integration and low-power operation. This paper reviews the recent technical advances in Doppler radars for healthcare applications, including system hardware improvement, digital signal processing, and chip integration. This paper also discusses the hybrid FMCW-interferometry radars and the emerging applications and the future trends.

  2. Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions and the Short-Range Structure of Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Palamara, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schiavilla, R. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wiringa, R. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Improvements in theoretical modeling of Short Range structures and phenomena, and comparisons with data, will require sustained collaboration between nuclear theorists and neutrino experimentalists. The extensive history of studying this area of nuclear physics in electron- and hadron-scattering experiments, coupled with the transformative capabilities of LArTPCs to identify neutrinos, will provide a ripe opportunity for new discoveries that will further our understanding of the nucleus.

  3. Determination of thermodynamical coefficients for Mo-W alloys according to short-range order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, L.N.; Mokrov, A.P.; Shivrin, O.N.; Khanina, N.I.


    A method is proposed for determining thermodynamical coefficients according to short-range order parameters. The method approbation for Mo-W alloys has shown a good agreement between the thermodynamical and diffusion data. The Mo-W system in the concentration range under study is close to the ideal one. The calculated relative error of determination of interdiffusion coefficients in alloys of the Mo-W system does not exceed 16%

  4. Probing the short range behavior of nuclei with high PT photo- and electro-nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.


    The short range behavior of the nucleus and the use of the nucleus as a filter are studied. Special emphasis is given to photon and hadron induced reactions. The components of the nuclear wave function are described. The evidences of hard scattering processes in reactions induced by real photons as well as by hadrons on free nucleus are reviewed. The spin observables are also investigated. The perspectives opened by these studies in the nuclear environment are considered

  5. Short-range order of amorphous FeNiB alloy after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.; Baluch, S.; Cirak, J.; Lipka, J.


    Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study irradiation-induced changes in the short-range order of an amorphous Fe 80-x Ni x B 20 alloy. Neutron irradiation led to an increase of the width of a hyperfine field distribution implying atomic rearrangement towards disordering. Changes in a mean value of a HFD and Moessbauer line areas can be associated with a reorientation of spins due to radiation damage. (orig.)

  6. Short range correlations in the pion s-wave self-energy of pionic atoms


    Salcedo, L. L.; Holinde, K.; Oset, E.; Schütz, C.


    We evaluate the contribution of second order terms to the pion-nucleus s-wave optical potential of pionic atoms generated by short range nuclear correlation. The corrections are sizeable because they involve the isoscalar s-wave $\\pi N$ amplitude for half off-shell situations where the amplitude is considerably larger than the on-shell one. In addition, the s-wave optical potential is reanalyzed by looking at all the different conventional contributions together lowest order, Pauli corrected ...

  7. Directional and short-range ordering kinetics in metallic alloys, crystalline and amorphous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.


    This presentation describes the methods (resistometric and anelastic) based on analysis of stress-induced directional ordering and short-range ordering and their application to the study of metallic alloys, crystalline and amorphous. It focuses on the determination of the atomic mobility and point defect properties. It discusses also the structural information which can be gained by Zener relaxation studies about the order-disorder transition and self-induced directional ordering phenomena

  8. Short-range order in InSb amorphized under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, P.V.; Tetel'baum, D.I.; Gerasimov, A.I.


    The investigation of short-range order is carried out in polycrystal InSb films, irradiated with Ne + ions with E=150 keV and with the 2x10 15 ion/cm 2 dose. The data are obtained testifying to the film amorphization, the cause of which is the defect storage but not the local melting. Stability of the obtained amorphous phase at the room temperature is noted

  9. Particle simulation algorithms with short-range forces in MHD and fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, S.; Tajima, T.; Umegaki, K.


    Attempts are made to develop numerical algorithms for handling fluid flows involving liquids and liquid-gas mixtures. In these types of systems, the short-range intermolecular interactions are important enough to significantly alter behavior predicted on the basis of standard fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics alone. We have constructed a particle-in-cell (PIC) code for the purpose of studying the effects of these interactions. Of the algorithms considered, the one which has been successfully implemented is based on a MHD particle code developed by Brunel et al. In the version presented here, short range forces are included in particle motion by, first, calculating the forces between individual particles and then, to prevent aliasing, interpolating these forces to the computational grid points, then interpolating the forces back to the particles. The code has been used to model a simple two-fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Limitations to the accuracy of the code exist at short wavelengths, where the effects of the short-range forces would be expected to be most pronounced

  10. Angular correlation between short-range. cap alpha. particles and. gamma. quanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kul' chitskii, L A; Latyshev, G D; Bulyginskii, D G


    Chang (Phys. Rev. 69, 60(1946); 70, 632(1946)) has found that the intensities of short-range ..cap alpha.. rays of Po and Ra are considerably higher than the values given by the Geiger-Nuttall law. This can be explained by assuming surface vibrations of ..cap alpha..-radioactive nuclei, which produce deformations and corresponding lowerings of the potential barrier in certain directions. In this case an angular correlation should exist between the short-range ..cap alpha.. ray and the accompanying ..gamma.. quantum. The authors checked this conclusion by applying the coincidence method to the ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. radiations of a mixture of RdTh (/sup 228/Th) and ThC (/sup 212/Bi). Maxima of coincidence numbers occur at angles 45 and 135 deg., with lesser maxima at 0 and 180 deg. Theoretical considerations show that in cases (like the one investigated) where the nuclear spin before and after the ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. emissions is zero, the angular correlations are uniquely determined whatever the deformation caused by the vibration; in other cases, the correlation depends on the kind of deformation. Therefore, it would be interesting to investigate the case of Pa, whose nuclear spin is not zero and the decay exhibits intensive groups of short-range ..cap alpha.. particles.

  11. In-medium short-range dynamics of nucleons: Recent theoretical and experimental advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atti, Claudio Ciofi degli, E-mail:


    The investigation of in-medium short-range dynamics of nucleons, usually referred to as the study of short-range correlations (SRCs), is a key issue in nuclear and hadronic physics. As a matter of fact, even in the simplified assumption that the nucleus could be described as a system of protons and neutrons interacting via effective nucleon–nucleon (NN) interactions, several non trivial problems arise concerning the description of in-medium (NN short-range dynamics, namely: (i) the behavior of the NN interaction at short inter-nucleon distances in medium cannot be uniquely constrained by the experimental NN scattering phase shifts due to off-shell effects; (ii) by rigorous renormalization group (RG) techniques entire families of phase equivalent interactions differing in the short-range part can be derived; (iii) the in-medium NN interaction may be, in principle, different from the free one; (iv) when the short inter-nucleon separation is of the order of the nucleon size, the question arises of possible effects from quark and gluon degrees of freedom. For more than fifty years, experimental evidence of SRCs has been searched by means of various kinds of nuclear reactions, without however convincing results, mainly because the effects of SRCs arise from non observable quantities, like, e.g., the momentum distributions, and have been extracted from observable cross sections where short- and long-range effects, effects from nucleonic and non nucleonic degrees of freedom, and effects from final state interaction, could not be unambiguously separated out. Recent years, however, were witness of new progress in the field: from one side, theoretical and computational progress has allowed one to solve ab initio the many-nucleon non relativistic Schrödinger equation in terms of realistic NN interactions, obtaining realistic microscopic wave functions, unless the case of parametrized wave functions used frequently in the past, moreover the development of advanced

  12. Will high-resolution global ocean models benefit coupled predictions on short-range to climate timescales? (United States)

    Hewitt, Helene T.; Bell, Michael J.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Czaja, Arnaud; Ferreira, David; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hyder, Pat; McClean, Julie L.; New, Adrian L.; Roberts, Malcolm J.


    As the importance of the ocean in the weather and climate system is increasingly recognised, operational systems are now moving towards coupled prediction not only for seasonal to climate timescales but also for short-range forecasts. A three-way tension exists between the allocation of computing resources to refine model resolution, the expansion of model complexity/capability, and the increase of ensemble size. Here we review evidence for the benefits of increased ocean resolution in global coupled models, where the ocean component explicitly represents transient mesoscale eddies and narrow boundary currents. We consider lessons learned from forced ocean/sea-ice simulations; from studies concerning the SST resolution required to impact atmospheric simulations; and from coupled predictions. Impacts of the mesoscale ocean in western boundary current regions on the large-scale atmospheric state have been identified. Understanding of air-sea feedback in western boundary currents is modifying our view of the dynamics in these key regions. It remains unclear whether variability associated with open ocean mesoscale eddies is equally important to the large-scale atmospheric state. We include a discussion of what processes can presently be parameterised in coupled models with coarse resolution non-eddying ocean models, and where parameterizations may fall short. We discuss the benefits of resolution and identify gaps in the current literature that leave important questions unanswered.

  13. Space Weather Services of Korea (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.


    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  14. Adaptive Blending of Model and Observations for Automated Short-Range Forecasting: Examples from the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (United States)

    Bailey, Monika E.; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Heckman, Ivan; Reid, Janti


    An automated short-range forecasting system, adaptive blending of observations and model (ABOM), was tested in real time during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in British Columbia. Data at 1-min time resolution were available from a newly established, dense network of surface observation stations. Climatological data were not available at these new stations. This, combined with output from new high-resolution numerical models, provided a unique and exciting setting to test nowcasting systems in mountainous terrain during winter weather conditions. The ABOM method blends extrapolations in time of recent local observations with numerical weather predictions (NWP) model predictions to generate short-range point forecasts of surface variables out to 6 h. The relative weights of the model forecast and the observation extrapolation are based on performance over recent history. The average performance of ABOM nowcasts during February and March 2010 was evaluated using standard scores and thresholds important for Olympic events. Significant improvements over the model forecasts alone were obtained for continuous variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The small improvements to forecasts of variables such as visibility and ceiling, subject to discontinuous changes, are attributed to the persistence component of ABOM.

  15. A first-principles study of short range order in Cu-Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutter, M.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Johnson, D.D.; Nicholson, D.M.; Stocks, G.M.; Pinski, F.J.


    Recently, measurements of short-range order (SRO) diffuse neutron scattering intensity have been performed on quenched Cu-Zn alloys with 22.4 to 31.1 atomic percent (a/o) Zn, and pair interactions were obtained by inverse Monte Carlo simulation. These results are compared to SRO intensities and effective pair interactions obtained from first-principles electronic structure calculations. The theoretical SRO intensities were calculated with the cluster variation method (CVM) in the tetrahedron-octahedron approximation with first-principles pain interactions as input. More generally, phase stability in the Cu-Zn alloy system is discussed, using ab-initio energetic properties

  16. Link Design Rules for Cost-Effective Short-Range Radio Over Multimode Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visani, Davide; Tartarini, Giovanni; Petersen, Martin Nordal


    Referring to short-range radio over multimode fiber links, we find out important guidelines for the realization of cost-effective intensity modulated directly detected systems. Since the quality of today's connectors is considerably higher than in the past, we demonstrate that two important...... parameters of the system are the finite detecting area of the photodiode and the laser frequency chirp. Furthemore, we show that the use of the central launch technique inherently determines a lower impact of modal noise fluctuations with respect to the offset launch one. This makes CL more convenient...

  17. Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)


    We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)

  18. Short-range order and local conservation of quantum numbers in multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bellac, M.


    These lectures discuss the implications of the hypotheses of short-range order (SRO) and local conservation of quantum numbers (LCQN) for multiple production of elementary particles at high energies. The consequences of SRO for semi-inclusive correlations and the distribution of rapidity gaps are derived, essentially in the framework of the cluster model. Then the experimental status of local conservation of charge and transverse momentum is reviewed. Finally, by making use of the unitarity relation, it is shown that LCQN has important consequences for the elastic amplitude. The derivation is given both in a model-independent way, and in specific multiperiheral models. (Author)

  19. OTDM Networking for Short Range High-Capacity Highly Dynamic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros

    This PhD thesis aims at investigating the possibility of designing energy-efficient high-capacity (up to Tbit/s) optical network scenarios, leveraging on the effect of collective switching of many bits simultaneously, as is inherent in high bit rate serial optical data signals. The focus...... is on short range highly dynamic networks, catering to data center needs. The investigation concerns optical network scenarios, and experimental implementations of high bit rate serial data packet generation and reception, scalable optical packet labeling, simple optical label extraction and stable ultra...

  20. Perturbation theory for short-range weakly-attractive potentials in one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo, E-mail: [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernández, Francisco M., E-mail: [INIFTA (UNLP, CONICET), Division Química Teórica, Blvd. 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    We have obtained the perturbative expressions up to sixth order for the energy of the bound state in a one dimensional, arbitrarily weak, short range finite well, applying a method originally developed by Gat and Rosenstein Ref. [1]. The expressions up to fifth order reproduce the results already known in the literature, while the sixth order had not been calculated before. As an illustration of our formulas we have applied them to two exactly solvable problems and to a nontrivial problem.

  1. The Spectrum of Particles with Short-Ranged Interactions in a Harmonic Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metsch B. Ch.


    Full Text Available The possibility to control short-ranged interactions of cold gases in optical traps by Feshbachresonances makes these systems ideal candidates to study universal scaling properties and Efimov physics. The spectrum of particles in a trap, idealised by a harmonic oscillator potential, in the zero range limit with 2- and 3-particle contact interactions is studied numerically. The Hamiltonian is regularised by restricting the oscillator basis and the coupling constants are tuned such that the ground state energies of the 2- and 3-particle sector are reproduced [1],[2]. Results for 2-, 3-, and 4 particle systems are presented and compared to exact results [3],[4].

  2. Study of the short-range 3He structure from the dd→3Hen reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.V.


    An experiment on studying of the tensor analysing power C 0,NN,0,0 and spin correlation C N,N,0,0 due to the transverse polarization of both initial particles from the dd→ 3 Hen reaction has been proposed. Those polarization observables are very sensitive to the short-range 3 He structure. This experiment is proposed to be done at the LHE Accelerator Complex using both a polarized deuteron beam and a polarized deuterium target. 25 refs., 2 figs

  3. Influence of short range chemical order on density of states in α-ZrNi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Junior, J.


    Calculations of the density of electronic states for amorphous alloys of ZrNi and ZrCu with different chemical order degrees, in order to verify the effect of chemical ordering on this property, are presented. The results obtained for ZrCu shown that the density of states at Fermi level do not vary significantly with the ordering. The results for ZrNi shown that the introduction of short range chemical order can decrease significantly the density of states at Fermi level, leading to better agreement with experimental results. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe


    This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...... feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved....

  5. EXAFS study of short range order in Fe-Zr amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Gubieda, M.L.; Gorria, P.; Barandiaran, J.M.; Barquin, L.F.


    Room temperature X-ray absorption spectra on Fe K-edge have been performed in Fe 100-x-y Zr x B y and Fe 86 Zr 7 Cu 1 B 6 alloys (x=7, 7.7, 9; y=0, 2, 4, 6). Fe-Fe coordination number and interatomic distances do not change in any sample. However, small changes in the Fe-Zr short range order, which could explain the evolution of the magnetic properties, have been observed. (orig.)

  6. Numerical study of the glass-glass transition in short-ranged attractive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Sciortino, Francesco; Tartaglia, Piero


    We report extensive numerical simulations in the glass region for a simple model of short-ranged attractive colloids, the square well model. We investigate the behaviour of the density autocorrelation function and of the static structure factor in the region of temperatures and packing fractions where a glass-glass transition is expected according to theoretical predictions. We strengthen our observations by studying both waiting time and history dependence of the numerical results. We provide evidence supporting the possibility that activated bond-breaking processes destabilize the attractive glass, preventing the full observation of a sharp glass-glass kinetic transition

  7. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei at Large xbj through Inclusive Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhihong [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    The experiment, E08-014, in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab aims to study the short-range correlations (SRC) which are necessary to explain the nuclear strength absent in the mean field theory. The cross sections for 2H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 40Ca and 48Ca, were measured via inclusive quasi-elastic electron scattering from these nuclei in a Q2 range between 0.8 and 2.8 (GeV/c)2 for x>1. The cross section ratios of heavy nuclei to 2H were extracted to study two-nucleon SRC for 1

  8. Study of an Ising model with competing long- and short-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, U.; Emery, V.J.; Fabricius, K.; Kivelson, S.A.


    A classical spin-one lattice gas model is used to study the competition between short-range ferromagnetic coupling and long-range antiferromagnetic Coulomb interactions. The model is a coarse-grained representation of frustrated phase separation in high-temperature superconductors. The ground states are determined for the complete range of parameters by using a combination of numerical and analytical techniques. The crossover between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states proceeds via a rich structure of highly symmetric striped and checkerboard phases. There is no devil's staircase behavior because mixtures of stripes with different period phase separate

  9. Characteristics of III-nitride based laser diode employed for short range underwater wireless optical communications (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Liu, Zhe; Yang, Jie; Feng, Liangsen; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin


    An off-the-shelf green laser diode (LD) was measured to investigate its temperature dependent characteristics. Performance of the device was severely restricted by rising temperature in terms of increasing threshold current and decreasing modulation bandwidth. The observation reveals that dynamic characteristics of the LD is sensitive to temperature. Influence of light attenuation on the modulation bandwidth of the green LD was also studied. The impact of light attenuation on the modulation bandwidth of the LD in short and low turbid water channel was not obvious while slight difference in modulation bandwidth under same injection level was observed between water channel and free space even at short range.

  10. Distinct Short-Range Order Is Inherent to Small Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Clusters (<2 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shengtong [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany; School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Materials Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road Shanghai 200237 P.R. China; Chevrier, Daniel M. [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 Canada; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 Canada; Gebauer, Denis [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany; Cölfen, Helmut [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany


    Amorphous intermediate phases are vital precursors in the crystallization of many biogenic minerals. While inherent short-range orders have been found in amorphous calcium carbonates (ACCs) relating to different crystalline forms, it has never been clarified experimentally whether such orders already exist in very small clusters less than 2 nm in size. Here, we studied the stability and structure of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) protected ACC clusters with a core size of ca. 1.4 nm consisting of only seven CaCO3 units. Ligand concentration and structure are shown to be key factors in stabilizing the ACC clusters. More importantly, even in such small CaCO3 entities, a proto-calcite short-range order can be identified but with a relatively high degree of disorder that arises from the very small size of the CaCO3 core. Our findings support the notion of a structural link between prenucleation clusters, amorphous intermediates, and final crystalline polymorphs, which appears central to the understanding of polymorph selection.

  11. Intermediate- and short-range order in phosphorus-selenium glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytchkov, Aleksei; Hennet, Louis; Price, David L.; Miloshova, Mariana; Bychkov, Eugene; Kohara, Shinji


    State-of-the-art neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to provide a definitive picture of the intermediate- and short-range structures of P x Se 1-x glasses spanning two glass regions, x 0.025-0.54 and 0.64-0.84. Liquid P 4 Se 3 and amorphous red P and Se were also measured. Detailed information was obtained about the development with increasing phosphorous concentration of intermediate-range order on the length scale ∼6 A ring , based on the behavior of the first sharp diffraction peak. Attention is also paid to the feature in the structure factor at 7.5 A ring -1 , identified in earlier numerical simulations, provides further evidence of the existence of molecular units. The real-space transforms yield a reliable statistical picture of the changing short-range order as x increases, using the information about types and concentrations of local structural units provided by previous NMR measurements to interpret the trends observed.

  12. Short-range contacts govern the performance of industry-relevant battery cathodes (United States)

    Morelly, Samantha L.; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Tang, Maureen H.


    Fundamental understanding of how processing affects composite battery electrode structure and performance is still lacking, especially for industry-relevant electrodes with low fractions of inactive material. This work combines rheology, electronic conductivity measurements, and battery rate capability tests to prove that short-range electronic contacts are more important to cathode rate capability than either ion transport or long-range electronic conductivity. LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2, carbon black, and polyvinylidene difluoride in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone represent a typical commercial electrode with films. Improvements in battery rate capability at constant electrode porosity do not correlate to electronic conductivity, but rather show an optimum fraction of free carbon. Simple comparison of rate capability in electrodes with increased total carbon loading (3 wt%) shows improvement for all fractions of free carbon. These results clearly indicate that ion transport cannot be limiting and highlight the critical importance of short-range electronic contacts for controlling battery performance.

  13. CMOS Receiver Front-ends for Gigabit Short-Range Optical Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Aznar, Francisco; Calvo Lopez, Belén


    This book describes optical receiver solutions integrated in standard CMOS technology, attaining high-speed short-range transmission within cost-effective constraints.  These techniques support short reach applications, such as local area networks, fiber-to-the-home and multimedia systems in cars and homes. The authors show how to implement the optical front-end in the same technology as the subsequent digital circuitry, leading to integration of the entire receiver system in the same chip.  The presentation focuses on CMOS receiver design targeting gigabit transmission along a low-cost, standardized plastic optical fiber up to 50m in length.  This book includes a detailed study of CMOS optical receiver design – from building blocks to the system level. Reviews optical communications, including long-haul transmission systems and emerging applications focused on short-range; Explains necessary fundamentals, such as characteristics of a data signal, system requirements affecting receiver design and key par...

  14. Short range part of the NN interaction: Equivalent local potentials from quark exchange kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuk, Y.; Hecht, K.T.


    To focus on the nature of the short range part of the NN interaction, the intrinsically nonlocal interaction among the quark constituents of colorless nucleons is converted to an equivalent local potential using resonating group kernels which can be evaluated in analytic form. The WKB approximation based on the Wigner transform of the nonlocal kernels has been used to construct the equivalent potentials without recourse to the long range part of the NN interaction. The relative importance of the various components of the exchange kernels can be examined: The results indicate the importance of the color magnetic part of the exchange kernel for the repulsive part in the (ST) = (10), (01) channels, in particular since the energy dependence of the effective local potentials seems to be set by this term. Large cancellations of color Coulombic and quark confining contributions, together with the kinetic energy and norm exchange terms, indicate that the exact nature of the equivalent local potential may be sensitive to the details of the parametrization of the underlying quark-quark interaction. The equivalent local potentials show some of the characteristics of the phenomenological short range terms of the Paris potential

  15. Polyamorphism and substructure of short-range order in amorphous boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palatnik, L.S.; Nechitajlo, A.A.; Koz'ma, A.A.


    The structure and substructure of boron amorphous films are studied in detail. Amorphous condensate of Bsup(a) boron is built of the same (but only disorientedly located) 12 B icosahedrons as boron crystalline modifications: B 105 -equilibrium β-rhombic, metastable: B 50 -tetragonal, B 12 -α-rhombohedral Coordination number for Bsup(a) (Z 1 =6.4) is lower than in B 105 (Z 1 =6.6) but higher than in B 50 modification (Z 1 =6.1). In crystalline modifications B 105 , B 50 , B 12 coordination numbers ω in first coordination spheres of icosahedrons are equal to ν 105 =6+4.6=10.6; ν 50 =10+3=14; ν 12 =6 respectively. Both amorphous modifications of boron Bsub(1)sup(a) and Bsub(15)sup(a) are analogs to B 50 in respect of the short-range order of icosahedron location. The difference between them is in ''substructure'' of short-range order: part of boron atoms (approximately 12%) do not occupy the vertices (so that vacancies appear) and enter the emptinesses between icosahedrons. In other words, the structure B 50 is the model basis of both amorphous phases [ru

  16. Implementing Molecular Dynamics for Hybrid High Performance Computers - 1. Short Range Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Wang, Peng; Plimpton, Steven J.; Tharrington, Arnold N.


    The use of accelerators such as general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) have become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high performance computers, machines with more than one type of floating-point processor, are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this work, we discuss several important issues in porting a large molecular dynamics code for use on parallel hybrid machines - (1) choosing a hybrid parallel decomposition that works on central processing units (CPUs) with distributed memory and accelerator cores with shared memory, (2) minimizing the amount of code that must be ported for efficient acceleration, (3) utilizing the available processing power from both many-core CPUs and accelerators, and (4) choosing a programming model for acceleration. We present our solution to each of these issues for short-range force calculation in the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS. We describe algorithms for efficient short range force calculation on hybrid high performance machines. We describe a new approach for dynamic load balancing of work between CPU and accelerator cores. We describe the Geryon library that allows a single code to compile with both CUDA and OpenCL for use on a variety of accelerators. Finally, we present results on a parallel test cluster containing 32 Fermi GPGPUs and 180 CPU cores.

  17. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.


    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  18. Storm Identification, Tracking and Forecasting Using High-Resolution Images of Short-Range X-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Shah


    Full Text Available Rain nowcasting is an essential part of weather monitoring. It plays a vital role in human life, ranging from advanced warning systems to scheduling open air events and tourism. A nowcasting system can be divided into three fundamental steps, i.e., storm identification, tracking and nowcasting. The main contribution of this work is to propose procedures for each step of the rain nowcasting tool and to objectively evaluate the performances of every step, focusing on two-dimension data collected from short-range X-band radars installed in different parts of Italy. This work presents the solution of previously unsolved problems in storm identification: first, the selection of suitable thresholds for storm identification; second, the isolation of false merger (loosely-connected storms; and third, the identification of a high reflectivity sub-storm within a large storm. The storm tracking step of the existing tools, such as TITANand SCIT, use only up to two storm attributes, i.e., center of mass and area. It is possible to use more attributes for tracking. Furthermore, the contribution of each attribute in storm tracking is yet to be investigated. This paper presents a novel procedure called SALdEdA (structure, amplitude, location, eccentricity difference and areal difference for storm tracking. This work also presents the contribution of each component of SALdEdA in storm tracking. The second order exponential smoothing strategy is used for storm nowcasting, where the growth and decay of each variable of interest is considered to be linear. We evaluated the major steps of our method. The adopted techniques for automatic threshold calculation are assessed with a 97% goodness. False merger and sub-storms within a cluster of storms are successfully handled. Furthermore, the storm tracking procedure produced good results with an accuracy of 99.34% for convective events and 100% for stratiform events.

  19. Evidence for short range corelations from high Q2 (e,e') reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikman, M.I.; Frankfurt, L.L.; Sargayan, M.M.


    For many years now short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei have been considered as an essential feature of the nuclear wave function. At high energy (e,e') reactions, where Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 , x = Q 2 /2mq o > 1 and 1 GeV > q o > 300 ∼ 400 MeV the scattering from low momentum nucleons is kinematically suppressed and there the evidence of SRC expected to be more prominent. These reactions have been intensively investigated during the last decade or so at SLAC on both light and heavy nuclei. The above kinematics allows one to compute the cross section through the processes local in space. To explain this the authors analyse the representation of the cross section as a Fourier transform of the commutator of electromagnetic currents and see that the major contribution in the cross section is given by the region of integration

  20. Magnetic susceptibility as a method of investigation of short-range order in strongly nonstoichiometric carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, S.Z.; Gusev, A.I.


    Magnetic susceptibility in disordered and ordered carbides of transition metals (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) was studied, the results are generalized. It was ascertained that the change in carbide susceptibility induced by deviation from stoichiometry stems from specific features of electronic spectra of the compounds. The use of magnetic susceptibility for determining structural disorder-order transitions is discussed. It is shown that change in the contribution made by orbital paramagnetism, resulting from short-range order formation, is the reason of decrease in susceptibility of nonstoichiometric carbides during the ordering. Experimentally obtained data on susceptibility permitted evaluating short- and far-range order parameters in NbC y , TaC y , TiC y and HfC y carbides [ru

  1. Improving Short-Range Ensemble Kalman Storm Surge Forecasting Using Robust Adaptive Inflation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad


    This paper presents a robust ensemble filtering methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, which has been implemented in the framework of the H∞ filter. By design, an H∞ filter is more robust than the common Kalman filter in the sense that the estimation error in the H∞ filter has, in general, a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation. The computational hydrodynamical model used in this study is the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model. The authors assimilate data obtained from Hurricanes Katrina and Ike as test cases. The results clearly show that the H∞-based SEIK filter provides more accurate short-range forecasts of storm surge compared to recently reported data assimilation results resulting from the standard SEIK filter.

  2. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A


    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  3. Higher-order glass-transition singularities in systems with short-ranged attractive potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetze, W; Sperl, M


    Within the mode-coupling theory for the evolution of structural relaxation, the A 4 -glass-transition singularities are identified for systems of particles interacting with a hard-sphere repulsion complemented by different short-ranged potentials: Baxter's singular potential regularized by a large-wavevector cut-off, a model for the Asakura-Oosawa depletion attraction, a triangular potential, a Yukawa attraction, and a square-well potential. The regular potentials yield critical packing fractions, critical Debye-Waller factors, and critical amplitudes very close to each other. The elastic moduli and the particle localization lengths for corresponding states of the Yukawa system and the square-well system may differ by up to 20 and 10%, respectively

  4. Mass dependence of short-range correlations in nuclei and the EMC effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosyn Wim


    Full Text Available We sketch an approximate method to quantify the number of correlated pairs in any nucleus A. It is based on counting independent-particle model (IPM nucleon-nucleon pairs in a relative S-state with no radial excitation. We show that IPM pairs with those quantum numbers are most prone to short-range correlations and are at the origin of the high-momentum tail of the nuclear momentum distributions. Our method allows to compute the a2 ratios extracted from inclusive electron scattering. Furthermore, our results reproduce the observed linear correlation between the number of correlated pairs and the magnitude of the EMC effect. We show that the width of the pair center-ofmass distribution in exclusive two-nucleon knockout yields information on the quantum numbers of the pairs.

  5. Short-Range Electron Transfer in Reduced Flavodoxin: Ultrafast Nonequilibrium Dynamics Coupled with Protein Fluctuations. (United States)

    Kundu, Mainak; He, Ting-Fang; Lu, Yangyi; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping


    Short-range electron transfer (ET) in proteins is an ultrafast process on the similar timescales as local protein-solvent fluctuations thus the two dynamics are coupled. Here, we use semiquinone flavodoxin and systematically characterized the photoinduced redox cycle with eleven mutations of different aromatic electron donors (tryptophan and tyrosine) and local residues to change redox properties. We observed the forward and backward ET dynamics in a few picoseconds, strongly following a stretched behavior resulting from a coupling between local environment relaxations and these ET processes. We further observed the hot vibrational-state formation through charge recombination and the subsequent cooling dynamics also in a few picoseconds. Combined with the ET studies in oxidized flavodoxin, these results coherently reveal the evolution of the ET dynamics from single to stretched exponential behaviors and thus elucidate critical timescales for the coupling. The observed hot vibration-state formation is robust and should be considered in all photoinduced back ET processes in flavoproteins.

  6. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massen, S. E.; Garistov, V. P.; Grypeos, M. E.


    The effects of nuclear surface fluctuations on harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei are investigated, simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation factor. Inclusion of the surface fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of 16 O and 40 Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behaviour of the point-proton form-factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const.q -4 ) at large values of the momentum transfer q

  7. Thermal algebraic-decay charge liquid driven by competing short-range Coulomb repulsion (United States)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Kohno, Masanori


    We explore the possibility of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-like critical phase for the charge degrees of freedom in the intermediate-temperature regime between the charge-ordered and disordered phases in two-dimensional systems with competing short-range Coulomb repulsion. As the simplest example, we investigate the extended Hubbard model with on-site and nearest-neighbor Coulomb interactions on a triangular lattice at half filling in the atomic limit by using a classical Monte Carlo method, and find a critical phase, characterized by algebraic decay of the charge correlation function, belonging to the universality class of the two-dimensional XY model with a Z6 anisotropy. Based on the results, we discuss possible conditions for the critical phase in materials.

  8. Ionization induced by strong electromagnetic field in low dimensional systems bound by short range forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, P.A., E-mail: [Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Sciences, 20 Stromynka Street, Moscow 2107996 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 3/12 Bolshoy Trekhsvyatskiy pereulok, Moscow 109028 (Russian Federation)


    Ionization processes for a two dimensional quantum dot subjected to combined electrostatic and alternating electric fields of the same direction are studied using quantum mechanical methods. We derive analytical equations for the ionization probability in dependence on characteristic parameters of the system for both extreme cases of a constant electric field and of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The ionization probabilities for a superposition of dc and low frequency ac electric fields of the same direction are calculated. The impulse distribution of ionization probability for a system bound by short range forces is found for a superposition of constant and alternating fields. The total probability for this process per unit of time is derived within exponential accuracy. For the first time the influence of alternating electric field on electron tunneling probability induced by an electrostatic field is studied taking into account the pre-exponential term.

  9. Age differences in visual search for compound patterns: long- versus short-range grouping. (United States)

    Burack, J A; Enns, J T; Iarocci, G; Randolph, B


    Visual search for compound patterns was examined in observers aged 6, 8, 10, and 22 years. The main question was whether age-related improvement in search rate (response time slope over number of items) was different for patterns defined by short- versus long-range spatial relations. Perceptual access to each type of relation was varied by using elements of same contrast (easy to access) or mixed contrast (hard to access). The results showed large improvements with age in search rate for long-range targets; search rate for short-range targets was fairly constant across age. This pattern held regardless of whether perceptual access to a target was easy or hard, supporting the hypothesis that different processes are involved in perceptual grouping at these two levels. The results also point to important links between ontogenic and microgenic change in perception (H. Werner, 1948, 1957).

  10. Structure factor of polymers interacting via a short range repulsive potential: Application to hairy wormlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiera, Gladys; Ramos, Laurence; Ligoure, Christian; Pitard, Estelle


    We use the random phase approximation to compute the structure factor S(q) of a solution of chains interacting through a soft and short range repulsive potential V. Above a threshold polymer concentration, whose magnitude is essentially controlled by the range of the potential, S(q) exhibits a peak whose position depends on the concentration. We take advantage of the close analogy between polymers and wormlike micelles and apply our model, using a Gaussian function for V, to quantitatively analyze experimental small angle neutron scattering profiles of solutions of hairy wormlike micelles. These samples, which consist in surfactant self-assembled flexible cylinders decorated by amphiphilic copolymer, provide indeed an appropriate experimental model system to study the structure of sterically interacting polymer solutions

  11. Interlayer exchange coupling in Er|Tb superlattices mediated by short range incommensurate Er order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuhl, E; Brueckel, T; Voigt, J; Mattauch, S; Korolkov, D


    We study the magnetic correlations in Er|Tb superlattices by means of off-specular scattering of polarized neutrons. We show here the co-existence of inhomogeneous magnetic states: i) ferromagnetic order of moments within the Tb layers below 230 K (FM), correlation length of about 10 bilayer, ii) an incommensurate modulated magnetic order, restricted to single Er layers and iii) antiferromagnetic coupling of ferromagnetic layers below 70K (AFC). Polarised off-specular neutron scattering under grazing incidence reveals that i) magnetic fluctuations appear when the sample is cooled below 70 K, ii) these fluctuations lead to AFC, when the sample is cooled to 10 K, which iii) persists, when the sample is subsequently heated up to 45 K, while the order is not present during the cooling cycle. Also the short range incommensurate order changes accordingly, implying that the magnetic order in the Er layers mediates the interlayer coupling between ferromagnetic Tb layers.

  12. Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madler, P.


    A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated

  13. A New Theoretical Analysis of the Effects of Short Range Correlations in Inclusive Lepton Scattering (United States)

    Benedetta Mezzetti, Chiara; Ciofi Degli Atti, Claudio


    Recently, evidence of short range correlations (SRC) has been provided by experimental data on inclusive lepton A(e, e')X scattering by the observation of a scaling behavior of the ratios of the cross sections on heavy nuclei to those on the deuteron and ^3He. Other attempts to get information on SRC rely on the concept of Y-scaling, whose interest has been renewed by new Jlab data. A new approach to Y-scaling, relying on the definition of a new relativistic scaling variable which incorporates the momentum dependence of the excitation energy of the (A - 1) system is presented, with the resulting scaling function being closely related to the longitudinal momentum distributions. Taking into account final state interaction effects, the new analysis of experimental data on nuclei, ranging from ^3He to Nuclear Matter, provides unique information on the nucleon momentum distributions and confirms the analysis in terms of cross section ratios.

  14. Controlling Short-Range Interactions by Tuning Surface Chemistry in HDPE/Graphene Nanoribbon Nanocomposites. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Soheil; Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman


    Unique dispersion states of nanoparticles in polymeric matrices have the potential to create composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. The present work aims to determine the state of dispersion from the melt-state rheological behavior of nanocomposites based on carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon (GNR) nanomaterials. GNRs were synthesized from nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via a chemical route using potassium permanganate and some second acids. High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/GNR nanocomposite samples were then prepared through a solution mixing procedure. Different nanocomposite dispersion states were achieved using different GNR synthesis methods providing different surface chemistry, interparticle interactions, and internal compartments. Prolonged relaxation of flow induced molecular orientation was observed due to the presence of both carbon nanotubes and GNRs. Based on the results of this work, due to relatively weak interactions between the polymer and the nanofillers, it is expected that short-range interactions between nanofillers play the key role in the final dispersion state.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of short-range force systems on 1024-node hypercubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, S.J.


    In this paper, two parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor to a subset of particles; the second assigns each to a fixed region of 3d space. The algorithms are implemented on 1024-node hypercubes for problems characterized by short-range forces, diffusion (so that each particle's neighbors change in time), and problem size ranging from 250 to 10000 particles. Timings for the algorithms on the 1024-node NCUBE/ten and the newer NCUBE 2 hypercubes are given. The latter is found to be competitive with a CRAY-XMP, running an optimized serial algorithm. For smaller problems the NCUBE 2 and CRAY-XMP are roughly the same; for larger ones the NCUBE 2 is up to twice as fast. Parallel efficiencies of the algorithms and communication parameters for the two hypercubes are also examined

  16. Short-range structure and thermal properties of lead tellurite glasses (United States)

    Hirdesh, Kaur, Amarjot; Khanna, Atul; Gonzàlez, Fernando


    PbO-TeO2 glasses having composition: xPbO-(100 - x)TeO2 (x = 10, 15 and 20 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. Glass density increases from 5.89 to 6.22 g cm-3 with increase in PbO concentration from 10 to 20 mol%, due to the replacement of TeO2 by heavier PbO. DSC studies found that glass transition temperature (Tg) decreases from a value of 295°C to 281°C. Raman studies found that glass short-range structure consists of TeO4 and TeO3 structural units and that PbO modifies the network by the structural transformation: TeO4 to TeO3.

  17. Short-range structure and thermal properties of barium tellurite glasses (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjot; Khanna, Atul; Gonzàlez, Fernando


    BaO-TeO2 glasses containing 10 to 20 BaO mol% were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. Glass density decreases with increase in BaO concentration from 10 to 20 mol%, due to replacement of heavier TeO2 by lighter BaO, however glass transition temperature (Tg) increases significantly from a value of 318°C to 327°C due to increase in average single bond enthalpy of the tellurite network. Raman studies found that glass short-range structure consists of TeO4 and TeO3 structural units and BaO modifies the network by producing the structural transformation: TeO4→ TeO3.

  18. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan


    . To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality......We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE......-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory...

  19. Improving Short-Range Ensemble Kalman Storm Surge Forecasting Using Robust Adaptive Inflation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad; Butler, T.; Luo, X.; Dawson, C.; Mayo, T.; Hoteit, Ibrahim


    This paper presents a robust ensemble filtering methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, which has been implemented in the framework of the H∞ filter. By design, an H∞ filter is more robust than the common Kalman filter in the sense that the estimation error in the H∞ filter has, in general, a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation. The computational hydrodynamical model used in this study is the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model. The authors assimilate data obtained from Hurricanes Katrina and Ike as test cases. The results clearly show that the H∞-based SEIK filter provides more accurate short-range forecasts of storm surge compared to recently reported data assimilation results resulting from the standard SEIK filter.

  20. Utilizing Context in Location-Aware Short-Range Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa A. Korhonen


    Full Text Available We discuss how a short-range wireless communication service implemented for modern mobile communication devices can provide additional value for both the consumer and the service/product provider. When used as an information search tool, such systems allow services and products being promoted at the location they are available. For the customer, it may provide a “digitally augmented vision”, an enhanced view to the current environment. With data filtering and search rules, this may provide a self-manageable context, where the user's own personal environment and preferences to the features available in the current surroundings cooperate with a direct connection to the web-based social media. A preliminary design for such service is provided. The conclusion is that the method can generate additional revenue to the company and please the customers' buying process. In addition to the marketing, the principles described here are also applicable to other forms of human interaction.

  1. 79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar – Spectrum allocation and technology trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Bloecher


    Full Text Available Automotive UWB (Ultra-Wideband short range radar (SSR is on the market as a key technology for novel comfort and safety systems. SiGe based 79 GHz UWB SRR will be a definite candidate for the long term substitution of the 24 GHz UWB SRR. This paper will give an overview of the finished BMBF joint project KOKON and the recently started successing project RoCC, which concentrate on the development of this technology and sensor demonstrators. In both projects, the responsibilities of Daimler AG deal with application based sensor specification, test and evaluation of realized sensor demonstrators. Recent UWB SRR frequency regulation approaches and activitites will be introduced. Furthermore, some first results of Daimler activities within RoCC will be presented, dealing with the packaging and operation of these sensors within the complex car environment.

  2. Short-range wakefields generated in the blowout regime of plasma-wakefield acceleration (United States)

    Stupakov, G.


    In the past, calculation of wakefields generated by an electron bunch propagating in a plasma has been carried out in linear approximation, where the plasma perturbation can be assumed small and plasma equations of motion linearized. This approximation breaks down in the blowout regime where a high-density electron driver expels plasma electrons from its path and creates a cavity void of electrons in its wake. In this paper, we develop a technique that allows us to calculate short-range longitudinal and transverse wakes generated by a witness bunch being accelerated inside the cavity. Our results can be used for studies of the beam loading and the hosing instability of the witness bunch in plasma-wakefield and laser-wakefield acceleration.

  3. Multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system (United States)

    Gapiński, Daniel; Krzysztofik, Izabela; Koruba, Zbigniew


    The paper presents a novel method for tracking several air targets simultaneously. The developed concept concerns a multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system based on the programmed selection of air targets and an algorithm of simultaneous synchronisation of several modified optical scanning seekers. The above system is supposed to facilitate simultaneous firing of several self-guided infrared rocket missiles at many different air targets. From the available information, it appears that, currently, there are no passive self-guided seekers that fulfil such tasks. This paper contains theoretical discussions and simulations of simultaneous detection and tracking of many air targets by mutually integrated seekers of several rocket missiles. The results of computer simulation research have been presented in a graphical form.

  4. Direct separation of short range order in intermixed nanocrystalline and amorphous phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Robinson, Ian K.; Cross, Julie O.; Maeda, Yoshihito; Bouldin, Charles E.


    Diffraction anomalous fine-structure (DAFS) and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements were combined to determine short range order (SRO) about a single atomic type in a sample of mixed amorphous and nanocrystalline phases of germanium. EXAFS yields information about the SRO of all Ge atoms in the sample, while DAFS determines the SRO of only the ordered fraction. We determine that the first-shell distance distribution is bimodal; the nanocrystalline distance is the same as the bulk crystal, to within 0.01(2) A ring , but the mean amorphous Ge-Ge bond length is expanded by 0.076(19) Angstrom. This approach can be applied to many systems of mixed amorphous and nanocrystalline phases

  5. An Empirical Path-Loss Model for Wireless Channels in Indoor Short-Range Office Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wang


    Full Text Available A novel empirical path-loss model for wireless indoor short-range office environment at 4.3–7.3 GHz band is presented. The model is developed based on the experimental datum sampled in 30 office rooms in both line of sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS scenarios. The model is characterized as the path loss to distance with a Gaussian random variable X due to the shadow fading by using linear regression. The path-loss exponent n is fitted by the frequency using power function and modeled as a frequency-dependent Gaussian variable as the standard deviation σ of X. The presented works should be available for the research of wireless channel characteristics under universal indoor short-distance environments in the Internet of Things (IOT.

  6. Contribution of silicon recombination properties in resolution of short-range particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.M.; Eremin, V.K.; Malyarenko, A.M.; Strokan, N.B.; Sukhanov, V.L.


    Tracks of short-range particles represent dense clusters of electron-hole pairs 2-4 μm in diameter and 20-30 μm long. Thus, conditions for charge carrier transport in microscopic Si volume are discovered at registration of each particle. Statistical distribution by the specimen square of the main parameter - lifetime of charge carriers (τ) is disclosed as a result of particle chaotic hitting the detector. Analytical description for the shape of the spectral line of the detector is found in the assumption of Gauss distribution τ. The function is applied to the analysis of detector spectra with maximum energy resolution, for which contributions to the shape of the line of the fundamental factors and nonperfection of Si or of the detector structure as a whole are comparable. Excess fluctuations of α-particle energy transformation to the charge of electron-hole pairs are found relatively to adopted values

  7. Contribution of silicon recombination properties in resolution of short-range particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E M; Eremin, V K; Malyarenko, A M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L


    Tracks of short-range particles represent dense clusters of electron-hole pairs 2-4 in diameter and 20-30 long. Thus, conditions for charge carrier transport in microscopic Si volume are discovered at registration of each particle. Statistical distribution by the specimen square of the main parameter - lifetime of charge carriers (tau) is disclosed as a result of particle chaotic hitting the detector. Analytical description for the shape of the spectral line of the detector is found in the assumption of Gauss distribution tau. The function is applied to the analysis of detector spectra with maximum energy resolution, for which contributions to the shape of the line of the fundamental factors and nonperfection of Si or of the detector structure as a whole are comparable. Excess fluctuations of ..cap alpha..-particle energy transformation to the charge of electron-hole pairs are found relatively to adopted values.

  8. Dependence of Coulomb Sum Rule on the Short Range Correlation by Using Av18 Potential (United States)

    Modarres, M.; Moeini, H.; Moshfegh, H. R.

    The Coulomb sum rule (CSR) and structure factor are calculated for inelastic electron scattering from nuclear matter at zero and finite temperature in the nonrelativistic limit. The effect of short-range correlation (SRC) is presented by using lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method and the Argonne Av18 and Δ-Reid soft-core potentials. The effects of different potentials as well as temperature are investigated. It is found that the nonrelativistic version of Bjorken scaling approximately sets in at the momentum transfer of about 1.1 to 1.2 GeV/c and the increase of temperature makes it to decrease. While different potentials do not significantly change CSR, the SRC improves the Coulomb sum rule and we get reasonably close results to both experimental data and others theoretical predictions.

  9. n-p Short-Range Correlations from (p,2p+n) Measurements (United States)

    Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Leksanov, A.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Zhalov, D.


    We studied the 12C(p,2p+n) reaction at beam momenta of 5.9, 8.0, and 9.0 GeV/c. For quasielastic (p,2p) events pf, the momentum of the knocked-out proton before the reaction, was compared (event by event) with pn, the coincident neutron momentum. For |pn|>kF=0.220 GeV/c (the Fermi momentum) a strong back-to-back directional correlation between pf and pn was observed, indicative of short-range n-p correlations. From pn and pf we constructed the distributions of c.m. and relative motion in the longitudinal direction for correlated pairs. We also determined that 49±13% of events with |pf|>kF had directionally correlated neutrons with |pn|>kF.

  10. Observation of short range three-particle correlations in e+e- annihilations at LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Barão, F; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brunet, J M; Brückman, P; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buys, A; Bärring, O; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Da Silva, W; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dijkstra, H; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Dönszelmann, M; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Föth, H; Fürstenau, H; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Guy, J; Guz, Yu; Górski, M; Günther, M; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Królikowski, J; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Kuznetsov, O; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; La Vaissière, C de; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; López-Fernandez, A; Lörstad, B; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martí i García, S; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Maréchal, B; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myagkov, A; Myatt, Gerald; Mönig, K; Møller, R; Müller, H; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Némécek, S; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rídky, J; Rückstuhl, W; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Stäck, H; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Sánchez, J; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van Eldik, J; Van der Velde, C; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Wehr, A; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; de Boer, Wim; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Åsman, B; Österberg, K; Überschär, B; Überschär, S


    \\def\\tpc{three-particle correlation} \\def\\twopc{two-particle correlation} Measurements are presented of short range three-particle correlations in e^+ e^- annihilations at LEP using data collected by the DELPHI detector. %The jet structure is studied using three-particle correlation functions. At small values of the four-momentum difference, strong three-particle correlations are observed for like-sign (+++ and ---) and for unlike-sign (++- and +--) pion combinations which are not a consequence of two-particle correlations. A possible explanation of the observed effects in like-sign combinations is the existence of higher order Bose-Einstein interference, which significantly changes the particle distributions in jets.

  11. Searching for Short Range Correlations Using (e,e'NN) Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Electron induced two nucleon knockout reactions (e,e'pp) and (e,e'np) were performed for 3He, 4He, and 12C nuclei with incident energies of 2.261 GeV and 4.461 GeV using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. Events with missing momenta lower than the Fermi level and missing energies smaller than the pion threshold were studied. The residual system was assumed to be a spectator and the process was considered as a quasi-free knockout of an NN pair. The data showed that the initial momentum extends up to 800 MeV/c with considerable strength. The cross sections for 3He(e,e'pp)n were compared to the calculations of J.M. Laget. It was found that the final state interactions (FSI) and the meson exchange currents (MEC) dominate the cross sections and the short range properties of the NN pair were substantially undermined. However, the node of the S state wave function of the pp pair at around 400 MeV/c initial momentum starts to be recognizable in the 4.461 GeV data. The data and the theory suggest that with higher momentum transfers, especially in the region xBj > 1, the competing processes such as FSI and MEC will be less important and the detailed study of the short-range properties of nucleons inside nuclei will be more desirable.

  12. Air defense planning for an area with the use of very short range air defense sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pietkiewicz


    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic method of planning the deployment of very short-range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD around an area (‘protected area’ in order to protect it. A function dependent on the distance between the earliest feasible points of destroying targets and the centre of the protected area was taken as an objective function. This is a different indicator from those commonly used in the literature, and based on the likelihood of a defense zone penetration by means of an air attack (MAA: the kill probability of the MAA and the probability of area losses. The model constraints resulted directly from the restrictions imposed by real air defense systems and the nature of the area being defended. This paper assumes that the VSHORAD system operates as a part of a general, superordinate air defense command and control system based on the idea of network-centric warfare, which provides the VSHORAD system with a recognized air picture, air defense plans, and combat mission specifications. The presented method has been implemented. The final part of the paper presents the computational results. Keywords: optimal planning, air defense system, area installation protection, deployment of very short range anti-air missile and artillery sets (VSHORAD

  13. Effects of short range ΔN interaction on observables of the πNN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Blankleider, B.


    The inadequacy of standard few-body approaches in describing the πNN system has motivated searches for the responsible missing mechanism. In the case of πd scattering, it has recently been asserted that an additional short range ΔN interaction can account for essentially all the discrepancies between a few-body calculation and experimental data. This conclusion, however, has been based on calculations where a phenomenological ΔN interaction is added only in Born term to background few-body amplitudes. In the present work we investigate the effect of including such a ΔN interaction to all orders within a unitary few-body calculation of the πNN system. Besides testing the validity of adding the ΔN interaction in Born term in πd scattering, our fully coupled approach also enables us to see the influence of the same ΔN interaction on the processes NN→πd and NN→NN. For πd elastic scattering, we find that the higher order ΔN interaction terms can have as much influence on πd observables as the lowest order contribution alone. Moreover, we find that the higher order contributions tend to cancel the effect obtained by adding the ΔN interaction in Born term only. The effect of the same ΔN interaction on NN→πd and NN→NN appears to be as significant as in πd→πd, suggesting that future investigations of the short range ΔN interaction should be done in the context of the fully coupled πNN system

  14. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I Results (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)


    This report describes the results of the ANU's (Applied Meteorology Unit) Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds. The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The Keith Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A 7 year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. In all climatologies, the average and peak wind speeds were highly variable in time. This indicated that the development of a peak wind forecasting tool would be difficult. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. The climatologies and PDFs provide tools with which to make peak wind forecasts that are critical to safe operations.

  15. Aviation medicine, FAA-1966. (United States)


    The health and safety of more than 80,000,000 aircraft passengers, approximately 500,000 active civilian pilots and other civilian aviation personnel is the concern of the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine.

  16. Study of short range order in alloy of glassy metals and effect of neutron irradiation on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, S.; Banaee, N.; Salman, M.; Gupta, A.; Principi, G.


    In this paper, we have studied a series of glassy metals with composition Fe 78-x Ni x Si 8 B 14 with x=0, 15, 25,38,53, 58. We have used Moessbauer spectroscopy to get information about short range order and local structure in these alloys. The specimens are exposed to neutron irradiation to perturb local structure and their short range order. The hyperfine parameters obtained from spectra before and after n-irradiation and are compared

  17. Short range order of Mg-Cd-alloys during the transition from the solid to the molten state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, A.; Steeb, S.


    Recently a method was published for the determination of short range order parameters in binary melts and also a method for the determination of the concentration of different structures which form such a melt. These methods are used in the present work to evaluate the atomic structure of Mg-Cd-melts and to reval the changes in short range order during the melting process. (orig.) [de

  18. The pitfalls of short-range endemism: high vulnerability to ecological and landscape traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanda D. Mason


    Full Text Available Ecological traps attract biota to low-quality habitats. Landscape traps are zones caught in a vortex of spiralling degradation. Here, we demonstrate how short-range endemic (SRE traits may make such taxa vulnerable to ecological and landscape traps. Three SRE species of mygalomorph spider were used in this study: Idiommata blackwalli, Idiosoma sigillatum and an undescribed Aganippe sp. Mygalomorphs can be long-lived (>43 years and select sites for permanent burrows in their early dispersal phase. Spiderlings from two species, I. blackwalli (n = 20 and Aganippe sp. (n = 50, demonstrated choice for microhabitats under experimental conditions, that correspond to where adults typically occur in situ. An invasive veldt grass microhabitat was selected almost exclusively by spiderlings of I. sigillatum. At present, habitat dominated by veldt grass in Perth, Western Australia, has lower prey diversity and abundance than undisturbed habitats and therefore may act as an ecological trap for this species. Furthermore, as a homogenising force, veldt grass can spread to form a landscape trap in naturally heterogeneous ecosystems. Selection of specialised microhabitats of SREs may explain high extinction rates in old, stable landscapes undergoing (human-induced rapid change.

  19. Objectives for next generation of practical short-range atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, H.R.; Mikkelsen, T.


    The proceedings contains papers from the workshop ''Objectives for Next Generation of Practical Short-Range Atmospheric Dispersion Models''. They deal with two types of models, namely models for regulatory purposes and models for real-time applications. The workshop was the result of an action started in 1991 for increased cooperation and harmonization within atmospheric dispersion modelling. The focus of the workshop was on the management of model development and the definition of model objectives, rather than on detailed model contents. It was the intention to identify actions that can be taken in order to improve the development and use of atmospheric dispersion models. The papers in the proceedings deal with various topics within the broad spectrum of matters related to up-to-date practical models, such as their scientific basis, requirements for model input and output, meteorological preprocessing, standardisation within modelling, electronic information exchange as a potentially useful tool, model evaluation and data bases for model evaluation. In addition to the papers, the proceedings contain summaries of the discussions at the workshop. These summaries point to a number of recommended actions which can be taken in order to improve ''modelling culture''. (AB)

  20. Evidence for short range corelations from high Q{sup 2} (e,e{prime}) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strikman, M.I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Frankfurt, L.L.; Sargayan, M.M. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Iceland)] [and others


    For many years now short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei have been considered as an essential feature of the nuclear wave function. At high energy (e,e{prime}) reactions, where Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, x = Q{sup 2}/2mq{sub o} > 1 and 1 GeV > q{sub o}> 300 {approximately} 400 MeV the scattering from low momentum nucleons is kinematically suppressed and there the evidence of SRC expected to be more prominent. These reactions have been intensively investigated during the last decade or so at SLAC on both light and heavy nuclei. The above kinematics allows one to compute the cross section through the processes local in space. To explain this the authors analyse the representation of the cross section as a Fourier transform of the commutator of electromagnetic currents and see that the major contribution in the cross section is given by the region of integration.

  1. Dissipative NEGF methodology to treat short range Coulomb interaction: Current through a 1D nanostructure. (United States)

    Martinez, Antonio; Barker, John R; Di Prieto, Riccardo


    A methodology describing Coulomb blockade in the Non-equilibrium Green Function formalism is presented. We carried out ballistic and dissipative simulations through a 1D quantum dot using an Einstein phonon model. Inelastic phonons with different energies have been considered. The methodology incorporates the short-range Coulomb interaction between two electrons through the use of a two-particle Green's function. Unlike previous work, the quantum dot has spatial resolution i.e. it is not just parameterized by the energy level and coupling constants of the dot. Our method intends to describe the effect of electron localization while maintaining an open boundary or extended wave function. The formalism conserves the current through the nanostructure. A simple 1D model is used to explain the increase of mobility in semi-crystalline polymers as a function of the electron concentration. The mechanism suggested is based on the lifting of energy levels into the transmission window as a result of the local electron-electron repulsion inside a crystalline domain. The results are aligned with recent experimental findings. Finally, as a proof of concept, we present a simulation of a low temperature resonant structure showing the stability diagram in the Coulomb blockade regime. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Short-range order clustering in BCC Fe-Mn alloys induced by severe plastic deformation (United States)

    Shabashov, V. A.; Kozlov, K. A.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Nikolaev, A. L.; Lyashkov, K. A.; Semyonkin, V. A.; Voronin, V. I.


    The effect of severe plastic deformation, namely, high-pressure torsion (HPT) at different temperatures and ball milling (BM) at different time intervals, has been investigated by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy in Fe100-xMnx (x = 4.1, 6.8, 9) alloys. Deformation affects the short-range clustering (SRC) in BCC lattice. Two processes occur: destruction of SRC by moving dislocations and enhancement of the SRC by migration of non-equilibrium defects. Destruction of SRC prevails during HPT at 80-293 K; whereas enhancement of SRC dominates at 473-573 K. BM starts enhancing the SRC formation at as low as 293 K due to local heating at impacts. The efficiency of HPT in terms of enhancing SRC increases with increasing temperature. The authors suppose that at low temperatures, a significant fraction of vacancies are excluded from enhancing SRC because of formation of mobile bi- and tri-vacancies having low efficiency of enhancing SRC as compared to that of mono vacancies. Milling of BCC Fe100-xMnx alloys stabilises the BCC phase with respect to α → γ transition at subsequent isothermal annealing because of a high degree of work hardening and formation of composition inhomogeneity.

  3. Probing short-range correlations in asymmetric nuclei with quasi-free pair knockout reactions (United States)

    Stevens, Sam; Ryckebusch, Jan; Cosyn, Wim; Waets, Andreas


    Short-range correlations (SRC) in asymmetric nuclei with an unusual neutron-to-proton ratio can be studied with quasi-free two-nucleon knockout processes following the collision between accelerated ions and a proton target. We derive an approximate factorized cross section for those SRC-driven p (A ,p‧N1N2) reactions. Our reaction model hinges on the factorization properties of SRC-driven A (e ,e‧N1N2) reactions for which strong indications are found in theory-experiment comparisons. In order to put our model to the test we compare its predictions with results of 12C (p ,p‧ pn) measurements conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and find a fair agreement. The model can also reproduce characteristic features of SRC-driven two-nucleon knockout reactions, like back-to-back emission of the correlated nucleons. We study the asymmetry dependence of nuclear SRC by providing predictions for the ratio of proton-proton to proton-neutron knockout cross sections for the carbon isotopes 9-15C thereby covering neutron excess values (N - Z) / Z between -0.5 and +0.5.

  4. Current research efforts at JILA to test the equivalence principle at short ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faller, J.E.; Niebauer, T.M.; McHugh, M.P.; Van Baak, D.A.


    We are presently engaged in three different experiments to search for a possible breakdown of the equivalence principle at short ranges. The first of these experiments, which has been completed, is our so-called Galilean test in which the differential free-fall of two objects of differing composition was measured using laser interferometry. We observed that the differential acceleration of two test bodies was less than 5 parts in 10 billion. This experiment set new limits on a suggested baryon dependent ''Fifth Force'' at ranges longer than 1 km. With a second experiment, we are investigating substance dependent interactions primarily for ranges up to 10 meters using a fluid supported torsion balance; this apparatus has been built and is now undergoing laboratory tests. Finally, a proposal has been made to measure the gravitational signal associated with the changing water level at a large pumped storage facility in Ludington, Michigan. Measuring the gravitational signal above and below the pond will yield the value of the gravitational constant, G, at ranges from 10-100 m. These measurements will serve as an independent check on other geophysical measurements of G

  5. Performance analysis of dedicated short range communications technology and overview of the practicability for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Bassoo


    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is a widely researched field and aims at developing technologies that may complement systems such as the advanced driver assistance systems. It is therefore important to analyse and infer on the performance of vehicular technologies for different driving and on-road criteria. This study considers the dedicated short range communications technology and more precisely the IEEE 802.11p standard for a performance and practicability analysis. There is also the proposal of a new classification scheme for typical driving conditions, which includes the main categories of Emergency and Safety scenarios while sub-classifications of Critical and Preventive Safety also exist. The scheme is used to build up scenarios as well as related equations relevant to developing countries for practical network simulation. The results obtained indicate that the relative speed of nodes is a determining factor in the overall performance and effectiveness of wireless vehicular communication systems. Moreover, delay values of low order were observed while an effective communication range of about 800 m was calculated for highway scenarios. The research thus indicates suitability of the system for an active use in collision avoidance even though independent factors such as climatic conditions and driver behaviour may affect its effectiveness in critical situations.

  6. Short-range ferromagnetism in alloy ribbons of Fe-Cr-Si-Nb-(Ag, Cu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THANH, P. Q.; HOA, N. Q.; CHAU, N. [Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); HUU, C. X. [Danang University of Technology, Danang (Viet Nam); NGO, D. T. [Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); PHAN, T. L. [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)


    We have studied the magnetic properties of two amorphous alloy ribbons Fe{sub 72}Cr{sub 6}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 5}B{sub 12}Ag{sub 1} (FCSNB-Ag) and Fe{sub 72}Cr{sub 6}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 5}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} (FCSNB-Cu), prepared by using a melt-spinning technique. Magnetization (M) measurements for various temperatures (T) and magnetic fields (H) indicate that ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transitions take place in FCSNB-Ag and FCSNB-Cu at Curie temperatures (T{sub C} ) of about 308.3 K and 322.5 K, respectively. Analyses of M - H data at different temperatures in the vicinity of the FM-PM phase transition based on the modified Arrott plot method and scaling hypothesis yielded the exponent values of β = 0.369 ± 0.005, γ = 1.359 ± 0.005 and δ = 4.7 ± 0.1 for FCSNB-Ag, and β = 0.376 ± 0.002, γ = 1.315 ± 0.006 and δ = 4.5 ± 0.1 for FCSNB-Cu. Compared with the values from theoretical models, these values are close to those expected for the 3D Heisenberg model, demonstrating the existence of short-range FM order in the amorphous alloy ribbons.

  7. Experimental Searches for Exotic Short-Range Forces Using Mechanical Oscillators (United States)

    Weisman, Evan

    Experimental searches for forces beyond gravity and electromagnetism at short range have attracted a great deal of attention over the last decade. In this thesis I describe the test mass development for two new experiments searching for forces below 1 mm. Both modify a previous experiment that used 1 kHz mechanical oscillators as test masses with a stiff conducting shield between them to suppress backgrounds, a promising technique for probing exceptionally small distances at the limit of instrumental thermal noise. To further reduce thermal noise, one experiment will use plated silicon test masses at cryogenic temperatures. The other experiment, which searches for spin-dependent interactions, will apply the spin-polarizable material Dy3Fe5O 12 to the test mass surfaces. This material exhibits orbital compensation of the magnetism associated with its intrinsic electron spin, minimizing magnetic backgrounds. Several plated silicon test mass prototypes were fabricated using photolithography (useful in both experiments), and spin-dependent materials were synthesized with a simple chemical recipe. Both silicon and spin-dependent test masses demonstrate the mechanical and magnetic properties necessary for sensitive experiments. I also describe sensitivity calculations of another proposed spin-dependent experiment, based on a modified search for the electron electric dipole moment, which show unprecedented sensitivity to exotic monopole-dipole forces. Inspired by a finite element model, a study attempting to maximize detector quality factor versus geometry is also presented, with experimental results so far not explained by the model.

  8. Two-dimensional quasistatic stationary short range surface plasmons in flat nanoprisms. (United States)

    Nelayah, J; Kociak, M; Stéphan, O; Geuquet, N; Henrard, L; García de Abajo, F J; Pastoriza-Santos, I; Liz-Marzán, L M; Colliex, C


    We report on the nanometer scale spectral imaging of surface plasmons within individual silver triangular nanoprisms by electron energy loss spectroscopy and on related discrete dipole approximation simulations. A dependence of the energy and intensity of the three detected modes as function of the edge length is clearly identified both experimentally and with simulations. We show that for experimentally available prisms (edge lengths ca. 70 to 300 nm) the energies and intensities of the different modes show a monotonic dependence as function of the aspect ratio of the prisms. For shorter or longer prisms, deviations to this behavior are identified thanks to simulations. These modes have symmetric charge distribution and result from the strong coupling of the upper and lower triangular surfaces. They also form a standing wave in the in-plane direction and are identified as quasistatic short range surface plasmons of different orders as emphasized within a continuum dielectric model. This model explains in simple terms the measured and simulated energy and intensity changes as function of geometric parameters. By providing a unified vision of surface plasmons in platelets, such a model should be useful for engineering of the optical properties of metallic nanoplatelets.

  9. Interplay between short-range correlated disorder and Coulomb interaction in nodal-line semimetals (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Nandkishore, Rahul M.


    In nodal-line semimetals, Coulomb interactions and short-range correlated disorder are both marginal perturbations to the clean noninteracting Hamiltonian. We analyze their interplay using a weak-coupling renormalization group approach. In the clean case, the Coulomb interaction has been found to be marginally irrelevant, leading to Fermi liquid behavior. We extend the analysis to incorporate the effects of disorder. The nodal line structure gives rise to kinematical constraints similar to that for a two-dimensional Fermi surface, which plays a crucial role in the one-loop renormalization of the disorder couplings. For a twofold degenerate nodal loop (Weyl loop), we show that disorder flows to strong coupling along a unique fixed trajectory in the space of symmetry inequivalent disorder couplings. Along this fixed trajectory, all symmetry inequivalent disorder strengths become equal. For a fourfold degenerate nodal loop (Dirac loop), disorder also flows to strong coupling, however, the strengths of symmetry inequivalent disorder couplings remain different. We show that feedback from disorder reverses the sign of the beta function for the Coulomb interaction, causing the Coulomb interaction to flow to strong coupling as well. However, the Coulomb interaction flows to strong coupling asymptotically more slowly than disorder. Extrapolating our results to strong coupling, we conjecture that at low energies nodal line semimetals should be described by a noninteracting nonlinear sigma model. We discuss the relation of our results with possible many-body localization at zero temperatures in such materials.

  10. Short-range order studies in nonstoichiometric transition metal carbides and nitrides by neutron diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priem, Thierry


    Short-range order in non-stoichiometric transition metal carbides and nitrides (TiN 0.82 , TiC 0.64 , TiC 0.76 , NbC 0.73 and NbC 0.83 ) was investigated by thermal neutron diffuse scattering on G4-4 (L.L.B - Saclay) and D10 (I.L.L. Grenoble) spectrometers. From experimental measurements, we have found that metalloid vacancies (carbon or nitrogen) prefer the f.c.c. third neighbour positions. Ordering interaction energies were calculated within the Ising model framework by three approximations: mean field (Clapp and Moss formula), Monte-Carlo simulation, Cluster variation Method. The energies obtained by the two latter methods are very close, and in qualitative agreement with theoretical values calculated from the band structure. Theoretical phase diagrams were calculated from these ordering energies for TiN x and TiC x ; three ordered structures were predicted, corresponding to compositions Ti 6 N 5 Ti 2 C and Ti 3 C 2 . On the other hand, atomic displacements are induced by vacancies. The metal first neighbours were found to move away from a vacancy, whereas the second neighbours move close to it. Near neighbour atomic displacements were theoretically determined by the lattice statics formalism with results in good agreement with experiment. (author) [fr

  11. A UHF RFID system with on-chip-antenna tag for short range communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qi; Zhang Chun; Zhao Xijin; Wang Zhihua


    A UHF RF identification system based on the 0.18 μm CMOS process has been developed for short range and harsh size requirement applications, which is composed of a fully integrated tag and a special reader. The whole tag chip with the antenna takes up an area of 0.36 mm 2 , which is smaller than other reported tags with an on-chip antenna (OCA) using the standard CMOS process. A self-defined protocol is proposed to reduce the power consumption, and minimize the size of the tag. The specialized SOC reader system consists of the RF transceiver, digital baseband, MCU and host interface. Its power consumption is about 500 mW. Measurement results show that the system's reading range is 2 mm with 20 dBm reader output power. With an inductive antenna printed on a paper substrate around the OCA tag, the reading range can be extended from several centimeters to meters, depending on the shape and size of the inductive antenna. (paper)

  12. Influence of retardation effects on photodisintegration of a quantum system bound by short-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preobrazhenskii, M.A.; Golovinskii, P.A.


    Expressions for cross sections for multiphonon disintegration of quantum systems bound by short-range forces are obtained in the plane-wave approximation taking into account retardation effects. It is shown that, in the region of nonrelativistic energies, their contribution is factored, and the resulting universal factor is expressed for an arbitrary degree of process nonlinearity n in terms of elementary functions. Arguments of functions are determined only by the mode ω, the radiation spectrum width β, and the bound-state energy of a system. The dependence of the contribution of retardation effects on ω, β, and n is studied in detail. Analytical expressions for cross sections for multiquantum disintegration in the first nonvanishing order with respect to correlation interaction, which exactly take into account retardation effects, are obtained. It is shown that for two-quantum processes, the contribution of correlation effects is expressed in terms of a function representing an extension of dipole polarizability, whereas for n>2, it can be described in the dipole approximation

  13. Demonstration of micro-projection enabled short-range communication system for 5G. (United States)

    Chou, Hsi-Hsir; Tsai, Cheng-Yu


    A liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) based polarization modulated image (PMI) system architecture using red-, green- and blue-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which offers simultaneous micro-projection and high-speed data transmission at nearly a gigabit, serving as an alternative short-range communication (SRC) approach for personal communication device (PCD) application in 5G, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In order to make the proposed system architecture transparent to the future possible wireless data modulation format, baseband modulation schemes such as multilevel pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM), M-ary phase shift keying modulation (M-PSK) and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) which can be further employed by more advanced multicarrier modulation schemes (such as DMT, OFDM and CAP) were used to investigate the highest possible data transmission rate of the proposed system architecture. The results demonstrated that an aggregative data transmission rate of 892 Mb/s and 900 Mb/s at a BER of 10^(-3) can be achieved by using 16-QAM baseband modulation scheme when data transmission were performed with and without micro-projection simultaneously.

  14. Large magnetoelectric coupling in magnetically short-range ordered Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ film. (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Osada, Minoru; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Yan; Yu, Jianding; Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi


    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility of manipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, are of great current interest. However, single-phase materials with such cross-coupling properties at room temperature exist rarely in nature; new design of nano-engineered thin films with a strong magneto-electric coupling is a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a robust room-temperature magneto-electric coupling in a bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with high ferroelectric Curie temperature of ~1000 K. Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition are single-phase layered perovskit with nearly (00l)-orientation. Room-temperature multiferroic behavior is demonstrated by a large modulation in magneto-polarization and magneto-dielectric responses. Local structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal the existence of Fe-rich nanodomains, which cause a short-range magnetic ordering at ~620 K. In Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with a stable ferroelectric order, the spin canting of magnetic-ion-based nanodomains via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction might yield a robust magneto-electric coupling of ~400 mV/Oe·cm even at room temperature.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of atomic short range order and cluster formation in two dimensional model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas T, J.; Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima; Manrique C, E.; Torres T, E.


    Using monte Carlo simulation have been carried out an atomistic description of the structure and ordering processes in the system Cu-Au in a two-dimensional model. The ABV model of the alloy is a system of N atoms A and B, located in rigid lattice with some vacant sites. In the model we assume pair wise interactions between nearest neighbors with constant ordering energy J = 0,03 eV. The dynamics was introduced by means of a vacancy that exchanges of place with any atom of its neighbors. The simulations were carried out in a square lattice with 1024 and 4096 particles, using periodic boundary conditions to avoid border effects. We calculate the first two parameters of short range order of Warren-Cowley as function of the concentration and temperature. It was also studied the probabilities of formation of different atomic clusters that consist of 9 atoms as function of the concentration of the alloy and temperatures in a wide range of values. In some regions of temperature and concentration it was observed compositional and thermal polymorphism

  16. Short-Range-Order for fcc-based Binary Alloys Revisited from Microscopic Geometry (United States)

    Yuge, Koretaka


    Short-range order (SRO) in disordered alloys is typically interpreted as competition between chemical effect of negative (or positive) energy gain by mixing constituent elements and geometric effects comes from difference in effective atomic radius. Although we have a number of theoretical approaches to quantitatively estimate SRO at given temperatures, it is still unclear to systematically understand trends in SRO for binary alloys in terms of geometric character, e.g., effective atomic radius for constituents. Since chemical effect plays significant role on SRO, it has been believed that purely geometric character cannot capture the SRO trends. Despite these considerations, based on the density functional theory (DFT) calculations on fcc-based 28 equiatomic binary alloys, we find that while conventional Goldschmidt or DFT-based atomic radius for constituents have no significant correlation with SRO, atomic radius for specially selected structure, constructed purely from information about underlying lattice, can successfully capture the magnitude of SRO. These facts strongly indicate that purely geometric information of the system plays central role to determine characteristic disordered structure.

  17. Electronic structure of disordered binary alloys with short range correlation in Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I.F.


    The determination of the electronic structure of a disordered material along the tight-binding model when applied to a Bethe lattice. The diagonal as well as off-diagonal disorder, are considered. The coordination number on the Bethe is fixed lattice to four (Z=4) that occurs in most compound semiconductors. The main proposal was to study the conditions under which a relatively simple model of a disordered material, i.e, a binary alloy, could account for the basic properties of transport or more specifically for the electronic states in such systems. By using a parametrization of the pair probability the behaviour of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different values of the short range order parameter, σ, which makes possible to treat the segregated, random and alternating cases, was analysed. In solving the problem via the Green function technique in the Wannier representation a linear chain of atoms was considered and using the solution of such a 1-D system the problem of the Bethe lattice which is constructed using such renormalized chains as elements, was solved. The results indicate that the obtained DOS are strongly dependent on the correlation assumed for the occupancy in the lattice. (author) [pt

  18. Short-range second order screened exchange correction to RPA correlation energies (United States)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian


    Direct random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energies have become increasingly popular as a post-Kohn-Sham correction, due to significant improvements over DFT calculations for properties such as long-range dispersion effects, which are problematic in conventional density functional theory. On the other hand, RPA still has various weaknesses, such as unsatisfactory results for non-isogyric processes. This can in parts be attributed to the self-correlation present in RPA correlation energies, leading to significant self-interaction errors. Therefore a variety of schemes have been devised to include exchange in the calculation of RPA correlation energies in order to correct this shortcoming. One of the most popular RPA plus exchange schemes is the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) correction. RPA + SOSEX delivers more accurate absolute correlation energies and also improves upon RPA for non-isogyric processes. On the other hand, RPA + SOSEX barrier heights are worse than those obtained from plain RPA calculations. To combine the benefits of RPA correlation energies and the SOSEX correction, we introduce a short-range RPA + SOSEX correction. Proof of concept calculations and benchmarks showing the advantages of our method are presented.

  19. Structural study of liquids with strong short-range correlation in the atomic distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzuki, Kenji


    Structure factors of liquids and amorphous solids having a relatively high degree of ordering in their short-range structures have been measured over a wide range of scattering vectors by means of the T-O-F neutron diffraction using epithermal pulsed neutrons generated by an electron linear accelerator. It has been shown in the case of liquid CS 2 that the size and shape of a molecule existing in the liquid phase are determined from the behaviour of the structure factor in the range of high scattering vectors, and that the structure factor in the region of low scattering vectors informs on inter-molecular orientational and center-center correlations in the liquid state. Moreover, based on highly resoluted radial distribution functions, a free rotating chain model has been discussed for chain molecules contained in liquid Se, and a splitting of the nearest neighbour Pd-Pd and Pd-Si correlation has been clearly found in the amorphous Pdsub(0.8) - Sisub(0.2) alloy. (orig./HK) [de

  20. Short-range order analysis and some physical properties of InxSe1-x glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabany, N.


    Bulk In x Se 1-x (with x=5-25 at%) glasses were prepared using the melt-quench technique. Short range order(SRO) was examined by the X-ray diffraction using Cu(k α ) radiation in the wave vector interval 0.28≤k≤6.5 A 0-1 .The SRO parameters have been obtained from the radial distribution function. The inter-atomic distance obtained from the first and second peak are r 1 =0.263 and r 2 =0.460 nm, which is equivalent In-Se and Se-Se bond length. The fundamental structural unit for the studied glasses is In 2 Se 3 pyramid. Using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the crystallization mechanism of In x Se 1-x chalcogenide glass has been studied. The glass transition activation energy (E g ) is 289±0.3 kj/mol.There is a correlation amongst the glass forming ability, bond strength and the number of lone pair electrons. The utility of the Gibbs-Di Marzio relation was achieved by estimating T g theoretically.

  1. Measurement of transparency ratios for protons from short-range correlated pairs (United States)

    Hen, O.; Hakobyan, H.; Shneor, R.; Piasetzky, E.; Weinstein, L. B.; Brooks, W. K.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Gilad, S.; Korover, I.; Beck, A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Arrington, J. R.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.


    Nuclear transparency, Tp (A), is a measure of the average probability for a struck proton to escape the nucleus without significant re-interaction. Previously, nuclear transparencies were extracted for quasi-elastic A (e ,e‧ p) knockout of protons with momentum below the Fermi momentum, where the spectral functions are well known. In this Letter we extract a novel observable, the transparency ratio, Tp (A) /Tp(12 C), for knockout of high-missing-momentum protons from the breakup of short-range correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in Al, Fe and Pb nuclei relative to C. The ratios were measured at momentum transfer Q2 ⩾ 1.5(GeV /c) 2 and xB ⩾ 1.2 where the reaction is expected to be dominated by electron scattering from 2N-SRC. The transparency ratios of the knocked-out protons coming from 2N-SRC breakup are 20-30% lower than those of previous results for low missing momentum. They agree with Glauber calculations and agree with renormalization of the previously published transparencies as proposed by recent theoretical investigations. The new transparencies scale as A - 1 / 3, which is consistent with dominance of scattering from nucleons at the nuclear surface.

  2. Comparison of the Tritium permeated from ITER Blanket in normal operation and its short range impact of HT over France, Swiss or Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J.; Sedano, L.; Xiberta, J.


    In this paper we assumes the hydrogen isotopes permeation from a liquid metal ITER breeder blanket (assuming normal operation and a LM as DCLL or HCLL blanket) as one of the possible sources of a leak and tritium release,mainly but not only. The paper presents a short range low impact of HT gas activity over France, Swiss or Spain from same cases in 2014 and 2015 releases from ITER. The permeation of hydrogen isotopes is an important experimental issue to take into account into the development of a Tritium Breeder Module for ITER [1]. Tritium cannot be confined -without an uncertainty of 5% in the flux permeation- and therefore HT can be detected (e.g. by ionization chamber) as permeates though the structure of RAFM steel towards the coolant [1]. HT from Pb15.7Li and permeated in Eurofer97 can contaminate the other parts of the system and may be delivered though the normal-vent detritiation system (NVDS). Real time forecast of transport of tritium in air from the fusion reactor towards off-site far downwind though extended tritium clouds into the low levels of the atmosphere is calculated for the short range (up to 24 hours) by the coupling of 2 models the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) [2] model and the FLEXPART lagrangian dispersion model [3] verified with NORMTRI simulation [4] and implemented in many different cases and scenarios [5, 6, 7]. As a function of daily weather conditions the release will affect just France or already can be delivered towards Swiss when cyclonic circulation, or towards the Iberian Peninsula or Balearic Islands (Spain) when high produce anticyclonic circulation of the air over the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  3. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)


    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  4. Short-Range-Order Mineral Physical Protection On Black Carbon Stabilization (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Song, Y. F.; Lehmann, J.; Wang, C. H.


    Soil organic matter is one of the largest reservoirs in global carbon cycle, and black carbon (BC) represents a chemical resistant component. Black C plays an important role in global climate change. Generally considered recalcitrant due to high aromaticity, the reactive surface and functional groups of BC are crucial for carbon sequestration in soils. Mineral sorption and physical protection is an important mechanism for BC long term stabilization and sequestration in environments. Previous studies on mineral protection of BC were limited to analysis techniques in two-dimensions, for example, by SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS. Little is known about the scope of organo-mineral association, the in-situ distribution and forms of minerals, and the ultimate interplay of BC and minerals. The aim of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional interaction of organic C and minerals in submicron scale using synchrotron-based Transmission X-ray Microcopy (TXM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Abundant poorly-crystallined nano-minerals particles were observed. These short-range-order (SRO) minerals also aggregate into clusters and sheets, and form envelops-like structures on the surface of BC. On top of large surface contact area, the intimate interplay between BC and minerals reinforces the stability of both organic C and minerals, resulting from chemical bonding through cation bridging and ligand exchange. The mineral protection enhances BC stabilization and sequestration and lowers its bioavailability in environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding.

  5. 2D fluorescence spectra measurement of six kinds of bioagents simulants by short range Lidar (United States)

    Sanpedro, Man


    Pantoea agglomerans (Pan), Staphylococcus aureus (Sta), Bacillus globigii (BG) and Escherichia coli (EH), these four kinds of bioagents simulants of were cultured and then their growth curves were measured, the generation time was 0.99h, 0.835h, 1.07h and 1.909h, respectively. A small short range fluorescence lidar working at wavelengths of 266nm and 355nm was designed and used to measure the two-dimensional fluorescence spectra of bioagents simulants in the amino acid segment and NADH segment, respectively. In a controllable fluorescence measurement chamber, the two-dimensional fluorescence spectra of vegetative liquid bacterial aerosols as well as BSA and OVA, two protein toxinic simulants were measured with a resolution of 4nm. The two-dimensional fluorescence spectral shape of Pan, Sta, EH and BG, BSA and OVA were consistent with the standard fluorescent component tryptophan in the amino acid band with FWHM of 60nm, but the central wavelength of the fluorescence spectra of these simulants blue/purple shifted obviously as affected by the external biochemical environment, concentration and ratio of different bacterial internal fluorophores, so the energy level between the excited state and the ground state of the fluorescence molecule increased. Differently, weak NADH fluorescence spectra with 100nm FWHM inside the four vegetative bacteria aerosols were detected, but Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering contribution of water, nitrogen in the fluorescence spectra could not be effectively extracted. The second - order derivative fluorescence spectra of four simulants showed that the high - order processing and recognition of the fluorescence spectra was feasible.

  6. Fungal biomineralization of montmorillonite and goethite to short-range-ordered minerals (United States)

    Li, Huan; Hu, Shuijin; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Chang, Xiaoli; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui


    Highly reactive nano-scale minerals, e.g., short-range-ordered minerals (SROs) and other nanoparticles, play an important role in soil carbon (C) retention. Yet, the mechanisms that govern biomineralization from bulk minerals to highly reactive nano-scale minerals remain largely unexplored, which critically hinders our efforts toward managing nano-scale minerals for soil C retention. Here we report the results from a study that explores structural changes during Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 transformation of montmorillonite and goethite to SROs. We examined the morphology and structure of nano-scale minerals, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, time-resolved solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy combined with two dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) analysis. Our results showed that after a 48-h cultivation of montmorillonite and goethite with Z5, new biogenic intracellular and extracellular reactive nano-scale minerals with a size of 3-5 nm became abundant. Analysis of 2D COS further suggested that montmorillonite and goethite were the precursors of the dominant biogenic nano-scale minerals. Carbon 1s near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra and their deconvolution results demonstrated that during fungus Z5 growth, carboxylic C (288.4-289.1 eV) was the dominant organic group, accounting for approximately 34% and 59% in the medium and aggregates, respectively. This result suggested that high percentage of the production of organic acids during the growth of Z5 was the driving factor for structural changes during biomineralization. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the structural characterization of nano-scale minerals by 2D COS, highlighting its potential to elucidate biomineralization pathways and thus identify the precursors of nano-scale minerals.

  7. Short-range structure of barium tellurite glasses and its correlation with stress-optic response (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjot; Khanna, Atul; Fábián, Margit


    The atomic parameters of metal ion-oxygen speciation such as bond-lengths and nearest neighbor distances for Ba-O, Te-O and O-O pairs, co-ordination numbers and bond angle distributions for O-Ba-O, O-Te-O and O-O-O linkages are determined by neutron diffraction and Reverse Monte Carlo simulations on the series of xBaO-(100-x)TeO2 glasses containing 10, 15 and 20 mol% BaO. The glass network depolymerizes and the average Te-O co-ordination number decreases from 3.60 ± 0.02 to 3.48 ± 0.02 with increase in BaO concentration. Te-O bond lengths are in the range: 1.97 ± 0.01–1.92 ± 0.01 Å. Ba2+ is mostly in octahedral coordination and the Ba-O bond lengths are in the range: 2.73 ± 0.01 to 2.76 ± 0.03 Å. Te-O co-ordination number is also determined by Raman spectroscopy and it shows good agreement with the neutron data. The short-range structural properties i.e. metal ion coordination number (Nc) and bond lengths (d) were correlated with the stress-optic response. The bonding characteristic, Br values were determined from the structural data of xBaO-(100-x)TeO2 glasses and were used to predict the stress-induced birefringence properties.

  8. Short-range and long-range forces in quantum theory: selected topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, J.R.


    Short-range forces (SRF) are encountered when the effects of the parity-violating (PV) weak neutral current are considered in atomic systems. We consider these and other SRF that are associated with operators that contain delta functions. Identities which convert a delta-function matrix element to that of a global operator are reviewed. Past and possible future applications of such identities are described. It has been found that use of these identities can substantially improve the results obtained with less accurate wave functions. We present a further application to the hyperfine structure of the ground state of lithium where we again find that results are improved by the use of an identity. A long-range force (LRF) is here defined to be one that is associated with a potential V(r) that is asymptotically of the form lambda r - 1 (r 0 /r)/sup N-1/. We use a dispersion-theoretic approach to study LRF between hadrons due to two-glucon exchange within the framework of quantum chromodynamics. Such an LRF is usually related to the presence of a spectrum of physical states that extends to zero mass. A speculative scheme put forward by Feinberg and Sucher is used to avoid requiring the existence of massless gluons as observable particles. Semi-quantitative expressions for the two-glucon exchange potential between hadrons and, in particular, between two nucleons are obtained. Limits on two-gluon corrections to πp forward scattering dispersion relations are used to provide an upper bound for lambda, the coupling constant in the nucleon-nucleon potential. For N greater than or equal to 7, expected on heuristic grounds, we obtain the bound lambda less than or equal to 10 6 , which is very weak; gluon effects as treated here do not lead to significant effects in the dispersion-theoretic analysis of πp scattering

  9. Chiral approach to nuclear matter: Role of explicit short-range NN-terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, S.; Kaiser, N.


    We extend a recent chiral approach to nuclear matter by including the most general (momentum-independent) NN-contact interaction. Iterating this two-parameter contact vertex with itself and with one-pion exchange the emerging energy per particle exhausts all terms possible up to and including fourth order in the small momentum expansion. Two (isospin-dependent) cut-offs Λ 0,1 are introduced to regularize the (linear) divergences of some three-loop in-medium diagrams. The equation of state of pure neutron matter, anti E n (k n ), can be reproduced very well up to quite high neutron densities of ρ n =0.5 fm -3 by adjusting the strength of a repulsive nn-contact interaction. Binding and saturation of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter is a generic feature of our perturbative calculation. Fixing the maximum binding energy per particle to - anti E(k f0 )=15.3 MeV we find that any possible equilibrium density ρ 0 lies below ρ 0 max =0.191 fm -3 . The additional constraint from the neutron matter equation of state leads however to a somewhat too low saturation density of ρ 0 =0.134 fm -3 . We also investigate the effects of the NN-contact interaction on the complex single-particle potential U(p,k f )+iW(p,k f ). We find that the effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface is bounded from below by M * (k f0 ) ≥1.4 M. This property keeps the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition at somewhat too high values T c ≥21 MeV. The downward bending of the asymmetry energy A(k f ) above nuclear-matter saturation density is a generic feature of the approximation to fourth order. We furthermore investigate the effects of the NN-contact interaction on the (vector-∇ρ) 2 -term in the nuclear energy density functional E[ρ,τ]. Altogether, there is within this complete fourth-order calculation no ''magic'' set of adjustable short-range parameters with which one could reproduce simultaneously and accurately all semi-empirical properties of nuclear matter. In

  10. Research of Short-range Missile Motion in Terms of Different Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klishin


    Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the

  11. Applications of Geostationary Satellite Data to Aviation (United States)

    Ellrod, Gary P.; Pryor, Kenneth


    Weather is by far the most important factor in air traffic delays in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS) according to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Geostationary satellites have been an effective tool for the monitoring of meteorological conditions that affect aviation operations since the launch of the first Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) in the United States in 1974. This paper will review the global use of geostationary satellites in support of aviation weather since their inception, with an emphasis on the latest generation of satellites, such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R (16) with its Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Specific applications discussed in this paper include monitoring of convective storms and their associated hazards, fog and low stratus, turbulence, volcanic hazards, and aircraft icing.

  12. Aviation Safety Issues Database (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.


    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  13. Short range order and phase separation in Ti-rich Ti-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, H.J.


    of the reaction over a range of scales, from the atomic level on which order occurs through to large scale precipitates. Ti-15at%Al displays a phase separation mechanism involving both ordering and chemical phase decomposition which occurs in a time and temperature range that is readily accessible experimentally. Hence this alloy is an appropriate model system on which to conduct fundamental investigations into a complex decomposition mechanism and its kinetics. Both experimental and modelling results show that short range order develops rapidly in the alloy, and is followed by the formation and growth of congruent long range ordered regions of DO 19 structure. At a later stage composition variations form and increase in amplitude through a spinodal mechanism. From these findings, it cannot be ruled out that the observed decomposition sequence is due solely to the kinetics of ordering being more rapid than those of chemical phase separation. However, there are some indications which suggest that a thermodynamic criterion is operating, such that the onset of chemical phase separation occurs only after ordering has been achieved to some extent. The observed mechanism is fully consistent in appearance with the class of reactions known as conditional spinodals. (author)

  14. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)


    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  15. Control of strength and stability of emulsion-gels by a combination of long- and short-range interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Hendriks, W.P.G.; Linden, van der E.; Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.


    This paper discusses the change in phase behavior and mechanical properties of oil-in-water emulsion gels brought about by variation of long- and short-range attractive interactions. The model system studied consisted of oil droplets stabilized by the protein -lactoglobulin (-lg). A long-range

  16. On-chip patch antenna on InP substrate for short-range wireless communication at 140 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    This paper presents the design of an on-chip patch antenna on indium phosphide (InP) substrate for short-range wireless communication at 140 GHz. The antenna shows a simulated gain of 5.3 dBi with 23% bandwidth at 140 GHz and it can be used for either direct chip-to-chip communication or chip...

  17. Two-nucleon electromagnetic current in chiral effective field theory: One-pion exchange and short-range contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, S.; Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H.; Meissner, U.-G.


    We derive the leading one-loop contribution to the one-pion exchange and short-range two-nucleon electromagnetic current operator in the framework of chiral effective field theory. The derivation is carried out using the method of unitary transformation. Explicit results for the current and charge densities are given in momentum and coordinate space.

  18. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart


    General aviation (GA) -- a catch-all category that includes about 57% of all civilian aviation activity within the United States -- encompasses a wide range of airports, aircraft, and flight operations...

  19. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bogue, Rodney K.


    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  20. Short-Range Correlated Magnetic Core-Shell CrO₂/Cr₂O₃ Nanorods: Experimental Observations and Theoretical Considerations. (United States)

    Gandhi, Ashish C; Li, Tai-Yue; Chan, Ting Shan; Wu, Sheng Yun


    With the evolution of synthesis and the critical characterization of core-shell nanostructures, short-range magnetic correlation is of prime interest in employing their properties to develop novel devices and widespread applications. In this regard, a novel approach of the magnetic core-shell saturated magnetization (CSSM) cylinder model solely based on the contribution of saturated magnetization in one-dimensional CrO₂/Cr₂O₃ core-shell nanorods (NRs) has been developed and applied for the determination of core-diameter and shell-thickness. The nanosized effect leads to a short-range magnetic correlation of ferromagnetic core-CrO₂ extracted from CSSM, which can be explained using finite size scaling method. The outcome of this study is important in terms of utilizing magnetic properties for the critical characterization of core-shell nanomagnetic materials.

  1. Changes in structure of the short-range order of the InP melt when heated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Dovletov, K.; Nashel'skij, A.Ya.; Mamedov, M.M.


    An investigation of the temperature dependence of the InP viscosity has indicated an ''after-melting'' effect similar to that observed in other A 3 V 5 compounds having a sphalerite structure. The termodynamic parameters of the viscous flow of indium phosphide melt have been calculated, and a suggestion has been made on the loosening of the short-range order structure of the melt during the period preceding solidification. With the similarity in the behaviour of InP and of A 3 Sb compound melts as a basis, a suggestion has been put forward that the influence of the thermal dissociation upon the character of the changes in the short-range order structure directly after transition from the solid to the liquid phase is negligible

  2. Properties of short-range and long-range correlation energy density functionals from electron-electron coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas


    The combination of density-functional theory with other approaches to the many-electron problem through the separation of the electron-electron interaction into a short-range and a long-range contribution is a promising method, which is raising more and more interest in recent years. In this work some properties of the corresponding correlation energy functionals are derived by studying the electron-electron coalescence condition for a modified (long-range-only) interaction. A general relation for the on-top (zero electron-electron distance) pair density is derived, and its usefulness is discussed with some examples. For the special case of the uniform electron gas, a simple parametrization of the on-top pair density for a long-range only interaction is presented and supported by calculations within the ''extended Overhauser model.'' The results of this work can be used to build self-interaction corrected short-range correlation energy functionals

  3. Introducing a new family of short-range potentials and their numerical solutions using the asymptotic iteration method (United States)

    Assi, I. A.; Sous, A. J.


    The goal of this work is to derive a new class of short-range potentials that could have a wide range of physical applications, specially in molecular physics. The tridiagonal representation approach has been developed beyond its limitations to produce new potentials by requiring the representation of the Schrödinger wave operator to be multidiagonal and symmetric. This produces a family of Hulthén potentials that has a specific structure, as mentioned in the introduction. As an example, we have solved the nonrelativistic wave equation for the new four-parameter short-range screening potential numerically using the asymptotic iteration method, where we tabulated the eigenvalues for both s -wave and arbitrary l -wave cases in tables.

  4. Correlation of optical energy gap with the nearest neighbour short range order in amorphous V2O5 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, Sahil; Vedeshwar, Agnikumar G; Tandon, R P


    The optical and structural properties of well characterized vacuum-evaporated amorphous V 2 O 5 films were studied in the thickness range 5-500 nm. The structural analyses show that V-O, O-O and V-V nearest neighbour distances defining the short range order vary nonlinearly with film thickness. The optical absorption shows thickness-dependent energy gap (E g ) and the nonlinear behaviour of thickness-dependent E g is similar to that of nearest neighbour distance with film thickness. The E g correlates linearly very well with all the three nearest neighbour distances. The variation of E g with film thickness is attributed to the residual stress in the film which causes the changes in short range order. The change in E g corresponding to the change in V-O distance was found to be 35 eV nm -1 . This change is almost three times of that with V-V distance.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The short-range wakefield between two parallel conducting plates generated by a sub-relativistic beam bunch has been solved analytically by the image charge method in time domain. Comparing with the traditional modal analysis in frequency domain, this algorithm simplifies the mathematics and reveals in greater details the physics of electromagnetic field generation, propagation, reflection and causality. The calculated results have an excellent agreement with MAFIA and ABC1 simulations in all range of beam velocities

  6. Investigation into short-range order, electric conductivity and optical absorption edge of indium selenide thin amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyj, M.N.; Didyk, G.V.; Stetsiv, Ya.I.; Yurechko, R.Ya.


    Thin amorphous films of InSe have been obtained by the method of discrete vacuum evaporation of about 10 -2 Pa. The short-range order is investigated according to the radial distribution curves. The temperature and film thickness are shown to affect the character of conductivity. The width of the forbidden band determined by the fundamental absorption edge is found to depend on the time of film annealing

  7. Electron irradiation effect on short-range ordering in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, N.P.; Mel'nikova, N.A.; Petrenko, P.V.; Ryabishchuk, A.L.; Tatarov, A.A.


    Method of X-ray diffuse scattering is used to study short-range order variation in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys under radiation effect and the following heat treatment. Irradiation was carried out at -40 deg C by 1.6 MeV electrons, fluence of 5x10 7 cm -2 and 0.5 MeV gamma-rays, the dose being 10 7 pH

  8. Socio-Economic Impacts of Space Weather and User Needs for Space Weather Information (United States)

    Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.


    The 2015 National Space Weather Strategy and Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) details the activities, outcomes, and timelines to build a "Space Weather Ready Nation." NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and Abt Associates are working together on two SWAP initiatives: (1) identifying, describing, and quantifying the socio-economic impacts of moderate and severe space weather; and (2) outreach to engineers and operators to better understand user requirements for space weather products and services. Both studies cover four technological sectors (electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and GNSS users) and rely heavily on industry input. Findings from both studies are essential for decreasing vulnerabilities and enhancing preparedness.



    Bellissent , R.; Bigot , J.; Calvayrac , Y.; Lefebvre , S.; Quivy , A.


    A precise determination of the three partial structure factors for the eutectic composition Ni63.7Zr36.3 has been carried out using neutron diffraction on three isotopically substituted glasses. The use of a "zero alloy" yields a direct determination of the Bhatia-Thornton structure factor SCC. Evidence for the existence of strong chemical short-range order and a clear size effect is obtained. Due to this chemical order, the partial structure factors cannot be consistent with the ones calcula...

  10. Assessment of oscillator strengths with multiconfigurational short-range density functional theory for electronic excitations in organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan


    considered the large collection of organic molecules whose excited states were investigated with a range of electronic structure methods by Thiel et al. As a by-product of our calculations of oscillator strengths, we also obtain electronic excitation energies, which enable us to compare the performance......We have in a series of recent papers investigated electronic excited states with a hybrid between a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and density functional theory (DFT). This method has been dubbed the CAS short-range DFT method (CAS–srDFT). The previous papers...

  11. Mean-Field Theory of Electrical Double Layer In Ionic Liquids with Account of Short-Range Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, Zachary A.H.; Feng, Guang; Kornyshev, Alexei A.


    We develop the theory of the electrical double layer in ionic liquids as proposed earlier by Kornyshev (2007). In the free energy function we keep the so called ‘short-range correlation terms’ which were omitted there. With some simplifying assumptions, we arrive at a modified expression for differential capacitance, which makes differential capacitance curves less sharply depending on electrode potential and having smaller values at extrema than in the previous theory. This brings the results closer to typical experimental observations, and makes it appealing to use this formalism for treatment of experimental data. Implications on Debye length and the extent of ion paring in ionic liquids are then briefly discussed.

  12. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017). (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D


    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  13. Using Artificial Intelligence to Inform Pilots of Weather (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.


    An automated system to assist a General Aviation (GA) pilot in improving situational awareness of weather in flight is now undergoing development. This development is prompted by the observation that most fatal GA accidents are attributable to loss of weather awareness. Loss of weather awareness, in turn, has been attributed to the difficulty of interpreting traditional preflight weather briefings and the difficulty of both obtaining and interpreting traditional in-flight weather briefings. The developmental automated system not only improves weather awareness but also substantially reduces the time a pilot must spend in acquiring and maintaining weather awareness.

  14. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  15. Modeling Short-Range Soil Variability and its Potential Use in Variable-Rate Treatment of Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moameni


    Full Text Available Abstract In Iran, the experimental plots under fertilizer trials are managed in such a way that the whole plot area uniformly receives agricultural inputs. This could lead to biased research results and hence to suppressing of the efforts made by the researchers. This research was conducted in a selected site belonging to the Gonbad Agricultural Research Station, located in the semiarid region, northeastern Iran. The aim was to characterize the short-range spatial variability of the inherent and management-depended soil properties and to determine if this variation is large and can be managed at practical scales. The soils were sampled using a grid 55 m apart. In total, 100 composite soil samples were collected from topsoil (0-30 cm and were analyzed for calcium carbonate equivalent, organic carbon, clay, available phosphorus, available potassium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese. Descriptive statistics were applied to check data trends. Geostatistical analysis was applied to variography, model fitting and contour mapping. Sampling at 55 m made it possible to split the area of the selected experimental plot into relatively uniform areas that allow application of agricultural inputs with variable rates. Keywords: Short-range soil variability, Within-field soil variability, Interpolation, Precision agriculture, Geostatistics

  16. Evolution of short range order in Ar: Liquid to glass and solid transitions-A computational study (United States)

    Shor, Stanislav; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy


    The evolution of the short range order (SRO) as a function of temperature in a Lennard-Jones model liquid with Ar parameters was determined and juxtaposed with thermodynamic and kinetic properties obtained as the liquid was cooled (heated) and transformed between crystalline solid or glassy states and an undercooled liquid. The Lennard-Jones system was studied by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of large supercells (approximately 20000 atoms) rapidly cooled or heated at selected quenching rates and at constant pressure. The liquid to solid transition was identified by discontinuities in the atomic volume and molar enthalpy; the glass transition temperature range was identified from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion. The SRO was studied within the quasi-crystalline model (QCM) framework and compared with the Steinhardt bond order parameters. Within the QCM it was found that the SRO evolves from a bcc-like order in the liquid through a bct-like short range order (c/a=1.2) in the supercooled liquid which persists into the glass and finally to a fcc-like ordering in the crystalline solid. The variation of the SRO that results from the QCM compares well with that obtained with Steinhardt's bond order parameters. The hypothesis of icosahedral order in liquids and glasses is not supported by our results.

  17. Decreased long- and short-range functional connectivity at rest in drug-naive major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Xue, Zhimin; Zhao, Jingping


    Abnormal functional connectivity has been observed in major depressive disorder. Anatomical distance may affect functional connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder. However, whether and how anatomical distance affects functional connectivity at rest remains unclear in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder. Forty-four patients with major depressive disorder, as well as 44 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Regional functional connectivity strength was calculated for each voxel in the whole brain, which was further divided into short- and long-range functional connectivity strength. The patients showed decreased long-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right inferior parietal lobule, as well as decreased short-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right insula and right superior temporal gyrus relative to those of the controls. No significant correlations existed between abnormal functional connectivity strength and the clinical variables of the patients. The findings revealed that anatomical distance decreases long- and short-range functional connectivity strength in patients with major depressive disorder, which may underlie the neurobiology of major depressive disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Short-range order in the quantum XXZ honeycomb lattice material BaCo2(PO4)2 (United States)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Brown, J. M.; Coldren, E.; Hester, G.; Gelfand, M. P.; Podlesnyak, A.; Huang, Q.; Ross, K. A.


    We present observations of highly frustrated quasi-two-dimensional (2D) magnetic correlations in the honeycomb lattice layers of the Seff =1 /2 compound γ -BaCo2(PO4)2 (γ -BCPO). Specific heat shows a broad peak comprised of two weak kink features at TN 1˜6 K and TN 2˜3.5 K, the relative weights of which can be modified by sample annealing. Neutron powder diffraction measurements reveal short range quasi-2D order that is established below TN 1 and TN 2, at which two separate, incompatible, short range magnetic orders onset: commensurate antiferromagnetic correlations with correlation length ξc=60 ±2 Å (TN 1) and in quasi-2D helical domains with ξh=350 ±11 Å (TN 2). The ac magnetic susceptibility response lacks frequency dependence, ruling out spin freezing. Inelastic neutron scattering data on γ -BCPO is compared with linear spin wave theory, and two separate parameter regions of the XXZ J1-J2-J3 model with ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange J1 are favored, both near regions of high classical degeneracy. High energy coherent excitations (˜10 meV) persist up to at least 40 K, suggesting strong in-plane correlations persist above TN. These data show that γ -BCPO is a rare highly frustrated, quasi-2D Seff =1 /2 honeycomb lattice material which resists long range magnetic order and spin freezing.

  19. Ultra-low-power and ultra-low-cost short-range wireless receivers in nanoscale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhicheng; Martins, Rui Paulo


    This book provides readers with a description of state-of-the-art techniques to be used for ultra-low-power (ULP) and ultra-low-cost (ULC), short-range wireless receivers. Readers will learn what is required to deploy these receivers in short-range wireless sensor networks, which are proliferating widely to serve the internet of things (IoT) for “smart cities.” The authors address key challenges involved with the technology and the typical tradeoffs between ULP and ULC. Three design examples with advanced circuit techniques are described in order to address these trade-offs, which specially focus on cost minimization. These three techniques enable respectively, cascading of radio frequency (RF) and baseband (BB) circuits under an ultra-low-voltage (ULV) supply, cascoding of RF and BB circuits in current domain for current reuse, and a novel function-reuse receiver architecture, suitable for ULV and multi-band ULP applications such as the sub-GHz ZigBee. ·         Summarizes the state-of-the-art i...

  20. Short-range correlations control the G/K and Poisson ratios of amorphous solids and metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Terentjev, Eugene M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)


    The bulk modulus of many amorphous materials, such as metallic glasses, behaves nearly in agreement with the assumption of affine deformation, namely that the atoms are displaced just by the amount prescribed by the applied strain. In contrast, the shear modulus behaves as for nonaffine deformations, with additional displacements due to the structural disorder which induce a marked material softening to shear. The consequence is an anomalously large ratio of the bulk modulus to the shear modulus for disordered materials characterized by dense atomic packing, but not for random networks with point atoms. We explain this phenomenon with a microscopic derivation of the elastic moduli of amorphous solids accounting for the interplay of nonaffinity and short-range particle correlations due to excluded volume. Short-range order is responsible for a reduction of the nonaffinity which is much stronger under compression, where the geometric coupling between nonaffinity and the deformation field is strong, whilst under shear this coupling is weak. Predictions of the Poisson ratio based on this model allow us to rationalize the trends as a function of coordination and atomic packing observed with many amorphous materials.

  1. Aviation safety and ICAO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jiefang


    The thesis addresses the issue of aviation safety under the rule of law. Aviation safety is a global concern. While air transport is considered a safe mode of travel, it is susceptible to inherent risks of flight, the use of force, and terrorist acts. Consequently, within the framework of the

  2. Assessment of aerosol radiation environment in short-range region of ChNPP during building of the new safe confinment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Shynkarenko, V.K.; Kashpur, V.A.; Skoryak, G.G.; Kalinovsky, A.K.


    Variability of 137 Cs volume activity in a subsurface layer of the atmosphere of a short-range region of the object ''Shelter'' (object ''Ukryttya'') during the works on building of a new safety confinement in 2016 was investigated. Influence of the type and location of works, weather conditions, and sampling points was shown. Excess of medial permissible concentrations of 137 Cs in the air was not fixed during the observations. However, due to the averaging of the measured values of the volume activity for the exposure time of the filter and use of the stationary aerosol samplers, it cannot ensure the absence of excess of the permissible concentrations at the locations of works and on the propagation path of the local emission plumes. In 2016, as well as in 2013 - 2015, high levels of 137 Cs volume activity in the air were preferentially localized near to the machine hall of the 4th block and near to the places of ground works at the industrial site [ 1]. Concurrently the levels of volume activity essentially grew (practically by the order of magnitude) due to the intense works on the machine hall transformation. The conservative estimation of volume activity of isotopes of the plutonium, executed in the assumption of fuel composition of hot particles, showed the presence of substantial excess of permissible limits even for the average values within, at least, four weeks. Absence of reliable correlation (R = -0.09) of 137 Cs volume activity in the air near to the machine hall and near to the aerosol sampler 1,4 km remote from it testifies the localization of pollution within the industrial site.

  3. Digital predistortion of 75–110 GHz W-band frequency multiplier for fiber wireless short range access systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan


    be effectively pre-compensated. Without using costly W-band components, a transmission system with 26km fiber and 4m wireless transmission operating at 99.6GHz is experimentally validated. Adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvements for IQ-modulated vector signals are guaranteed and transmission......We present a W-band fiber-wireless transmission system based on a nonlinear frequency multiplier for high-speed wireless short range access applications. By implementing a baseband digital signal predistortion scheme, intensive nonlinear distortions induced in a sextuple frequency multiplier can...... performances for fiber and wireless channels are studied. This W-band predistortion technique is a promising candidate for applications in high capacity wireless-fiber access systems....

  4. Analyses of kinetic glass transition in short-range attractive colloids based on time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory. (United States)

    Narumi, Takayuki; Tokuyama, Michio


    For short-range attractive colloids, the phase diagram of the kinetic glass transition is studied by time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT). Using numerical calculations, TMCT is shown to recover all the remarkable features predicted by the mode-coupling theory for attractive colloids: the glass-liquid-glass reentrant, the glass-glass transition, and the higher-order singularities. It is also demonstrated through the comparisons with the results of molecular dynamics for the binary attractive colloids that TMCT improves the critical values of the volume fraction. In addition, a schematic model of three control parameters is investigated analytically. It is thus confirmed that TMCT can describe the glass-glass transition and higher-order singularities even in such a schematic model.

  5. Relationship between Magnetic Anisotropy below Pseudogap Temperature and Short-Range Antiferromagnetic Order in High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductor (United States)

    Morinari, Takao


    The central issue in high-temperature cuprate superconductors is the pseudogap state appearing below the pseudogap temperature T*, which is well above the superconducting transition temperature. In this study, we theoretically investigate the rapid increase of the magnetic anisotropy below the pseudogap temperature detected by the recent torque-magnetometry measurements on YBa2Cu3Oy [Y. Sato et al., 10.1038/nphys4205" xlink:type="simple">Nat. Phys. 13, 1074 (2017)]. Applying the spin Green's function formalism including the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arising from the buckling of the CuO2 plane, we obtain results that are in good agreement with the experiment and find a scaling relationship. Our analysis suggests that the characteristic temperature associated with the magnetic anisotropy, which coincides with T*, is not a phase transition temperature but a crossover temperature associated with the short-range antiferromagnetic order.

  6. One-level modeling for diagnosing surface winds over complex terrain. II - Applicability to short-range forecasting (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Getenio, B.; Zak-Rosenthal, R.


    The Alpert and Getenio (1988) modification of the Mass and Dempsey (1985) one-level sigma-surface model was used to study four synoptic events that included two winter cases (a Cyprus low and a Siberian high) and two summer cases. Results of statistical verification showed that the model is not only capable of diagnosing many details of surface mesoscale flow, but might also be useful for various applications which require operative short-range prediction of the diurnal changes of high-resolution surface flow over complex terrain, for example, in locating wildland fires, determining the dispersion of air pollutants, and predicting changes in wind energy or of surface wind for low-level air flights.

  7. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan; Valladares, Ariel A.; Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander


    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu x Zr 100−x (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature

  8. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Ariel A., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)


    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu{sub x}Zr{sub 100−x} (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  9. Role of long- and short-range hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues contact network in protein’s structural organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Dhriti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three-dimensional structure of a protein can be described as a graph where nodes represent residues and the strength of non-covalent interactions between them are edges. These protein contact networks can be separated into long and short-range interactions networks depending on the positions of amino acids in primary structure. Long-range interactions play a distinct role in determining the tertiary structure of a protein while short-range interactions could largely contribute to the secondary structure formations. In addition, physico chemical properties and the linear arrangement of amino acids of the primary structure of a protein determines its three dimensional structure. Here, we present an extensive analysis of protein contact subnetworks based on the London van der Waals interactions of amino acids at different length scales. We further subdivided those networks in hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues networks and have tried to correlate their influence in the overall topology and organization of a protein. Results The largest connected component (LCC of long (LRN-, short (SRN- and all-range (ARN networks within proteins exhibit a transition behaviour when plotted against different interaction strengths of edges among amino acid nodes. While short-range networks having chain like structures exhibit highly cooperative transition; long- and all-range networks, which are more similar to each other, have non-chain like structures and show less cooperativity. Further, the hydrophobic residues subnetworks in long- and all-range networks have similar transition behaviours with all residues all-range networks, but the hydrophilic and charged residues networks don’t. While the nature of transitions of LCC’s sizes is same in SRNs for thermophiles and mesophiles, there exists a clear difference in LRNs. The presence of larger size of interconnected long-range interactions in thermophiles than mesophiles, even at

  10. Competition between crystallization and glassification for particles with short-ranged attraction. Possible applications to protein crystallization (United States)

    Zaccarelli, E.; Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.; Foffi, G.; McCullagh, G. D.; Lawlor, A.; Dawson, K. A.


    We discuss the phase behaviour of spherical hard-core particles, with an attractive potential, as described by a hard-core Yukawa model. The ratio of the range of the attraction to the diameter of the particles is an important control parameter of the problem. Upon decreasing the range of the attraction, the phase diagram changes quite significantly, with the liquid-gas transition becoming metastable, and the crystal being in equilibrium with the fluid, with no intervening liquid. We also study the glass transition lines and, crucially, find that the situation, being very simple for pure repulsive potentials, becomes much richer in competition between glass and crystal phases for short-range attractions. Also a transition between attractive and repulsive glass appears somewhat in analogy with the isostructural equilibrium transition between two crystals.

  11. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  12. Short-range order in alloys of nickel with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.


    Experimental measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering intensity were performed on alloys of Ni with Rh and Os. The atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters αsub(i) and the size-effect parameters βsub(i) were calculated from these measurements. It is established that SRO and size-effect exist in Ni-Rh and Ni-Os alloys analogously as in a few other alloys of Ni with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table. The experimental data was interpreted theoretically by calculating the interaction energies from the pseudo-potentials and the effective valencies of the individual components of the systems studied. It was found that theoretically calculated values of the interaction energies for these alloys are inconsistent with the experimentally determined sign of the SRO parameter. (author)

  13. Analysis of long- and short-range contribution to adhesion work in cardiac fibroblasts: An atomic force microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbaizero, O., E-mail: [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); University of Colorado Cardiovascular Institute, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora (United States); DelFavero, G. [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); Martinelli, V. [International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Long, C.S.; Mestroni, L. [University of Colorado Cardiovascular Institute, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora (United States)


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) for single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) and Poisson statistic were used to analyze the detachment work recorded during the removal of gold-covered microspheres from cardiac fibroblasts. The effect of Cytochalasin D, a disruptor of the actin cytoskeleton, on cell adhesion was also tested. The adhesion work was assessed using a Poisson analysis also derived from single-cell force spectroscopy retracting curves. The use of Poisson analysis to get adhesion work from AFM curves is quite a novel method, and in this case, proved to be effective to study the short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work. This method avoids the difficult identification of minor peaks in the AFM retracting curves by creating what can be considered an average adhesion work. Even though the effect of actin depolymerisation is well documented, its use revealed that control cardiac fibroblasts (CT) exhibit a work of adhesion at least 5 times higher than that of the Cytochalasin treated cells. However, our results indicate that in both cells short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work are nearly equal and the same heterogeneity index describes both cells. Therefore, we infer that the different adhesion behaviors might be explained by the presence of fewer membrane adhesion molecules available at the AFM tip–cell interface under circumstances where the actin cytoskeleton has been disrupted. - Highlights: • AFM force–deformation curve was used to characterize the cardiac fibroblast adhesion behavior. • The amount and nature of adhesion were assessed using a Poisson analysis applied to the AFM curve. • The work of adhesion for control cells was about four times higher than that of the Cyt-D treated cells. • Short- and long-range contributions to adhesion are nearly equal for both control and treated cells.

  14. General aviation in China (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  15. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation (United States)

    ,; ,


    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  16. Aviation and climate change (United States)


    This report provides background on aviation emissions and the factors affecting them; it discusses the tools available to control emissions, including existing authority under the Clean Air Act and proposed economy-wide cap-and-trade legislation; and...

  17. Radiation safety in aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The guide presents the requirements governing radiation safety of aircrews exposed to cosmic radiation and monitoring of such exposure. It applies to enterprises engaged in aviation under a Finnish operating licence and to Finnish military aviation at altitudes exceeding 8,000 metres. The radiation exposure of aircrews at altitudes of less than 8,000 metres is so minimal that no special measures are generally required to investigate or limit exposure to radiation

  18. Short-range order in Fe-based metallic glasses: Wide-angle X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babilas, Rafał; Hawełek, Łukasz; Burian, Andrzej


    The local atomic structure of the Fe 80 B 20 , Fe 70 Nb 10 B 20 and Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 glasses prepared in the form of ribbons has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. Structural information about the amorphous ribbons has been derived from analysis of the radial distribution functions using the least-squares curve-fitting method. The obtained structural parameters indicate that Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb and Nb–B contributions are involved in the near-neighbor coordination spheres. The possible similarities of the local atomic arrangement in the investigated glasses and the crystalline Fe 3 B, Fe 23 B 6 and bcc Fe structures are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Pair distribution functions (a) and best-fit model and experimental radial distribution functions for Fe 80 B 20 (b), Fe 70 Nb 10 B 20 (c) and Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 (d) metallic glasses. - Highlights: • The short-range ordering in the Fe-based metallic glasses is presented. • The results of RDF function have been analyzed using the least-squares method. • The Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb or Nb–B contributions are involved in coordination spheres. • The structural unit is distorted triangular prism containing B, Fe or Nb atoms. • Similarities of atomic arrangement in glassy and crystalline structures are discussed

  19. Analog Circuit Design Low Voltage Low Power; Short Range Wireless Front-Ends; Power Management and DC-DC

    CERN Document Server

    Roermund, Arthur; Baschirotto, Andrea


    The book contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 20th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 20 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design, providing valuable information and excellent overviews of Low-Voltage Low-Power Data Converters - Chaired by Prof. Anderea Baschirotto, University of Milan-Bicocca Short Range Wireless Front-Ends - Chaired by Prof. Arthur van Roermund, Eindhoven University of Technology Power management and DC-DC - Chaired by Prof. M. Steyaert, Katholieke University Leuven Analog Circuit Design is an essential reference source for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to keep abreast with the latest development in the field. The tutorial coverage also makes it suitable for use in an advanced design.

  20. On the transition from short-range diffusion-limited to collision-limited growth in alloy solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.J.; Boettinger, W.J.


    Short-range diffusion-limited growth, collision-limited growth, and the transition between the two regimes are explained as natural consequences of a single model for the kinetics of alloy solidification. Analytical expressions are developed for the velocity-undercooling function of a planar interface during dilute alloy solidification, using Turnbull's collision-limited growth model and the Continuous Growth Solute Trapping Model of Aziz and Kaplan both with and without a solute drag effect. The interface mobility, -dv/dT, is shown to be very high (proportional to the speed of sound) if the alloy is sufficiently dilute or if the growth rate is sufficiently rapid for nearly complete solute trapping. The interface mobility is reduced by the three orders of magnitude (becoming proportional to the diffusive speed) at intermediate growth rates where partial solute trapping occurs. Differences in low velocity predictions of the models with and without solute drag are also discussed. Comparison of the results of the analytical expressions to numerical solutions of the non-dilute kinetic model for Al-Be alloys shows that the dilute approximation breaks down at melt compositions on the order of 10 at.%. Similar variations in the interface mobility are shown for the disorder-trapping model of Boettinger and Aziz

  1. Development and Short-Range Testing of a 100 kW Side-Illuminated Millimeter-Wave Thermal Rocket (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander; Eilers, James A.; Lambot, Thomas; Parkin, Kevin


    The objective of the phase described here of the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) Project was to launch a small thermal rocket into the air using millimeter waves. The preliminary results of the first MTLS flight vehicle launches are presented in this work. The design and construction of a small thermal rocket with a planar ceramic heat exchanger mounted along the axis of the rocket is described. The heat exchanger was illuminated from the side by a millimeter-wave beam and fed propellant from above via a small tank containing high pressure argon or nitrogen. Short-range tests where the rocket was launched, tracked, and heated with the beam are described. The rockets were approximately 1.5 meters in length and 65 millimeters in diameter, with a liftoff mass of 1.8 kilograms. The rocket airframes were coated in aluminum and had a parachute recovery system activated via a timer and Pyrodex. At the rocket heat exchanger, the beam distance was 40 meters with a peak power intensity of 77 watts per square centimeter. and a total power of 32 kilowatts in a 30 centimeter diameter circle. An altitude of approximately 10 meters was achieved. Recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  2. Correlation between short-range order, optical properties and UV-absorption ability in tellurate glasses; Poster M7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, H; Tews, W; Vogel, W; Kozhukharov, V [Jena Univ. (Germany)


    Tellurate glasses, with as second components Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], PbO, PbF[sub 2], PbCl[sub 2], PbBr[sub 2], PbSO[sub 4], ZnO, B[sub 2]O[sub 3], P[sub 2]O[sub 5], Li[sub 2]O, Na[sub 2]O, K[sub 2]O, MgO and BaO as well as some glasses from ternary TeO[sub 2]-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-RO systems (R is Pb, Ba and Zn ions), have been investigated. Transmittance spectra in UV and VIS region of some selected glasses have been measured. A correlation between optical properties and UV absorption edge of the transmittance have been done. Using p[sup 31]-NMR spectroscopy the structural changes on short-range level order are studied. A strong influence on the refraction and dispersion values as well as UV-absorption ability of the glasses is established. For p[sup 31] -NMR spectroscopy investigations of crystalline phosphotellurites and related phosphotellurite glasses the TeO[sub 2]-P[sub 2]O[sub 5B]aO ternary system have been chosen. (author).

  3. Primer and short-range releaser pheromone properties of premolt female urine from the shore crab Carcinus maenas. (United States)

    Ekerholm, Mattias; Hallberg, Eric


    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas is considered to rely on a female pheromone when mating. Evidence, however, is scarce on how the urine pheromone in itself affects males. We investigated male primer and releaser responses to female pheromones with methods that minimized effects from females, delivering female urine either as a pump-generated plume or deposited on a polyurethane sponge. We delivered the pheromone at different concentrations in far, near, and close/contact range to get a picture of how distance affects behavioral response. Our results show that substances in premolt female urine (PMU) function as primer and potent short-range releaser pheromones. Based on the olfactometer and sponge tests, we conclude that PMU stimulus in itself is sufficient to elicit increased search and mating-specific behaviors such as posing, posing search, cradle carrying, and stroking. Pheromone concentrations do not seem to be important for attenuating search and posing as long as the level is above a certain threshold concentration. Instead, pheromone levels seem to play a role in male acceptance of females, recruiting more males to respond, and generating better responses with increasing concentration.

  4. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach (United States)

    Morbi, Zulfikar; Ho, D. B.; Ren, H.-W.; Le, Han Q.; Pei, Shin Shem


    Demonstration of short-range multispectral remote sensing, using 3 to 4-micrometers mid- infrared Sb semiconductor lasers based on code-division multiplexing (CDM) architecture, is described. The system is built on a principle similar to intensity- modulated/direct-detection optical-CDMA for communications, but adapted for sensing with synchronous, orthogonal codes to distinguish different wavelength channels with zero interchannel correlation. The concept is scalable for any number of channels, and experiments with a two-wavelength system are conducted. The CDM-signal processing yielded a white-Gaussian-like system noise that is found to be near the theoretical level limited by the detector fundamental intrinsic noise. With sub-mW transmitter average power, the system was able to detect an open-air acetylene gas leak of 10-2 STP ft3/hr from 10-m away with time-varying, random, noncooperative backscatters. A similar experiment detected and positively distinguished hydrocarbon oil contaminants on water from bio-organic oils and detergents. Projection for more advanced systems suggests a multi-kilometer-range capability for watt-level transmitters, and hundreds of wavelength channels can also be accommodated for active hyperspectral remote sensing application.

  5. Short-ranged structural rearrangement and enhancement of mechanical properties of organosilicate glasses induced by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacopi, F.; Travaly, Y.; Eyckens, B.; Waldfried, C.; Abell, T.; Guyer, E.P.; Gage, D.M.; Dauskardt, R.H.; Sajavaara, T.; Houthoofd, K.; Grobet, P.; Jacobs, P.; Maex, K.


    The short-ranged bonding structure of organosilicate glasses can vary to a great extent and is directly linked to the mechanical properties of the thin film material. The combined action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thermal activation is shown to generate a pronounced rearrangement in the bonding structure of thin organosilicate glass films involving no significant compositional change or film densification. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates loss of -OH groups and an increase of the degree of cross-linking of the organosilicate matrix for UV-treated films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows a pronounced enhancement of the Si-O-Si network bond structure, indicating the formation of more energetically stable silica bonds. Investigation with x-ray reflectivity and ellipsometric porosimetry indicated only minor film densification. As a consequence, the mechanical properties of microporous organosilicate dielectric films are substantially enhanced while preserving the organosilicate nature and pristine porosity of the films. UV-treated films show an increase in elastic modulus and hardness of more than 40%, and a similar improvement in fracture energy compared to untreated films. A minor increase in material dielectric constant from 3.0 to 3.15 was observed after UV treatment. This mechanism is of high relevance for the application of organosilicate glasses as dielectric materials for microelectronics interconnects, for which a high mechanical stability and a low dielectric constant are both essential film requirements

  6. Effect of short-range ordering on the electrical conductivity and superconducting properties of Nb6C5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utkina, T.G.


    Niobium carbide, NbC x , belongs to the family of so called interstital phases. Metal atoms form a face-centered cubic lattice, whose octahedral interstices are occupied by carbon atoms. The fraction (1 - x) of interstices remain vacant, and this determines the nonstoichiometry of these phases: most of them are characterized by a wide homogeneity range, 0.70 m ≅ 3308 - 3886 K). In contrast, the metalloid atoms exhibit high mobility at relatively low temperatures. For compositions close to Nb 6 C 5 (0.81 O-D ≅ 1300 K. The presence of vacancies in the carbon sublattice considerably affects the physical properties of carbides, which depend not only on total vacancy concentration but also on their distribution, i.e., on the degree of ordering (both short-range and long-range order) in the metalloid sublattice. The purpose of this work is to study the effects of such ordering on the superconducting properties of Nb 6 C 5 single crystals

  7. Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts demonstration project. Phase 1: Pilot's weather information requirements and implications for weather data systems design (United States)

    Crabill, Norman L.; Dash, Ernie R.


    The weather information requirements for pilots and the deficiencies of the current aviation weather support system in meeting these requirements are defined. As the amount of data available to pilots increases significantly in the near future, expert system technology will be needed to assist pilots in assimilating that information. Some other desirable characteristics of an automation-assisted system for weather data acquisition, dissemination, and assimilation are also described.

  8. Wacky Weather (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline


    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  9. Weather Instruments. (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  10. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.


    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20–25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30–60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p + implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO 2 interface charge densities ( Q f ) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p + implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Q f , that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  11. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection (United States)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.


    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20-25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30-60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p+ implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO2 interface charge densities (Qf) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p+ implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Qf, that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  12. Thermal ageing and short-range ordering of Alloy 690 between 350 and 550 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouginot, Roman, E-mail: [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Sarikka, Teemu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Heikkilä, Mikko [University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, A.I.Virtasen Aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Ivanchenko, Mykola; Ehrnstén, Ulla [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland LTD, Kemistintie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-Daero, 989-111, Yuseong, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Hänninen, Hannu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland)


    Thermal ageing of Alloy 690 triggers an intergranular (IG) carbide precipitation and is known to promote an ordering reaction causing lattice contraction. It may affect the long-term primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resistance of pressurized water reactor (PWR) components. Four conditions of Alloy 690 (solution annealed, cold-rolled and/or heat-treated) were aged between 350 and 550 °C for 10 000 h and characterized. Although no direct observation of ordering was made, variations in hardness and lattice parameter were attributed to the formation of short-range ordering (SRO) in all conditions with a peak level at 420 °C, consistent with the literature. Prior heat treatment induced ordering before thermal ageing. At higher temperatures, stress relaxation, recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation were observed in the cold-worked samples, while a disordering reaction was inferred in all samples based on a decrease in hardness. IG precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides increased with increasing ageing temperature in all conditions, as well as diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). - Highlights: • SRO was suggested in Alloy 690 with 9.18 wt% Fe after thermal ageing at 350, 420 and 475 °C. • Prior thermal treatment promoted SRO before ageing. • Cold work led to recrystallization and precipitation of α-Cr upon ageing at 550 °C. • Thermal ageing promoted IG precipitation of Cr-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and DIGM.

  13. Does an electronic continuum correction improve effective short-range ion-ion interactions in aqueous solution? (United States)

    Bruce, Ellen E.; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.


    Non-polarizable force fields for hydrated ions not always accurately describe short-range ion-ion interactions, frequently leading to artificial ion clustering in bulk aqueous solutions. This can be avoided by adjusting the nonbonded anion-cation or cation-water Lennard-Jones parameters. This approach has been successfully applied to different systems, but the parameterization is demanding owing to the necessity of separate investigations of each ion pair. Alternatively, polarization effects may effectively be accounted for using the electronic continuum correction (ECC) of Leontyev et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8024 (2003)], which involves scaling the ionic charges with the inverse square-root of the water high-frequency dielectric permittivity. ECC has proven to perform well for monovalent salts as well as for divalent salts in water. Its performance, however, for multivalent salts with higher valency remains unexplored. The present work illustrates the applicability of the ECC model to trivalent K3PO4 and divalent K2HPO4 in water. We demonstrate that the ECC models, without additional tuning of force field parameters, provide an accurate description of water-mediated interactions between salt ions. This results in predictions of the osmotic coefficients of aqueous K3PO4 and K2HPO4 solutions in good agreement with experimental data. Analysis of ion pairing thermodynamics in terms of contact ion pair (CIP), solvent-separated ion pair, and double solvent-separated ion pair contributions shows that potassium-phosphate CIP formation is stronger with trivalent than with divalent phosphate ions.

  14. Elastic strain relaxation in interfacial dislocation patterns: II. From long- and short-range interactions to local reactions (United States)

    Vattré, A.


    The long- and short-range interactions as well as planar reactions between two infinitely periodic sets of crossing dislocations are investigated using anisotropic elasticity theory in face- (fcc) and body- (bcc) centered cubic materials. Two preliminary cases are proposed to examine the substantial changes in the elastic stress states and the corresponding strain energies due to a slight rearrangement in the internal dislocation geometries and characters. In general, significant differences and discrepancies resulting from the considered cubic crystal structure and the approximation of isotropic elasticity are exhibited. In a third scenario, special attention is paid to connecting specific internal dislocation structures from the previous cases with non-equilibrium configurations predicted by the quantized Frank-Bilby equation for the (111) fcc and (110) bcc twist grain boundaries. The present solutions lead to the formation of energetically favorable dislocation junctions with non-randomly strain-relaxed configurations of lower energy. In particular, the local dislocation interactions and reactions form equilibrium hexagonal-shaped patterns with planar three-fold dislocation nodes without producing spurious far-field stresses.Numerical application results are presented from a selection of cubic metals including aluminum, copper, tantalum, and niobium. In contrast to the fcc materials, asymmetric dislocation nodes occur in the anisotropic bcc cases, within which the minimum-energy paths for predicting the fully strain-relaxed dislocation patterns depend on the Zener anisotropic factor with respect to unity. The associated changes in the dislocation structures as well as the removal of the elastic strain energy upon relaxations are quantified and also discussed.

  15. Interplay of long-range and short-range Coulomb interactions in an Anderson-Mott insulator (United States)

    Baćani, Mirko; Novak, Mario; Orbanić, Filip; Prša, Krunoslav; Kokanović, Ivan; Babić, Dinko


    In this paper, we tackle the complexity of coexisting disorder and Coulomb electron-electron interactions (CEEIs) in solids by addressing a strongly disordered system with intricate CEEIs and a screening that changes both with charge carrier doping level Q and temperature T . We report on an experimental comparative study of the T dependencies of the electrical conductivity σ and magnetic susceptibility χ of polyaniline pellets doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid over a wide range. This material is special within the class of doped polyaniline by exhibiting in the electronic transport a crossover between a low-T variable range hopping (VRH) and a high-T nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) well below room temperature. Moreover, there is evidence of a soft Coulomb gap ΔC in the disorder band, which implies the existence of a long-range CEEI. Simultaneously, there is an onsite CEEI manifested as a Hubbard gap U and originating in the electronic structure of doped polyaniline, which consists of localized electron states with dynamically varying occupancy. Therefore, our samples represent an Anderson-Mott insulator in which long-range and short-range CEEIs coexist. The main result of the study is the presence of a crossover between low- and high-T regimes not only in σ (T ) but also in χ (T ) , the crossover temperature T* being essentially the same for both observables over the entire doping range. The relatively large electron localization length along the polymer chains results in U being small, between 12 and 20 meV for the high and low Q , respectively. Therefore, the thermal energy at T* is sufficiently large to lead to an effective closing of the Hubbard gap and the consequent appearance of NNH in the electronic transport within the disorder band. ΔC is considerably larger than U , decreasing from 190 to 30 meV as Q increases, and plays the role of an activation energy in the NNH.

  16. Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen


    Full Text Available Ultra-low power radio frequency (RF transceivers used in short-range application such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs require efficient, reliable and fully integrated transmitter architectures with minimal building blocks. This paper presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of single-chip, fully integrated 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz RF transmitters using direct-modulation power voltage-controlled oscillators (PVCOs in addition to a 2.0 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL based transmitter. All three RF transmitters have been fabricated in a standard mixed-signal CMOS 0.18 µm technology. Measurement results of the 2.4 GHz transmitter show an improvement in drain efficiency from 27% to 36%. The 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz transmitters deliver an output power of 8 dBm with a phase noise of −122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 15.4 mA of current and an output power of 6.5 dBm with a phase noise of −120 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 20.8 mA of current from 1.5 V power supplies, respectively. The PLL transmitter delivers an output power of 9 mW with a locking range of 128 MHz and consumes 26 mA from 1.8 V power supply. The experimental results demonstrate that the RF transmitters can be efficiently used in low power WSN applications.

  17. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data (United States)

    Rios, Joseph L.


    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  18. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Airport Capacity and Delay Models (United States)

    Lee, David A.; Nelson, Caroline; Shapiro, Gerald


    The ASAC Airport Capacity Model and the ASAC Airport Delay Model support analyses of technologies addressing airport capacity. NASA's Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Airport Capacity Model estimates the capacity of an airport as a function of weather, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, traffic characteristics, and the level of technology available. Airport capacity is presented as a Pareto frontier of arrivals per hour versus departures per hour. The ASAC Airport Delay Model allows the user to estimate the minutes of arrival delay for an airport, given its (weather dependent) capacity. Historical weather observations and demand patterns are provided by ASAC as inputs to the delay model. The ASAC economic models can translate a reduction in delay minutes into benefit dollars.

  19. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs (United States)


    Prepared ca. 1994. This publication is designed to provide: : - a brief history of the role of aviation in motivating young : people to learn. : - examples of aviation magnet activities, programs, projects and : school curriculums. : - documentation ...

  20. Weather and forecasting at Wilkins ice runway, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, Scott


    Aviation forecasts for Wilkins ice runway in East Antarctica are developed within the conceptual framework of flow against a single dome shaped hill. Forecast challenges include the sudden onset of blizzards associated with the formation of an internal gravity wave; frontal weather; transient wake vortices and mesoscale lows; temperature limitations on runway use; and snow and fog events. These key weather aspects are presented within the context of synoptic to local scale climatologies and numerical weather prediction models.

  1. High-energy X-ray study of short range order and phase transformations in titanium-vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsteiner, I.B.


    This work presents a study of configurational correlations and phase transformations in the binary alloy Ti-V, using high-energy X-ray diffraction. The experiments have been performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. The high-energy (60-100 keV) technique developed recently allows in-situ measurements on bulk material in transmission geometry. The first part of the thesis discusses multiple scattering effects which might occur with this method. These effects are experimentally verified and discussed. Special emphasis is put on the questions, whether they affect the results obtained with this method, and how they can be avoided. Understanding alloys on the most fundamental level requires knowledge about the atomic interaction potentials. Competing with entropy, these potentials determine the configurational short range order in a disordered alloy, which generates together with static and dynamic distortions the diffuse scattering. The thesis presents measurements and calculations of the diffuse scattering patterns of Ti-V. The calculations, taking into account configurational correlations, static distortions induced by atomic size mismatch and thermal diffuse scattering, agree with the experimental data. Structural transformations in Ti-V are carefully characterized using high-energy x-ray diffraction in combination with the complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM). While the first technique allows to study the phenomena in-situ and time-resolved, TEM yields real space images and chemical information about the phases. Ti-V near the equiatomic composition is a beta-Ti-alloy. The body centered cubic beta phase is retained at room temperature by fast quenching. Aging the material below the phase transformation temperature, however, leads to the precipitation of hexagonal alpha titanium. Another transformation process confusing earlier works is identified as TiC formation from carbon impurities in the material. In addition

  2. Development and application of a water calorimeter for the absolute dosimetry of short-range particle beams (United States)

    Renaud, J.; Rossomme, S.; Sarfehnia, A.; Vynckier, S.; Palmans, H.; Kacperek, A.; Seuntjens, J.


    In this work, we describe a new design of water calorimeter built to measure absorbed dose in non-standard radiation fields with reference depths in the range of 6-20 mm, and its initial testing in clinical electron and proton beams. A functioning calorimeter prototype with a total water equivalent thickness of less than 30 mm was constructed in-house and used to obtain measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams and cyclotron-based 60 MeV monoenergetic and modulated proton beams. Corrections for the conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and non-water materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Absorbed dose to water was measured with an associated type A standard uncertainty of approximately 0.4% and 0.2% for the electron and proton beam experiments, respectively. In terms of thermal stability, drifts were on the order of a couple of hundred µK min-1, with a short-term variation of 5-10 µK. Heat transfer correction factors ranged between 1.021 and 1.049. The overall combined standard uncertainty on the absorbed dose to water was estimated to be 0.6% for the 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams, as well as for the 60 MeV monoenergetic protons, and 0.7% for the modulated 60 MeV proton beam. This study establishes the feasibility of developing an absorbed dose transfer standard for short-range clinical electrons and protons and forms the basis for a transportable dose standard for direct calibration of ionization chambers in the user’s beam. The largest contributions to the combined standard uncertainty were the positioning (⩽0.5%) and the correction due to conductive heat transfer (⩽0.4%). This is the first time that water calorimetry has been used in such a low energy proton beam.

  3. 2H(p, pp) n reaction as a probe of the short-range nuclear force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.; Petersen, E.L.; Wallace, J.M.


    We examine the feasibility of using the 2 H(p, pp) n reaction as a means of extracting information about the short-range behavior of the nuclear force not obtainable from N-N scattering experiments. To do this we use several separable potentials and examine the predicted cross section in various regions of phase space and for beam energies between 14 and 65 MeV. The questions that we address are likely to be insensitive to Coulomb effects. Both the form factor and the energy dependence of the potentials have been modified from the usual Yamaguchi form. The form of the energy dependence is chosen to obtain phase-shift equivalence for two different form factors while guaranteeing a unitary two-body scattering amplitude. The sensitivity of breakup results to the on-shell and off-shell aspects of the nuclear force is examined and discussed. Significant on-shell sensitivity occurs for breakup amplitudes in all states and for cross sections over all regions of phase space. Off-shell sensitivity appears only in the S = 1/2, L = 0 breakup amplitudes, with all S = 3/2 and all L > 0 amplitudes exhibiting negligible off-shell dependence. This result leads to only a very small (< or = 5%) off-shell sensitivity for quasifree scattering. However, cross sections far from quasifree scattering, and in particular cross sections in the final-state interaction region of phase space, exhibit as much as a 50% variation for phase-shift-equivalent potentials. This sensitivity is small at low beam energy and increases with increasing energy. The energy dependence at negative energies of one potential is also altered to adjust the triton binding energy. This enables us to compare phase-shift-equivalent potentials differing off shell but predicting the same triton binding energy. The energy dependence of this potential is somewhat unconventional. Fixing of the triton binding energy reduces the off-shell sensitivity appreciably only for E approximately-less-than 20 MeV

  4. The role of the form factor and short-range correlation in the relativistic Hartree-Fock model for nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Toki, H.; Wen, W.; Shen, H.


    The role of the form factor and short-range correlation in nuclear matter is studied within the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. We take, first, the mean-field approximation for meson fields and obtain the fluctuation terms of mesons to be used for the Fock energies. We introduce form factors in the meson-nucleon coupling vertices to take into account the finite-size effect of the nucleon. We use further the unitary correlation operator method for the treatment of the short-range correlation. The form factors of the size (Λ∝1.0 -2.0 GeV) of the nucleon-nucleon interaction cut down largely the contribution of the ρ-meson in the Fock term. The short-range correlation effect is not large but has a significant effect on the pion and ρ-meson energies in the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation for nuclear matter. (orig.)

  5. The role of the form factor and short-range correlation in the relativistic Hartree-Fock model for nuclear matter (United States)

    Hu, J.; Toki, H.; Wen, W.; Shen, H.


    The role of the form factor and short-range correlation in nuclear matter is studied within the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. We take, first, the mean-field approximation for meson fields and obtain the fluctuation terms of mesons to be used for the Fock energies. We introduce form factors in the meson-nucleon coupling vertices to take into account the finite-size effect of the nucleon. We use further the unitary correlation operator method for the treatment of the short-range correlation. The form factors of the size ( Λ ˜ 1.0 -2.0GeV) of the nucleon-nucleon interaction cut down largely the contribution of the ρ -meson in the Fock term. The short-range correlation effect is not large but has a significant effect on the pion and ρ -meson energies in the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation for nuclear matter.

  6. FAA statistical handbook of aviation (United States)


    This report presents statistical information pertaining to the Federal Aviation Administration, the National Airspace System, Airports, Airport Activity, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Fleet, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Operating Data, Airmen, General Aviation Ai...

  7. Aviation environmental technology and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanzhong


    Expatiating on the impact of aviation on the environment and aviation environmental protection projects are ex- pounded, and analyzing on the atmosphere pollution and effects on the aviation noise of aircraft discharge. Researching the approach to control aircraft exhaust pollution and noise pollution, and proposing the technology and management measures to reduce air pollution.

  8. Politics of aviation fields (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques


    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  9. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P


    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  10. Electronic structure of disordered alloys - I: self-consistent cluster CPA incorporating off-diagonal disorder and short-range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Mookerjee, A.; Srivastava, V.K.


    We have developed here a self-consistent coherent potential approximation generalized to take into account effect of clusters. Off-diagonal disorder and short-range order are taken into account. A graphical method married to the recursion technique, enables us to work on realistic three-dimensional lattices. Calculations are shown for a binary alloy on a diamond lattice. (author)

  11. On the universality of the long-/short-range separation in multiconfigurational density-functional theory. II. Investigating f0 actinide species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Réal, Florent; Wåhlin, Pernilla


    In a previous paper [Fromager , J. Chem. Phys. 126, 074111 (2007)], some of the authors proposed a recipe for choosing the optimal value of the mu parameter that controls the long-range/short-range separation of the two-electron interaction in hybrid multiconfigurational self-consistent field sho...

  12. Structure Factor of a Hard-core Fluid with Short-range Yukawa Attraction: Analytical FMSA Theory against Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melnyk, R.; Nezbeda, Ivo; Trokhymchuk, A.


    Roč. 114, 16-17 (2016), s. 2523-2529 ISSN 0026-8976 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hard-core fluid * reference system * short-range Yukawa attraction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.870, year: 2016

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.


    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  14. Cognitive Task Analysis of Business Jet Pilots' Weather Flying Behaviors: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Pliske, Rebecca; Hutton, Robert; Chrenka, Jason


    This report presents preliminary findings from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of business aviation piloting. Results describe challenging weather-related aviation decisions and the information and cues used to support these decisions. Further, these results demonstrate the role of expertise in business aviation decision-making in weather flying, and how weather information is acquired and assessed for reliability. The challenging weather scenarios and novice errors identified in the results provide the basis for experimental scenarios and dependent measures to be used in future flight simulation evaluations of candidate aviation weather information systems. Finally, we analyzed these preliminary results to recommend design and training interventions to improve business aviation decision-making with weather information. The primary objective of this report is to present these preliminary findings and to document the extended CTA methodology used to elicit and represent expert business aviator decision-making with weather information. These preliminary findings will be augmented with results from additional subjects using this methodology. A summary of the complete results, absent the detailed treatment of methodology provided in this report, will be documented in a separate publication.

  15. Safety lessons from aviation. (United States)

    Higton, Phil


    Thirty years ago the world of Commercial Aviation provided a challenging environment. In my early flying days, aircraft accidents were not unusual, flying was seen as a risky business and those who took part, either as a provider or passenger, appeared grudgingly willing to accept the hazards involved. A reduction in the level of risk was sought in technological advances, greater knowledge of physics and science, and access to higher levels of skill through simulation, practice and experience. While these measures did have an impact, the expected safety dividend was not realized. The most experienced, technically competent individuals with the best equipment featured far too regularly in the accident statistics. We had to look at the human element, the impact of flaws or characteristics of the human condition. We call this area Human Factors. My paper describes the concept of Human Factors, its establishment as a key safety tool in aviation and the impact of this on my working life.

  16. An assessment of General Aviation utilization of advanced avionics technology (United States)

    Quinby, G. F.


    Needs of the general aviation industry for services and facilities which might be supplied by NASA were examined. In the data collection phase, twenty-one individuals from nine manufacturing companies in general aviation were interviewed against a carefully prepared meeting format. General aviation avionics manufacturers were credited with a high degree of technology transfer from the forcing industries such as television, automotive, and computers and a demonstrated ability to apply advanced technology such as large scale integration and microprocessors to avionics functions in an innovative and cost effective manner. The industry's traditional resistance to any unnecessary regimentation or standardization was confirmed. Industry's self sufficiency in applying advanced technology to avionics product development was amply demonstrated. NASA research capability could be supportive in areas of basic mechanics of turbulence in weather and alternative means for its sensing.

  17. How Confinement-Induced Structures Alter the Contribution of Hydrodynamic and Short-Ranged Repulsion Forces to the Viscosity of Colloidal Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Ramaswamy


    Full Text Available Confined systems ranging from the atomic to the granular are ubiquitous in nature. Experiments and simulations of such atomic and granular systems have shown a complex relationship between the microstructural arrangements under confinement, the short-ranged particle stresses, and flow fields. Understanding the same correlation between structure and rheology in the colloidal regime is important due to the significance of such suspensions in industrial applications. Moreover, colloidal suspensions exhibit a wide range of structures under confinement that could considerably modify such force balances and the resulting viscosity. Here, we use a combination of experiments and simulations to elucidate how confinement-induced structures alter the relative contributions of hydrodynamic and short-range repulsive forces to produce up to a tenfold change in the viscosity. In the experiments we use a custom-built confocal rheoscope to image the particle configurations of a colloidal suspension while simultaneously measuring its stress response. We find that as the gap decreases below 15 particle diameters, the viscosity first decreases from its bulk value, shows fluctuations with the gap, and then sharply increases for gaps below 3 particle diameters. These trends in the viscosity are shown to strongly correlate with the suspension microstructure. Further, we compare our experimental results to those from two different simulations techniques, which enables us to determine the relative contributions of hydrodynamic and short-range repulsive stresses to the suspension rheology. The first method uses the lubrication approximation to find the hydrodynamic stress and includes a short-range repulsive force between the particles while the second is a Stokesian dynamics simulation that calculates the full hydrodynamic stress in the suspension. We find that the decrease in the viscosity at moderate confinements has a significant contribution from both the

  18. System for Secure Integration of Aviation Data (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Keller, Rich; Chidester, Tom; Statler, Irving; Lynch, Bob; Patel, Hemil; Windrem, May; Lawrence, Bob


    The Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) of Ames Research Center has been established to promote analysis of aviation data by airlines and other interested users for purposes of enhancing the quality (especially safety) of flight operations. The ADIS is a system of computer hardware and software for collecting, integrating, and disseminating aviation data pertaining to flights and specified flight events that involve one or more airline(s). The ADIS is secure in the sense that care is taken to ensure the integrity of sources of collected data and to verify the authorizations of requesters to receive data. Most importantly, the ADIS removes a disincentive to collection and exchange of useful data by providing for automatic removal of information that could be used to identify specific flights and crewmembers. Such information, denoted sensitive information, includes flight data (here signifying data collected by sensors aboard an aircraft during flight), weather data for a specified route on a specified date, date and time, and any other information traceable to a specific flight. The removal of information that could be used to perform such tracing is called "deidentification." Airlines are often reluctant to keep flight data in identifiable form because of concerns about loss of anonymity. Hence, one of the things needed to promote retention and analysis of aviation data is an automated means of de-identification of archived flight data to enable integration of flight data with non-flight aviation data while preserving anonymity. Preferably, such an automated means would enable end users of the data to continue to use pre-existing data-analysis software to identify anomalies in flight data without identifying a specific anomalous flight. It would then also be possible to perform statistical analyses of integrated data. These needs are satisfied by the ADIS, which enables an end user to request aviation data associated with de-identified flight data. The ADIS

  19. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.


    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  20. Navigation Tools and Equipment and How They Have Improved Aviation Safety


    Sulaiman D. S Alsahli FadalahassanALfadala


    This paper highlights the impact of navigation tools and equipment, such as the GPS, navigation radar, and other communications tools, which aid in ensuring aviation safety. It emphasizes the need for aviation safety and how these navigation methods are of great help to reduce the hazards and clearly indicate the problems related to the aircraft, aircraft traffic management, weather disturbances, among others. It also recommends how these tools and equipment must be further developed to promo...

  1. Short-Range Correlated Magnetic Core-Shell CrO2/Cr2O3 Nanorods: Experimental Observations and Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish C. Gandhi


    Full Text Available With the evolution of synthesis and the critical characterization of core-shell nanostructures, short-range magnetic correlation is of prime interest in employing their properties to develop novel devices and widespread applications. In this regard, a novel approach of the magnetic core-shell saturated magnetization (CSSM cylinder model solely based on the contribution of saturated magnetization in one-dimensional CrO2/Cr2O3 core-shell nanorods (NRs has been developed and applied for the determination of core-diameter and shell-thickness. The nanosized effect leads to a short-range magnetic correlation of ferromagnetic core-CrO2 extracted from CSSM, which can be explained using finite size scaling method. The outcome of this study is important in terms of utilizing magnetic properties for the critical characterization of core-shell nanomagnetic materials.

  2. Direct-Bandgap InAs Quantum-Dots Have Long-Range Electron--Hole Exchange Whereas Indirect Gap Si Dots Have Short-Range Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juo, J.W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.


    Excitons in quantum dots manifest a lower-energy spin-forbidden 'dark' state below a spin-allowed 'bright' state; this splitting originates from electron-hole (e-h) exchange interactions, which are strongly enhanced by quantum confinement. The e-h exchange interaction may have both a short-range and a long-range component. Calculating numerically the e-h exchange energies from atomistic pseudopotential wave functions, we show here that in direct-gap quantum dots (such as InAs) the e-h exchange interaction is dominated by the long-range component, whereas in indirect-gap quantum dots (such as Si) only the short-range component survives. As a result, the exciton dark/bright splitting scales as 1/R 2 in InAs dots and 1/R 3 in Si dots, where R is the quantum-dot radius.

  3. Three-dimensional short-range MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction images in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in hemifacial spasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Jae Gue; Rhee, Bong Arm [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) short-range MR angiography(MRA) and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR) imaging in hemifacial spasm(HS). Materials and Methods : Two hundreds patients with HS were studied using a 1.5T MRI system with a 3D time-of-flight(TOF) MRA sequence. To reconstruct short-range MRA, 6-10 source images near the 7-8th cranial nerve complex were processed using a maximum-intensity projection technique. In addition, an MPR technique was used to investigate neurovascular compression. We observed the relationship between the root-exit zone(REZ) of the 7th cranial nerve and compressive vessel, and identified the compressive vessels on symptomatic sides. To investigate neurovascular contact, asymptomatic contralateral sides were also evaluated. Results : MRI showed that in 197 of 200 patients there was vascular compression or contact with the facial nerve REZ on symptomatic sides. One of the three remaining patients was suffering from acoustic neurinoma on the symptomatic side, while in two patients there were no definite abnormal findings.Compressive vessels were demonstrated in all 197 patients; 80 cases involved the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA), 74 the posterior cerebellar artery(PICA), 13 the vertebral artery(VA), 16 the VA and AICA, eight the VA and PICA, and six the AICA and PICA. In all 197 patients, compressive vessels were reconstructed on one 3D short-range MRA image without discontinuation from vertebral or basilar arteries. 3D MPR studies provided additional information such as the direction of compression and course of the compressive vessel. In 31 patients there was neurovascular contact on the contralateral side at the 7-8th cranial nerve complex. Conclusion : Inpatients with HS, 3D short-range MRA and MPR images are excellent and very helpful for the investigation of neurovascular compression and the identification of compressive vessels.

  4. Mixed hyperfine interaction - a tool to investigate the short range order and the strange magnetic behaviour of amorphous Fe-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, S.M.; Crummenauer, J.; Gonser, U.; Schaaf, P.; Chien, C.L.


    The Moessbauer study of the mixed magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole interaction in the paramagnetic state of amorphous Fe-Zr and Fe-Hf alloys is presented. Strong evidence for chemical short range order of the iron-pure alloys is found. The hyperfine parameters of the iron-rich alloys are marked by a complex applied field and temperature dependence, suggesting a not negligible spin-correlation well above Tc. (orig.)

  5. Deuterium short-range order in Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 by diffuse neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschko, O.; Klemencic, R.; Fratzl, P.


    By diffuse neutron scattering the D short-range order in a Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 crystal was investigated at 50 and 70K. The results are compared with the D ordering in the PdDx system previously investigated, and it is shown that the isointensity contours around the (1/2,1,0) point are similar...

  6. Altered Long- and Short-Range Functional Connectivity in Patients with Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu


    Full Text Available Objective: Addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease. Brain structural abnormalities may constitute an abnormal neural network that underlies the risk of drug dependence. We hypothesized that individuals with Betel Quid Dependence (BQD have functional connectivity alterations that can be described by long- and short-range functional connectivity density(FCD maps. Methods: We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from subjects of the Han ethnic group in Hainan, China. Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33 and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs (n = 32 in a rs-fMRI study to observe FCD alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Results: Compared with HCs, long-range FCD was decreased in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and increased in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL and bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL in the BQD group. Short-range FCD was reduced in the right ACC and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, and increased in the left CPL. The short-range FCD alteration in the right ACC displayed a negative correlation with the Betel Quid Dependence Scale (BQDS (r=-0.432, P=0.012, and the long-range FCD alteration of left IPL showed a positive correlation with the duration of BQD(r=0.519, P=0.002 in BQD individuals. Conclusions: fMRI revealed differences in long- and short- range FCD in BQD individuals, and these alterations might be due to BQ chewing, BQ dependency, or risk factors for developing BQD.

  7. Three-dimensional short-range MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction images in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in hemifacial spasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Jae Gue; Rhee, Bong Arm


    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) short-range MR angiography(MRA) and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR) imaging in hemifacial spasm(HS). Materials and Methods : Two hundreds patients with HS were studied using a 1.5T MRI system with a 3D time-of-flight(TOF) MRA sequence. To reconstruct short-range MRA, 6-10 source images near the 7-8th cranial nerve complex were processed using a maximum-intensity projection technique. In addition, an MPR technique was used to investigate neurovascular compression. We observed the relationship between the root-exit zone(REZ) of the 7th cranial nerve and compressive vessel, and identified the compressive vessels on symptomatic sides. To investigate neurovascular contact, asymptomatic contralateral sides were also evaluated. Results : MRI showed that in 197 of 200 patients there was vascular compression or contact with the facial nerve REZ on symptomatic sides. One of the three remaining patients was suffering from acoustic neurinoma on the symptomatic side, while in two patients there were no definite abnormal findings.Compressive vessels were demonstrated in all 197 patients; 80 cases involved the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA), 74 the posterior cerebellar artery(PICA), 13 the vertebral artery(VA), 16 the VA and AICA, eight the VA and PICA, and six the AICA and PICA. In all 197 patients, compressive vessels were reconstructed on one 3D short-range MRA image without discontinuation from vertebral or basilar arteries. 3D MPR studies provided additional information such as the direction of compression and course of the compressive vessel. In 31 patients there was neurovascular contact on the contralateral side at the 7-8th cranial nerve complex. Conclusion : Inpatients with HS, 3D short-range MRA and MPR images are excellent and very helpful for the investigation of neurovascular compression and the identification of compressive vessels

  8. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang


    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  9. Aviation Safety Hotline Information System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aviation Safety Hotline Information System (ASHIS) collects, stores, and retrieves reports submitted by pilots, mechanics, cabin crew, passengers, or the public...

  10. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.


    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  11. National Weather Service (United States)

    ... GIS International Weather Cooperative Observers Storm Spotters Tsunami Facts and Figures National Water Center WEATHER SAFETY NOAA Weather Radio StormReady Heat Lightning Hurricanes Thunderstorms Tornadoes Rip Currents Floods Winter Weather ...

  12. Production of aviation gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A process is described for preparing gasoline possessing properties for use as a fuel, particularly for aviation motors, beginning with gasolines composed among others of cyclic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, consisting in treating the gasoline by means of selective solvents of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, and preferably at the same time employing liquid hydrocarbons which are gaseous under normal conditions and adding to the refined product nonaromatics which boil in the range of the gasoline and have an actane number above 95 or which give the mixture an octane number of 82.5.

  13. Aviation Safety Simulation Model (United States)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)


    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  14. Microscopic nucleon spectral function for finite nuclei featuring two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations: The model versus ab initio calculations for three-nucleon systems (United States)

    Ciofi degli Atti, Claudio; Mezzetti, Chiara Benedetta; Morita, Hiko


    Background: Two-nucleon (2 N ) short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei have been recently thoroughly investigated, both theoretically and experimentally and the study of three-nucleon (3 N ) SRC, which could provide important information on short-range hadronic structure, is underway. Novel theoretical ideas concerning 2 N and 3 N SRC are put forward in the present paper. Purpose: The general features of a microscopic one-nucleon spectral function which includes the effects of both 2 N and 3 N SRC and its comparison with ab initio spectral functions of the three-nucleon systems are illustrated. Methods: A microscopic and parameter-free one-nucleon spectral function expressed in terms of a convolution integral involving ab initio relative and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum distributions of a 2 N pair and aimed at describing two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations, is obtained by using: (i) the two-nucleon momentum distributions obtained within ab initio approaches based upon nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Argonne family; (ii) the exact relation between one- and two-nucleon momentum distributions; (iii) the fundamental property of factorization of the nuclear wave function at short internucleon ranges. Results: The comparison between the ab initio spectral function of 3He and the one based upon the convolution integral shows that when the latter contains only two-nucleon short-range correlations the removal energy location of the peaks and the region around them exhibited by the ab initio spectral function are correctly predicted, unlike the case of the high and low removal energy tails; the inclusion of the effects of three-nucleon correlations brings the convolution model spectral function in much better agreement with the ab initio one; it is also found that whereas the three-nucleon short-range correlations dominate the high energy removal energy tail of the spectral function, their effects on the one-nucleon momentum distribution are almost one

  15. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on...

  16. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft... 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  17. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to... address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports...

  18. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY... Nicely, Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports...

  19. NextGen Weather Plan, Version 1.1 (United States)


    to-point transport of the weather products. Some data such as the Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) are also available via access to special web ...Aeronautics and Space Administration NCV National Ceiling & Visibility NDFD National Digital Forecast Database NEO Net Enabled Operations NEVS Network...World Area Forecast Center WAFS World Area Forecast System WBS Work Breakdown Structure WCS Web Coverage Service WFS Web Feature Service Wx Weather

  20. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III


    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  1. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.


    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  2. Comparison of short-range rapidity correlations in anti pp and pp interactions at √S = 53 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breakstone, A.; Crawley, H.B.; Firestone, A.; Gorbics, M.; Lamsa, J.W.; Meyer, W.T.


    Measurements are presented of two-particle rapidity correlations in anti pp and pp at √S = 53 GeV. The data were recorded at the CERN-ISR using the Split Field Magnet spectrometer with a minimum bias trigger. Short range correlations in normal inelastic events with measured charged multiplicities nsub(ch) >= 4 are observed for pairs of charged particles in all charge combinations. Within the experimental errors no differences are observed between the analogous correlations in pp and anti pp interactions. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko


    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  4. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC) (United States)


    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  5. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems (United States)


    ...-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems... Operations. This notice requests information from manufacturers of systems meeting the technical requirements...

  6. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations (United States)


    Testimony of Gerald L. Dillingham, Associate Director, Transportation Issues, : Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division before the Subcommittee : on Aviation, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate on : the Fe...

  7. Long-range versus short-range correlations in the two-neutron transfer reaction 64Ni(18O,16O)66Ni (United States)

    Paes, B.; Santagati, G.; Vsevolodovna, R. Magana; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cardozo, E. N.; Cavallaro, M.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Gargano, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Lenzi, S. M.; Linares, R.; Santopinto, E.; Vitturi, A.; Lubian, J.


    Recently, various two-neutron transfer studies using the (18O,16O) reaction were performed with a large success. This was achieved because of a combined use of the microscopic quantum description of the reaction mechanism and of the nuclear structure. In the present work we use this methodology to study the two-neutron transfer reaction of the 18O+64Ni system at 84 MeV incident energy, to the ground and first 2+ excited state of the residual 66Ni nucleus. All the experimental data were measured by the large acceptance MAGNEX spectrometer at the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare -Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy). We have performed exact finite range cross section calculations using the coupled channel Born approximation (CCBA) and coupled reaction channel (CRC) method for the sequential and direct two-neutron transfers, respectively. Moreover, this is the first time that the formalism of the microscopic interaction boson model (IBM-2) was applied to a two-neutron transfer reaction. From our results we conclude that for two-neutron transfer to the ground state of 66Ni, the direct transfer is the dominant reaction mechanism, whereas for the transfer to the first excited state of 66Ni, the sequential process dominates. A competition between long-range and short-range correlations is discussed, in particular, how the use of two different models (Shell model and IBM's) help to disentangle long- and short-range correlations.

  8. Short range charge/orbital ordering in La1-xSrxMn1-zBzO3 (B Cu,Zn) manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Z V; Cantarero, A; Thijssen, W H A; Paunovic, N; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z; Sapina, F


    We have measured the reflectivity spectra of La 1-x Sr x Mn 1-z B z O 3 (B = Cu, Zn; 0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.30; 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.10) manganites over wide frequency (100-4000 cm -1 ) and temperature (80-300 K) ranges. Besides the previously observed infrared active modes or mode pairs at about 160 cm -1 (external mode), 350 cm -1 (bond bending mode) and 590 cm -1 (bond stretching mode), we have clearly observed two additional phonon modes at about 645 and 720 cm -1 below the temperature T 1 (T 1 C ), which coincides with the phase transition temperature when the system transforms from ferromagnetic metallic into a ferromagnetic insulator state. This transition is related to the formation of short range charge/orbitally ordered domains. The temperature T 1 of the phase transition is dependent on the doping concentration and for optimally doped samples we have found that T 1 ∼(0.93 ± 0.02) T C . Electrical resistivity and magnetization measurements versus temperature and magnetic field support the short range charge/orbital ordering scenario

  9. Scalable improvement of SPME multipolar electrostatics in anisotropic polarizable molecular mechanics using a general short-range penetration correction up to quadrupoles. (United States)

    Narth, Christophe; Lagardère, Louis; Polack, Étienne; Gresh, Nohad; Wang, Qiantao; Bell, David R; Rackers, Joshua A; Ponder, Jay W; Ren, Pengyu Y; Piquemal, Jean-Philip


    We propose a general coupling of the Smooth Particle Mesh Ewald SPME approach for distributed multipoles to a short-range charge penetration correction modifying the charge-charge, charge-dipole and charge-quadrupole energies. Such an approach significantly improves electrostatics when compared to ab initio values and has been calibrated on Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory reference data. Various neutral molecular dimers have been tested and results on the complexes of mono- and divalent cations with a water ligand are also provided. Transferability of the correction is adressed in the context of the implementation of the AMOEBA and SIBFA polarizable force fields in the TINKER-HP software. As the choices of the multipolar distribution are discussed, conclusions are drawn for the future penetration-corrected polarizable force fields highlighting the mandatory need of non-spurious procedures for the obtention of well balanced and physically meaningful distributed moments. Finally, scalability and parallelism of the short-range corrected SPME approach are addressed, demonstrating that the damping function is computationally affordable and accurate for molecular dynamics simulations of complex bio- or bioinorganic systems in periodic boundary conditions. Copyright © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of Short-Range LIDAR in Early Alerting for Low-Level Windshear and Turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Hon


    Full Text Available Hong Kong Observatory currently uses a series of meteorological instruments, including long-range LIDAR (light detection and ranging systems, to provide alerting services of low-level windshear and turbulence for Hong Kong International Airport. For some events that are smaller in spatial dimensions and are rapidly changing, such as low altitude windshear and turbulence associated with buildings or man-made structures, it would be necessary to involve meteorological instruments that offer greater spatial resolution. Therefore, the Observatory has set up a short-range LIDAR on the roof of the AsiaWorld-Expo during the summers over the past several years, conducting field research on the feasibility of strengthening early alerting for windshear and turbulence over the north runway’s eastern arrival runway (Runway 25RA and developing an automated early alerting algorithm. This paper takes the pilot reports for Runway 25RA during the 2013 field research as verification samples, using different thresholds for radial wind velocity spatial and temporal changes detected by the short-range LIDAR to calculate the relative operating characteristic (ROC curve, and analyzes its early alerting performance.

  11. The Impact of Commercial Aviation on Naval Aviation (United States)


    incentive for officers to serve as aviators throughout a military career . Payments start once aviators actually begin to fly and log flight hours which...actual number of hours they work but the number of hours they fly. An airline pilot is not actually compensated for the hours they spend on the ground...boarding gate. This type of system can result in two pilots both spending the same number of hours at work but each being paid for a different number

  12. 75 FR 57103 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of... Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September 28, 2010, via teleconference...

  13. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of... Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19, 2010, in Everett, Washington...

  14. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesenhahn, M.J.; McKeown, W.L.; Williams, R.G.


    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  15. Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and Icing Information (United States)

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence; Hansman, R. John, Jr.


    A human-centered systems analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and icing information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a system safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-making studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario- based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of icing conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the icing information system were articulated.

  16. Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information (United States)

    Byrnes, J.


    Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

  17. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  18. Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau (SWSSWB) Records primarily created by the United States Army Signal Service from 1819 until the paid and voluntary...

  19. Monthly Weather Review (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  20. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,


    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  1. Weathering and landscape evolution (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.


    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  2. Concentration and temperature dependence of short-range order in Ni-Ta solid solution using X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.; Alam, A.


    Diffuse X-ray scattering investigations about the existence of short-range order (SRO) have been carried out in the Ni-Ta system for different concentrations and annealing temperatures. It is observed that the values of the SRO parameters for the first co-ordination shell have anomalously large negative values for all the samples studied. These values of the α 1 depend upon the annealing temperatures and the concentration of Ta atoms in the Ni-Ta system. The results of the theoretical predictions of the ordering potential obtained using the formulae of the electronic theory of SRO, confirm the existence of very strong attractive correlation between the atoms of the different species in this system. (author)

  3. Applications of the KKR-DCA: A Finite-Temperature Density Functional Theory to Predict Chemical Short-Range Order Effects in Disordered Metallic Alloys (United States)

    Biava, D. A.; Johnson, D. D.


    Short-range order (SRO) is ubiquitous in metallic alloys, affecting changes in their electronic, thermodynamic, mechanical, magnetic, and structural properties. For example, SRO is responsible for the yield-strength anomalies observed in Cu-Al at high temperatures, i.e., the materials is more resistant to dislocation motion at high temperature than it is at room temperature. Within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostorker (KKR) electronic-structure method, we present results using the dynamical cluster approximations (DCA) to obtain the temperature-dependent SRO in disordered alloys. We obtain the KKR-DCA SRO energetics versus local neighbor SRO parameters and minimize it at fixed temperature to predict the SRO. We show that the calculated SRO at fixed temperature compares well with available experimental results, and then correlate the results to the electronic structure. We discuss how an accurate analytic estimate can be made for the SRO in most metals due to the dependence of the grand potential on SRO.

  4. Short-range spatial variability of soil δ15N natural abundance – effects on symbiotic N2-fixation estimates in pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdensen, Lars; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen


    abundance in spring barley and N2-fixing pea was measured within the 0.15-4 m scale at flowering and at maturity. The short-range spatial variability of soil δ15N natural abundance and symbiotic nitrogen fixation were high at both growth stages. Along a 4-m row, the δ15N natural abundance in barley......-abundance are that estimates of symbiotic N2-fixation can be obtained from the natural abundance method if at least half a square meter of crop and reference plants is sampled for the isotopic analysis. In fields with small amounts of representative reference crops (weeds) it might be necessary to sow in reference crop...

  5. Growth of epitaxially oriented Ag nanoislands on air-oxidized Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surfaces: Influence of short-range order on the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anupam; Bhattacharjee, K.; Ghatak, J.; Dev, B.N.


    Clean Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surfaces, followed by air-exposure, have been investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Fourier transforms (FTs) of STM images show the presence of short-range (7 × 7) order on the air-oxidized surface. Comparison with FTs of STM images from a clean Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surface shows that only the 1/7th order spots are present on the air-oxidized surface. The oxide layer is ∼2-3 nm thick, as revealed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Growth of Ag islands on these air-oxidized Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surfaces has been investigated by in situ RHEED and STM and ex situ XTEM and scanning electron microscopy. Ag deposition at room temperature leads to the growth of randomly oriented Ag islands while preferred orientation evolves when Ag is deposited at higher substrate temperatures. For deposition at 550 °C face centered cubic Ag nanoislands grow with a predominant epitaxial orientation [11 ¯ 0] Ag ||[11 ¯ 0] Si , (1 1 1) Ag || (1 1 1) Si along with its twin [1 ¯ 10] Ag ||[11 ¯ 0] Si , (1 1 1) Ag || (1 1 1) Si , as observed for epitaxial growth of Ag on Si(1 1 1) surfaces. The twins are thus rotated by a 180° rotation of the Ag unit cell about the Si[1 1 1] axis. It is intriguing that Ag nanoislands follow an epitaxial relationship with the Si(1 1 1) substrate in spite of the presence of a 2-3 nm thick oxide layer between Ag and Si. Apparently the short-range order on the oxide surface influences the crystallographic orientation of the Ag nanoislands.

  6. Solvent-shared pairs of densely charged ions induce intense but short-range supra-additive slowdown of water rotation. (United States)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Santer, Mark; Lipowsky, Reinhard


    The question "Can ions exert supra-additive effects on water dynamics?" has had several opposing answers from both simulation and experiment. We address this ongoing controversy by investigating water reorientation in aqueous solutions of two salts with large (magnesium sulfate) and small (cesium chloride) effects on water dynamics using molecular dynamics simulations and classical, polarizable models. The salt models are reparameterized to reproduce properties of both dilute and concentrated solutions. We demonstrate that water rotation in concentrated MgSO4 solutions is unexpectedly slow, in agreement with experiment, and that the slowdown is supra-additive: the observed slowdown is larger than that predicted by assuming that the resultant of the extra forces induced by the ions on the rotating water molecules tilts the free energy landscape associated with water rotation. Supra-additive slow down is very intense but short-range, and is strongly ion-specific: in contrast to the long-range picture initially proposed based on experiment, we find that intense supra-additivity is limited to water molecules directly bridging two ions in solvent-shared ion pair configuration; in contrast to a non-ion-specific origin to supra-additive effects proposed from simulations, we find that the magnitude of supra-additive slowdown strongly depends on the identity of the cations and anions. Supra-additive slowdown of water dynamics requires long-lived solvent-shared ion pairs; long-lived ion pairs should be typical for salts of multivalent ions. We discuss the origin of the apparent disagreement between the various studies on this topic and show that the short-range cooperative slowdown scenario proposed here resolves the existing controversy.

  7. Identification of the same polyomavirus species in different African horseshoe bat species is indicative of short-range host-switching events. (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Sasaki, Michihito; Dool, Serena E; Ito, Kimihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Teeling, Emma C; Hall, William W; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi


    Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are considered to be highly host-specific in different mammalian species, with no well-supported evidence for host-switching events. We examined the species diversity and host specificity of PyVs in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.), a broadly distributed and highly speciose mammalian genus. We annotated six PyV genomes, comprising four new PyV species, based on pairwise identity within the large T antigen (LTAg) coding region. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed two instances of highly related PyV species, one in each of the Alphapolyomavirus and Betapolyomavirus genera, present in different horseshoe bat host species (Rhinolophus blasii and R. simulator), suggestive of short-range host-switching events. The two pairs of Rhinolophus PyVs in different horseshoe bat host species were 99.9 and 88.8 % identical with each other over their respective LTAg coding sequences and thus constitute the same virus species. To corroborate the species identification of the bat hosts, we analysed mitochondrial cytb and a large nuclear intron dataset derived from six independent and neutrally evolving loci for bat taxa of interest. Bayesian estimates of the ages of the most recent common ancestors suggested that the near-identical and more distantly related PyV species diverged approximately 9.1E4 (5E3-2.8E5) and 9.9E6 (4E6-18E6) years before the present, respectively, in contrast to the divergence times of the bat host species: 12.4E6 (10.4E6-15.4E6). Our findings provide evidence that short-range host-switching of PyVs is possible in horseshoe bats, suggesting that PyV transmission between closely related mammalian species can occur.

  8. Cyber threats within civil aviation (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  9. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...

  10. Space weather effects and commerical airlines (United States)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  11. Structure of short-range-ordered iron(III)-precipitates formed by iron(II) oxidation in water containing phosphate, silicate, and calcium (United States)

    Voegelin, A.; Frommer, J.; Vantelon, D.; Kaegi, R.; Hug, S. J.


    The oxidation of Fe(II) in water leads to the formation of Fe(III)-precipitates that strongly affect the fate of nutrients and contaminants in natural and engineered systems. Examples include the cycling of As in rice fields irrigated with As-rich groundwater or the treatment of drinking water for As removal. Knowledge of the types of Fe(III)-precipitates forming in such systems is essential for the quantitative modeling of nutrient and contaminant dynamics and for the optimization of water purification techniques on the basis of a mechanistic understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes. In this study, we investigated the local coordination of Fe, P, and Ca in Fe(III)-precipitates formed by aeration of synthetic Fe(II)-containing groundwater with variable composition (pH 7, 2-30 mg/L Fe(II), 2-20 mg/L phosphate-P, 2-20 mg/L silicate-Si, 8 mM Na-bicarbonate or 2.5 mM Ca-&1.5 mM Mg-bicarbonate). After 4 hours of oxidation, Fe(III)-precipitates were collected on 0.2 µm nylon filters and dried. The precipitates were analyzed by Fe K-edge EXAFS (XAS beamline, ANKA, Germany) and by P and Ca K-edge XANES spectroscopy (LUCIA beamline, SLS, Switzerland). The Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra indicated that local Fe coordination in the precipitates systematically shifted with water composition. As long as water contained P, mainly short-range-ordered Fe(III)-phosphate formed (with molar P/Fe ~0.5). In the absence of P, Fe(III) precipitated as hydrous ferric oxide at high Si/Fe>0.5, as ferrihydrite at intermediate Si/Fe, and mainly as lepidocrocite at Si/Fe<0.2. Analysis of the EXAFS by shell-fitting indicated that Fe(III)-phosphates mainly contained mono- or oligomeric (edge- or corner-sharing) Fe and that the linkage between neighboring Fe(III)-octahedra changed from predominantly edge-sharing in Si-rich hydrous ferric oxide to edge- and corner-sharing in ferrihydrite. Electron microscopic data showed that changes in local precipitate structure were systematically

  12. Search for a spin-dependent short-range force between nucleons with a 3He/129Xe clock-comparison experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullney, Kathlynne


    The standard model (SM) of particle physics describes all known particles and their interactions. However, the SM leaves many issues unresolved. For example, it only includes three of the four fundamental forces and does not clarify the question why in the strong interaction CP symmetry is violated due to its non-trivial vacuum structure is predicted (Θ-term), but experimentally unverifiable. The latter one is known as the strong CP-problem of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and is solved by the Peccei-Quinn-Weinberg-Wilczek theory. This theory predicts a new and almost massless boson which is known as the axion. The axion feebly interacts with matter and therefore it is a good candidate for cold dark matter, too. Axions are produced by the Primakoff-effect, i.e. by conversion of photons which are scattered in the electromagnetic field, e.g. of atoms. The inverse Primakoff-effect, which converts axions to photons again, can be used for direct detection of galactic, solar, or laboratory axions. Cosmological and astrophysical observations constrain the mass of the axion from a few μeV to some meV (''axion mass window''). If the axion exists, then it mediates a CP violating, spin-dependent, short-range interaction between a fermion and the spin of another fermion. By verification of this interaction, the axion can be detected indirectly. In the framework of the present thesis an experiment to search for this spindependent short-range interaction was performed in the magnetically shielded room BMSR-2 of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin. An ultra-sensitive low-field co-magnetometer was employed which is based on the detection of free precession of 3 He and 129 Xe nuclear spins using SQUIDs as low-noise magnetic flux detectors. The two nuclear spin polarized gases are filled into a glass cell which is immersed in a low magnetic field of about B 0 = 0.35 μT with absolute field gradients in the order of pT/cm. The spin precession frequencies of 3 He and 129

  13. Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) System Architecture (United States)


    The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Environment and Energy (FAA-AEE) is : developing a comprehensive suite of software tools that will allow for thorough assessment of the environmental effects of aviation. The main goal of the effort is ...

  14. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Operations Specifications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  15. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is...

  16. Effects of short-range order on electronic properties of Zr-Ni glasses as seen from low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.; Scarbrough, J.O.; McKamey, C.G.


    Measurements of the low-temperature specific heat C/sub p/ of liquid-quenched Zr-Ni glasses for a large number of compositions in the range from 55 to 74 at. % Zr revealed an unusual composition dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level, N(E/sub F/). Furthermore, for some compositions the variation of C/sub p/ near the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ indicated the presence of two superconducting phases, i.e., two superconducting transitions were detected. Comparison of the individual T/sub c/'s in phase-separated samples to the composition dependence of T/sub c/ for all of the samples suggests that amorphous phases with compositions near 60 and 66.7 at. % Zr occur. We discuss these results in terms of an ''association model'' for liquid alloys (due to Sommer), in which associations of unlike atoms with definite stoichiometries are assumed to exist in equilibrium with unassociated atoms. We conclude that in the composition range studied, associate clusters with the compositions Zr 3 Ni 2 and Zr 2 Ni occur. In only a few cases are the clusters sufficiently large, compared with the superconducting coherence length, for separate superconducting transitions to be observed. The variation of N(E/sub F/) with composition is discussed, as well as the effects of this chemical short-range ordering on the crystallization behavior and glass-forming tendency

  17. Effects of short-range order on electronic properties of Zr-Ni glasses as seen from low-temperature specific heat (United States)

    Kroeger, D. M.; Koch, C. C.; Scarbrough, J. O.; McKamey, C. G.


    Measurements of the low-temperature specific heat Cp of liquid-quenched Zr-Ni glasses for a large number of compositions in the range from 55 to 74 at.% Zr revealed an unusual composition dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level, N(EF). Furthermore, for some compositions the variation of Cp near the superconducting transition temperature Tc indicated the presence of two superconducting phases, i.e., two superconducting transitions were detected. Comparison of the individual Tc's in phase-separated samples to the composition dependence of Tc for all of the samples suggests that amorphous phases with compositions near 60 and 66.7 at.% Zr occur. We discuss these results in terms of an "association model" for liquid alloys (due to Sommer), in which associations of unlike atoms with definite stoichiometries are assumed to exist in equilibrium with unassociated atoms. We conclude that in the composition range studied, associate clusters with the compositions Zr3Ni2 and Zr2Ni occur. In only a few cases are the clusters sufficiently large, compared with the superconducting coherence length, for separate superconducting transitions to be observed. The variation of N(EF) with composition is discussed, as well as the effects of this chemical short-range ordering on the crystallization behavior and glass-forming tendency.

  18. Traplining in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens): a foraging strategy's ontogeny and the importance of spatial reference memory in short-range foraging. (United States)

    Saleh, Nehal; Chittka, Lars


    To test the relative importance of long-term and working spatial memories in short-range foraging in bumblebees, we compared the performance of two groups of bees. One group foraged in a stable array of six flowers for 40 foraging bouts, thereby enabling it to establish a long-term memory of the array, and adjust its spatial movements accordingly. The other group was faced with an array that changed between (but not within) foraging bouts, and thus had only access to a working memory of the flowers that had been visited. Bees in the stable array started out sampling a variety of routes, but their tendency to visit flowers in a repeatable, stable order ("traplining") increased drastically with experience. These bees used shorter routes and converged on four popular paths. However, these routes were mainly formed through linking pairs of flowers by near-neighbour movements, rather than attempting to minimize overall travel distance. Individuals had variations to a primary sequence, where some bees used a major sequence most often, followed by a minor less used route, and others used two different routes with equal frequency. Even though bees foraging in the spatially randomized array had access to both spatial working memory and scent marks, this manipulation greatly disrupted foraging efficiency, mainly via an increase in revisitation to previously emptied flowers and substantially longer search times. Hence, a stable reference frame greatly improves foraging even for bees in relatively small arrays of flowers.

  19. The invisible cues that guide king penguin chicks home: use of magnetic and acoustic cues during orientation and short-range navigation. (United States)

    Nesterova, Anna P; Chiffard, Jules; Couchoux, Charline; Bonadonna, Francesco


    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) live in large and densely populated colonies, where navigation can be challenging because of the presence of many conspecifics that could obstruct locally available cues. Our previous experiments demonstrated that visual cues were important but not essential for king penguin chicks' homing. The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of non-visual cues, such as magnetic and acoustic cues, for chicks' orientation and short-range navigation. In a series of experiments, the chicks were individually displaced from the colony to an experimental arena where they were released under different conditions. In the magnetic experiments, a strong magnet was attached to the chicks' heads. Trials were conducted in daylight and at night to test the relative importance of visual and magnetic cues. Our results showed that when the geomagnetic field around the chicks was modified, their orientation in the arena and the overall ability to home was not affected. In a low sound experiment we limited the acoustic cues available to the chicks by putting ear pads over their ears, and in a loud sound experiment we provided additional acoustic cues by broadcasting colony sounds on the opposite side of the arena to the real colony. In the low sound experiment, the behavior of the chicks was not affected by the limited sound input. In the loud sound experiment, the chicks reacted strongly to the colony sound. These results suggest that king penguin chicks may use the sound of the colony while orienting towards their home.

  20. Investigations of coal ignition in a short-range flame burner using optical measuring systems; Untersuchungen zur Kohlezuendung am Flachflammenbrenner unter Verwendung optischer Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackert, G.; Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik


    The short-range flame burner and the KOALA reactor of DMT are experimental facilities for realistic simulation of coal conversion processes at high temperatures and pressures in atmospheric conditions. The TOSCA system enable measurements of temperatures, sizes, shapes and velocities of the fuel particles, which serve as a basis for a three-dimensional simulation model of coal combustion. In the future, further parameter studies will deepen the present knowledge of coal dust combustion under pressure and enable optimisation of the numerical models for simulation of industrial-scale systems for coal dust combustion under pressure. [Deutsch] Mit dem Flachflammenbrenner und dem KOALA-Reaktor der DMT stehen Versuchsapparaturen zur Verfuegung, mit deren Hilfe die Kohleumwandlungsprozesse bei hohen Temperaturen unter Druck und unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen realistisch wiedergegeben werden. Das TOSCA-System erlaubt dabei die Bestimmung von Temperaturen, Groessen, Formen und Geschwindigkeiten der Brennstoffpartikel. Diese Daten liefern die Grundlage fuer die Erstellung eines dreidimensionalen Simulationsmodells zur Modellierung der Kohleverbrennung. In Zukunft werden weitere Parameterstudien das Verstaendnis der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung vertiefen und ein Optimierung der numerischen Modelle ermoeglichen, so dass die Simulation grosstechnischer Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennungsanlagen realisiert werden kann. (orig.)

  1. Ab initio molecular dynamics model for density, elastic properties and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, C; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Bednarcik, J; Keckes, J; Kapaklis, V; Hjörvarsson, B


    Density, elastic modulus and the pair distribution function of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glasses were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and measured for sputtered thin films using x-ray reflectivity, nanoindentation and x-ray diffraction using high energy photons. The computationally obtained density of 8.19 g cm -3 for Co 43 Fe 20 Ta 5.5 B 31.5 and 8.42 g cm -3 for Co 45.5 Fe 24 Ta 6 B 24.5 , as well as the Young’s moduli of 273 and 251 GPa, respectively, are consistent with our experiments and literature data. These data, together with the good agreement between the theoretical and the experimental pair distribution functions, indicate that the model established here is useful to describe the density, elasticity and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films. Irrespective of the investigated variation in chemical composition, (Co, Fe)-B cluster formation and Co-Fe interactions are identified by density-of-states analysis. Strong bonds within the structural units and between the metallic species may give rise to the comparatively large stiffness. (paper)

  2. BeP2: a tetrahedral structure of type order-disorder which obeys a coordination rule for short-range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Haridon, P.; David, J.; Lang, J.; Parthe, E.


    Single-crystal studies on BeP 2 indicate that this compound possesses an OD structure. The substructure has a tetragonal unit cell with: a = 3.546 A, c = 15.01 A, Z = 4, space group: I4 1 /amd. The final R factor has a value of 0.033. The atom sites in this substructure correspond to the sites of diamond if the latter is described with a tetragonal cell, where a = (2/sup 1/2//a/sub diamond/ and c = 3a/sub diamond/. A short-range order governs the occupation of these sites with Be and P atoms. Each Be has four tetrahedral P neighbors and every P has two Be and two P neighbors. Consideration of the maxima on the diffuse streaks between the sharp reflectins of the substructure leads to an intermediate unit cell with a = 7.09 A and c = 30.02 A. Coordination considerations allow a structure proposal to be formulated for this intermediate structure which is triclinic but pseudotetragonal. The true unit cell is also pseudotetragonal with a = 7.09 A and c = N . 15.01 A, where N is a large integer

  3. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations


    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.


    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodology to address key challenges for aviation (current and future) including a performance based approach for safety and fatigue management in the aviation sector, mainly inflight operations and maint...

  4. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-26034 Filed 10-22-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  5. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-16464 Filed 7-8-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  6. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... 4. U.S. Mail: Leslie Grey--AAL-614, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th...

  7. Eco-efficiency in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grewe, V.; Linke, Florian


    Air traffic guarantees mobility and serves the needs of society to travel over long distances in a decent time. But aviation also contributes to climate change. Here, we present various mitigation options, based on technological and operational measures and present a framework to compare the

  8. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat (United States)


    World Airport NSAS National Strategy for Aviation Security OIS Office of Intelligence SIDA Security Identification Display Area STA Security...Security of the secured area”, 1542.205, “Security of the security identification display area ( SIDA )”, and 1542.209, “Fingerprint-based criminal

  9. Measuring competition in civil aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.


    Markets in civil aviation are characterized by large differences in the level of competition, both between time periods as between regions. To measure competition, several indicators are available, such as the number of competitors, the C4-index and the Herfindahl index. We use these measures in

  10. The aviation safety reporting system (United States)

    Reynard, W. D.


    The aviation safety reporting system, an accident reporting system, is presented. The system identifies deficiencies and discrepancies and the data it provides are used for long term identification of problems. Data for planning and policy making are provided. The system offers training in safety education to pilots. Data and information are drawn from the available data bases.

  11. NASA aviation safety reporting system (United States)


    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  12. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia. (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim


    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea


    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  14. Short-range forecast of Shershnevskoie (South Ural) water-storage algal blooms: preliminary results of predictors' choosing and membership functions' construction (United States)

    Gayazova, Anna; Abdullaev, Sanjar


    Short-range forecasting of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs and other waterbodies is an actual element of water treatment system. Particularly, Shershnevskoie reservoir - the source of drinking water for Chelyabinsk city (South Ural region of Russia) - is exposed to interannual, seasonal and short-range fluctuations of blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and other dominant species abundance, which lead to technological problems and economic costs and adversely affect the water treatment quality. Whereas the composition, intensity and the period of blooms affected not only by meteorological seasonal conditions but also by ecological specificity of waterbody, that's important to develop object-oriented forecasting, particularly, search for an optimal number of predictors for such forecasting. Thereby, firstly fuzzy logic and fuzzy artificial neural network patterns for blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) blooms prediction in nearby undrained Smolino lake were developed. These results subsequently served as the base to derive membership functions for Shernevskoie reservoir forecasting patterns. Time series with the total lenght about 138-159 days of dominant species seasonal abundance, water temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, mineralization, phosphate and nitrate concentrations were obtained through field observations held at Lake Smolino (Chelyabinsk) in the warm season of 2009 and 2011 with time resolution of 2-7 days. The cross-correlation analysis of the data revealed the potential predictors of M. aeruginosa abundance quasi-periodic oscillations: green alga Pediastrum duplex (P. duplex) abundance and mineralization for 2009, P. duplex abundance, water temperature and concentration of nitrates for 2011. According to the results of cross-correlation analysis one membership function "P. duplex abundance" and one rule linking M. aeruginosa and P. duplex abundances were set up for database of 2009. Analogically, for database of 2011

  15. Interplay of short-range correlations and nuclear symmetry energy in hard-photon production from heavy-ion reactions at Fermi energies (United States)

    Yong, Gao-Chan; Li, Bao-An


    Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model for nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, we investigate the interplay of the nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations (SRCs) and nuclear symmetry energy Esym(ρ ) on hard-photon spectra in collisions of several Ca isotopes on 112Sn and 124Sn targets at a beam energy of 45 MeV/nucleon. It is found that over the whole spectra of hard photons studied, effects of the SRCs overwhelm those owing to the Esym(ρ ) . The energetic photons come mostly from the high-momentum tails (HMTs) of single-nucleon momentum distributions in the target and projectile. Within the neutron-proton dominance model of SRCs based on the consideration that the tensor force acts mostly in the isosinglet and spin-triplet nucleon-nucleon interaction channel, there are equal numbers of neutrons and protons, thus a zero isospin asymmetry in the HMTs. Therefore, experimental measurements of the energetic photons from heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies have the great potential to help us better understand the nature of SRCs without any appreciable influence by the uncertain Esym(ρ ) . These measurements will be complementary to but also have some advantages over the ongoing and planned experiments using hadronic messengers from reactions induced by high-energy electrons or protons. Because the underlying physics of SRCs and Esym(ρ ) are closely correlated, a better understanding of the SRCs will, in turn, help constrain the nuclear symmetry energy more precisely in a broad density range.

  16. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.; Godfrin, P. Douglas


    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  17. Surface Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  18. Mariners Weather Log (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  19. National Convective Weather Diagnostic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  20. Winter Weather Emergencies (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  1. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  2. Daily Weather Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  3. Surface Weather Observations Hourly (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  4. Radar Weather Observation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  5. Internet Weather Source (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  6. Natural Weathering Exposure Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  7. Space Weather in Operation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  8. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.


    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  9. Cold-Weather Sports (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  10. Cockpit weather graphics using mobile satellite communications (United States)

    Seth, Shashi


    Many new companies are pushing state-of-the-art technology to bring a revolution in the cockpits of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The vision, according to Dr. Bruce Holmes - the Assistant Director for Aeronautics at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center, is to provide such an advanced flight control system that the motor and cognitive skills you use to drive a car would be very similar to the ones you would use to fly an airplane. We at ViGYAN, Inc., are currently developing a system called the Pilot Weather Advisor (PWxA), which would be a part of such an advanced technology flight management system. The PWxA provides graphical depictions of weather information in the cockpit of aircraft in near real-time, through the use of broadcast satellite communications. The purpose of this system is to improve the safety and utility of GA aircraft operations. Considerable effort is being extended for research in the design of graphical weather systems, notably the works of Scanlon and Dash. The concept of providing pilots with graphical depictions of weather conditions, overlaid on geographical and navigational maps, is extremely powerful.

  11. Short-range ensemble predictions based on convection perturbations in the Eta Model for the Serra do Mar region in Brazil (United States)

    Bustamante, J. F. F.; Chou, S. C.; Gomes, J. L.


    The Southeast Brazil, in the coastal and mountain region called Serra do Mar, between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, is subject to frequent events of landslides and floods. The Eta Model has been producing good quality forecasts over South America at about 40-km horizontal resolution. For that type of hazards, however, more detailed and probabilistic information on the risks should be provided with the forecasts. Thus, a short-range ensemble prediction system (SREPS) based on the Eta Model is being constructed. Ensemble members derived from perturbed initial and lateral boundary conditions did not provide enough spread for the forecasts. Members with model physics perturbation are being included and tested. The objective of this work is to construct more members for the Eta SREPS by adding physics perturbed members. The Eta Model is configured at 10-km resolution and 38 layers in the vertical. The domain covered is most of Southeast Brazil, centered over the Serra do Mar region. The constructed members comprise variations of the cumulus parameterization Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Kain-Fritsch (KF) schemes. Three members were constructed from the BMJ scheme by varying the deficit of saturation pressure profile over land and sea, and 2 members of the KF scheme were included using the standard KF and a momentum flux added to KF scheme version. One of the runs with BMJ scheme is the control run as it was used for the initial condition perturbation SREPS. The forecasts were tested for 6 cases of South America Convergence Zone (SACZ) events. The SACZ is a common summer season feature of Southern Hemisphere that causes persistent rain for a few days over the Southeast Brazil and it frequently organizes over Serra do Mar region. These events are particularly interesting because of the persistent rains that can accumulate large amounts and cause generalized landslides and death. With respect to precipitation, the KF scheme versions have shown to be able to reach the

  12. First-principles theory of short-range order in size-mismatched metal alloys: Cu-Au, Cu-Ag, and Ni-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.; Ozolins, V.; Zunger, A.


    We describe a first-principles technique for calculating the short-range order (SRO) in disordered alloys, even in the presence of large anharmonic atomic relaxations. The technique is applied to several alloys possessing large size mismatch: Cu-Au, Cu-Ag, Ni-Au, and Cu-Pd. We find the following: (i) The calculated SRO in Cu-Au alloys peaks at (or near) the left-angle 100 right-angle point for all compositions studied, in agreement with diffuse scattering measurements. (ii) A fourfold splitting of the X-point SRO exists in both Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 and Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 , although qualitative differences in the calculated energetics for these two alloys demonstrate that the splitting in Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 may be accounted for by T=0 K energetics while T≠0 K configurational entropy is necessary to account for the splitting in Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 . Cu 0.75 Au 0.25 shows a significant temperature dependence of the splitting, in agreement with recent in situ measurements, while the splitting in Cu 0.70 Pd 0.30 is predicted to have a much smaller temperature dependence. (iii) Although no measurements exist, the SRO of Cu-Ag alloys is predicted to be of clustering type with peaks at the left-angle 000 right-angle point. Streaking of the SRO peaks in the left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 1 (1) /(2) 0 right-angle directions for Ag- and Cu-rich compositions, respectively, is correlated with the elastically soft directions for these compositions. (iv) Even though Ni-Au phase separates at low temperatures, the calculated SRO pattern in Ni 0.4 Au 0.6 , like the measured data, shows a peak along the left-angle ζ00 right-angle direction, away from the typical clustering-type left-angle 000 right-angle point. (v) The explicit effect of atomic relaxation on SRO is investigated and it is found that atomic relaxation can produce significant qualitative changes in the SRO pattern, changing the pattern from ordering to clustering type, as in the case of Cu-Ag. copyright 1998 The American

  13. Short-Range Stacking Disorder in Mixed-Layer Compounds: A HAADF STEM Study of Bastnäsite-Parisite Intergrowths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana L. Ciobanu


    Full Text Available Atomic-scale high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM imaging and electron diffractions are used to address the complexity of lattice-scale intergrowths of REE-fluorocarbonates from an occurrence adjacent to the Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia. The aims are to define the species present within the intergrowths and also assess the value of the HAADF STEM technique in resolving stacking sequences within mixed-layer compounds. Results provide insights into the definition of species and crystal-structural modularity. Lattice-scale intergrowths account for the compositional range between bastnäsite and parasite, as measured by electron probe microanalysis (at the µm-scale throughout the entire area of the intergrowths. These comprise rhythmic intervals of parisite and bastnäsite, or stacking sequences with gradational changes in the slab stacking between B, BBS and BS types (B—bastnäsite, S—synchysite. An additional occurrence of an unnamed B2S phase [CaCe3(CO34F3], up to 11 unit cells in width, is identified among sequences of parisite and bastnäsite within the studied lamellar intergrowths. Both B2S and associated parisite show hexagonal lattices, interpreted as 2H polytypes with c = 28 and 38 Å, respectively. 2H parisite is a new, short hexagonal polytype that can be added to the 14 previously reported polytypes (both hexagonal and rhombohedral for this mineral. The correlation between satellite reflections and the number of layers along the stacking direction (c* can be written empirically as: Nsat = [(m × 2 + (n × 4] − 1 for all BmSn compounds with S ≠ 0. The present study shows intergrowths characterised by short-range stacking disorder and coherent changes in stacking along perpendicular directions. Knowing that the same compositional range can be expressed as long-period stacking compounds in the group, the present intergrowths are interpreted as being related to disequilibrium

  14. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  15. MARSOC Aviation: An Incremental Approach (United States)


    MARSOC. Through a series of near, mid, and long term investments in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of aMarine in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of a Marine Corps special operations aviation element can be...from the current AH-1W attack helicopter. The Zulu has increased speed, range, payload, endurance, standoff ability, and situational awareness

  16. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide


    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  17. World tendences of civil aviation development and the enlargement of the Lithuanian civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Butkevičius


    Full Text Available The article deals with global trends in civil aviation, such as: liberalisation of aviation market, globalisation of airlines, privatisation of airlines and invasion of low cost airlines into the market. Also the influence of these trends on the Lithuanian civil aviation activities has been defined. The Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been analysed: activities of international airports, passenger and cargo carriers, passenger routes and passenger flows, transportation market and airplane fleet. The problems of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been identified and suggestions for the development of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been proposed.

  18. Understanding Human Error in Naval Aviation Mishaps. (United States)

    Miranda, Andrew T


    To better understand the external factors that influence the performance and decisions of aviators involved in Naval aviation mishaps. Mishaps in complex activities, ranging from aviation to nuclear power operations, are often the result of interactions between multiple components within an organization. The Naval aviation mishap database contains relevant information, both in quantitative statistics and qualitative reports, that permits analysis of such interactions to identify how the working atmosphere influences aviator performance and judgment. Results from 95 severe Naval aviation mishaps that occurred from 2011 through 2016 were analyzed using Bayes' theorem probability formula. Then a content analysis was performed on a subset of relevant mishap reports. Out of the 14 latent factors analyzed, the Bayes' application identified 6 that impacted specific aspects of aviator behavior during mishaps. Technological environment, misperceptions, and mental awareness impacted basic aviation skills. The remaining 3 factors were used to inform a content analysis of the contextual information within mishap reports. Teamwork failures were the result of plan continuation aggravated by diffused responsibility. Resource limitations and risk management deficiencies impacted judgments made by squadron commanders. The application of Bayes' theorem to historical mishap data revealed the role of latent factors within Naval aviation mishaps. Teamwork failures were seen to be considerably damaging to both aviator skill and judgment. Both the methods and findings have direct application for organizations interested in understanding the relationships between external factors and human error. It presents real-world evidence to promote effective safety decisions.

  19. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones (United States)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  20. Workload management and geographic disorientation in aviation incidents: A review of the ASRS data base (United States)

    Williams, Henry P.; Tham, Mingpo; Wickens, Christopher D.


    NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports are reviewed in two related areas: pilots' failures to appropriately manage tasks, and breakdowns in geographic orientation. Examination of 51 relevant reports on task management breakdowns revealed that altitude busts and inappropriate runway usee were the most frequently reported consequences. Task management breakdowns appeared to occur at all levels of expertise, and prominent causal factors were related to breakdowns in crew communications, over-involvement with the flight management system and, for small (general aviation) aircraft, preoccupation with weather. Analysis of the 83 cases of geographic disorientation suggested that these too occurred at all levels of pilot experience. With regard to causal factors, a majority was related to poor cockpit resource management, in which inattention led to a loss of geographic awareness. Other leading causes were related to poor weather and poor decision making. The potential of the ASRS database for contributing to research and design issues is addressed.

  1. EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.


    The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

  2. Taxation of United States general aviation (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  3. Aviation Risk and Safety Management : Methods and Applications in Aviation Organizations



    The International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) decision to require aviation organizations to adopt Safety Management Systems poses a major problem especially for small and medium sized aviation companies. The complexity of regulations overstrains the aviation stakeholders who seek to fully advantage from them but have no clear guidance. The aim of the book is to show the implementation of such a new system with pragmatic effort in order to gain a gradation for smaller operators. This ...

  4. Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) provides the tools, reconfigurability and support to ensure the quality and integrity of new...

  5. Contracting, An Alarming Trend in Aviation Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooke, J


    .... Aviation operational and maintenance units struggle to balance peacetime requirements for general military and technical training, organization and installation support, training and operational...

  6. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  7. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.

  8. Space Weather Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  9. Cockpit weather information needs (United States)

    Scanlon, Charles H.


    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  10. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report. (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  11. 75 FR 34520 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of... Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be... of the global economy. The Aviation Safety Subcommittee will develop a list of priority safety issues...

  12. History of aviation safety; the satisfying sighs of relief due to developments in Aviation safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.


    Aviation safety is an Integral part of my career. Being part of TU Delft’s impressive record of research on Aviation safety, my career has been with a sense of purpose and a responsibility to equip students to deal with the status quo challenges on Aviation safety, developments, Investigations and

  13. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd


    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  14. Weather and emotional state (United States)

    Spasova, Z.


    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  15. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  16. New Space Weather Systems Under Development and Their Contribution to Space Weather Management (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Schunk, R.; Garrett, H.; Mertens, C.; Bowman, B.


    There have been notable successes during the past decade in the development of operational space environment systems. Examples include the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM) of the Earth's magnetosphere, 2000; SOLAR2000 (S2K) solar spectral irradiances, 2001; High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) neutral atmosphere densities, 2004; Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) ionosphere specification, 2006; Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry (HAF) solar wind parameters, 2007; Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS) ionosphere, high frequency radio, and scintillation S4 index prediction, 2008; and GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS) geosynchronous environment satellite charging specification and forecast, 2008. Operational systems that are in active operational implementation include the Jacchia-Bowman 2006/2008 (JB2006/2008) neutral atmosphere, 2009, and the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) aviation radiation model using the Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), 2010. U.S. national agency and commercial assets will soon reach a state where specification and prediction will become ubiquitous and where coordinated management of the space environment and space weather will become a necessity. We describe the status of the CAPS, GAPS, RAPS, and JB2008 operational development. We additionally discuss the conditions that are laying the groundwork for space weather management and estimate the unfilled needs as we move beyond specification and prediction efforts.

  17. Industry assessment of human factors in aviation maintenance and inspection research program : an assessment of industry awareness and use of the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance and Inspect (United States)


    Ten years ago the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine embarked on a research and development program dedicated to human factors in aviation maintenance and inspection. Since 1989 FAA has invested over $12M in maintenance...

  18. Fabulous Weather Day (United States)

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael


    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  19. Designing a Weather Station (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  20. KSC Weather and Research (United States)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin


    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  1. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian


    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  2. Tales of future weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; Van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.


    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The

  3. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone (United States)

    Winkler, Erhard M.


    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  4. Communications Related to Weather Information Handling and Dissemination (United States)

    Dhas, Chris


    This report summarizes the tasking contained in the Statement of Work and describes the results of the project. In addition, it addresses the principles, procedures, and methods of application that would be generally applicable to using the results of the project. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is involved in the Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Program, which has a goal of reducing the aircraft accident rate, by a factor of five within 10 years and by a factor of 10 within 20 years. GRC's effort concentrates on the communications means needed to disseminate effective weather data. GRC's focus in on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of weather information between airborne and ground-based users.

  5. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G


    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  6. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming


    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  7. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any aircraft.... More severe penalties are provided in 19 U.S.C. 1590 if the smuggled merchandise is a controlled...

  8. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.


    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  9. Aviation Career Awareness Program [and Related Materials]. (United States)

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    The learning packet focuses on general aviation and is to be used in career awareness programs at the elementary level. It includes a document which presents a group of units on general aviation and its related careers. The units include the following: (1) aircraft manufacturing, (2) instruments and controls, (3) how airplanes fly, (4) flight…

  10. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research (United States)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego


    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  11. Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges in Modernizing the Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    FAA's efforts to implement initiatives in five key areas-air traffic control modernization, procurement and personnel reform, aviation safety, aviation and computer security, and financial management...

  12. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences (United States)


    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  13. Mindful Application of Aviation Practices in Healthcare. (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Brennan, Peter A; Peerally, Mohammad Farhad; Kapur, Narinder; Hynes, Jonny M; Hodkinson, Peter D


    Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment. In order to establish British healthcare applications of aviation practices, a PubMed search of UK authored manuscripts published between 2005-2016 was undertaken using search terms 'aviation,' 'healthcare,' 'checklist,' and 'CRM.' A convenience sample of UK-authored aviation medical conference presentations and UK-authored patient safety manuscripts were also reviewed. A total of 11 of 94 papers with UK academic affiliations published between 2005-2016 and relevant to aviation modeled healthcare delivery were found. The debrief process, incident analysis, and CRM are the primary practices incorporated into UK healthcare, with success dependent on cultural acceptance and mindful application. CRM training has gained significant acceptance in UK healthcare environments. Aviation modeled incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and CRM training are increasingly undertaken within the UK healthcare system. Nuanced application, in which the unique aspects of the healthcare setting are addressed as part of a comprehensive safety approach, shows promise for long-term success. The patient safety brief and aviation modeled incident analysis are in earlier phases of implementation, and warrant further analysis.Powell-Dunford N, Brennan PA, Peerally MF, Kapur N, Hynes JM, Hodkinson PD. Mindful application of aviation practices in healthcare. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1107-1116.

  14. The Social and Economic Impacts of Space Weather (US Project) (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.; Basoli, D.; Griot, O.


    The National Space Weather Action Plan calls for new research into the social and economic impacts of space weather and for the development of quantitative estimates of potential costs. In response to this call, NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Abt Associates are working together to identify, describe, and quantify the impact of space weather to U.S. interests. This study covers impacts resulting from both moderate and severe space weather events across four technological sectors: Electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users. It captures the full range of potential impacts, identified from an extensive literature review and from additional conversations with more than 50 sector stakeholders of diverse expertise from engineering to operations to end users. We organize and discuss our findings in terms of five broad but interrelated impact categories including Defensive Investments, Mitigating Actions, Asset Damages, Service Interruptions, and Health Effects. We also present simple, tractable estimates of the potential costs where we focused on quantifying a subset of all identified impacts that are apt to be largest and are also most plausible during moderate and more severe space weather scenarios. We hope that our systematic exploration of the social and economic impacts provides a foundation for the future work that is critical for designing technologies, developing procedures, and implementing policies that can effectively reduce our known and evolving vulnerabilities to this natural hazard.

  15. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, D.


    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.


    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  17. Types of Forecast and Weather-Related Information Used among Tourism Businesses in Coastal North Carolina (United States)

    Ayscue, Emily P.

    This study profiles the coastal tourism sector, a large and diverse consumer of climate and weather information. It is crucial to provide reliable, accurate and relevant resources for the climate and weather-sensitive portions of this stakeholder group in order to guide them in capitalizing on current climate and weather conditions and to prepare them for potential changes. An online survey of tourism business owners, managers and support specialists was conducted within the eight North Carolina oceanfront counties asking respondents about forecasts they use and for what purposes as well as why certain forecasts are not used. Respondents were also asked about their perceived dependency of their business on climate and weather as well as how valuable different forecasts are to their decision-making. Business types represented include: Agriculture, Outdoor Recreation, Accommodations, Food Services, Parks and Heritage, and Other. Weekly forecasts were the most popular forecasts with Monthly and Seasonal being the least used. MANOVA and ANOVA analyses revealed outdoor-oriented businesses (Agriculture and Outdoor Recreation) as perceiving themselves significantly more dependent on climate and weather than indoor-oriented ones (Food Services and Accommodations). Outdoor businesses also valued short-range forecasts significantly more than indoor businesses. This suggests a positive relationship between perceived climate and weather dependency and forecast value. The low perceived dependency and value of short-range forecasts of indoor businesses presents an opportunity to create climate and weather information resources directed at how they can capitalize on positive climate and weather forecasts and how to counter negative effects with forecasted adverse conditions. The low use of long-range forecasts among all business types can be related to the low value placed on these forecasts. However, these forecasts are still important in that they are used to make more

  18. Aviation Research and the Internet (United States)

    Scott, Antoinette M.


    The Internet is a network of networks. It was originally funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DOD/DARPA and evolved in part from the connection of supercomputer sites across the United States. The National Science Foundation (NSF) made the most of their supercomputers by connecting the sites to each other. This made the supercomputers more efficient and now allows scientists, engineers and researchers to access the supercomputers from their own labs and offices. The high speed networks that connect the NSF supercomputers form the backbone of the Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a menu system. It gathers Internet resources from all over the world into a series of screens that appear on your computer. The WWW is also a distributed. The distributed system stores data information on many computers (servers). These servers can go out and get data when you ask for it. Hypermedia is the base of the WWW. One can 'click' on a section and visit other hypermedia (pages). Our approach to demonstrating the importance of aviation research through the Internet began with learning how to put pages on the Internet (on-line) ourselves. We were assigned two aviation companies; Vision Micro Systems Inc. and Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT). We developed home pages for these SBIR companies. The equipment used to create the pages were the UNIX and Macintosh machines. HTML Supertext software was used to write the pages and the Sharp JX600S scanner to scan the images. As a result, with the use of the UNIX, Macintosh, Sun, PC, and AXIL machines, we were able to present our home pages to over 800,000 visitors.

  19. Space Debris Alert System for Aviation (United States)

    Sgobba, Tommaso


    Despite increasing efforts to accurately predict space debris re-entry, the exact time and location of re-entry is still very uncertain. Partially, this is due to a skipping effect uncontrolled spacecraft may experience as they enter the atmosphere at a shallow angle. Such effect difficult to model depends on atmospheric variations of density. When the bouncing off ends and atmospheric re-entry starts, the trajectory and the overall location of surviving fragments can be precisely predicted but the time to impact with ground, or to reach the airspace, becomes very short.Different is the case of a functional space system performing controlled re-entry. Suitable forecasts methods are available to clear air and maritime traffic from hazard areas (so-called traffic segregation).In US, following the Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003, a re-entry hazard areas location forecast system was putted in place for the specific case of major malfunction of a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) at re-entry. The Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator (SHAAC) is a system based on ground equipment and software analyses and prediction tools, which require trained personnel and close coordination between the organization responsible for RLV operation (NASA for Shuttle) and the Federal Aviation Administration. The system very much relies on the operator's capability to determine that a major malfunction has occurred.This paper presents a US pending patent by the European Space Agency, which consists of a "smart fragment" using a GPS localizer together with pre- computed debris footprint area and direct broadcasting of such hazard areas.The risk for aviation from falling debris is very remote but catastrophic. Suspending flight over vast swath of airspace for every re-entering spacecraft or rocket upper stage, which is a weekly occurrence, would be extremely costly and disruptive.The Re-entry Direct Broadcasting Alert System (R- DBAS) is an original merging and evolution of the Re

  20. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael


    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  1. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  2. Weather Information Processing (United States)


    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  3. Oil Rig Weather Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  4. Waste glass weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.


    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass

  5. Cape Kennedy Weather Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  6. Winter weather demand considerations. (United States)


    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  7. NOAA Weather Radio (United States)

    del tiempo incluido. Si eres quieres ser avisado de las advertencias y relojes de día o de noche, un Weather Radio relojes son independientes o basadas en el Condado (parroquia basados en Luisiana), aunque

  8. Space Weather Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  9. Daily Weather Maps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  10. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  11. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  12. Winter Weather Checklists (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  13. Winter Weather: Frostbite (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  14. Surface Weather Observations Monthly (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  15. Assessing the impact of aviation on climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Marais


    Full Text Available We present an assessment of the marginal climate impacts of new aviation activities. We use impulse response functions derived from carbon-cycle and atmospheric models to estimate changes in surface temperature for various aviation impacts (CO2, NOx on methane, NOx on ozone, sulfates, soot, and contrails/induced cirrus. We use different damage functions and discount rates to explore health, welfare and ecological costs for a range of assumptions and scenarios. Since uncertainty is high regarding many aviation effects, we explicitly capture some uncertainty by representing several model parameters as probabilistic distributions. The uncertainties are then propagated using Monte Carlo analysis to derive estimates for the impact of these uncertainties on the marginal future climate impacts. Our goal is to provide a framework that will communicate the potential impacts of aviation on climate change under different scenarios and assumptions, and that will allow decision-makers to compare these potential impacts to other aviation environmental impacts. We present results to describe the influence of parametric uncertainties, scenarios, and assumptions for valuation on the expected marginal future costs of aviation impacts. Estimates of the change in global average surface temperature due to aviation are most sensitive to changes in climate sensitivity, the radiative forcing attributed to short-lived effects (in particular those related to contrails and aviation-induced cirrus, and the choice of emissions scenario. Estimates of marginal future costs of aviation are most sensitive to assumptions regarding the discount rate, followed by assumptions regarding climate sensitivity, and the choice of emissions scenario.

  16. Microwave absorption measurements in the complex perovskite Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}: Detection of short-range orderly regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G., E-mail: [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESFM-IPN, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos Edificio 9, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional S/N, San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Montiel, H. [Departamento de Tecnociencias, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Castellanos, M.A. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Heiras, J. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Zamorano, R. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESFM-IPN, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos Edificio 9, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional S/N, San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)


    Highlights: {yields} LFMA spectra showed straight lines with positive slope and non-hysteretic traces. {yields} The spectral changes for the plot of the slope vs. temperature give evidence of the formation of iron clusters. {yields} These small orderly regions of iron ions generate short-range magnetic correlations, and that they produce changes in dynamics of microwave absorption. - Abstract: An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the complex perovskite Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (PFT) at X-band (8.8-9.8 GHz) is presented. The EPR spectra show a single broad line in the 300-480 K temperature range, attributable to Fe{sup 3+} (S = 5/2) ions. The temperature dependence of the EPR parameters: the peak-to-peak linewidth ({Delta}H{sub pp}), the resonance field (H{sub res}) and the integrated intensity (I{sub EPR}), suggests the existence of short-range magnetic correlations; which are associated with the presence of small orderly regions of iron ions in B-sites of the perovskites-type structure, and that they give origin to formation of iron clusters. Low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) is used to give further knowledge on this material; where this technique also gives evidence of these short-range orderly regions.

  17. Transition, Training, and Assessment of Multispectral Composite Imagery in Support of the NWS Aviation Forecast Mission (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin; Jedlovec, Gary; Leroy, Anita; Schultz, Lori


    The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program works closely with NOAA/NWS weather forecasters to transition unique satellite data and capabilities into operations in order to assist with nowcasting and short-term forecasting issues. Several multispectral composite imagery (i.e. RGB) products were introduced to users in the early 2000s to support hydrometeorology and aviation challenges as well as incident support. These activities lead to SPoRT collaboration with the GOES-R Proving Ground efforts where instruments such as MODIS (Aqua, Terra) and S-NPP/VIIRS imagers began to be used as near-realtime proxies to future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). One of the composite imagery products introduced to users was the Night-time Microphysics RGB, originally developed by EUMETSAT. SPoRT worked to transition this imagery to NWS users, provide region-specific training, and assess the impact of the imagery to aviation forecast needs. This presentation discusses the method used to interact with users to address specific aviation forecast challenges, including training activities undertaken to prepare for a product assessment. Users who assessed the multispectral imagery ranged from southern U.S. inland and coastal NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs), to those in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region and West Coast, as well as highlatitude forecasters of Alaska. These user-based assessments were documented and shared with the satellite community to support product developers and the broad users of new generation satellite data.

  18. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraśnicka Izabela


    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  19. ARMAS and NAIRAS Comparisons of Radiation at Aviation Altitudes (United States)

    Bell, L. D.


    Space Environment Technologies and the Space Weather Center (SWC) at Utah State University are deploying and obtaining effective dose rate radiation data from dosimeters flown on research aircraft. This project is called Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS). Through several dozen flights since 2013 the ARMAS project has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro-dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar energetic particles (SEP's). Space weather effects upon the near Earth environment are to dynamic changes in the energy transfer process from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. The coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect human tissue and the aircrafts technology as a result of radiation exposure. We describe and compare the types of radiation we have been measuring with the NAIRAS global climatological model as it relates to human tissue susceptibility and as a source at different altitude regions.

  20. 77 FR 60887 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...